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Health Reports

Rochelle Garner, Peter Tanuseputro, Douglas G Manuel, Claudia Sanmartin
BACKGROUND: The aging of the Canadian population has increased attention on the future need for nursing home beds. Although current projections rely primarily on age and sex, other factors also contribute to the need for long-term care. This study seeks to identify additional factors to age and sex that contribute to Canadians transitioning from living at home to living in a seniors' residence or nursing home. DATA AND METHODS: As part of a larger record linkage project, three cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) were linked to the 2011 Census of Population: Cycle 3...
May 16, 2018: Health Reports
Didier Garriguet
BACKGROUND: Estimates of energy intake are lower in 2015 compared with 2004. The difference observed is too large to be explained by a change in energy requirements or physical activity at the population level. Self-reported dietary intake is subject to misreporting and may explain part of this difference. The objectives of this study are to assess how misreporting has changed from 2004 to 2015 and to demonstrate how these changes may affect the interpretation of the national intake data of Canadians...
May 16, 2018: Health Reports
Tracey Bushnik, Michael Tjepkema, Laurent Martel
BACKGROUND: Over the past century, life expectancy at birth in Canada has risen substantially. However, these gains in the quantity of life say little about gains in the quality of life. DATA AND METHODS: Health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE), an indicator of quality of life, was estimated for the household and institutional populations combined every four years from 1994/1995 to 2015. Health status was measured by the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 instrument in two national population health surveys, and was used to adjust life expectancy...
April 18, 2018: Health Reports
Rachel C Colley, Isabelle Michaud, Didier Garriguet
BACKGROUND: Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep are positively associated with adults' health, while the association with sedentary behaviour (SED) is negative. Light-intensity physical activity (LPA) is emerging as an independent predictor of improved cardiovascular health. The health impacts of each of these factors have been examined in isolation, but interest has increased in associations between health and movement behaviours collectively. DATA AND METHODS: This analysis examines how reallocating time between movement behaviours is associated with obesity and with self-rated general and mental health...
April 18, 2018: Health Reports
Jacquelyn J Cragg, Freda M Warner, Matthew S Shupler, Catherine R Jutzeler, Neil Cashman, David G T Whitehurst, John K Kramer
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of pain among people with a variety of individual neurological conditions has been estimated. However, information is limited about chronic pain among people with neurological conditions overall, and about the conditions for which chronic pain is most prevalent. To fill these information gaps, a common method of pain assessment is required. DATA AND METHODS: The data are from the Survey on Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada, a cross-sectional national survey...
March 21, 2018: Health Reports
Evelyne Bougie, Dafna E Kohen
BACKGROUND: Although rates of daily smoking among Inuit have been decreasing since 1991, Inuit are still much more likely to smoke relative to the Canadian population as a whole. However, little population-based empirical research has identified characteristics associated with cigarette use among this population. DATA AND METHODS: Based on data from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, sex-specific logistic regression analyses, informed by an Inuit social determinants of health framework, described associations between current smoking and selected socio-demographic characteristics among Inuit men and women aged 18 or older who resided in Inuit Nunangat...
March 21, 2018: Health Reports
Michelle Rotermann, Ryan Macdonald
BACKGROUND: The Canadian federal government has committed to legalize, regulate, and restrict non-medical cannabis use by adults in 2018. To prepare for monitoring the health, social and economic impacts of this policy change, a greater understanding of the long-term trends in the prevalence of cannabis use in Canada is needed. DATA AND METHODS: Nine national surveys of the household population collected information about cannabis use during the period from 1985 through 2015...
February 21, 2018: Health Reports
Saeeda Khan, Lauren Pinault, Michael Tjepkema, Russell Wilkins
BACKGROUND: Postal codes are often the only geographic identifier available for assigning contextual or environmental information to a study population. This analysis assesses the influence of three factors-delivery mode type (mode of postal delivery), representative point type (source of latitude-longitude coordinates), and community size-on the accuracy of postal code spatial assignment. DATA AND METHODS: PCCF+ (Postal Code Conversion File Plus) was used to assign delivery mode type, representative point type and community size to each individual in the 2011 Census of Canada...
February 21, 2018: Health Reports
Cynthia K Colapinto, John Graham, Sylvie St-Pierre
BACKGROUND: Eating fruit and vegetables is recommended as part of a healthy diet. This study describes trends in the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption in Canada, the contribution of fruit juice to these trends, and correlates of the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption. DATA AND METHODS: The data are from the annual Canadian Community Health Survey for the 2007-to-2014 period and pertain to the household population aged 12 or older. Weighted frequencies and cross-tabulations were used to estimate the average frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption by socio-demographic characteristics and body mass index, age-standardized to the 2014 Canadian population...
January 17, 2018: Health Reports
Heather Gilmour, Pamela L Ramage-Morin, Suzy L Wong
This article provides new information about multiple sclerosis (MS) using the 2010/2011 Neurological Conditions Prevalence File, the 2011/2012 Survey of Neurological Conditions in Institutions in Canada, and the 2011 Survey on Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada. An estimated 93,500 Canadians living in private households and 3,800 residents of long-term care institutions had been diagnosed with MS. Prevalence estimates were 159 and 418 cases per 100,000 population for men and women, respectively; 2...
January 17, 2018: Health Reports
Pamela L Ramage-Morin, Evelyne Bougie
BACKGROUND: Social networks are important for promoting and maintaining health and well-being. Social networks, including family and friendship ties, are sources of emotional, practical and other support that enhance social participation and help combat isolation and loneliness. Aboriginal seniors have been identified as a population at risk of social isolation. DATA AND METHODS: The data are from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, a national survey of First Nations people living off reserve, Métis, and Inuit...
