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Journal of Nephrology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012100/the-peritoneal-sieving-of-sodium-a-simple-and-powerful-test-to-rule-out-the-onset-of-encapsulating-peritoneal-sclerosis-in-patients-undergoing-peritoneal-dialysis
#1
Vincenzo La Milia, Selena Longhi, Elisabetta Sironi, Giuseppe Pontoriero
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is an uncommon but severe complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). A reliable screening tool to identify patients at risk of developing or not EPS is currently not available. We aimed to evaluate whether the reduction in dialysate sodium concentration (sodium sieving) at 60 min (ΔDNa60), during a peritoneal equilibration test with 3.86% glucose concentration (3.86%-PET) was able to early rule out patients who will not develop EPS...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005240/complicated-pregnancies-in-inherited-distal-renal-tubular-acidosis-importance-of-acid-base-balance
#2
Harald Seeger, Peter Salfeld, Rüdiger Eisel, Carsten A Wagner, Nilufar Mohebbi
Inherited distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is caused by impaired urinary acid excretion resulting in hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Although the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is usually preserved, and hypertension and overt proteinuria are absent, it has to be considered that patients with dRTA also suffer from chronic kidney disease (CKD) with an increased risk for adverse pregnancy-related outcomes. Typical complications of dRTA include severe hypokalemia leading to cardiac arrhythmias and paralysis, nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005239/combination-of-cilostazol-and-probucol-protected-podocytes-from-lipopolysaccharide-induced-injury-by-both-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-oxidative-mechanisms
#3
Peng He, Harukiyo Kawamura, Minoru Takemoto, Yoshiro Maezawa, Takahiro Ishikawa, Ryoichi Ishibashi, Kenichi Sakamoto, Mayumi Shoji, Akiko Hattori, Masaya Yamaga, Shintaro Ide, Kana Ide, Aiko Hayashi, Hirotake Tokuyama, Kazuki Kobayashi, Koutaro Yokote
Podocytes are essential for maintaining kidney glomerular functions. Injuries to podocyte are closely related to the pathological process of proteinuria. However, a treatment for podocyte injury has still not been established. Cilostazol (CSZ) and probucol (PBC) have been shown to possess renoprotective effects. Therefore, we evaluated these drugs in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced podocyte injury model. 7-week-old female C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet or a diet containing 0.3% CSZ, 0.5% PBC, or both for 10 days...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000088/dialysate-temperature-of-36%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c-association-with-clinical-outcomes
#4
Kathryn S Gray, Dena E Cohen, Steven M Brunelli
Dialysate cooling, either individualized based upon patient body temperature, or to a standardized temperature below 37 °C, has been proposed to minimize hemodynamic insults and improve outcomes among hemodialysis patients. However, low dialysate temperatures (35-35.5 °C) are associated with patient discomfort, and individualized dialysate cooling is difficult to operationalize. Here, we tested whether a standardized dialysate temperature of 36 °C (dT36) was associated with improved clinical outcomes compared to the default temperature of 37 °C (dT37)...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928736/antiplatelet-agents-in-hemodialysis
#5
REVIEW
Massimiliano Migliori, Vincenzo Cantaluppi, Alessia Scatena, Vincenzo Panichi
Patients affected by cardiovascular disease (CVD) are treated with antiplatelet agents (AA) and/or anticoagulant drugs, which are fundamental in the management of stroke, coronary atherosclerotic disease, peripheral vascular disease and atrial fibrillation. CVD is the most important cause of death in chronic renal failure (CRF). Death rates from myocardial infarction (MI) and from all other cardiac causes exceed those for the general population. Incidence of MI in CRF is triple that in the general population...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928735/linking-acute-kidney-injury-to-chronic-kidney-disease-the-missing-links
#6
REVIEW
Mohammed A Kaballo, Mohamed E Elsayed, Austin G Stack
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is considered to be a major public health problem around the globe, and it is associated with major adverse clinical outcomes and significant health care costs. There is growing evidence suggesting that AKI is associated with the subsequent development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). While recovery of kidney function occurs in the majority of patients surviving an AKI episode, a large number of patients do not recover completely. Similarly, CKD is a well-known risk factor for the development of AKI...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914030/active-compounds-extracted-from-extra-virgin-olive-oil-counteract-mesothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-of-peritoneal-mesothelium-cells-exposed-to-conventional-peritoneal-dialysate-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evidences
#7
S Lupinacci, G Toteda, D Vizza, A Perri, C Benincasa, A Mollica, A La Russa, P Gigliotti, F Leone, D Lofaro, M Bonofiglio, E Perri, R Bonofiglio
