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Journal of Applied Phycology

Taylor Sehein, Mindy L Richlen, Satoshi Nagai, Motoshige Yasuike, Yoji Nakamura, Donald M Anderson
Alexandrium fundyense is the toxic marine dinoflagellate responsible for "red tide" events in temperate and sub-arctic waters worldwide. In the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and Bay of Fundy in the Northwest Atlantic, blooms of A. fundyense recur annually, and are associated with major health and ecosystem impacts. In this region, microsatellite markers have been used to investigate genetic structure and gene flow; however, the loci currently available for this species were isolated from populations from Japan and the North Sea, and only a subset are suitable for the analysis of A...
June 2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Min Xu, Shingo Sakamoto, Teruhisa Komatsu
Sargassum horneri is one of the most important contributors to the rafts of floating seaweed in the waters off the coasts of northeastern Asia. These rafts serve as spawning and nursery grounds for many marine organisms, including Japanese saury and yellowtail. Thus, the details of the attachment/detachment mechanisms of S. horneri are of commercial significance for the aquaculture industry. Here, we describe variations in the attachment strength of S. horneri as it relates to its developmental stage and depth along a bottom gradient...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Paul Bikker, Marinus M van Krimpen, Piet van Wikselaar, Bwee Houweling-Tan, Nazareno Scaccia, Jaap W van Hal, Wouter J J Huijgen, John W Cone, Ana M López-Contreras
The growing world population demands an increase in animal protein production. Seaweed may be a valuable source of protein for animal feed. However, a biorefinery approach aimed at cascading valorisation of both protein and non-protein seaweed constituents is required to realise an economically feasible value chain. In this study, such a biorefinery approach is presented for the green seaweed Ulva lactuca containing 225 g protein (N × 4.6) kg(-1) dry matter (DM). The sugars in the biomass were solubilised by hot water treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and centrifugation resulting in a sugar-rich hydrolysate (38...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Philip D Kerrison, Hau Nhu Le, Gail C Twigg, Duncan R Smallman, Rory MacPhee, Fiona A B Houston, Adam D Hughes
The effect of a range of chemical disinfectants at different concentration and exposure times was investigated on five macroalgal species and the marine gastropod Littorina spp. Palmaria palmata, Osmundea pinnatifida and Ulva lactuca are commercially valuable and are often cultivated in tanks for food or feed. Ectocarpus siliculosus and Ulva intestinalis are common epiphytes of P. palmata and O. pinnatifida cultures, whilst Littorina spp. are common herbivorous epibionts within U. lactuca culture tanks. These contaminants reduce the productivity and quality of the culture as a food...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Philip Kenny, Kevin J Flynn
Various innovative photobioreactor designs have been proposed to increase production of algae-derived biomass. Computer models are often employed to test these designs prior to construction. In the drive to optimise conversion of light energy to biomass, efforts to model the profile of irradiance levels within a microalgal culture can lead to highly complex descriptions which are computationally demanding. However, there is a risk that this effort is wasted if such optic models are coupled to overly simplified descriptions of algal physiology...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Giulia Benvenuti, Rouke Bosma, Fang Ji, Packo Lamers, Maria J Barbosa, René H Wijffels
Microalgal triglycerides (TAGs) represent a sustainable feedstock for food, chemical and biofuel industries. The operational strategy (batch, semi-continuous, continuous cultivations) has an impact on the TAG productivity. In this study, semi-continuous (i.e. with fixed harvesting frequency) and batch cultivations were compared on TAG production both at lab-scale and in outdoor cultivations. At lab-scale, the semi-continuous TAG productivity was highest for a cycle time of 2 days (SC1; 0.21 g L(-1) day(-1)) and similar to the maximum obtained with the batch (optimal harvest time; 0...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Martin Sterner, Ulrica Edlund
A fractionation strategy for Saccharina latissima algal biomass was developed utilizing chelating extraction salt solutions to mediate the liberation of algal components. Alginate, cellulose, laminarin, mannitol, protein, and inorganic salts were quantified in the fractions to reveal their individual dissolution patterns. Chelation power was identified as a key parameter for liberating alginate and increasing the yield of extracted components. The most efficient fractionation was achieved using aqueous sodium citrate as the extraction solution, producing an alginate-rich soluble fraction and a salt-poor insoluble fraction rich in cellulose and protein...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Patricio Lopez-Exposito, Angeles Blanco Suarez, Carlos Negro
