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World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology

Veronica da Silva Ferreira, Celso Sant'Anna
Chlorophyll is a commercially important natural green pigment responsible for the absorption of light energy and its conversion into chemical energy via photosynthesis in plants and algae. This bioactive compound is widely used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. Chlorophyll has been consumed for health benefits as a nutraceutical agent with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and antimicrobial properties. Microalgae are photosynthesizing microorganisms which can be extracted for several high-value bioproducts in the biotechnology industry...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Aleksandra Radovanović, Biljana Arsić, Vladimir Radovanović, Branimir Jovančičević, Vesna Nikolić
Fifteen commercial wines produced from international and autochthonic varieties of Vitis vinifera L. cultivation of different Balkan winegrowing subregions were studied for their antimicrobial activity against six Gram-positive (Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria inocua, Sarcina lutea and Micrococcus flavus) and six Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus vulgaris) bacteria. The concentrations and types of phenolic compounds responsible for antibacterial activity in wines were investigated by HPLC and spectroscopic methods...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Zhen Kang, Hao Huang, Yunfeng Zhang, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen
Pichia pastoris: (reclassified as Komagataella phaffii), a methylotrophic yeast strain has been widely used for heterologous protein production because of its unique advantages, such as readily achievable high-density fermentation, tractable genetic modifications and typical eukaryotic post-translational modifications. More recently, P. pastoris as a metabolic pathway engineering platform has also gained much attention. In this mini-review, we addressed recent advances of molecular toolboxes, including synthetic promoters, signal peptides, and genome engineering tools that established for P...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Yumin Liu, Dongxue Shi, Yan Guo, Meng Li, Yonghong Zha, Quankai Wang, Jianfeng Wang
α-Toxin, a pore-forming toxin secreted by most Staphylococcus aureus, plays critical role in the pathogenesis associated with various infectious diseases. The USA300 which is a major international epidemic methicilin-resisrant S. aureus has spread rapidly to multiple countries and become an emerging public health concern. In this study, the in vitro efficacy of Dracorhodin Perochlorate (DP) against USA300 virulence was evaluated. Using susceptibility testing, immunoblots, rabbit blood haemolytic assay and real-time RT-PCR, we observed that the α-toxin production was decreased when USA300 was co-cultured with different sub-inhibitory concentration of DP...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Martha Lydia Macías-Rubalcava, Rosa Elvira Sánchez-Fernández
Fungal endophytes are important sources of bioactive secondary metabolites. The genus Xylaria Hill (ex Schrank, 1789, Xylariaceae) comprises various endophytic species associated to both vascular and non vascular plants. The secondary metabolites produced by Xylaria species include a variety of volatile and non-volatile compounds. Examples of the former are sesquiterpenoids, esters, and alcohols, among others; and of the latter we find terpenoids, cytochalasins, mellein, alkaloids, polyketides, and aromatic compounds...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Fei Ren, Long Chen, Qunyi Tong
Atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) was first employed to generate mutants of Actinomyces JN537 for improving acarbose production. To obtain higher acarbose producing strains, the method of screening the strains for susceptibility to penicillin was used after treatment with ARTP. The rationale for the strategy was that mutants showing penicillin susceptibility were likely to be high acarbose producers, as their ability to synthesize cell walls was weak which might enhance metabolic flux to the pathway of acarbose biosynthesis...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Justyna Bohacz
This paper assesses the ability of strains of Aphanoascus fulvescens and Chrysosporium articulatum isolated from soil (phaesol) to degrade native feather keratin. Strains were identified based on phenotypic traits and nucleotide sequencing. Response Surface Methodology was used to optimize cultivation conditions exhibiting the highest keratinolytic activity. The experiments were based on Box-Behnken designs for the loss of substrate mass (chicken feathers). While substrate mass loss is an "economic coefficient" that reliably indicates feather keratin degradation, it has not been studied before...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Yuan Ping, Dongxue Han, Ning Wang, Yanbo Hu, Liqiang Mu, Fujuan Feng
Changbai Mountain, with intact montane vertical vegetation belts, is located at a sensitive area of global climate change and a central distribution area of Korean pine forest. Broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest (Pinus koraiensis as an edificator) is the most representative zonal climax vegetation in the humid region of northeastern China; their vertical zonation is the most intact and representative on Changbai Mountain. In this study, we analyzed the composition and diversity of soil fungal communities in the Korean pine forest on Changbai Mountain at elevations ranging from 699 to 1177 m using Illumina High-throughput sequencing...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Jun Liu, Jun Li, Yaqiang Tao, Balasubramanian Sellamuthu, Ryan Walsh
Mature granules and flocs from aerobic sludge were collected from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) treating both municipal and industrial effluents in Haining city China. This plant has been operating under conditions favoring aerobic granular sludge formation, for over 3 years, suggesting that the granules, which stably retained under changing effluent conditions, may contain unique microbial populations. Microbial analysis indicated that the granular sludge was primarily composed of Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes from the bacterial phyla...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Shui Liu, Bowen Liu, Zhao-Qing Luo, Jiaming Qiu, Xuan Zhou, Gen Li, Bing Zhang, Xuming Deng, Zhenguo Yang, Jianfeng Wang
We reported the inhibition of α-Hemolysin (Hla) production in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 by osthole and further investigated the combination of osthole and baicalin in the treatment of staphylococcal pneumonia. Using cytotoxicity assays and a mouse model of intranasal lung infection, we evaluated the effect of combined therapy. Our results suggest that the combination of osthole and baicalin alleviated S. aureus-mediated A549 cell injury and protected mice from S. aureus pneumonia.
