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World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology

He Xuewen, Ouyang Ping, Yuan Zhongwei, Yin Zhongqiong, Fu Hualin, Lin Juchun, He Changliang, Shu Gang, Yuan Zhixiang, Song Xu, Zou Yuanfeng, Li Lixia, Yin Lizi
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common pathogenic bacterium that causes various diseases in both humans and animals. With the increased prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, the therapeutic effects of commonly used antibiotics are limited against S. aureus infection. Novel treatment strategies and new antibiotics are needed urgently to address this concern. Many studies have shown that virulence factors secreted from S. aureus play vital roles in their pathogenic processes. Alpha-hemolysin (Hla), an important exotoxin in S...
April 18, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Ana L Sosa, Laura C Rosso, Fabricio A Salusso, Miriam G Etcheverry, María A Passone
The plant-parasitic nematode Nacobbus aberrans is an endoparasite causing severe losses to a wide range of crops from North to South America. The use of native antagonistic fungi may be considered as a possible biological control alternative to reduce the damages caused by this species. Antagonistic effects of 66 potential nematophagous fungi against eggs (J1) and second-stage juveniles (J2) of N. aberrans, were evaluated in vitro on water agar. DGC test showed significant differences (p < 0.0001) in the efficacy of some fungal isolates tested, with parasitism levels for J1 and J2 of 0-95 and 1-78%, respectively...
April 17, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Nadin Shagaghi, Enzo A Palombo, Andrew H A Clayton, Mrinal Bhave
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been established over millennia as powerful components of the innate immune system of many organisms. Due to their broad spectrum of activity and the development of host resistance against them being unlikely, AMPs are strong candidates for controlling drug-resistant pathogenic microbial pathogens. AMPs cause cell death through several independent or cooperative mechanisms involving membrane lysis, non-lytic activity, and/or intracellular mechanisms. Biochemical determinants such as peptide length, primary sequence, charge, secondary structure, hydrophobicity, amphipathicity and host cell membrane composition together influence the biological activities of peptides...
April 12, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Aline Zago de Grandi, Uelinton Manoel Pinto, Maria Teresa Destro
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium commonly associated with foodborne diseases. Due its ability to survive under adverse environmental conditions and to form biofilm, this bacterium is a major concern for the food industry, since it can compromise sanitation procedures and increase the risk of post-processing contamination. Little is known about the interaction between L. monocytogenes and Gram-negative bacteria on biofilm formation. Thus, in order to evaluate this interaction, Escherichia coli and L...
April 12, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Osamu Kurita, Kaori Umetani, Yasushi Kokean, Hironori Maruyama, Toru Sago, Hiroyuki Iwamoto
Poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) was easily phosphorylated by direct addition of phosphorylating agents into the culture medium of Bacillus subtilis (natto). Tetrapolyphosphate salt was the most incorporated into PGA molecules of all used reagents. Phosphorylation occurred at the α-carboxyl side chains of PGA molecule. The amounts of bound phosphate to PGA were dependent on the amounts of added phosphorylating agent. In low molecular weight regions of less than 100 kDa, a cross-linked peak was observed in the phosphorylated PGAs, whereas their peaks at approximately 1000 kDa shifted to a higher molecular weight due to the bound phosphate...
April 6, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Sillma Rampadarath, Kushlata Bandhoa, Daneshwar Puchooa, Rajesh Jeewon, Subhasisa Bal
Mangroves are unique but endangered coastal ecosystems that play a vital role in the tropical and subtropical environments. Mauritius has two species of mangroves, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Lam. and Rhizophora mucronata Lam., growing along its coast. The mangrove rhizosphere harbours a diverse microbial community and the use of RNA-sequencing can reveal both the taxonomic composition and active biochemical functions of the complex microbial community. Metatranscriptomic study was carried out by comparing the microbial community of rhizosphere microbiomes sediments from the two mangroves species...
April 2, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Su Wang, Jing Yan Tang, Jing Ma, Xue Dong Li, Yan Hong Li
To better understand the factors that influence the distribution of bacteria associated with mosses, the communities inhabiting in five moss species from two different habitats in Beijing Songshan National Nature Reserve were investigated using the high-throughput sequencing method. The sequencing was performed based on the bacterial 16S rRNA and 16S rDNA libraries. Results showed that there are abundant bacteria inhabiting in all the mosses sampled. The taxonomic analysis of these bacteria showed that they mainly consisted of those in the phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and seldom were from phylum Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes...