A novel method to estimate the concentration of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii biomass was developed. The method employs the chord length distribution information gathered by means of a focused beam reflectance probe immersed in the culture sample and processes the data through a feedforward multilayer perceptron. The multilayer perceptron architecture was systematically optimised through the application of a simulated annealing algorithm. The method developed can predict the concentration of microalgae with acceptable accuracy and, with further development, it could be implemented online to monitor the aggregation status and biomass concentration of microalgal cultures...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Bożena Wojtasiewicz, Joanna Stoń-Egiert
The optical properties, i.e., absorption and scattering spectra of ten strains of cyanobacteria from the Baltic Sea and Pomeranian lakes (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae KAC 15, Microcystis aeruginosa CCNP 1101, Anabaena sp. CCNP 1406, Synechocystis salina CCNP 1104, Phormidium sp. CCNP 1317, Nodularia spumigena CCNP 1401, Synechococcus sp. CCNP 1108, Nostoc sp. CCNP 1411, Cyanobacterium sp. CCNP 1105, Pseudanabaena cf. galeata CCNP 1312) grown under low light conditions were investigated. Moreover, the chlorophylls, carotenoids, and phycobilin composition as well as the size structure of chosen cyanobacteria were measured...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Kari Skjånes, Uno Andersen, Thorsten Heidorn, Stig A Borgvang
Several species of microalgae and phototrophic bacteria are able to produce hydrogen under certain conditions. A range of different photobioreactor systems have been used by different research groups for lab-scale hydrogen production experiments, and some few attempts have been made to upscale the hydrogen production process. Even though a photobioreactor system for hydrogen production does require special construction properties (e.g., hydrogen tight, mixing by other means than bubbling with air), only very few attempts have been made to design photobioreactors specifically for the purpose of hydrogen production...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Martina Strittmatter, Tiago Guerra, Joana Silva, Claire M M Gachon
The blastocladialean fungus Paraphysoderma sedebokerense Boussiba, Zarka and James is a devastating pathogen of the commercially valuable green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis, a natural source of the carotenoid pigment astaxanthin. First identified in commercial Haematococcus cultivation facilities, P. sedebokerense is hypothesised to have a complex life cycle that switches between a vegetative and a resting phase depending on favourable or unfavourable growth conditions. Rather unusually for blastocladialean fungi, P...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Peter R Mooij, Lisanne D de Jongh, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Robbert Kleerebezem
Microalgae have the potential to supply a biobased society with essential feedstocks like sugar and lipids. Besides being productive, strains used for this purpose should grow fast, be resistant to predators, and have good harvestability properties. Diatoms, a class of siliceous algae, have these and other preferred characteristics. In this paper, we describe the enrichment of microalgae in sequencing batch reactors with and without supply of silicate. Both reactors were operated with a light-dark cycle. To maximize storage compound production, carbon fixation and nitrogen uptake were uncoupled by limiting the availability of nitrate to the dark phase...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Emily T Kostas, Daniel A White, Chenyu Du, David J Cook
Macroalgae (seaweeds) are a promising feedstock for the production of third generation bioethanol, since they have high carbohydrate contents, contain little or no lignin and are available in abundance. However, seaweeds typically contain a more diverse array of monomeric sugars than are commonly present in feedstocks derived from lignocellulosic material which are currently used for bioethanol production. Hence, identification of a suitable fermentative microorganism that can utilise the principal sugars released from the hydrolysis of macroalgae remains a major objective...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Peter Ian Chater, Mathew Wilcox, Paul Cherry, Andrew Herford, Suraiami Mustar, Hannah Wheater, Iain Brownlee, Chris Seal, Jeffrey Pearson
