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Journal of Applied Phycology

Taylor Sehein, Mindy L Richlen, Satoshi Nagai, Motoshige Yasuike, Yoji Nakamura, Donald M Anderson
Alexandrium fundyense is the toxic marine dinoflagellate responsible for "red tide" events in temperate and sub-arctic waters worldwide. In the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and Bay of Fundy in the Northwest Atlantic, blooms of A. fundyense recur annually, and are associated with major health and ecosystem impacts. In this region, microsatellite markers have been used to investigate genetic structure and gene flow; however, the loci currently available for this species were isolated from populations from Japan and the North Sea, and only a subset are suitable for the analysis of A...
June 2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Martin Sterner, Ulrica Edlund
A fractionation strategy for Saccharina latissima algal biomass was developed utilizing chelating extraction salt solutions to mediate the liberation of algal components. Alginate, cellulose, laminarin, mannitol, protein, and inorganic salts were quantified in the fractions to reveal their individual dissolution patterns. Chelation power was identified as a key parameter for liberating alginate and increasing the yield of extracted components. The most efficient fractionation was achieved using aqueous sodium citrate as the extraction solution, producing an alginate-rich soluble fraction and a salt-poor insoluble fraction rich in cellulose and protein...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Patricio Lopez-Exposito, Angeles Blanco Suarez, Carlos Negro
A novel method to estimate the concentration of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii biomass was developed. The method employs the chord length distribution information gathered by means of a focused beam reflectance probe immersed in the culture sample and processes the data through a feedforward multilayer perceptron. The multilayer perceptron architecture was systematically optimised through the application of a simulated annealing algorithm. The method developed can predict the concentration of microalgae with acceptable accuracy and, with further development, it could be implemented online to monitor the aggregation status and biomass concentration of microalgal cultures...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Bożena Wojtasiewicz, Joanna Stoń-Egiert
The optical properties, i.e., absorption and scattering spectra of ten strains of cyanobacteria from the Baltic Sea and Pomeranian lakes (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae KAC 15, Microcystis aeruginosa CCNP 1101, Anabaena sp. CCNP 1406, Synechocystis salina CCNP 1104, Phormidium sp. CCNP 1317, Nodularia spumigena CCNP 1401, Synechococcus sp. CCNP 1108, Nostoc sp. CCNP 1411, Cyanobacterium sp. CCNP 1105, Pseudanabaena cf. galeata CCNP 1312) grown under low light conditions were investigated. Moreover, the chlorophylls, carotenoids, and phycobilin composition as well as the size structure of chosen cyanobacteria were measured...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Kari Skjånes, Uno Andersen, Thorsten Heidorn, Stig A Borgvang
Several species of microalgae and phototrophic bacteria are able to produce hydrogen under certain conditions. A range of different photobioreactor systems have been used by different research groups for lab-scale hydrogen production experiments, and some few attempts have been made to upscale the hydrogen production process. Even though a photobioreactor system for hydrogen production does require special construction properties (e.g., hydrogen tight, mixing by other means than bubbling with air), only very few attempts have been made to design photobioreactors specifically for the purpose of hydrogen production...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Martina Strittmatter, Tiago Guerra, Joana Silva, Claire M M Gachon
The blastocladialean fungus Paraphysoderma sedebokerense Boussiba, Zarka and James is a devastating pathogen of the commercially valuable green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis, a natural source of the carotenoid pigment astaxanthin. First identified in commercial Haematococcus cultivation facilities, P. sedebokerense is hypothesised to have a complex life cycle that switches between a vegetative and a resting phase depending on favourable or unfavourable growth conditions. Rather unusually for blastocladialean fungi, P...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Peter R Mooij, Lisanne D de Jongh, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Robbert Kleerebezem
Microalgae have the potential to supply a biobased society with essential feedstocks like sugar and lipids. Besides being productive, strains used for this purpose should grow fast, be resistant to predators, and have good harvestability properties. Diatoms, a class of siliceous algae, have these and other preferred characteristics. In this paper, we describe the enrichment of microalgae in sequencing batch reactors with and without supply of silicate. Both reactors were operated with a light-dark cycle. To maximize storage compound production, carbon fixation and nitrogen uptake were uncoupled by limiting the availability of nitrate to the dark phase...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Emily T Kostas, Daniel A White, Chenyu Du, David J Cook
