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Journal of Applied Phycology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899600/minireview-algal-natural-compounds-and-extracts-as-antifoulants
#1
REVIEW
Mahasweta Saha, Franz Goecke, Punyasloke Bhadury
Marine biofouling is a paramount phenomenon in the marine environment and causes serious problems to maritime industries worldwide. Marine algae are known to produce a wide variety of chemical compounds with antibacterial, antifungal, antialgal, and anti-macrofouling properties, inhibiting the settlement and growth of other marine fouling organisms. Significant investigations and progress have been made in this field in the last two decades and several antifouling extracts and compounds have been isolated from micro- and macroalgae...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899599/pcr-identification-of-toxic-euglenid-species-euglena-sanguinea
#2
Agata Kulczycka, Maja Łukomska-Kowalczyk, Bożena Zakryś, Rafał Milanowski
Euglena sanguinea Ehrenberg is the only known species of euglenids which forms toxic blooms causing tangible losses to fish farms. Euglena sanguinea produces euglenophycin, a toxin similar in structure to solenopsin, an alkaloid found in fire ant venom. It was proved that euglenophycin exhibits not only ichthyotoxic but also herbicidal and anticancer activity. Recently, a specific mass spectrometric method of identification and quantitation of euglenophycin was developed to facilitate monitoring of that toxin in freshwater ponds...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899598/effect-of-overexpression-of-lpaat-and-gpd1-on-lipid-synthesis-and-composition-in-green-microalga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#3
Chaogang Wang, Yi Li, Jun Lu, Xu Deng, Hui Li, Zhangli Hu
Biodiesel is an alternative energy source which has attracted increasing attention lately. Although algae-based biodiesel production has many benefits, it is still far from industrial application. Research suggests that improving lipid quality and production through genetic engineering of metabolic pathways will be the most promising way. To enhance lipid content, both lysophosphatidic acyltransferase gene ( c-lpaat ) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene ( c-gpd1 ), optimized according to the codon bias of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , were inserted into the genomic DNA of model microalga C...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899597/bioaccessibility-of-phenolic-compounds-lutein-and-bioelements-of-preparations-containing-chlorella-vulgaris-in-artificial-digestive-juices
#4
Bożena Muszyńska, Agata Krakowska, Jan Lazur, Barbara Jękot, Łukasz Zimmer, Agnieszka Szewczyk, Katarzyna Sułkowska-Ziaja, Ewa Poleszak, Włodzimierz Opoka
Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck is a spherical, green alga belonging to the genus Chlorella and family Chlorellaceae. It has high nutritional value and shows multiple biological effects. Dietary supplements that contain extracts of C. vulgaris are sold in the form of tablets, capsules, powders, and aqueous solutions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to determine the content of bioelements (zinc, iron, and magnesium), phenolic compounds, and lutein before and after incubation with artificial digestive juices from preparations containing C...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899596/cyanobacterial-diversity-held-in-microbial-biological-resource-centers-as-a-biotechnological-asset-the-case-study-of-the-newly-established-lege-culture-collection
#5
Vitor Ramos, João Morais, Raquel Castelo-Branco, Ângela Pinheiro, Joana Martins, Ana Regueiras, Ana L Pereira, Viviana R Lopes, Bárbara Frazão, Dina Gomes, Cristiana Moreira, Maria Sofia Costa, Sébastien Brûle, Silvia Faustino, Rosário Martins, Martin Saker, Joana Osswald, Pedro N Leão, Vitor M Vasconcelos