During peritoneal dialysis (PD), peritoneal mesothelial cells undergo a transition from an epithelial phenotype to a mesenchymal phenotype that, together with the inflammatory process, promotes tissue fibrosis and a failure of peritoneal membrane function. To date, there is no definitive treatment for the progressive thickening and angiogenesis of the peritoneal membrane associated with PD. In this study we tested, in vitro and in vivo, the ability of active compounds extracted from extra virgin olive oil (AC-EVOO) to counteract the mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition process (MMT) observed in mesothelial cells chronically exposed to the conventional peritoneal dialysate (DL)...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900718/survival-and-time-to-transplantation-of-peritoneal-dialysis-versus-hemodialysis-for-end-stage-renal-disease-patients-competing-risks-regression-model-in-a-single-italian-center-experience
#8
Marta Rigoni, Emanuele Torri, Giandomenico Nollo, Diana Zarantonello, Alessandro Laudon, Laura Sottini, Giovanni Maria Guarrera, Giuliano Brunori
AIMS: Despite several studies reporting similar outcomes for peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD), the former is underused worldwide, with a PD prevalence of 15% in Italy. In 2008, the Unit of Nephrology and Dialysis of the Healthcare Trust of the Autonomous Province of Trento implemented a successful PD program which has increased the proportion of PD incident patients from 7 to 47%. We aimed to assess the effect of this extensive use of PD by comparing HD and PD in terms of survival and time-to-transplantation...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900717/intravenous-fluids-balancing-solutions
#9
REVIEW
Ewout J Hoorn
The topic of intravenous (IV) fluids may be regarded as "reverse nephrology", because nephrologists usually treat to remove fluids rather than to infuse them. However, because nephrology is deeply rooted in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance, IV fluids belong in the realm of our specialty. The field of IV fluid therapy is in motion due to the increasing use of balanced crystalloids, partly fueled by the advent of new solutions. This review aims to capture these recent developments by critically evaluating the current evidence base...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885585/the-conundrums-of-chronic-kidney-disease-and-aging
#10
REVIEW
Richard J Glassock, Aleksandar Denic, Andrew D Rule
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), as presently defined, is a common disorder. Aging is a nearly universal phenomenon that can affect renal anatomy and function, but at variable rates in individuals. Loss of nephrons and a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a characteristic of normal aging, called renal senescence. Using fixed and absolute thresholds for defining CKD on the basis of GFR for all ages may lead to diagnostic uncertainty (a conundrum) in both young and older subjects. This brief review will consider the physiological and anatomical changes of the kidney occurring in the process of normal renal senescence focusing on GFR and will examine the relevance of these observation for the diagnosis of CKD using GFR as the distinguishing parameter...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858251/methodological-issues-in-clinical-trials-of-polycystic-kidney-disease-a-focused-review
#11
REVIEW
Ioan-Andrei Iliuta, Abhijat Kitchlu, York Pei
The field of therapeutics in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) has seen a significant expansion recently, as major clinical trials have provided promising evidence in favor of new disease-modifying drugs. Though these trials are encouraging, limitations are noticeable in the form of methodological issues that restrict the interpretation of results. In this review, we discuss the methodological pitfalls of high-profile clinical interventional trials for ADPKD which have been published since 2009...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848227/the-clinical-implications-of-the-unique-glomerular-complement-deposition-pattern-in-transplant-glomerulopathy
#12
Priya S Verghese, Robin C Reed, Bu Lihong, Arthur J Matas, Youngki Kim
The etiology and treatment of transplant glomerulopathy (TG) is not clear. TG is associated with donor-specific antibodies but the lack of C4d deposition in the peritubular capillaries (ptc-C4d) in some cases has caused the role of complement in the pathogenesis of TG to be debated. There is however, little information on C4d deposition in the glomerulus itself. We retrieved random frozen sections from 25 cases with well-established TG by light microscopy (LM) and 25 cases without TG as controls and reviewed the LM and immunofluorescence (nine biopsies were excluded due to inadequate samples)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848226/atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-in-the-setting-of-complement-amplifying-conditions-case-reports-and-a-review-of-the-evidence-for-treatment-with-eculizumab
#13
REVIEW
Arif Asif, Ali Nayer, Christian S Haas
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare, genetic, progressive, life-threatening form of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) predominantly caused by dysregulation of the alternative pathway of the complement system. Complement-amplifying conditions (CACs), including pregnancy complications [preeclampsia, HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count) syndrome], malignant hypertension, autoimmune diseases, transplantation, and others, are associated with the onset of TMA in up to 69 % of cases of aHUS...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834042/effect-of-oral-anticoagulant-therapy-on-mortality-in-end-stage-renal-disease-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-a-prospective-study
#14