Macroalgae (seaweeds) are a promising feedstock for the production of third generation bioethanol, since they have high carbohydrate contents, contain little or no lignin and are available in abundance. However, seaweeds typically contain a more diverse array of monomeric sugars than are commonly present in feedstocks derived from lignocellulosic material which are currently used for bioethanol production. Hence, identification of a suitable fermentative microorganism that can utilise the principal sugars released from the hydrolysis of macroalgae remains a major objective...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Peter Ian Chater, Mathew Wilcox, Paul Cherry, Andrew Herford, Suraiami Mustar, Hannah Wheater, Iain Brownlee, Chris Seal, Jeffrey Pearson
The effect of three Hebridean brown seaweeds on lipase activity was assessed using a turbidimetric lipase activity assay and an in vitro simulation of the upper digestive tract. The preparations of Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus, and Pelvetia canaliculata were tested; whole seaweed homogenate, sodium carbonate extract, and ethanol extracts (pellet and supernatant were tested separately). All extracts showed significant inhibition of lipase, suggesting multiple bioactive agents, potentially including alginates, fucoidans, and polyphenols...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Jesus Garcia-Gonzalez, Milton Sommerfeld
Microalgae represent a potential sustainable alternative for the enhancement and protection of agricultural crops. Cellular extracts and dry biomass of the green alga Acutodesmus dimorphus were applied as a seed primer, foliar spray, and biofertilizer, to evaluate seed germination, plant growth, and fruit production in Roma tomato plants. A. dimorphus culture, culture growth medium, and different concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 %) of aqueous cell extracts in distilled water were used as seed primers to determine effects on germination...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Richard A Ingebrigtsen, Espen Hansen, Jeanette Hammer Andersen, Hans Christian Eilertsen
Isolates of five pelagic North Atlantic marine diatoms (Bacillariophyceae): Attheya longicornis, Chaetoceros socialis, Chaetoceros furcellatus, Skeletonema marinoi and Porosira glacialis were cultivated in large photobioreactors at two light and two temperature regimes to test if this affected bioactivity. We screened for bioactivity in assays representing five different therapeutic areas: diabetes II (PTP1b), cancer (melanoma cells, A2058), anti-oxidants (FRAP), immunomodulation (TNFa) and anti-infection (MRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa)...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Krzysztof Grabski, Natalia Baranowski, Joanna Skórko-Glonek, Zbigniew Tukaj
Although the appearance of coloured chlorophyll degradation products of higher plants is well known, knowledge about such compounds produced and released particularly by planktonic algae is still limited. Colourless conditioned media (CM) obtained from autotrophic cultures of unicellular green alga Desmosdemus subspicatus turn red after acidification. The accumulation of red pigments in the medium and the growth rate of algae were inversely correlated. The red, crude solution isolated from CM by dialysis and ion exchange chromatography, and next purified by means of high-performance liquid chromatography, appeared to be a mixture of three compounds with characteristic UV/VIS absorption maxima near 330 and 505 nm...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
John J Cullen, Hugh L MacIntyre
Discharge standards for ballast water treatment (BWT) systems are based on concentrations of living cells, for example, as determined with vital stains. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) stops the reproduction of microorganisms without killing them outright; they are living, but not viable, and ecologically as good as dead. Consequently, UV-treated discharge can be compliant with the intent of regulation while failing a live/dead test. An alternative evaluation of BWT can be proposed based on the assessment of viable, rather than living, cells in discharge water...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Michiel H A Michels, Atze Jan van der Goot, Marian H Vermuë, René H Wijffels
The tolerance to shear stress of Tetraselmis suecica, Isochrysis galbana, Skeletonema costatum, and Chaetoceros muelleri was determined in shear cylinders. The shear tolerance of the microalgae species strongly depends on the strain. I. galbana, S. costatum, and C. muelleri exposed to shear stress between 1.2 and 5.4 Pa resulted in severe cell damage. T. suecica is not sensitive to stresses up to 80 Pa. The possibility to grow these algae in a tubular photobioreactor (PBR) using a centrifugal pump for recirculation of the algae suspension was studied...