March 31, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Katiúscia Kelli Montanari-Coelho, Alessandra Tenório Costa, Julio Cesar Polonio, João Lúcio Azevedo, Silvana Regina Rockenbach Marin, Renata Fuganti-Pagliarini, Yasunari Fujita, Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuo Nakashima, João Alencar Pamphile, Alexandre Lima Nepomuceno
Plant leaves (phyllosphere) have a great potential for colonization and microbial growth, consisting of a dynamic environment in which several factors can interfere with the microbial population structure. The use of genetically modified (GM) plants has introduced several traits in agriculture, such as the improvement of plant drought tolerance, as observed in the AtAREB1 transcription factor overexpression in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill). The present study aimed at investigating the taxonomic and functional profile of the leaf microbial community of bacteria found in GM (drought-tolerant event 1Ea2939) and conventional (BR 16) soybean plants...
March 29, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Xu Yang, Ahmed E Yousef
Species that are currently listed under the genus Brevibacillus (formerly, Bacillus brevis cluster) have been a rich source of antimicrobial peptides for many decades. The first known peptide antibiotic, gramicidin, is presumed to be produced by a Brevibacillus sp. Members of the genus are widely spread in nature. They can be found in a variety of environments including intestinal tracts of animals, seawater, and soil. Some Brevibacillus strains have been used commercially as probiotics. Bioactive peptides produced by Brevibacillus spp...
March 29, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Bin-Xiang Ma, Xia Ke, Xiao-Ling Tang, Ren-Chao Zheng, Yu-Guo Zheng
Ergosterol is the predominant nature sterol constituent of plasma membrane in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Herein, the biosynthetic pathway of ergosterol was proposed to be metabolically engineered for the efficient production of ergosta-5,7-dien-3β-ol, which is the precursor of vitamin D4. By target disruption of erg5, involved in the end-steps of post-squalene formation, predominantly accumulated ergosta-5,7-dien-3β-ol (4.12 mg/g dry cell weight). Moreover, the rate-limiting enzymes of ergosta-5,7-dien-3β-ol biosynthesis were characterized...
March 28, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Waqas Khan Kayani, Bushra Hafeez Kiani, Erum Dilshad, Bushra Mirza
Artemisinin and its analogues are naturally occurring most effective antimalarial secondary metabolites. These compounds also possess activity against various types of cancer cells, schistosomiasis, and some viral diseases. Artemisinin and its derivatives (A&D) are found in very low amounts in the only natural source i.e. Artemisia plant. To meet the global needs, plant sources have been exploited for the enhanced production of these natural products because their chemical synthesis is not profitable. The generally adopted approaches include non-transgenic (tissue and cell cultures) and transgenic together with the cell, tissue, and whole transgenic plant cultures...
March 27, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Jing Li, Shuwen Xue, Chunqiu He, Huixia Qi, Fulin Chen, Yanling Ma
Pseudomonas aeruginosa DN1 strain and Bacillus subtilis QHQ110 strain were chosen as rhamnolipid and lipopeptide producer respectively, to evaluate the efficiency of exogenous inoculants on enhancing oil recovery (EOR) and to explore the relationship between injected bacteria and indigenous bacterial community dynamics in long-term filed pilot of Hujianshan low permeability water-flooded reservoir for 26 months. Core-flooding tests showed that the oil displacement efficiency increased by 18.46% with addition of exogenous consortia...
March 20, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Facundo Marconi, María Laura Umpiérrez, David Gonzalez, Sonia Rodríguez Giordano, Paula Rodriguez
The biotransformation of (4R)-(-)-carvone by Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal) leaves and its endophytic bacteria was performed in order to search for novel biocatalysts with enoate reductase activity. The obtained results clearly indicated that endophytes play an important role in the biotransformation of (4R)-(-)-carvone with pennyroyal plant tissues. The best activity was associated to the endophytic bacteria Pseudomonas proteolytica FM18Mci1 and Bacillus sp. FM18civ1. Enoate reductase activity for the reduction of (4R)-(-)-carvone and (4S)-(+)-carvone as model substrates was evaluated for each strain...