December 20, 2017: Health Reports
Gisèle M Carrière, Mohan B Kumar, Claudia Sanmartin
BACKGROUND: Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) are potentially preventable, but may be required if these conditions are not managed well. National-level information about ACSC hospitalizations is available for Canada, but not for Aboriginal groups. This study describes ACSC hospitalizations among urban Métis adults relative to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. DATA AND METHODS: The 2006/2007-to-2008/2009 Discharge Abstract Database, which contains hospitalization records from all acute care facilities (excluding Quebec), was linked to the 2006 Census to obtain Aboriginal identity information...
December 20, 2017: Health Reports
Amanda J Sheppard, Gabriel D Shapiro, Tracey Bushnik, Russell Wilkins, Serenity Perry, Jay S Kaufman, Michael S Kramer, Seungmi Yang
BACKGROUND: First Nations, Inuit, and Métis are at higher risk of adverse birth outcomes than are non-Indigenous people. However, relatively little perinatal information is available at the national level for Indigenous people overall or for specific identity groups. DATA AND METHODS: This analysis describes and compares rates of preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age birth, large-for-gestational-age birth, stillbirth, and infant mortality (neonatal, postneonatal, and cause-specific) in a nationally representative sample of First Nations, Inuit, Métis, and non-Indigenous births...
November 15, 2017: Health Reports
Tracey Bushnik, Seungmi Yang, Jay S Kaufman, Michael S Kramer, Russell Wilkins
BACKGROUND: Maternal socioeconomic disadvantage has been associated with increased risk of small-for-gestational-age birth and preterm birth. Few studies, however, have considered maternal education and income simultaneously to better understand the mechanisms underlying perinatal health disparities. This analysis examines both maternal education and income and their association with the risk of small-for-gestational-age birth and preterm birth. DATA AND METHODS: The study is based on 127,694 singleton live births from the 2006 Canadian Birth-Census Cohort, a national cohort of births registered from May 2004 to May 2006 that were linked to the 2006 long-form Census...
November 15, 2017: Health Reports
Rachel C Colley, Valerie Carson, Didier Garriguet, Ian Janssen, Karen C Roberts, Mark S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: This study describes and compares the percentages of Canadian children and youth who adhere to different operational definitions of the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendation of 60 minutes per day. DATA AND METHODS: Data for 6- to 17-year-olds (n = 5,608) were collected from 2007 through 2015 as part of the Canadian Health Measures Survey. MVPA was measured using the Actical accelerometer. The MVPA recommendation was operationalized as accumulating 60 minutes of MVPA every day, on most days, and on average...
October 18, 2017: Health Reports
Karen C Roberts, Xiaoquan Yao, Valerie Carson, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Ian Janssen, Mark S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep, provide specific recommendations on the amount of time over a typical 24-hour day that children and youth aged 5 to 17 should spend in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (at least 60 minutes), recreational screen time (no more than 2 hours), and sleep (9 to 11 hours for 5- to 13-year-olds; 8 to 10 hours for 14- to 17-year-olds). DATA AND METHODS: Based on combined results of cycles 2 (2009-to-2011) and 3 (2012-to-2013) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey, this analysis examines average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, screen time and sleep duration of 5- to 11-year-olds and 12- to 17-year-olds, and the percentages meeting the 24-Hour Guidelines' recommendations...
October 18, 2017: Health Reports
Jean-Philippe Chaput, Suzy L Wong, Isabelle Michaud
This article provides recent estimates of the duration and quality of sleep of Canadian adults and of the percentage who adhere to sleep duration guidelines (7 to 9 hours per night at ages 18 to 64, and 7 to 8 hours per night at age 65 or older). The study is based on 10,976 respondents aged 18 to 79 from the 2007-to-2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. Sleep duration and quality were self-reported. Mean sleep duration was 7.12 hours per night at ages 18 to 64 and 7...
September 20, 2017: Health Reports
Pamela L Ramage-Morin, Heather Gilmour, Michelle Rotermann
BACKGROUND: Nutritional risk has been associated with various negative health outcomes among older people. Limited longitudinal research has examined the relationship between nutritional risk and hospitalization and death in community-dwelling older people. DATA AND METHODS: Data from the 2008/2009 Canadian Community Health Survey-Healthy Aging (CCHS-HA) linked to the Discharge Abstract Database and the Canadian Mortality Database were used to estimate the prevalence of nutritional risk among seniors and examine its relationship with acute care hospitalization and death during the 25- to 36-month period following the CCHS-HA interview...
September 20, 2017: Health Reports
Michelle Rotermann
BACKGROUND: A small fraction of the population accounts for a disproportionate share of health care spending and resources. Linking data from health surveys with hospital and death records offers an opportunity to examine high use of acute care in more depth than is possible with administrative data alone. DATA AND METHODS: Data for 62,675 respondents to three cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey were linked to the Discharge Abstract Database and the Canadian Mortality Database...
September 20, 2017: Health Reports
Edward M Giesbrecht, Emma M Smith, W Ben Mortenson, William C Miller
BACKGROUND: People with disabilities often require assistive devices, modifications to their home environment, and physical assistance to facilitate mobility. This study examines self-reported met and unmet needs of people with disabilities who use wheeled mobility devices, compared with non-users. DATA AND METHODS: The 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability followed up with 45,442 individuals who reported a disability on the 2011 National Household Survey, and obtained a 75% response rate...
August 16, 2017: Health Reports
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