The effect of three Hebridean brown seaweeds on lipase activity was assessed using a turbidimetric lipase activity assay and an in vitro simulation of the upper digestive tract. The preparations of Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus, and Pelvetia canaliculata were tested; whole seaweed homogenate, sodium carbonate extract, and ethanol extracts (pellet and supernatant were tested separately). All extracts showed significant inhibition of lipase, suggesting multiple bioactive agents, potentially including alginates, fucoidans, and polyphenols...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Jesus Garcia-Gonzalez, Milton Sommerfeld
Microalgae represent a potential sustainable alternative for the enhancement and protection of agricultural crops. Cellular extracts and dry biomass of the green alga Acutodesmus dimorphus were applied as a seed primer, foliar spray, and biofertilizer, to evaluate seed germination, plant growth, and fruit production in Roma tomato plants. A. dimorphus culture, culture growth medium, and different concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 %) of aqueous cell extracts in distilled water were used as seed primers to determine effects on germination...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Richard A Ingebrigtsen, Espen Hansen, Jeanette Hammer Andersen, Hans Christian Eilertsen
Isolates of five pelagic North Atlantic marine diatoms (Bacillariophyceae): Attheya longicornis, Chaetoceros socialis, Chaetoceros furcellatus, Skeletonema marinoi and Porosira glacialis were cultivated in large photobioreactors at two light and two temperature regimes to test if this affected bioactivity. We screened for bioactivity in assays representing five different therapeutic areas: diabetes II (PTP1b), cancer (melanoma cells, A2058), anti-oxidants (FRAP), immunomodulation (TNFa) and anti-infection (MRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa)...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Krzysztof Grabski, Natalia Baranowski, Joanna Skórko-Glonek, Zbigniew Tukaj
Although the appearance of coloured chlorophyll degradation products of higher plants is well known, knowledge about such compounds produced and released particularly by planktonic algae is still limited. Colourless conditioned media (CM) obtained from autotrophic cultures of unicellular green alga Desmosdemus subspicatus turn red after acidification. The accumulation of red pigments in the medium and the growth rate of algae were inversely correlated. The red, crude solution isolated from CM by dialysis and ion exchange chromatography, and next purified by means of high-performance liquid chromatography, appeared to be a mixture of three compounds with characteristic UV/VIS absorption maxima near 330 and 505 nm...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
John J Cullen, Hugh L MacIntyre
Discharge standards for ballast water treatment (BWT) systems are based on concentrations of living cells, for example, as determined with vital stains. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) stops the reproduction of microorganisms without killing them outright; they are living, but not viable, and ecologically as good as dead. Consequently, UV-treated discharge can be compliant with the intent of regulation while failing a live/dead test. An alternative evaluation of BWT can be proposed based on the assessment of viable, rather than living, cells in discharge water...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Michiel H A Michels, Atze Jan van der Goot, Marian H Vermuë, René H Wijffels
The tolerance to shear stress of Tetraselmis suecica, Isochrysis galbana, Skeletonema costatum, and Chaetoceros muelleri was determined in shear cylinders. The shear tolerance of the microalgae species strongly depends on the strain. I. galbana, S. costatum, and C. muelleri exposed to shear stress between 1.2 and 5.4 Pa resulted in severe cell damage. T. suecica is not sensitive to stresses up to 80 Pa. The possibility to grow these algae in a tubular photobioreactor (PBR) using a centrifugal pump for recirculation of the algae suspension was studied...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Masakazu Toyoshima, Shimpei Aikawa, Takahiro Yamagishi, Akihiko Kondo, Hiroshi Kawai
Microalgae are considered to be efficient bio-resources for biofuels and bio-based chemicals because they generally have high productivity. The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis has been widely used for food, feed, and nutrient supplements and is usually cultivated in open ponds. In order to extend the surface area for growing this alga, we designed a pilot-scale floating closed culture system for cultivating A. platensis on open water and compared the growth and quality of the alga harvested at both subtropical and temperate regions...
2015: Journal of Applied Phycology
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