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World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429279/improvement-of-lipid-production-by-the-oleaginous-yeast-rhodosporidium-toruloides-through-uv-mutagenesis
#1
Ryosuke Yamada, Tomomi Kashihara, Hiroyasu Ogino
Oleaginous yeasts are considered a promising alternative lipid source for biodiesel fuel production. In this study, we attempted to improve the lipid productivity of the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides through UV irradiation mutagenesis and selection based on ethanol and H2O2 tolerance or cerulenin, a fatty acid synthetase inhibitor. Glucose consumption, cell growth, and lipid production of mutants were evaluated. The transcription level of genes involved in lipid production was also evaluated in mutants...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421412/bioactive-compounds-and-antioxidant-activity-exhibit-high-intraspecific-variability-in-pleurotus-ostreatus-mushrooms-and-correlate-well-with-cultivation-performance-parameters
#2
Georgios Koutrotsios, Nick Kalogeropoulos, Pantelis Stathopoulos, Andriana C Kaliora, Georgios I Zervakis
Experimental data related with oyster mushroom production and nutritional properties usually derive from the examination of only one strain, and hence their representativeness/usefulness is questionable. This work aims at assessing intraspecific variability in Pleurotus ostreatus by studying 16 strains, under the same conditions, in respect to essential cultivation and mushroom quality aspects, and by defining the impact of intrinsic/genetic factors on such parameters. Hence, mushroom yield, earliness, crop length, biological efficiency, productivity, and their content in selected macro and microconstituents (e...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409363/advances-in-the-treatment-of-problematic-industrial-biofilms
#3
REVIEW
D Xu, R Jia, Y Li, T Gu
In nature, microorganisms tend to form biofilms that consist of extracellular polymeric substances with embedded sessile cells. Biofilms, especially mixed-culture synergistic biofilm consortia, are notoriously difficult to treat. They employ various defense mechanisms against attacks from antimicrobial agents. Problematic industrial biofilms cause biofouling as well as biocorrosion, also known as microbiologically influenced corrosion. Biocides are often used to treat biofilms together with scrubbing or pigging...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409362/the-antibacterial-agent-moxifloxacin-inhibits-virulence-factors-of-candida-albicans-through-multitargeting
#4
Ashwini Jadhav, Bhagyashree Bansode, Datta Phule, Amruta Shelar, Rajendra Patil, Wasudev Gade, Kiran Kharat, Sankunny Mohan Karuppayil
Fluoroquinolines are broad spectrum fourth generation antibiotics. Some of the Fluoroquinolines exhibit antifungal activity. We are reporting the potential mechanism of action of a fluoroquinoline antibiotic, moxifloxacin on the growth, morphogenesis and biofilm formation of the human pathogen Candida albicans. Moxifloxacin was found to be Candidacidal in nature. Moxifloxacin seems to inhibit the yeast to Hyphal morphogenesis by affecting signaling pathways. It arrested the cell cycle of C. albicans at S phase...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405911/a-new-biopesticide-from-a-local-bacillus-thuringiensis-var-tenebrionis-xd3-against-alder-leaf-beetle-coleoptera-chrysomelidae
#5
Ardahan Eski, İsmail Demir, Kazım Sezen, Zihni Demirbağ
Use of chemical pesticides in agriculture harms humans, non-target organisms and environments, and causes increase resistance against chemicals. In order to develop an effective bio-pesticide against coleopterans, particularly against Agelastica alni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) which is one of the serious pests of alder leaf and hazelnut, we tested the insecticidal effect of 21 Bacillus isolates against the larvae and adults of the pest. Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis-Xd3 (Btt-Xd3) showed the highest insecticidal effect based on screening tests...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405910/omics-analysis-of-acetic-acid-tolerance-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#6
REVIEW
Peng Geng, Liang Zhang, Gui Yang Shi
Acetic acid is an inhibitor in industrial processes such as wine making and bioethanol production from cellulosic hydrolysate. It causes energy depletion, inhibition of metabolic enzyme activity, growth arrest and ethanol productivity losses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of the yeast responses to acetic acid stress is essential for improving acetic acid tolerance and ethanol production. Although 329 genes associated with acetic acid tolerance have been identified in the Saccharomyces genome and included in the database ( http://www...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397170/the-organohalide-respiring-bacterium-sulfurospirillum-multivorans-a-natural-source-for-unusual-cobamides
#7
REVIEW
Torsten Schubert
Cobamides ('complete' corrinoids) are essential for organohalide-respiring bacteria because they act as cofactors of reductive dehalogenases (RDases). RDases are the key enzymes in organohalide respiration, a process relevant for environmental remediation. More than a decade ago, the unusual norpseudo-B12 was identified as cofactor of the tetrachloroethene RDase (PceA) purified from the epsilonproteobacterium Sulfurospirillum multivorans. Since then, the question was raised whether or not the production of the uncommon cobamide is a specific adaptation to the requirements of PceA...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391562/the-ability-of-brown-rot-fungus-daedalea-dickinsii-to-decolorize-and-transform-methylene-blue-dye