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Yen T Nguyen, Hoa T Q Kieu, Stephanie West, Yen T Dang, Harald Horn
This study evaluated the capacity to remove lead by an indigenous consortium of five sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB): Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, Desulfomicrobium salsugmis, Desulfomicrobium escambiense, Desulfovibrio vulgaris, and Desulfovibrio carbinolicus, using continuous moving bed biofilm reactor systems. Four continuous moving bed biofilm reactors (referred as R1-R4) were run in parallel for 40 days at lead loading rates of 0, 20, 30 and 40 mg l(-1) day(-1), respectively. The impact of lead on community structure of the SRB consortium was investigated by dsrB gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dsrB-based DGGE), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and chemical analysis...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Chunsheng Qiu, Puyu Shi, Shumin Xiao, Liping Sun
Biohydrogen is considered as one of the most promising energy alternatives considering the climate and energy crisis. The dark fermentative hydrogen production from xylose at extreme thermophilic condition (70 °C) using mixed culture was conducted in this study. The effects of initial pH values (ranged from 5.0 to 10.0) and substrate concentrations (ranged from 2.5 to 15.0 g/L) on the hydrogen production, substrate degradation and metabolite distributions were investigated using batch-mode operations. Results showed that initial substrate pH values in the neutral region (6...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Ludmila Martínková, Lenka Rucká, Jan Nešvera, Miroslav Pátek
The aim of this study is to review the current state of and highlight the challenges in the production of microbial nitrilases as catalysts for the mild hydrolysis of industrially important nitriles. Together with aldoxime dehydratase, the nitrile-hydrolyzing enzymes (nitrilase, nitrile hydratase) are key enzymes in the aldoxime-nitrile pathway which is widely distributed in bacteria and fungi. The availability of nitrilases has grown significantly over the past decade due to the use of metagenomic and database-mining approaches...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Pratishtha Gupta, Vipin Kumar
The presence of heavy metals in the soil is a matter of growing concern due to their toxic and non-biodegradable nature. Lack of effectiveness of various conventional methods due to economic and technical constraints resulted in the search for an eco-friendly and cost-effective biological techniques for heavy metal removal from the environment. Until now, phytoremediation has emerged as an innovative technique to address the problem. However, the efficiency of phytoremediation process is hindered under the high metal concentration conditions...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Jun Yan, WenFeng Chen, XiaoZeng Han, EnTao Wang, WenXiu Zou, ZhiMing Zhang
The influences of five different fertilizer treatments on diversity of rhizobia in soybean nodule were investigated in a long-term experiment with with four replicates: (1) control (without fertilization), (2) balanced NPK fertilizer (NPK), and (3-5) unbalanced chemical fertilizers without one of the major elements (NP, PK, and NK) in Mollisol in Northeast China. The highest soybean yield was observed in the NPK treatment. Total of 200 isolates were isolated and grouped into four Bradyrhizobium genospecies corresponding to B...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Elaine Chin Jinfeng, Mohamed Ikhtifar Mohamad Rafi, Khoo Chai Hoon, Ho Kok Lian, Cheah Yoke Kqueen
Plants are primary source of natural product drugs. However, with every new bioactive molecule reported from a plant source, there follows reports of endangered status or even extinction of a medicinally important plant due to over-harvesting. Hence, the attention turned towards fungi namely the endophytes, which reside within medicinally important plants and thus may have acquired their medicinal properties. Strobilanthes crispus is a traditional medicinal plant which has been used traditionally to treat kidney stones, diabetes, hypertension and cancer as well as having antimicrobial activities...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Amjad Hayat Khan, Hadi Bayat, Masoumeh Rajabibazl, Suriana Sabri, Azam Rahimpour
Glycosylation represents the most widespread posttranslational modifications, found in a broad spectrum of natural and therapeutic recombinant proteins. It highly affects bioactivity, site-specificity, stability, solubility, immunogenicity, and serum half-life of glycoproteins. Numerous expression hosts including yeasts, insect cells, transgenic plants, and mammalian cells have been explored for synthesizing therapeutic glycoproteins. However, glycosylation profile of eukaryotic expression systems differs from human...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Ehsan Mahdinia, Ali Demirci, Aydin Berenjian
Menaquinone-7, a highly valuable member of the vitamin K series, has significant effects on preventing osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease besides its positive effects on blood coagulation. In this review, chemical and biological aspects of menaquinone-7 are briefly summarized followed by a critical review on upstream and downstream processing developments for its production and recovery, including solid versus liquid fermentations, static versus agitated fermentations and online versus post-production recovery...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Limin Fan, Kamira Barry, Gengdong Hu, Shunlong Meng, Chao Song, Liping Qiu, Yao Zheng, Wei Wu, Jianhong Qu, Jiazhang Chen, Pao Xu
Bacterial community compositions in the surface sediment of tilapia ponds and their responses to pond characteristics or seasonal variations were investigated. For that, three ponds with different stocking densities were selected to collect the samples. And the method of Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used to amplify the bacterial 16S rRNA genes. A total of 662, 876 valid reads and 5649 operational taxonomic units were obtained. Further analysis showed that the dominant phyla in all three ponds were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Tjitske Sijbrandij, Antoon J Ligtenberg, Kamran Nazmi, Enno C I Veerman, Jan G M Bolscher, Floris J Bikker
Lactoferrin (LF) is an important immune protein in neutrophils and secretory fluids of mammals. Bovine LF (bLF) harbours two antimicrobial stretches, lactoferricin and lactoferampin, situated in close proximity in the N1 domain. To mimic these antimicrobial domain parts a chimeric peptide (LFchimera) has been constructed comprising parts of both stretches (LFcin17-30 and LFampin265-284). To investigate the potency of this construct to combat a set of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria which are regarded as simulants for biological warfare agents, the effect on bacterial killing, membrane permeability and membrane polarity were determined in comparison to the constituent peptides and the native bLF...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
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