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Journal of Applied Phycology

Seongjoon Kang, Obed W Odom, Saravanan Thangamani, David L Herrin
We are developing Chlamydomonas strains that can be used for safe and sustainable control of mosquitoes, because they produce proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) in the chloroplast. Chlamydomonas has a number of advantages for this approach, including genetic controls that are not generally available with industrial algae. The Bti toxin has been used for mosquito control for > 30 years and does not engender resistance; it contains three Cry proteins, Cry4Aa (135 kDa), Cry4Ba (128 kDa) and Cry11Aa (72 kDa), and Cyt1Aa (25 kDa)...
June 2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
S E Spicer, J M M Adams, D S Thomas, J A Gallagher, Ana L Winters
Laminarins are storage polysaccharides found only in brown seaweeds, specifically Laminarialaes and Fucales. Laminarin has been shown to have anti-apoptotic and anti-tumoural activities and is considered as a nutraceutical component that can positively influence human health. The structure is species dependent, generally composed of linear ß(1-3) glucans with intrachain β(1-6) branching and varies according to harvest season and environmental factors. Current methods for analysis of molar mass and DP length are technically demanding and are not widely available...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
Beata Bober, Jan Bialczyk
Cyanobacterial blooms are undesirable for ecological and health reasons. While Woronichinia naegeliana is a cyanobacterial species that appears frequently in freshwater, information about it is limited. An evaluation of its toxicity was conducted via tests based on the crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Daphnia pulex. The greatest effect of the aqueous extract obtained from W. naegeliana cells was observed for T. platyurus. The denoted semi-lethal concentration (LC50) after 24 h of exposure was 0.99 mg of dry weight (d...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
Alla Silkina, Graham D Nelson, Catherine E Bayliss, Craig L Pooley, John G Day
An algal consortium was isolated from an integrated steelmaking site at TATA Steel Strip Products Ltd. in Port Talbot, UK, and its bioremediation capacity tested. Excellent "bioremediation" was observed when the mixed culture was "applied" to diluted effluent from an enhanced anaerobic digestion plant at Dŵr Cymru Welsh Water at Port Talbot, UK. After 5 days of cultivation in a 600-L photobioreactor, 99% of the total nitrogen (initial level, 4500 μmol L(-1)) and total phosphorus (initial level, 690.4 μmol L(-1)) were removed from the waste stream...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
D Y Rahman, F D Sarian, A van Wijk, M Martinez-Garcia, M J E C van der Maarel
The demand for natural food colorants is growing as consumers question the use of artificial colorants more and more. The phycobiliprotein C-phycocyanin of Arthospira platensis is used as a natural blue colorant in certain food products. The thermoacidophilic red microalga Cyanidioschyzon merolae might provide an alternative source of phycocyanin. Cyanidioschyzon merolae belongs to the order Cyanidiophyceae of the phylum Rhodophyta. Its natural habitat are sulfuric hot springs and geysers found near volcanic areas in, e...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
Stefan Kraan
The Asian invasive brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida was found for the first time in the Republic of Ireland in Kilmore Quay in Co. Wexford in July 2016. As this brown kelp is of considerable economic importance and is cultivated in Asia as well as in Europe, it opens up the discussion if this invasive species is socially acceptable to be cultivated in the Republic of Ireland for food and other purposes. This paper briefly examines the global economic importance, cultivation aspects compared to the European native equivalents such as Alaria esculenta and Saccharina latissima, cultivation yield, economic considerations and the ecological impact of the spread of Undaria into non-native areas...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
Mark L Wells, Philippe Potin, James S Craigie, John A Raven, Sabeeha S Merchant, Katherine E Helliwell, Alison G Smith, Mary Ellen Camire, Susan H Brawley
Global demand for macroalgal and microalgal foods is growing, and algae are increasingly being consumed for functional benefits beyond the traditional considerations of nutrition and health. There is substantial evidence for the health benefits of algal-derived food products, but there remain considerable challenges in quantifying these benefits, as well as possible adverse effects. First, there is a limited understanding of nutritional composition across algal species, geographical regions, and seasons, all of which can substantially affect their dietary value...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
