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World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341909/metagenomic-analyses-of-bacterial-endophytes-associated-with-the-phyllosphere-of-a-bt-maize-cultivar-and-its-isogenic-parental-line-from-south-africa
#1
Ramadimetja A Mashiane, Obinna T Ezeokoli, Rasheed A Adeleke, Cornelius C Bezuidenhout
Genetic modification of maize with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cry proteins may predispose shifts in the bacterial endophytes' community associated with maize shoots. In this study, the diversity of bacterial endophytes associated with a Bt maize genotype (Mon810) and its isogenic non-transgenic parental line were investigated at pre-flowering (50 days) and post-flowering (90 days) developmental stages. PCR-DGGE and high throughput sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq sequencer were used to characterize bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity in leaves, stems, seeds and tassels...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341908/lactic-acid-production-from-submerged-fermentation-of-broken-rice-using-undefined-mixed-culture
#2
Luiza Varela Nunes, Fabiane Fernanda de Barros Correa, Pedro de Oliva Neto, Cassia Roberta Malacrida Mayer, Bruna Escaramboni, Tania Sila Campioni, Natan Roberto de Barros, Rondinelli Donizetti Herculano, Eutimio Gustavo Fernández Núñez
The present work aimed to characterize and optimize the submerged fermentation of broken rice for lactic acid (LA) production using undefined mixed culture from dewatered activated sludge. A microorganism with amylolytic activity, which also produces LA, Lactobacillus amylovorus, was used as a control to assess the extent of mixed culture on LA yield. Three level full factorial designs were performed to optimize and define the influence of fermentation temperature (20-50 °C), gelatinization time (30-60 min) and broken rice concentration in culture medium (40-80 g L(-1)) on LA production in pure and undefined mixed culture...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341907/utilization-of-inulin-containing-waste-in-industrial-fermentations-to-produce-biofuels-and-bio-based-chemicals
#3
REVIEW
Stephen R Hughes, Nasib Qureshi, Juan Carlos López-Núñez, Marjorie A Jones, Joshua M Jarodsky, Luz Ángela Galindo-Leva, Mitchell R Lindquist
Inulins are polysaccharides that belong to an important class of carbohydrates known as fructans and are used by many plants as a means of storing energy. Inulins contain 20 to several thousand fructose units joined by β-2,1 glycosidic bonds, typically with a terminal glucose unit. Plants with high concentrations of inulin include: agave, asparagus, coffee, chicory, dahlia, dandelion, garlic, globe artichoke, Jerusalem artichoke, jicama, onion, wild yam, and yacón. To utilize inulin as its carbon and energy source directly, a microorganism requires an extracellular inulinase to hydrolyze the glycosidic bonds to release fermentable monosaccharides...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341906/south-brazilian-wines-culturable-yeasts-associated-to-bottled-wines-produced-in-rio-grande-do-sul-and-santa-catarina
#4
Mauricio Ramírez-Castrillón, Sandra Denise Camargo Mendes, Patricia Valente
A comprehensive understanding of the presence and role of yeasts in bottled wines helps to know and control the organoleptic quality of the final product. The South Region of Brazil is an important wine producer, and the state of "Rio Grande do Sul" (RS) accounts for 90% of Brazilian wines. The state of "Santa Catarina" (SC) started the production in 1975, and is currently the fifth Brazilian producer. As there is little information about yeasts present in Brazilian wines, our main objective was to assess the composition of culturable yeasts associated to bottled wines produced in RS and SC, South of Brazil...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337710/high-efficient-n-butanol-production-by-co-culturing-clostridium-acetobutylicum-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-integrated-with-butyrate-fermentative-supernatant-addition
#5
Hongzhen Luo, Qingwei Zeng, Shuo Han, Zhaoyu Wang, Qing Dong, Yanhong Bi, Yuping Zhao