2016: Journal of Applied Phycology
Masakazu Toyoshima, Shimpei Aikawa, Takahiro Yamagishi, Akihiko Kondo, Hiroshi Kawai
Microalgae are considered to be efficient bio-resources for biofuels and bio-based chemicals because they generally have high productivity. The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis has been widely used for food, feed, and nutrient supplements and is usually cultivated in open ponds. In order to extend the surface area for growing this alga, we designed a pilot-scale floating closed culture system for cultivating A. platensis on open water and compared the growth and quality of the alga harvested at both subtropical and temperate regions...
2015: Journal of Applied Phycology
D Wite, S W Mattner, I J Porter, T Arioli
A sand solution technique demonstrated the capacity for a commercial seaweed extract from Durvillaea potatorum and Ascophyllum nodosum (Seasol Commercial®) to significantly suppress infection of broccoli by Plasmodiophora brassicae. In the primary stages of infection, the extract reduced the number of plasmodia formed in the root hairs by 55 %. Later, in the secondary stages of infection, the extract reduced plasmodia in the root cortical cells by up to 84 %. The suppression of infection was found to be independent of the dilution of the extract applied (1:25 and 1:500)...
2015: Journal of Applied Phycology
Tony Arioli, Scott W Mattner, Pia C Winberg
A rapidly growing world population has highlighted the need to significantly increase food production in the context of a world with accelerating soil and water shortages as well as climatic stressors. This situation has generated new interest in the application of liquid seaweed extracts because of their potent plant growth-enhancing properties through metabolic benefits, triggering disease response pathways and increasing stress tolerance. The basis for these benefits is complex and poorly understood. Liquid seaweed extracts are complex and have been demonstrated to possess novel mechanisms for increasing crop productivity...
2015: Journal of Applied Phycology
Katariina Natunen, Jukka Seppälä, Dagmar Schwenk, Heiko Rischer, Kristian Spilling, Timo Tamminen
Nile Red (NR) staining potentially offers a simple method for monitoring lipid accumulation in microalgal cultivation. However, variable staining efficiencies and methods have been reported. The effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG) and glycerol on NR penetration with four different phytoplankton species representing different taxonomical groups was studied. Treatment with the solvents enhanced the NR fluorescence of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum during kinetic fluorescence measurements, but high concentrations of solvents were needed...
2015: Journal of Applied Phycology
Matilde Skogen Chauton, Lotte M B Skolem, Lasse Mork Olsen, Per Erik Vullum, John Walmsley, Olav Vadstein
Diatoms are an ecologically successful group within the phytoplankton, and their special feature is a biofabricated silica cell encasement called a frustule. These frustules attract interest in material technology, and one potential application is to use them in solar cell technology. The silica frustule with its nanoscaled pattern is interesting per se, but the utility is enhanced if we succeed in incorporating other elements. Titanium is an interesting element because its oxide is a semi-conductor with a high band gap...
2015: Journal of Applied Phycology
Thea Coward, Jonathan G M Lee, Gary S Caldwell
The effect of bubble size and rise velocity on the efficiency of a foam flotation microalgae harvesting unit was determined. Three sparger and input airflow combinations were used: (1) limewood sparger with constant airflow, (2) ceramic flat plate sparger with constant airflow and (3) ceramic flat plate sparger with an oscillating airflow. The ceramic sparger with oscillating flow generated the smallest bubbles within the liquid pool and the largest bubbles within the foam phase. This delivered the highest levels of biomass recovery due to enhanced bubble-algae collision and attachment efficiencies...
2015: Journal of Applied Phycology
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