Jane Teas, Mohammad R Irhimeh
Although relatively rare, melanoma accounts for 2 % of cancer diagnoses globally and accounts for about 1 % of all cancer deaths. Worldwide, the annual incidence of melanoma is 272,000 cases which vary hugely, ranging from Japan where it is incredibly infrequent, to Queensland, Australia, where it is nearly 100 times higher. Based on epidemiology and laboratory studies, there is compelling evidence suggesting that seaweed might be protective against different types of cancers such as breast cancer in seaweed consuming populations...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
Goro Yoshida, Hiromori Shimabukuro
Seasonal population dynamics of Sargassum fusiforme, one of the most important edible macroalgae in Japan, were studied. Recruits were mainly generated by vegetative reproduction at the margins of filamentous holdfasts. They first appeared in late spring and peaked in summer as upright thalli of the previous generation withered. After producing recruits, holdfasts withered indicating that holdfasts were also annual, the same as upright thalli. All recruits produced main branches and became new upright thalli in early autumn...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
Jenny Veide Vilg, Ingrid Undeland
In the light of the global search for novel and sustainable protein sources, macroalgal proteins are becoming an attractive target. To date, mainly red and green macroalgae have been investigated in this respect, whereas the brown species are less studied, possibly because of the lower content of protein. In a biorefinery context, however, the protein content of brown macroalgae can still be economically interesting due to fast growth and the possibility to co-extract other compounds, such as alginates. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, scalable pH shift-based protein isolation technique applicable on wet Saccharina latissima biomass...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
Francesco G Gentili, Jerker Fick
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pharmaceutical pollutants in urban wastewater can be reduced during algal cultivation. A mixed population of wild freshwater green algal species was grown on urban wastewater influent in a 650 L photobioreactor under natural light and with the addition of flue gases. Removal efficiencies were very high (>90 %), moderate (50-90 %), low (10-50 %), and very low or non-quantifiable (<10 %) for 9, 14, 11, and 18 pharmaceuticals, respectively, over a 7-day period...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
Monika Górak, Ewa Żymańczyk-Duda
This report, based on the previous studies, compares the reductive activity of different modes of following photobiocatalysts (on laboratory and preparative scale): Arthrospira maxima, Nostoc cf. muscorum and Nodularia sphaerocarpa, toward diethyl esters of 2-oxopropylphosphonate (1), 2-oxo-2-phenylethylphosphonate (2), and 2-oxobutylphosphonate (3). It was confirmed that immobilization in alginate matrix do not affect the activity and viability of the biocatalysts. Corresponding (S)-hydroxyphosphonates (1a-3a) were obtained with similar efficiency compared to the free-cell mode with the yield and of the optical purity e...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
Paulina Kuczynska, Malgorzata Jemiola-Rzeminska
Two diatom-specific carotenoids are engaged in the diadinoxanthin cycle, an important mechanism which protects these organisms against photoinhibition caused by absorption of excessive light energy. A high-performance and economical procedure of isolation and purification of diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin from the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum using a four-step procedure has been developed. It is based on the use of commonly available materials and does not require advanced technology. Extraction of pigments, saponification, separation by partition and then open column chromatography, which comprise the complete experimental procedure, can be performed within 2 days...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
Taylor Sehein, Mindy L Richlen, Satoshi Nagai, Motoshige Yasuike, Yoji Nakamura, Donald M Anderson
Alexandrium fundyense is the toxic marine dinoflagellate responsible for "red tide" events in temperate and sub-arctic waters worldwide. In the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and Bay of Fundy in the Northwest Atlantic, blooms of A. fundyense recur annually, and are associated with major health and ecosystem impacts. In this region, microsatellite markers have been used to investigate genetic structure and gene flow; however, the loci currently available for this species were isolated from populations from Japan and the North Sea, and only a subset are suitable for the analysis of A...