Butanol is not only an important chemical intermediate and solvent in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries, but also considered as an advanced biofuel. Although species of the natural host Clostridium have been engineered, butanol titers in the anaerobe seem to be limited by its intolerance to butanol less than 13 g/L. Here we aimed to develop a technology for enhancing butanol production by a co-culture system with butyrate fermentative supernatant addition. First, when adding 4.0 g/L butyrate into the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation broth with single-shot at 24 h, the "acid crash" phenomenon occurred and the ABE fermentation performance deteriorated...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315258/mechanisms-of-iron-sensing-and-regulation-in-the-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#6
REVIEW
María Teresa Martínez-Pastor, Ana Perea-García, Sergi Puig
Iron is a redox active element that functions as an essential cofactor in multiple metabolic pathways, including respiration, DNA synthesis and translation. While indispensable for eukaryotic life, excess iron can lead to oxidative damage of macromolecules. Therefore, living organisms have developed sophisticated strategies to optimally regulate iron acquisition, storage and utilization in response to fluctuations in environmental iron bioavailability. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transcription factors Aft1/Aft2 and Yap5 regulate iron metabolism in response to low and high iron levels, respectively...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303457/lipid-metabolism-and-potentials-of-biofuel-and-high-added-value-oil-production-in-red-algae
#7
REVIEW
Naoki Sato, Takashi Moriyama, Natsumi Mori, Masakazu Toyoshima
Biomass production is currently explored in microalgae, macroalgae and land plants. Microalgal biofuel development has been performed mostly in green algae. In the Japanese tradition, macrophytic red algae such as Pyropia yezoensis and Gelidium crinale have been utilized as food and industrial materials. Researches on the utilization of unicellular red microalgae such as Cyanidioschyzon merolae and Porphyridium purpureum started only quite recently. Red algae have relatively large plastid genomes harboring more than 200 protein-coding genes that support the biosynthetic capacity of the plastid...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299556/antifungal-peptidic-compound-from-the-deep-sea-bacterium-aneurinibacillus-sp-yr247
#8
Atsushi Kurata, Yuto Yamaura, Takumi Tanaka, Chiaki Kato, Kaoru Nakasone, Noriaki Kishimoto
Aneurinibacillus: sp. YR247 was newly isolated from the deep-sea sediment inside the Calyptogena community at a depth of 1171 m in Sagami Bay. The strain exhibited antifungal activity against the filamentous fungus Aspergillus brasiliensis NBRC9455. A crude extract prepared from the YR247 cells by ethanol extraction exhibited broad antimicrobial activities. The antifungal compound is stable at 4-70 °C and pH 2.0-12.0. After treatment with proteinase K, the antifungal activity was not detected, indicating that the antifungal compound of strain YR247 is a peptidic compound...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299555/molecular-characterization-and-homology-modeling-of-spermidine-synthase-from-synechococcus-sp-pcc-7942
#9
Apiradee Pothipongsa, Saowarath Jantaro, Tiina A Salminen, Aran Incharoensakdi
Spermidine synthase (Spds) catalyzes the formation of spermidine by transferring the aminopropyl group from decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM) to putrescine. The Synechococcus spds gene encoding Spds was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant enzyme had a molecular mass of 33 kDa and showed optimal activity at pH 7.5, 37 °C. The enzyme had higher affinity for dcSAM (K m, 20 µM) than for putrescine (K m, 111 µM) and was highly specific towards the diamine putrescine with no activity observed towards longer chain diamines...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289929/co-encapsulation-of-amyloglucosidase-with-starch-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-as-basis-for-a-long-lasting-co2-release
#10
Pascal Humbert, Marina Vemmer, Marco Giampà, Hanna Bednarz, Karsten Niehaus, Anant V Patel
CO2 is known as a major attractant for many arthropod pests which can be exploited for pest control within novel attract-and-kill strategies. This study reports on the development of a slow-release system for CO2 based on calcium alginate beads containing granular corn starch, amyloglucosidase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our aim was to evaluate the conditions which influence the CO2 release and to clarify the biochemical reactions taking place within the beads. The amyloglucosidase was immobilized with a high encapsulation efficiency of 87% in Ca-alginate beads supplemented with corn starch and S...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285451/analysis-of-microbiota-involved-in-the-aged-natural-fermentation-of-indigo
