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Health Reports

Heather Gilmour
BACKGROUND: Subthreshold Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) has been reported to be at least as prevalent as threshold GAD and of comparable clinical significance. It is not clear if GAD is uniquely associated with the risk of suicide, or if psychiatric comorbidity drives the association. DATA AND METHODS: Data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health were used to estimate the prevalence of threshold and subthreshold GAD in the household population aged 15 or older...
November 16, 2016: Health Reports
Pamela L Ramage-Morin
BACKGROUND: Social isolation is associated with reduced health-related quality of life, increased morbidity, and mortality. Social isolation can be a concern for older Canadians, especially those with conditions that interfere with making and maintaining social connections. DATA AND METHODS: The 2008/2009 Canadian Community Health Survey-Healthy Aging (CCHS-HA) collected data from a population-based sample of Canadians aged 45 or older living in private households...
November 16, 2016: Health Reports
Suzy L Wong
BACKGROUND: Reduced muscular strength is associated with an increased risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality, heart attack and stroke. At older ages, reduced strength is associated with impaired mobility, risk of falls, and disability. Various criteria are used to determine reduced strength. DATA AND METHODS: Data on grip strength among 3,181 respondents aged 60 to 79 from the 2007 to 2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey were used to calculate the prevalence of reduced strength based on sex-specific percentile and t-score cut-points and cut-points of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health...
October 19, 2016: Health Reports
Suzy L Wong
BACKGROUND: Grip strength is a measure of overall muscular strength and has been associated with disability, morbidity and mortality. Normative data are used to interpret an individual's grip strength measurements, but Canadian reference values are not available for a wide age range. DATA AND METHODS: The data pertain to 11,108 respondents aged 6 to 79 to the 2007-to-2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey, whose right-hand and left-hand grip strength were measured with a handgrip dynamometer...
October 19, 2016: Health Reports
Heather Gilmour, Pamela Ramage-Morin, Suzy L Wong
This article provides information about the prevalence and impact of epilepsy, based on the 2010 and 2011 Canadian Community Health Surveys, the 2011/2012 Survey of Neurological Conditions in Institutions in Canada, and the 2011 Survey on Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada. An estimated 139,200 Canadians had epilepsy. Among the household population, epilepsy was generally diagnosed before age 30 (75%). For the majority of these people (64%), epilepsy was their only neurological condition. People with epilepsy were more than twice as likely to have been diagnosed with a mood disorder, compared with the general population (17% versus 7%), and eight times as likely to experience incontinence (34% versus 4%)...
September 21, 2016: Health Reports
Didier Garriguet, Valerie Carson, Rachel C Colley, Ian Janssen, Brian W Timmons, Mark S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: For preschool children, physical activity is associated with improved measures of health, while sedentary behaviour is associated with less favourable health outcomes. This study updates estimates of physical activity and sedentary behaviour among children aged 3 to 5, based on combined data from two cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) in order to calculate adherence to Canadian physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines. DATA AND METHODS: The data are from two independent samples that comprised the 2009-to-2011 (cycle 2) and 2012/2013 (cycle 3) CHMS...
September 21, 2016: Health Reports
Richard Larouche, Didier Garriguet, Katie E Gunnell, Gary S Goldfield, Mark S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: International data show that the majority of children and youth are not sufficiently active. According to recent research, children who spend more time outdoors accumulate more daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and engage in less sedentary behaviour. However, the generalizability of these findings is uncertain, and few studies investigated whether outdoor time is associated with other physical and psychosocial health indicators. DATA AND METHODS: This study examined associations between outdoor time and measures of physical activity, sedentary time, and physical and psychosocial health in a nationally representative sample of 7-to-14-year-olds (n = 1,159) who participated in the 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey...
September 21, 2016: Health Reports
Edward Ng, Claudia Sanmartin, Douglas G Manuel
BACKGROUND: Although immigrants tend to be healthier than the Canadian-born population when they arrive, subgroups, notably different immigration categories, may differ in health and health care use. Data limitations have meant the research has seldom focused on category of immigrant-economic, family or refugee. A newly linked database has made it possible to study acute care hospitalization by immigration category and source region. DATA AND METHODS: The Immigrant Landing File-Hospital Discharge Abstract Linked Database (n = 2...
August 17, 2016: Health Reports
Gisèle Carrière, Evelyne Bougie, Dafna Kohen, Michelle Rotermann, Claudia Sanmartin
BACKGROUND: National data about acute care hospitalization of Aboriginal people are scarce. This study addresses that information gap by describing patterns of hospitalization by Aboriginal identity for leading diagnoses for all provinces and territories except Quebec. DATA AND METHODS: The 2006 Census was linked to the 2006/2007-to-2008/2009 Discharge Abstract Database, which contains hospital records from all acute care facilities in Canada (excluding Quebec)...
August 17, 2016: Health Reports
Larry F Ellison
BACKGROUND: Survival from adult onset leukemia has increased substantially in Canada since at least the early 1990s. However, an analysis of the extent of this improvement by type of leukemia is lacking. DATA AND METHODS: Data are from the Canadian Cancer Registry, with mortality follow-up through record linkage to the Canadian Vital Statistics Death Database. Increases in five-year relative survival ratios (RSRs) between 1992-to-1994 and 2006-to-2008 were calculated by age and sex for all leukemias combined and for each of the main types...