Cyanobacteria are a well-known source of bioproducts which renders culturable strains a valuable resource for biotechnology purposes. We describe here the establishment of a cyanobacterial culture collection (CC) and present the first version of the strain catalog and its online database (http://lege.ciimar.up.pt/). The LEGE CC holds 386 strains, mainly collected in coastal (48%), estuarine (11%), and fresh (34%) water bodies, for the most part from Portugal (84%). By following the most recent taxonomic classification, LEGE CC strains were classified into at least 46 genera from six orders (41% belong to the Synechococcales), several of them are unique among the phylogenetic diversity of the cyanobacteria...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755209/the-influence-of-abiotic-factors-on-the-bloom-forming-alga-ulva-flexuosa-ulvaceae-chlorophyta-possibilities-for-the-control-of-the-green-tides-in-freshwater-ecosystems
#6
Andrzej Stanisław Rybak, Maciej Gąbka
Ulva species are characterised by the capacity to achieve rapid biomass increase, which results in the formation of "green tides", particularly in nutrient-rich seawaters. Over the last decade, formation of large-scale Ulva mats has been increasingly observed in freshwater systems in Central Europe. Mass development of Ulva in freshwater ecosystems presents a growing burden in spite of its economic benefits. This study explores the formation dynamics of Ulva flexuosa mats with respect to habitat conditions, using the examples of a number of water systems located in Poland...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755208/biorefinery-of-the-macroalgae-ulva-lactuca-extraction-of-proteins-and-carbohydrates-by-mild-disintegration
#7
P R Postma, O Cerezo-Chinarro, R J Akkerman, G Olivieri, R H Wijffels, W A Brandenburg, M H M Eppink
The effect of osmotic shock, enzymatic incubation, pulsed electric field, and high shear homogenization on the release of water-soluble proteins and carbohydrates from the green alga Ulva lactuca was investigated in this screening study. For osmotic shock, both temperature and incubation time had a significant influence on the release with an optimum at 30 °C for 24 h of incubation. For enzymatic incubation, pectinase demonstrated being the most promising enzyme for both protein and carbohydrate release...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755207/effect-of-the-epiphytic-bacterium-bacillus-sp-wpysw2-on-the-metabolism-of-pyropia-haitanensis
#8
Yuqin Xiong, Rui Yang, Xiaoxiao Sun, Huatian Yang, Haimin Chen
A variety of different symbiotic microbial communities are harbored on the surface of seaweeds, the interactions of which depend upon nutritional exchanges between the microbes and the hosts. Metabolomic profiling is able to provide a comprehensive and unbiased snapshot of the metabolites associated with seaweed-microbe interactions. In this study, the relationships between phycosphere bacteria and the red alga Pyropia haitanensis were investigated on a metabolomic basis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the pathways of the interactions between the seaweed and its associated phycospheric microbes were revealed...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755206/epilithic-chamaesiphon-synechococcales-cyanobacteria-species-in-mountain-streams-of-the-alps-interspecific-differences-in-photo-physiological-traits
#9
Siegfried Aigner, Klaus Herburger, Andreas Holzinger, Ulf Karsten
Many alpine streams inhabit conspicuous epilithic biofilms on pebbles and rocks that are formed by members of the cyanobacterial genus Chamaesiphon (Synechococcales). In the Austrian Alps, some Chamaesiphon species can even overgrow up to 70% of the surface of river rocks, and hence they must play an important but still unstudied ecological role in the organic matter flux. Since photo-biological traits have not been investigated so far, photosynthetic features, pigments, and UV-sunscreen compounds were studied in three Chamaesiphon morphospecies ( C...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755205/enumerating-viable-phytoplankton-using-a-culture-based-most-probable-number-assay-following-ultraviolet-c-treatment
#10