#8
Hamdan Dwi Rizqi, Adi Setyo Purnomo
The ability of Daedalea dickinsii to decolorize and transform methylene blue (MB) dye was investigated. MB was decolorized in potato dextrose agar medium after adding MB at concentrations of 50, 75, and 100 mg L(-1). D. dickinsii decolorized MB with decolorization index values of 0.92, 0.90, and 0.88 at MB concentrations of 50, 75, and 100 mg L(-1), respectively. The 100 mg L(1) MB concentration was selected for biotransformation in liquid potato dextrose broth medium. D. dickinsii transformed approximately 54% of the MB after a 14-day incubation...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391561/microbial-fuel-cell-characterisation-and-evaluation-of-lysinibacillus-macroides-mfc02-electrigenic-capability
#9
Murugan Uma Vanitha, Muthusamy Natarajan, Harikrishnamoorthy Sridhar, Sankaran Umamaheswari
Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is the most prominent research field due to its capability to generate electricity by utilizing the renewable sources. In the present study, Two MFC designs namely, H type-Microbial fuel cell (HT-MFC) and U type-Microbial fuel cell (UT-MFC) were constructed based on standardized H shaped anode and cathode compartment as well as U shaped anode and cathode compartments, respectively. In order to lower the cost for MFC construction, Pencil graphite lead was used as electrode and salt agar as Proton exchange membrane...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390015/approaches-towards-the-enhanced-production-of-rapamycin-by-streptomyces-hygroscopicus-mtcc-4003-through-mutagenesis-and-optimization-of-process-parameters-by-taguchi-orthogonal-array-methodology
#10
Subhasish Dutta, Bikram Basak, Biswanath Bhunia, Ankan Sinha, Apurba Dey
The present research was conducted to define the approaches for enhanced production of rapamycin (Rap) by Streptomyces hygroscopicus microbial type culture collection (MTCC) 4003. Both physical mutagenesis by ultraviolet ray (UV) and chemical mutagenesis by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) have been applied successfully for the improvement of Rap production. Enhancing Rap yield by novel sequential UV mutagenesis technique followed by fermentation gives a significant difference in getting economically scalable amount of this industrially important macrolide compound...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390014/three-two-one-yeast-fatty-acid-desaturases-regulation-and-function
#11
REVIEW
Rosa Santomartino, Lina Riego-Ruiz, Michele M Bianchi
Fatty acid composition of biological membranes functionally adapts to environmental conditions by changing its composition through the activity of lipid biosynthetic enzymes, including the fatty acid desaturases. Three major desaturases are present in yeasts, responsible for the generation of double bonds in position C9-C10, C12-C13 and C15-C16 of the carbon backbone. In this review, we will report data addressed to define the functional role of basidiomycete and ascomycete yeast desaturase enzymes in response to various external signals and the regulation of the expression of their corresponding genes...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390013/glyoxal-oxidases-their-nature-and-properties
#12
REVIEW
Marianne Daou, Craig B Faulds
H2O2 has been found to be required for the activity of the main microbial enzymes responsible for lignin oxidative cleavage, peroxidases. Along with other small radicals, it is implicated in the early attack of plant biomass by fungi. Among the few extracellular H2O2-generating enzymes known are the glyoxal oxidases (GLOX). GLOX is a copper-containing enzyme, sharing high similarity at the level of active site structure and chemistry with galactose oxidase. Genes encoding GLOX enzymes are widely distributed among wood-degrading fungi especially white-rot degraders, plant pathogenic and symbiotic fungi...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390012/hexavalent-chromium-bioreduction-and-chemical-precipitation-of-sulphate-as-a-treatment-of-site-specific-fly-ash-leachates
#13
Errol D Cason, Peter J Williams, Elizabeth Ojo, Julio Castillo, Mary F DeFlaun, Esta van Heerden
Most of the power generation globally is by coal-fired power plants resulting in large stockpiles of fly ash. The trace elements associated with the ash particles are subjected to the leaching effects of precipitation which may lead to the subsequent contamination of surface and groundwater systems. In this study, we successfully demonstrate an efficient and sustainable dual treatment remediation strategy for the removal of high levels of Cr(6+) and SO4(2-) introduced by fly ash leachate generated by a power station situation in Mpumalanga, South Africa...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386731/comparative-metagenomics-reveals-insights-into-the-deep-sea-adaptation-mechanism-of-the-microorganisms-in-iheya-hydrothermal-fields
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Hai-Liang Wang, Li Sun
In this study, comparative metagenomic analysis was performed to investigate the genetic profiles of the microbial communities inhabiting the sediments surrounding Iheya North and Iheya Ridge hydrothermal fields. Four samples were used, which differed in their distances from hydrothermal vents. The results showed that genes involved in cell surface structure synthesis, polyamine metabolism and homeostasis, osmoadaptation, pH and Na(+) homeostasis, and heavy-metal transport were abundant. Pathways for putrescine and spermidine synthesis and transport were identified in the four metagenomes, which possibly participate in the regulation of cytoplasmic pH...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378223/biodegradation-of-sulfamethazine-by-an-isolated-thermophile-geobacillus-sp-s-07