Simonetta Genovesi, Paola Rebora, Maurizio Gallieni, Andrea Stella, Fabio Badiali, Ferruccio Conte, Sonia Pasquali, Silvio Bertoli, Patrizia Ondei, Giuseppe Bonforte, Claudio Pozzi, Emanuela Rossi, Maria Grazia Valsecchi, Antonio Santoro
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a cohort of haemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), the relationship between oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) and mortality, thromboembolic events and haemorrhage. METHODS: Two hundred and ninety patients with AF were prospectively followed for 4 years. Warfarin and antiplatelet intake, age, dialytic age, comorbidities, CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores were considered as predictors of risk of death, thromboembolism and bleeding events...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830458/influence-of-specific-thoracic-donor-therapy-on-kidney-donation-and-long-term-kidney-graft-survival
#15
María A Ballesteros, Jorge Duerto Álvarez, Luis Martín-Penagos, Emilio Rodrigo, Manuel Arias, Eduardo Miñambres
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of a specific thoracic donor-treatment protocol (including restrictive fluid balance) on kidney donation and on kidney graft survival. METHODS: A cohort study. Lung Donors and kidney recipients from 2003 to 2008 were the pre-protocol cohort, and those from 2009 to 2013 were the protocol cohort. The main outcome variables were graft survival and rate of kidney donation. RESULTS: Kidney donation rates were similar in both periods (86...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815919/clinical-and-histological-risk-factors-for-progression-of-iga-nephropathy-an-update-in-children-young-and-adult-patients
#16
REVIEW
Rosanna Coppo
The identification of risk factors conditioning the progression of immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy (IgAN) is needed due to the variability of the outcome of this renal disease, which ranges from remission or indolent course to progressive slow loss of renal function or rapidly evolving chronic renal failure. Based on the supposed individual risk of progression, the therapy is modulated from renin-angiotensin inhibitors to corticosteroids, alone or associated with other powerful but potentially harmful immunosuppressors...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815918/incidence-and-characteristics-of-chronic-renal-replacement-therapy-in-patients-with-cancer-data-from-kidney-and-cancer-registries-in-basse-normandie
#17
Clémence Béchade, Olivier Dejardin, Simona Bara, Véronique Bouvier, Anne-Valérie Guizard, Rémy De Mil, Xavier Troussard, Thierry Lobbedez, Guy Launoy
Aims To estimate the incidence of chronic dialysis in patients with a history of cancer and assess how renal replacement therapy is initiated in this population. Methods We merged data from cancer registries and hospital databases in one French region to identify patients with an incident cancer between 2001 and 2008 who started chronic dialysis. Results Mean participation time was 3.4 ± 2.7 years. Males comprised 58.5 % of participants. During the study period, 74 chronic dialysis treatments were initiated...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757797/light-chains-removal-by-extracorporeal-techniques-in-acute-kidney-injury-due-to-multiple-myeloma-a-position-statement-of-the-onconephrology-work-group-of-the-italian-society-of-nephrology
#18
P Fabbrini, K Finkel, M Gallieni, G Capasso, M Cavo, A Santoro, S Pasquali
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of multiple myeloma and is associated with increased short-term mortality. Additionally, even a single episode of AKI can eventually lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), significantly reducing quality of life and long-term survival. In the setting of multiple myeloma, severe AKI (requiring dialysis) is typically secondary to cast nephropathy (CN). Renal injury in CN is due to intratubular obstruction from precipitation of monoclonal serum free light chains (sFLC) as well as direct tubular toxicity of sFLC via stimulation of nuclear factor (NF)κB inflammatory pathways...
December 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582136/incremental-peritoneal-dialysis-a-10-year-single-centre-experience
#19
Massimo Sandrini, Valerio Vizzardi, Francesca Valerio, Sara Ravera, Luigi Manili, Roberto Zubani, Bernardo J A Lucca, Giovanni Cancarini
INTRODUCTION: Incremental dialysis consists in prescribing a dialysis dose aimed towards maintaining total solute clearance (renal + dialysis) near the targets set by guidelines. Incremental peritoneal dialysis (incrPD) is defined as one or two dwell-times per day on CAPD, whereas standard peritoneal dialysis (stPD) consists in three-four dwell-times per day. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Single-centre cohort study. Enrollement period: January 2002-December 2007; end of follow up (FU): December 2012...
December 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417557/microalbuminuria-in-primary-hypertension-a-guide-to-optimal-patient-management
#20
REVIEW
Francesca Viazzi, Francesca Cappadona, Roberto Pontremoli
Accurate assessment of the global risk profile is considered a prerequisite for the optimal management of hypertensive patients. In particular, the evaluation of subclinical organ damage, namely left ventricular hypertrophy, peripheral atherosclerosis and renal function, plays a key role in optimizing therapeutic targets and strategy in individual patients. Urine albumin excretion is a low-cost, easy-to-use test and a powerful predictor of cardiovascular diseases. The search for albuminuria has, therefore, become routine in the evaluation of hypertensive patients...
December 2016: Journal of Nephrology
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