Hugh L MacIntyre, John J Cullen, Trina J Whitsitt, Brian Petri
Ballast water management systems (BWMS) must be tested to assess their compliance with standards for the discharge of organisms, for example in the ≥ 10- and < 50-μm size category, which is dominated by phytoplankton. Assessment of BWMS performance with the vital stains fluorescein diacetate + 5-chlorofluorescein diacetate, required by regulations in the USA, is problematic in the case of ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation. This is because UVC targets nucleotides-and thus reproduction, hence viability-rather than membrane integrity, which is assayed by the stains...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755204/cryopreservation-studies-of-an-artificial-co-culture-between-the-cobalamin-requiring-green-alga-lobomonas-rostrata-and-the-bacterium-mesorhizobium-loti
#11
Christian J A Ridley, John G Day, Alison G Smith
Algal-bacterial co-cultures, rather than cultures of algae alone, are regarded as having the potential to enhance productivity and stability in industrial algal cultivation. As with other inocula in biotechnology, to avoid loss of production strains, it is important to develop preservation methods for the long-term storage of these cultures, and one of the most commonly used approaches is cryopreservation. However, whilst there are many reports of cryopreserved xenic algal cultures, little work has been reported on the intentional preservation of both algae and beneficial bacteria in xenic cultures...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576688/valuable-natural-products-from-marine-and-freshwater-macroalgae-obtained-from-supercritical-fluid-extracts
#12
Beata Messyasz, Izabela Michalak, Bogusława Łęska, Grzegorz Schroeder, Bogusława Górka, Karolina Korzeniowska, Jacek Lipok, Piotr Wieczorek, Edward Rój, Radosław Wilk, Agnieszka Dobrzyńska-Inger, Henryk Górecki, Katarzyna Chojnacka
The biologically active compounds (fatty acids, pigments, phenolics, and flavonoid content) were studied in supercritical fluid extracts from the biomass of marine ( Ulva clathrata , Cladophora glomerata , Polysiphonia fucoides , and their multi-species mixture) and freshwater ( C. glomerata ) macroalgae. Different extraction techniques were used in order to compare differences in the biologically active compound composition of the macroalgal extracts. The results indicated that the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids ranged from C9:0 to C22:0...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576687/glyphosate-dose-modulates-the-uptake-of-inorganic-phosphate-by-freshwater-cyanobacteria
#13
Damian Drzyzga, Jacek Lipok
The usefulness of glyphosate [ N -(phosphonomethyl)glycine] as a source of nutritive phosphorus for species of halophilic cyanobacteria has been postulated for years. Our results indicate a stimulating effect of glyphosate on the growth of four out of five examined freshwater species, Anabaena variabilis (CCALA 007), Chroococcus minutus (CCALA 055), Fischerella cf. maior (CCALA 067) and Nostoc cf. muscorum (CCALA 129), in a manner dependent on the applied concentration. The most significant stimulation was observed at a dose of 0...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713202/toward-mosquito-control-with-a-green-alga-expression-of-cry-toxins-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-subsp-israelensis-bti-in-the-chloroplast-of-chlamydomonas
#14
Seongjoon Kang, Obed W Odom, Saravanan Thangamani, David L Herrin
We are developing Chlamydomonas strains that can be used for safe and sustainable control of mosquitoes, because they produce proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) in the chloroplast. Chlamydomonas has a number of advantages for this approach, including genetic controls that are not generally available with industrial algae. The Bti toxin has been used for mosquito control for > 30 years and does not engender resistance; it contains three Cry proteins, Cry4Aa (135 kDa), Cry4Ba (128 kDa) and Cry11Aa (72 kDa), and Cyt1Aa (25 kDa)...