#15
Lan-Jia Pan, Xiao-da Tang, Chun-Xing Li, Guang-Wei Yu, Yin Wang
Sulfamethazine (SM2) is an antimicrobial drug that is frequently detected in manure compost, is difficult to degrade at high temperatures and is potentially threatening to the environment. In this study, a thermophilic bacterium was isolated from the activated sludge of an antibiotics pharmaceutical factory; this bacterium has the ability to degrade SM2 at 70 °C, which is higher than the traditional manure composting temperature. The strain S-07 is closely related to Geobacillus thermoleovorans based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378222/microbial-production-of-nattokinase-current-progress-challenge-and-prospect
#16
REVIEW
Dongbo Cai, Chengjun Zhu, Shouwen Chen
Nattokinase (EC 3.4.21.62) is a profibrinolytic serine protease with a potent fibrin-degrading activity, and it has been produced by many host strains. Compared to other fibrinolytic enzymes (urokinase, t-PA and streprokinase), nattokinase shows the advantages of having no side effects, low cost and long life-time, and it has the potential to be used as a drug for treating cardiovascular disease and served as a functional food additive. In this review, we focused on screening of producing strains, genetic engineering, fermentation process optimization for microbial nattokinase production, and the extraction and purification of nattokinase were also discussed in this particular chapter...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378221/bioresolution-of-racemic-phenyl-glycidyl-ether-by-a-putative-recombinant-epoxide-hydrolase-from-streptomyces-griseus-nbrc-13350
#17
Priya Saini, Naveen Kumar, Shadil Ibrahim Wani, Shilpi Sharma, Swapandeep Singh Chimni, Dipti Sareen
In order to produce enantiomerically pure epoxides for the synthesis of value-added chemicals, a novel putative epoxide hydrolase (EH) sgeh was cloned and overexpressed in pET28a/Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The 1047 bp sgeh gene was mined from Streptomyces griseus NBRC 13350 genome sequence. The recombinant hexahistidyl-tagged SGEH was purified (16.6-fold) by immobilized metal-affinity chromatography, with 90% yield as a homodimer of 100 kDa. The recombinant E. coli whole cells overexpressing SGEH could kinetically resolve racemic phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) into (R)-PGE with 98% ee, 40% yield, and enantiomeric ratio (E) of 20...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378220/fomitopsis-betulina-formerly-piptoporus-betulinus-the-iceman-s-polypore-fungus-with-modern-biotechnological-potential
#18
REVIEW
Małgorzata Pleszczyńska, Marta K Lemieszek, Marek Siwulski, Adrian Wiater, Wojciech Rzeski, Janusz Szczodrak
Higher Basidiomycota have been used in natural medicine throughout the world for centuries. One of such fungi is Fomitopsis betulina (formerly Piptoporus betulinus), which causes brown rot of birch wood. Annual white to brownish fruiting bodies of the species can be found on trees in the northern hemisphere but F. betulina can also be cultured as a mycelium and fruiting body. The fungus has a long tradition of being applied in folk medicine as an antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory agent. Probably due to the curative properties, pieces of its fruiting body were carried by Ötzi the Iceman...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357640/azospirillum-spp-from-native-forage-grasses-in-brazilian-pantanal-floodplain-biodiversity-and-plant-growth-promotion-potential
#19
Mayara S T Souza, Valter A de Baura, Sandra A Santos, Paulo Ivan Fernandes-Júnior, Fábio B Reis Junior, Maria Rita Marques, Gecele Matos Paggi, Marivaine da Silva Brasil
A sustainable alternative to improve yield and the nutritive value of forage is the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) that release nutrients, synthesize plant hormones and protect against phytopathogens (among other mechanisms). Azospirillum genus is considered an important PGPB, due to the beneficial effects observed when inoculated in several plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of new Azospirillum isolates and select bacteria according to the plant growth promotion ability in three forage species from the Brazilian Pantanal floodplain: Axonopus purpusii, Hymenachne amplexicaulis and Mesosetum chaseae...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341909/metagenomic-analyses-of-bacterial-endophytes-associated-with-the-phyllosphere-of-a-bt-maize-cultivar-and-its-isogenic-parental-line-from-south-africa
#20
Ramadimetja A Mashiane, Obinna T Ezeokoli, Rasheed A Adeleke, Cornelius C Bezuidenhout
Genetic modification of maize with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cry proteins may predispose shifts in the bacterial endophytes' community associated with maize shoots. In this study, the diversity of bacterial endophytes associated with a Bt maize genotype (Mon810) and its isogenic non-transgenic parental line were investigated at pre-flowering (50 days) and post-flowering (90 days) developmental stages. PCR-DGGE and high throughput sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq sequencer were used to characterize bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity in leaves, stems, seeds and tassels...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
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