July 20, 2016: Health Reports
Lisa N Oliver, Chris Penney, Paul A Peters
BACKGROUND: Living in a community with lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher mortality. However, few studies have examined associations between community socioeconomic characteristics and mortality among the First Nations population. DATA AND METHODS: The 1991-to-2006 Census Mortality and Cancer Cohort follow-up, which tracked a 15% sample of Canadians aged 25 or older, included 57,300 respondents who self-identified as Registered First Nations people or Indian band members...
July 20, 2016: Health Reports
Lauren Pinault, Daniel Crouse, Michael Jerrett, Michael Brauer, Michael Tjepkema
BACKGROUND: Nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) is a marker for traffic-related air pollution, which exhibits strong spatial gradients in large cities. Previous studies have shown that in Canadian cities, exposure to ambient NO₂ is greater in neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status (SES). As a result of these differences in exposure, air pollution-related health problems may be more prevalent among children in lower SES urban neighbourhoods. DATA AND METHODS: Children younger than age 18 enumerated in the 2006 Census who lived in Toronto, Montreal or Vancouver were linked to published air pollution exposure land use regression models to assign exposure at the Dissemination Area (DA) level...
July 20, 2016: Health Reports
Anton Miller, Jane Shen, Louise C Mâsse
BACKGROUND: Allocation of resources for services and supports for children with neurodevelopmental disorders/disabilities (NDD/D) is often based on the presence of specific health conditions. This study investigated the relative roles of a child's diagnosed health condition and neurodevelopmental and related functional characteristics in explaining child and family health and well-being. DATA AND METHODS: The data on children with NDD/D (ages 5 to 14; weighted n = 120,700) are from the 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS), a population-based Canadian survey of parents of children with functional limitations/disabilities...
June 15, 2016: Health Reports
Deirdre Hennessy, Claudia Sanmartin, Paul Ronksley, Rob Weaver, Dave Campbell, Braden Manns, Marcello Tonelli, Brenda Hemmelgarn
BACKGROUND: Approximately one-third of Canadians' prescription medication costs are paid directly out-of-pocket. This study attempts to determine if out-of-pocket spending greater than 5% of household income on drugs and pharmaceutical products is associated with cost-related prescription non-adherence among people with cardiovascular-related chronic conditions. DATA AND METHODS: The data are from the survey on Barriers to Care for People with Chronic Health Conditions...
June 15, 2016: Health Reports
Jungwee Park
Using multiple-cause-of-death data, this study investigates mortality from Alzheimer's disease. From 2004 through 2011, Alzheimer's disease was coded as a cause of 80,868 deaths-more often the underlying than a contributing cause. The rate of Alzheimer's disease deaths was higher for women and older individuals than for men and younger people, and varied considerably by province/territory. Regardless of whether Alzheimer's disease was coded as the underlying or a contributing cause, on average, two other causes were also listed on the death certificate...
May 18, 2016: Health Reports
Suzy L Wong, Heather Gilmour, Pamela L Ramage-Morin
This article provides information on Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, using the 2010/2011 Canadian Community Health Survey, the 2011/2012 Survey of Neurological Conditions in Institutions in Canada, and the 2011 Survey on Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada. Among Canadians aged 45 or older, an estimated 0.8% in private households and 45% in long-term residential care facilities had a diagnosis of dementia. Prevalence rose with age. The vast majority of people with dementia in private households received assistance with medical care (81%), housework and home maintenance (83%), meal preparation (88%), emotional support (90%), transportation (92%), and managing care (92%)...
May 18, 2016: Health Reports
Kellie Langlois, Marcia Cooper, Cynthia K Colapinto
BACKGROUND: Although vitamin C is not produced in the body, it is important for many biochemical and physiological functions. Little is known about the current vitamin C status of Canadians. This study describes the correlates of vitamin C status in a nationally representative sample of adults. DATA AND METHODS: Data are from the 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Plasma vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) concentrations were measured among a fasting subsample of respondents aged 20 to 79 (n = 1,615)...
May 18, 2016: Health Reports
Larry F Ellison
BACKGROUND: Research in the United States and Europe has found that women have an advantage over men in surviving a diagnosis of cancer, but the issue has not been systematically studied in Canada. DATA AND METHODS: Data are from the Canadian Cancer Registry, with mortality follow-up through record linkage to the Canadian Vital Statistics Death Database. The percentage unit difference in five-year relative survival ratios (RSRs) between women and men and the relative excess risk (RER) of death for women compared with men were used as measures of differences in cancer survival...
April 2016: Health Reports
Richard Larouche, Guy Faulkner, Mark S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: Active travel may be a means of integrating physical activity into an individual's routine. This analysis investigates the relationship between utilitarian walking and cycling and objectively measured physical activity and health-related outcomes in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adults. DATA AND METHODS: Adults aged 20 to 79 who participated in the 2007-to-2011 Canadian Health Measures Surveys (N = 7,160) reported the weekly time spent in utilitarian walking and cycling and wore an Actical accelerometer for seven days...
April 2016: Health Reports
Didier Garriguet
BACKGROUND: Estimates of the prevalence of adherence to physical activity guidelines in the population are generally the result of averaging individual probability of adherence based on the number of days people meet the guidelines and the number of days they are assessed. Given this number of active and inactive days (days assessed minus days active), the conditional probability of meeting the guidelines that has been used in the past is a Beta (1 + active days, 1 + inactive days) distribution assuming the probability p of a day being active is bounded by 0 and 1 and averages 50%...
April 2016: Health Reports
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