#11
Takahiro Okamoto, Kenichi Aino, Takashi Narihiro, Hidetoshi Matsuyama, Isao Yumoto
Although the indigo reduction process is performed via natural fermentation and maintained under open-air condition, the indigo-reducing reactions continue for 6 months (on average) or longer. Identifying the mechanism underlying the maintenance of this process could lead to the development of a novel, long-lasting, unsterilized bioprocesses. To determine the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of the indigo fermentation system microbiota for more than 6 months in a reduced state in an anaerobic alkaline environment, we examined changes in the microbiota in one early-phase batch and two aged batches of indigo fermentation fluid...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271385/possible-correlation-between-levansucrase-production-and-probiotic-activity-of-bacillus-sp-isolated-from-honey-and-honey-bee
#12
Abdelhamid A Hamdy, Nouran A Elattal, Magdy A Amin, Amal E Ali, Nahla M Mansour, Ghada E A Awad, Hassan M Awad, Mona A Esawy
Five bacterial isolates from honey and bee gut were selected based on their high levansucrase activity and levan yield which were strongly positively correlated. All isolates showed good tolerance to temperature up to 70 °C, to NaCl up to 3 M and to 0.1% H2O2. They maintained over 59 and 64% survival at pH 9.0 and 2.0 respectively, but showed varying tolerance to 0.1% bile salts and pancreatic enzymes. Most isolates were susceptible to widely used antibiotics, but demonstrated diverse antimicrobial activity...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271384/hairy-root-culture-optimization-and-resveratrol-production-from-vitis-vinifera-subsp-sylvesteris
#13
Sayed Mehdi Hosseini, Bahman Bahramnejad, Hamed Douleti Baneh, Aryo Emamifar, Paul H Goodwin
Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound produced in very low levels in grapes. To achieve high yield of resveratrol in wild grape, three Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains, Ar318, ArA4 and LBA9402, were used to induce hairy roots following infection of internodes, nodes or petioles of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvesteris accessions W2 and W16, and cultivar Rasha. The effects of inoculation time, age of explants, bacterial concentration and co-cultivation times were examined on the efficiency of the production of hairy roots...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271383/global-protein-expression-profile-response-of-planktonic-aeromonas-hydrophila-exposed-to-chlortetracycline
#14
Wanxin Li, Zujie Yao, Xiangyu Zhang, Fang Huang, Wenxiong Lin, Xiangmin Lin
The antibiotics resistance phenomena of Aeromonas hydrophila has become serious economic and public health problems for the world aquaculture industry and human health care. In this study, to investigate the instinct antibiotics adaptive mechanism of this pathogen, iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation) based quantitative proteomics technologies were performed to compare the differential expression of A. hydrophila in planktonic status in response to chlortetracycline (CTC) stress and then identified total 1552 proteins including 285 altered proteins with 90 increasing and 195 decreasing abundance proteins...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260195/nature-s-combinatorial-biosynthesis-and-recently-engineered-production-of-nucleoside-antibiotics-in-streptomyces
#15
REVIEW
Shawn Chen, William A Kinney, Steven Van Lanen
Modified nucleosides produced by Streptomyces and related actinomycetes are widely used in agriculture and medicine as antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer and antiviral agents. These specialized small-molecule metabolites are biosynthesized by complex enzymatic machineries encoded within gene clusters in the genome. The past decade has witnessed a burst of reports defining the key metabolic processes involved in the biosynthesis of several distinct families of nucleoside antibiotics. Furthermore, genome sequencing of various Streptomyces species has dramatically increased over recent years...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260194/rna-seq-reveals-the-molecular-mechanism-of-trapping-and-killing-of-root-knot-nematodes-by-nematode-trapping-fungi
#16
Ramesh Pandit, Reena Patel, Namrata Patel, Vaibhav Bhatt, Chaitanya Joshi, Pawan Kumar Singh, Anju Kunjadia