June 2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Min Xu, Shingo Sakamoto, Teruhisa Komatsu
Sargassum horneri is one of the most important contributors to the rafts of floating seaweed in the waters off the coasts of northeastern Asia. These rafts serve as spawning and nursery grounds for many marine organisms, including Japanese saury and yellowtail. Thus, the details of the attachment/detachment mechanisms of S. horneri are of commercial significance for the aquaculture industry. Here, we describe variations in the attachment strength of S. horneri as it relates to its developmental stage and depth along a bottom gradient...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Paul Bikker, Marinus M van Krimpen, Piet van Wikselaar, Bwee Houweling-Tan, Nazareno Scaccia, Jaap W van Hal, Wouter J J Huijgen, John W Cone, Ana M López-Contreras
The growing world population demands an increase in animal protein production. Seaweed may be a valuable source of protein for animal feed. However, a biorefinery approach aimed at cascading valorisation of both protein and non-protein seaweed constituents is required to realise an economically feasible value chain. In this study, such a biorefinery approach is presented for the green seaweed Ulva lactuca containing 225 g protein (N × 4.6) kg(-1) dry matter (DM). The sugars in the biomass were solubilised by hot water treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and centrifugation resulting in a sugar-rich hydrolysate (38...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Philip D Kerrison, Hau Nhu Le, Gail C Twigg, Duncan R Smallman, Rory MacPhee, Fiona A B Houston, Adam D Hughes
The effect of a range of chemical disinfectants at different concentration and exposure times was investigated on five macroalgal species and the marine gastropod Littorina spp. Palmaria palmata, Osmundea pinnatifida and Ulva lactuca are commercially valuable and are often cultivated in tanks for food or feed. Ectocarpus siliculosus and Ulva intestinalis are common epiphytes of P. palmata and O. pinnatifida cultures, whilst Littorina spp. are common herbivorous epibionts within U. lactuca culture tanks. These contaminants reduce the productivity and quality of the culture as a food...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Philip Kenny, Kevin J Flynn
Various innovative photobioreactor designs have been proposed to increase production of algae-derived biomass. Computer models are often employed to test these designs prior to construction. In the drive to optimise conversion of light energy to biomass, efforts to model the profile of irradiance levels within a microalgal culture can lead to highly complex descriptions which are computationally demanding. However, there is a risk that this effort is wasted if such optic models are coupled to overly simplified descriptions of algal physiology...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Giulia Benvenuti, Rouke Bosma, Fang Ji, Packo Lamers, Maria J Barbosa, René H Wijffels
Microalgal triglycerides (TAGs) represent a sustainable feedstock for food, chemical and biofuel industries. The operational strategy (batch, semi-continuous, continuous cultivations) has an impact on the TAG productivity. In this study, semi-continuous (i.e. with fixed harvesting frequency) and batch cultivations were compared on TAG production both at lab-scale and in outdoor cultivations. At lab-scale, the semi-continuous TAG productivity was highest for a cycle time of 2 days (SC1; 0.21 g L(-1) day(-1)) and similar to the maximum obtained with the batch (optimal harvest time; 0...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Martin Sterner, Ulrica Edlund
A fractionation strategy for Saccharina latissima algal biomass was developed utilizing chelating extraction salt solutions to mediate the liberation of algal components. Alginate, cellulose, laminarin, mannitol, protein, and inorganic salts were quantified in the fractions to reveal their individual dissolution patterns. Chelation power was identified as a key parameter for liberating alginate and increasing the yield of extracted components. The most efficient fractionation was achieved using aqueous sodium citrate as the extraction solution, producing an alginate-rich soluble fraction and a salt-poor insoluble fraction rich in cellulose and protein...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
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