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Journal of Applied Phycology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713202/toward-mosquito-control-with-a-green-alga-expression-of-cry-toxins-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-subsp-israelensis-bti-in-the-chloroplast-of-chlamydomonas
#1
Seongjoon Kang, Obed W Odom, Saravanan Thangamani, David L Herrin
We are developing Chlamydomonas strains that can be used for safe and sustainable control of mosquitoes, because they produce proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) in the chloroplast. Chlamydomonas has a number of advantages for this approach, including genetic controls that are not generally available with industrial algae. The Bti toxin has been used for mosquito control for > 30 years and does not engender resistance; it contains three Cry proteins, Cry4Aa (135 kDa), Cry4Ba (128 kDa) and Cry11Aa (72 kDa), and Cyt1Aa (25 kDa)...
June 2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213186/cyclic-fractionation-process-for-saccharina-latissima-using-aqueous-chelator-and-ion-exchange-resin
#2
Martin Sterner, Mauricio Sodré Ribeiro, Fredrik Gröndahl, Ulrica Edlund
A new approach to process Saccharina latissima algal biomass was developed using sodium citrate and a polyvalent cation-specific resin to sequentially extract the alginate into several usable fractions. The fractionation was performed in a cyclic manner, utilizing a stepwise removal of the native polyvalent ions present in the algae to isolate fractions of alginate with different solubility in the presence of these ions. Sodium citrate was used in different concentrations in the extraction solution to remove polyvalent cations to adjust the alginate liberation while AMBERLITE IRC718 resin was added to further remove these ions and regenerate the extraction solution...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213185/crude-fucoidan-content-in-two-north-atlantic-kelp-species-saccharina-latissima-and-laminaria-digitata-seasonal-variation-and-impact-of-environmental-factors
#3
Annette Bruhn, Tina Janicek, Dirk Manns, Mette Møller Nielsen, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg Balsby, Anne S Meyer, Michael Bo Rasmussen, Xiaoru Hou, Bodo Saake, Cordula Göke, Anne Belinda Bjerre
Fucoidans are sulphated fucose-rich polysaccharides predominantly found in the cell walls of brown algae. The bioactive properties of fucoidans attract increasing interest from the medico-pharmaceutical industries and may drive an increase in demand of brown algae biomass. In nature, the biochemical composition of brown algae displays a seasonal fluctuation driven by environmental factors and endogenous rhythms. To cultivate and harvest kelps with high yields of fucoidans, knowledge is needed on seasonal variation and impact of environmental conditions on the fucoidan content of brown algae...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213184/a-comparison-of-methods-for-the-non-destructive-fresh-weight-determination-of-filamentous-algae-for-growth-rate-analysis-and-dry-weight-estimation
#4
Michael E Ross, Michele S Stanley, John G Day, Andrea J C Semião
The determination of rates of macroalgal growth and productivity via temporal fresh weight (FW) measurements is attractive, as it does not necessitate the sacrifice of biomass. However, there is no standardised method for FW analysis; this may lead to potential discrepancies when determining growth rates or productivity and make literature comparison problematic. This study systematically assessed a variety of lab-scale methods for macroalgal FW measurement for growth rate determination. Method efficacy was assessed over a 14-day period as impact upon algal physiology, growth rate on basis of FW and dry weight (DW), nitrate removal, and maintenance of structural integrity...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213183/screening-of-new-british-thraustochytrids-isolates-for-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-production
#5
Loris Fossier Marchan, Kim J Lee Chang, Peter D Nichols, Jane L Polglase, Wilfrid J Mitchell, Tony Gutierrez
Thraustochytrids isolated from hot tropical and sub-tropical waters have been well studied for DHA and biodiesel production in the last decades. However, little research has been performed on the oils of cold water thraustochytrids, in particular from the North Sea region. In this study, thraustochytrid strains from British waters showed high relative levels of omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω3). The relative levels of DHA (as % of total fatty acids, TFA) in the different British strains are hitherto amongst the highest recorded from any thraustochytrid screening study, with strain TL18 reaching up to 67% DHA in modified Glucose-Yeast Extract-Peptone (GYP) medium...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213182/genetic-engineering-of-medium-chain-length-fatty-acid-synthesis-in-dunaliella-tertiolecta-for-improved-biodiesel-production
#6
Huixin Lin, Yuan Kun Lee
Genetic engineering of microalgae to accumulate high levels of medium-chain-length fatty acids (MCFAs) represents an attractive strategy to improve the quality of microalgae-based biodiesel, but it has thus far been least successful. We demonstrate that one limitation is the availability of fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) substrate pool for acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE). A combinational expression platform that involved plant lauric acid-biased TE (C12TE) and MCFA-specific ketoacyl-ACP synthase (KASIV) increased lauric acid (C12:0) and myristic acid (C14:0) accumulation by almost sevenfold and fourfold, respectively, compared with native strain...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213181/physiology-limits-commercially-viable-photoautotrophic-production-of-microalgal-biofuels