Nematode-trapping fungi are well known for their inherent potential to trap and kill nematodes using specialized trapping devices. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the trapping and subsequent processes are still unclear. Therefore, in this study, we examined differential genes expression in two nematode-trapping fungi after baiting with nematode extracts. In Arthrobotrys conoides, 809 transcripts associated with diverse functions such as signal transduction, morphogenesis, stress response and peroxisomal proteins, proteases, chitinases and genes involved in the host-pathogen interaction showed differential expression with fold change (>±1...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247260/biotechnological-advances-and-perspectives-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-production
#17
REVIEW
Ning Xu, Liang Wei, Jun Liu
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a four-carbon non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed among various organisms. Since GABA has several well-known physiological functions, such as mediating neurotransmission and hypotensive activity, as well as having tranquilizer effects, it is commonly used as a bioactive compound in the food, pharmaceutical and feed industries. The major pathway of GABA biosynthesis is the irreversible decarboxylation of L-glutamate catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), which develops a safe, sustainable and environmentally friendly alternative in comparison with traditional chemical synthesis methods...
March 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243986/transcriptional-regulator-gntr-of-brucella-abortus-regulates-cytotoxicity-induces-the-secretion-of-inflammatory-cytokines-and-affects-expression-of-the-type-iv-secretion-system-and-quorum-sensing-system-in-macrophages
#18
Zhiqiang Li, Shuli Wang, Hui Zhang, Jinliang Zhang, Li Xi, Junbo Zhang, Chuangfu Chen
The pathogenic mechanisms of Brucella are still poorly understood. GntR is a transcriptional regulator and plays an important role in the intracellular survival of Brucella. To investigate whether GntR is involved in the cytotoxicity of Brucella abortus (B. abortus), we created a 2308ΔgntR mutant of B. abortus 2308 (S2308). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxicity assays using a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) show that high-dose infection with the parental strain produces a high level of cytotoxicity to macrophages, but the 2308ΔgntR mutant exhibits a very low level of cytotoxicity, indicating that mutation of GntR impairs the cytotoxicity of B...
March 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243985/efficient-synthesis-of-s-n-boc-3-hydroxypiperidine-using-an-r-specific-carbonyl-reductase-from-candida-parapsilosis
#19
Jingjing Chen, Ming Yan, Lin Xu
(S)-N-Boc-3-hydroxypiperidine (S-NBHP) is a critical chiral intermediate in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, including ibrutinib, the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the new drug Imbruvica approved for the treatment of lymphoma. An (R)-specific carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis (CprCR, also known as R-specific alcohol dehydrogenase) that catalyzes asymmetric reduction to produce (S)-N-Boc-3-hydroxypiperidine (S-NBHP) was identified for the first time. When co-expressed with a glucose dehydrogenase from Bacillus megaterium in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3), recombinant crude enzyme exhibited an activity of 9 U/mg with N-Boc-3-piperidone as the substrate and 12 U/mg with glucose as the substrate...
March 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243984/modern-technology-homogenizes-enological-traits-of-indigenous-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains-associated-with-msalais-a-traditional-wine-in-china
#20
Lixia Zhu, Julan Xue
In this study, we performed a pilot-scale evaluation of the enological characteristics of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains associated with Msalais, a traditional Chinese wine produced by a unique technology of boiling grape juice prior to spontaneous fermentation. Technical and sensory characteristics of top ten indigenous strains previously identified by us by screening a collection of 436 indigenous S. cerevisiae strains (Zhu et al. 2016) were assayed in a traditional craft workshop (TCW) and a modern plant (MP)...
March 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
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