March 17, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Suhailah S Al-Jameel, Tamer E Youssef
Hay synthesis of a novel series of symmetrically tetra-substituted thiophenyl zinc(II)phthalocyanines (RS)4 ZnPcs 4a-c was reported. Their novel 4-thiophenyl-phthalonitriles precursors 3(a-c) were synthesized from their substituted thiophenols 2(a-c). They were screened for their in-vitro antitumor activity on Human lung adenocarcinoma (A549), human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and hepatocellular carcinoma in comparison with healthy normal cells (human fibroblast cells). Preliminary study of the structure-activity relationship showed that electronic factors in the trifluoromethyl moiety that attached to the ZnPc skeleton had a magnificent effect on the antitumor activity of the newly synthesized (RS)4 ZnPcs 4a-c...
March 17, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Tomas Linder
Fungi are well known for their metabolic versatility, whether it is the degradation of complex organic substrates or the biosynthesis of intricate secondary metabolites. The vast majority of studies concerning fungal metabolic pathways for sulfur assimilation have focused on conventional sources of sulfur such as inorganic sulfur ions and sulfur-containing biomolecules. Less is known about the metabolic pathways involved in the assimilation of so-called "alternative" sulfur sources such as sulfides, sulfoxides, sulfones, sulfonates, sulfate esters and sulfamates...
March 17, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
G Vinayarani, H S Prakash
Endophytic fungi have been isolated from the healthy turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rhizomes from South India. Thirty-one endophytes were identified based on morphological and ITS-rDNA sequence analysis. The isolated endophytes were screened for antagonistic activity against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., causing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric respectively. Results revealed that only six endophytes showed > 70% suppression of test pathogens in antagonistic dual culture assays...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Christoph Stephan Schmidt, Libor Mrnka, Tomáš Frantík, Petra Lovecká, Miroslav Vosátka
Putative endophytes of Miscanthus × giganteus were isolated, and screened in the laboratory, greenhouse and field for their plant growth promoting properties in this host. Pantoea ananatis and Pseudomonas savastanoi were the predominant bacteria in leaves whereas other pseudomonads prevailed in roots. Almost all fungal endophytes belonged to the Pezizomycotina and most were isolated from roots; Fusarium oxysporum was most abundant, followed by the genera Periconia, Exophiala, Microdochium and Leptodontidium...
March 13, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Peng Zhang, Xing Hu
Urea is an important precursor of the harmful carcinogenic product ethyl carbamate in fermented wines. To decipher more fully the contributions of three arginine permeases, Can1p, Gap1p and Alp1p in urea formation, various engineered strains were examined for their ability to form urea. This included seven mutants with different combinations of permease deficiency and grown in both simple and more complex media, and the wild-type strain modified to overexpress the three arginine permeases. A truncated GATA transcription factor, Gln3p1-653 , was also overexpressed in the arginine permease deficient mutants to determine whether the permeases have a synergistic effect on urea formation with other urea reducing modules...
March 13, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Ludmila Vilela Resende, Leticia Kleinhans Pinheiro, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedroso Miguel, Cíntia Lacerda Ramos, Danielle Marques Vilela, Rosane Freitas Schwan
The microbial community of artisanal corn fermentation called Chicha were isolated, purified and then identified using protein profile by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and confirmed by partial ribosomal gene sequencing. Samples from Chicha beverage were chemically characterized by gas and liquid chromatography (HPLC and GC-MS). Aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB) (35.8% of total of isolated microorganisms), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (21.6%) and yeast (42...
March 8, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Manju Ohri, Smriti Parashar, Venkatesh S Pai, Sujata Ghosh, Anuradha Chakraborti
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae, is an opportunistic pathogen causing a wide range of infections like pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis in newborn, pregnant women and adults. While this bacterium has adapted well to asymptomatic colonization of adult humans, it still remains a potentially devastating pathogen to susceptible infants. Advances in molecular techniques and refinement of in vitro and in vivo model systems have elucidated key elements of the pathogenic process, from initial attachment to the maternal vaginal epithelium to penetration of the newborn blood-brain barrier...
March 8, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
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