#7
Philip Kenny, Kevin J Flynn
Algal biofuels have been offered as an alternative to fossil fuels, based on claims that microalgae can provide a highly productive source of compounds as feedstocks for sustainable transport fuels. Life cycle analyses identify algal productivity as a critical factor affecting commercial and environmental viability. Here, we use mechanistic modelling of the biological processes driving microalgal growth to explore optimal production scenarios in an industrial setting, enabling us to quantify limits to algal biofuels potential...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572710/novel-rapid-method-for-the-characterisation-of-polymeric-sugars-from-macroalgae
#8
S E Spicer, J M M Adams, D S Thomas, J A Gallagher, Ana L Winters
Laminarins are storage polysaccharides found only in brown seaweeds, specifically Laminarialaes and Fucales. Laminarin has been shown to have anti-apoptotic and anti-tumoural activities and is considered as a nutraceutical component that can positively influence human health. The structure is species dependent, generally composed of linear ß(1-3) glucans with intrachain β(1-6) branching and varies according to harvest season and environmental factors. Current methods for analysis of molar mass and DP length are technically demanding and are not widely available...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572709/determination-of-the-toxicity-of-the-freshwater-cyanobacterium-woronichinia-naegeliana-unger-elenkin
#9
Beata Bober, Jan Bialczyk
Cyanobacterial blooms are undesirable for ecological and health reasons. While Woronichinia naegeliana is a cyanobacterial species that appears frequently in freshwater, information about it is limited. An evaluation of its toxicity was conducted via tests based on the crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Daphnia pulex. The greatest effect of the aqueous extract obtained from W. naegeliana cells was observed for T. platyurus. The denoted semi-lethal concentration (LC50) after 24 h of exposure was 0.99 mg of dry weight (d...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572708/bioremediation-efficacy-comparison-of-nutrient-removal-from-an-anaerobic-digest-waste-based-medium-by-an-algal-consortium-before-and-after-cryopreservation
#10
Alla Silkina, Graham D Nelson, Catherine E Bayliss, Craig L Pooley, John G Day
An algal consortium was isolated from an integrated steelmaking site at TATA Steel Strip Products Ltd. in Port Talbot, UK, and its bioremediation capacity tested. Excellent "bioremediation" was observed when the mixed culture was "applied" to diluted effluent from an enhanced anaerobic digestion plant at Dŵr Cymru Welsh Water at Port Talbot, UK. After 5 days of cultivation in a 600-L photobioreactor, 99% of the total nitrogen (initial level, 4500 μmol L(-1)) and total phosphorus (initial level, 690.4 μmol L(-1)) were removed from the waste stream...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572707/thermostable-phycocyanin-from-the-red-microalga-cyanidioschyzon-merolae-a-new-natural-blue-food-colorant
#11
D Y Rahman, F D Sarian, A van Wijk, M Martinez-Garcia, M J E C van der Maarel
The demand for natural food colorants is growing as consumers question the use of artificial colorants more and more. The phycobiliprotein C-phycocyanin of Arthospira platensis is used as a natural blue colorant in certain food products. The thermoacidophilic red microalga Cyanidioschyzon merolae might provide an alternative source of phycocyanin. Cyanidioschyzon merolae belongs to the order Cyanidiophyceae of the phylum Rhodophyta. Its natural habitat are sulfuric hot springs and geysers found near volcanic areas in, e...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458465/undaria-marching-on-late-arrival-in-the-republic-of-ireland
#12
Stefan Kraan
The Asian invasive brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida was found for the first time in the Republic of Ireland in Kilmore Quay in Co. Wexford in July 2016. As this brown kelp is of considerable economic importance and is cultivated in Asia as well as in Europe, it opens up the discussion if this invasive species is socially acceptable to be cultivated in the Republic of Ireland for food and other purposes. This paper briefly examines the global economic importance, cultivation aspects compared to the European native equivalents such as Alaria esculenta and Saccharina latissima, cultivation yield, economic considerations and the ecological impact of the spread of Undaria into non-native areas...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458464/algae-as-nutritional-and-functional-food-sources-revisiting-our-understanding
#13
REVIEW
Mark L Wells, Philippe Potin, James S Craigie, John A Raven, Sabeeha S Merchant, Katherine E Helliwell, Alison G Smith, Mary Ellen Camire, Susan H Brawley
Global demand for macroalgal and microalgal foods is growing, and algae are increasingly being consumed for functional benefits beyond the traditional considerations of nutrition and health. There is substantial evidence for the health benefits of algal-derived food products, but there remain considerable challenges in quantifying these benefits, as well as possible adverse effects. First, there is a limited understanding of nutritional composition across algal species, geographical regions, and seasons, all of which can substantially affect their dietary value...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458463/melanoma-and-brown-seaweed-an-integrative-hypothesis
#14
Jane Teas, Mohammad R Irhimeh