June 2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213186/cyclic-fractionation-process-for-saccharina-latissima-using-aqueous-chelator-and-ion-exchange-resin
#15
Martin Sterner, Mauricio Sodré Ribeiro, Fredrik Gröndahl, Ulrica Edlund
A new approach to process Saccharina latissima algal biomass was developed using sodium citrate and a polyvalent cation-specific resin to sequentially extract the alginate into several usable fractions. The fractionation was performed in a cyclic manner, utilizing a stepwise removal of the native polyvalent ions present in the algae to isolate fractions of alginate with different solubility in the presence of these ions. Sodium citrate was used in different concentrations in the extraction solution to remove polyvalent cations to adjust the alginate liberation while AMBERLITE IRC718 resin was added to further remove these ions and regenerate the extraction solution...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213185/crude-fucoidan-content-in-two-north-atlantic-kelp-species-saccharina-latissima-and-laminaria-digitata-seasonal-variation-and-impact-of-environmental-factors
#16
Annette Bruhn, Tina Janicek, Dirk Manns, Mette Møller Nielsen, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg Balsby, Anne S Meyer, Michael Bo Rasmussen, Xiaoru Hou, Bodo Saake, Cordula Göke, Anne Belinda Bjerre
Fucoidans are sulphated fucose-rich polysaccharides predominantly found in the cell walls of brown algae. The bioactive properties of fucoidans attract increasing interest from the medico-pharmaceutical industries and may drive an increase in demand of brown algae biomass. In nature, the biochemical composition of brown algae displays a seasonal fluctuation driven by environmental factors and endogenous rhythms. To cultivate and harvest kelps with high yields of fucoidans, knowledge is needed on seasonal variation and impact of environmental conditions on the fucoidan content of brown algae...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213184/a-comparison-of-methods-for-the-non-destructive-fresh-weight-determination-of-filamentous-algae-for-growth-rate-analysis-and-dry-weight-estimation
#17
Michael E Ross, Michele S Stanley, John G Day, Andrea J C Semião
The determination of rates of macroalgal growth and productivity via temporal fresh weight (FW) measurements is attractive, as it does not necessitate the sacrifice of biomass. However, there is no standardised method for FW analysis; this may lead to potential discrepancies when determining growth rates or productivity and make literature comparison problematic. This study systematically assessed a variety of lab-scale methods for macroalgal FW measurement for growth rate determination. Method efficacy was assessed over a 14-day period as impact upon algal physiology, growth rate on basis of FW and dry weight (DW), nitrate removal, and maintenance of structural integrity...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213183/screening-of-new-british-thraustochytrids-isolates-for-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-production
#18
Loris Fossier Marchan, Kim J Lee Chang, Peter D Nichols, Jane L Polglase, Wilfrid J Mitchell, Tony Gutierrez
Thraustochytrids isolated from hot tropical and sub-tropical waters have been well studied for DHA and biodiesel production in the last decades. However, little research has been performed on the oils of cold water thraustochytrids, in particular from the North Sea region. In this study, thraustochytrid strains from British waters showed high relative levels of omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 ) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω3). The relative levels of DHA (as % of total fatty acids, TFA) in the different British strains are hitherto amongst the highest recorded from any thraustochytrid screening study, with strain TL18 reaching up to 67% DHA in modified Glucose-Yeast Extract-Peptone (GYP) medium...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213182/genetic-engineering-of-medium-chain-length-fatty-acid-synthesis-in-dunaliella-tertiolecta-for-improved-biodiesel-production
#19
Huixin Lin, Yuan Kun Lee
Genetic engineering of microalgae to accumulate high levels of medium-chain-length fatty acids (MCFAs) represents an attractive strategy to improve the quality of microalgae-based biodiesel, but it has thus far been least successful. We demonstrate that one limitation is the availability of fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) substrate pool for acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE). A combinational expression platform that involved plant lauric acid-biased TE (C12TE) and MCFA-specific ketoacyl-ACP synthase (KASIV) increased lauric acid (C12:0) and myristic acid (C14:0) accumulation by almost sevenfold and fourfold, respectively, compared with native strain...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213181/physiology-limits-commercially-viable-photoautotrophic-production-of-microalgal-biofuels
#20
Philip Kenny, Kevin J Flynn
Algal biofuels have been offered as an alternative to fossil fuels, based on claims that microalgae can provide a highly productive source of compounds as feedstocks for sustainable transport fuels. Life cycle analyses identify algal productivity as a critical factor affecting commercial and environmental viability. Here, we use mechanistic modelling of the biological processes driving microalgal growth to explore optimal production scenarios in an industrial setting, enabling us to quantify limits to algal biofuels potential...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
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