Although relatively rare, melanoma accounts for 2 % of cancer diagnoses globally and accounts for about 1 % of all cancer deaths. Worldwide, the annual incidence of melanoma is 272,000 cases which vary hugely, ranging from Japan where it is incredibly infrequent, to Queensland, Australia, where it is nearly 100 times higher. Based on epidemiology and laboratory studies, there is compelling evidence suggesting that seaweed might be protective against different types of cancers such as breast cancer in seaweed consuming populations...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344392/seasonal-population-dynamics-of-sargassum-fusiforme-fucales-phaeophyta-suo-oshima-is-seto-inland-sea-japan-development-processes-of-a-stand-characterized-by-high-density-and-productivity
#15
Goro Yoshida, Hiromori Shimabukuro
Seasonal population dynamics of Sargassum fusiforme, one of the most important edible macroalgae in Japan, were studied. Recruits were mainly generated by vegetative reproduction at the margins of filamentous holdfasts. They first appeared in late spring and peaked in summer as upright thalli of the previous generation withered. After producing recruits, holdfasts withered indicating that holdfasts were also annual, the same as upright thalli. All recruits produced main branches and became new upright thalli in early autumn...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344391/ph-driven-solubilization-and-isoelectric-precipitation-of-proteins-from-the-brown-seaweed-saccharina-latissima-effects-of-osmotic-shock-water-volume-and-temperature
#16
Jenny Veide Vilg, Ingrid Undeland
In the light of the global search for novel and sustainable protein sources, macroalgal proteins are becoming an attractive target. To date, mainly red and green macroalgae have been investigated in this respect, whereas the brown species are less studied, possibly because of the lower content of protein. In a biorefinery context, however, the protein content of brown macroalgae can still be economically interesting due to fast growth and the possibility to co-extract other compounds, such as alginates. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, scalable pH shift-based protein isolation technique applicable on wet Saccharina latissima biomass...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344390/algal-cultivation-in-urban-wastewater-an-efficient-way-to-reduce-pharmaceutical-pollutants
#17
Francesco G Gentili, Jerker Fick
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pharmaceutical pollutants in urban wastewater can be reduced during algal cultivation. A mixed population of wild freshwater green algal species was grown on urban wastewater influent in a 650 L photobioreactor under natural light and with the addition of flue gases. Removal efficiencies were very high (>90 %), moderate (50-90 %), low (10-50 %), and very low or non-quantifiable (<10 %) for 9, 14, 11, and 18 pharmaceuticals, respectively, over a 7-day period...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344389/reductive-activity-of-free-and-immobilized-cells-of-cyanobacteria-toward-oxophosphonates-comparative-study
#18
Monika Górak, Ewa Żymańczyk-Duda
This report, based on the previous studies, compares the reductive activity of different modes of following photobiocatalysts (on laboratory and preparative scale): Arthrospira maxima, Nostoc cf. muscorum and Nodularia sphaerocarpa, toward diethyl esters of 2-oxopropylphosphonate (1), 2-oxo-2-phenylethylphosphonate (2), and 2-oxobutylphosphonate (3). It was confirmed that immobilization in alginate matrix do not affect the activity and viability of the biocatalysts. Corresponding (S)-hydroxyphosphonates (1a-3a) were obtained with similar efficiency compared to the free-cell mode with the yield and of the optical purity e...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344388/isolation-and-purification-of-all-trans-diadinoxanthin-and-all-trans-diatoxanthin-from-diatom-phaeodactylum-tricornutum
#19
Paulina Kuczynska, Malgorzata Jemiola-Rzeminska
Two diatom-specific carotenoids are engaged in the diadinoxanthin cycle, an important mechanism which protects these organisms against photoinhibition caused by absorption of excessive light energy. A high-performance and economical procedure of isolation and purification of diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin from the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum using a four-step procedure has been developed. It is based on the use of commonly available materials and does not require advanced technology. Extraction of pigments, saponification, separation by partition and then open column chromatography, which comprise the complete experimental procedure, can be performed within 2 days...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274617/characterization-of-17-new-microsatellite-markers-for-the-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-fundyense-dinophyceae-a-harmful-algal-bloom-species
#20
Taylor Sehein, Mindy L Richlen, Satoshi Nagai, Motoshige Yasuike, Yoji Nakamura, Donald M Anderson
Alexandrium fundyense is the toxic marine dinoflagellate responsible for "red tide" events in temperate and sub-arctic waters worldwide. In the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and Bay of Fundy in the Northwest Atlantic, blooms of A. fundyense recur annually, and are associated with major health and ecosystem impacts. In this region, microsatellite markers have been used to investigate genetic structure and gene flow; however, the loci currently available for this species were isolated from populations from Japan and the North Sea, and only a subset are suitable for the analysis of A...
June 2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
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