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Journal of Nephrology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043570/towards-precision-nephrology-the-opportunities-and-challenges-of-genomic-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Jordan G Nestor, Emily E Groopman, Ali G Gharavi
The expansion of genomic medicine is furthering our understanding of many human diseases. This is well illustrated in the field of nephrology, through the characterization, discovery, and growing insight into various renal diseases through use of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies. This review will provide an overview of the diagnostic opportunities of using genetic testing in the clinical setting by describing notable discoveries regarding inherited forms of renal disease that have advanced the field and by highlighting some of the potential benefits of establishing a molecular diagnosis in a clinical practice...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027625/serum-c3-complement-levels-in-anca-associated-vasculitis-at-diagnosis-is-a-predictor-of-patient-and-renal-outcome
#2
Matija Crnogorac, Ivica Horvatic, Patricia Kacinari, Danica Galesic Ljubanovic, Kresimir Galesic
AIM: To determinate the prognostic significance of low serum C3 at the time of diagnosis of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). METHODS: Our cohort included 75 consecutive patients with AAV diagnosed from January 2005 to December 2015. C3 levels were measured at the time of diagnosis. Patients were divided into two groups, those with low serum C3 levels (< 0.9 g/l) and those with normal serum C3 levels (0.9-1.8 g/l). We analysed association between serum C3 levels and both combined and singularly patient and renal survival (ESRD)...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022223/acute-kidney-injury-in-pregnancy-and-the-role-of-underlying-ckd-a-point-of-view-from-m%C3%A3-xico
#3
REVIEW
Margarita Ibarra-Hernández, Oralia Alejandra Orozco-Guillén, María Luz de la Alcantar-Vallín, Ruben Garrido-Roldan, María Patricia Jiménez-Alvarado, Kenia Benitez Castro, Francisco Villa-Villagrana, Mario Borbolla, Juan Manuel Gallardo-Gaona, Guillermo García-García, Norberto Reyes-Paredes, Giorgina Barbara Piccoli
The incidence of acute kidney injury in pregnancy (P-AKI) in developed countries is significantly lower than in developing ones, where it is estimated to range between 4 and 26%. Mortality in cases of P-AKI requiring dialysis is high, varying from 20 to 80%. In developing countries, clinical decisions are often based on the availability of services and not on needs. Prenatal surveillance in Mexico does not include serum creatinine, limiting the potential for early diagnosis of AKI and CKD and their differential diagnosis...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994037/pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-inherited-distal-renal-tubular-acidosis
#4
REVIEW
Nilufar Mohebbi, Carsten A Wagner
Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is a tubular disorder with a primary defect of urinary acidification and acid excretion in the collecting duct system. Consequently, patients develop hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with an inappropriately alkaline urine. Inherited forms of dRTA are due to mutations in at least three distinct genes: SLC4A1, ATP6V1B1, ATP6V0A4. Mutations in SLC4A1-(AE1) are inherited either in an autosomal dominant manner or in a recessive one. ATP6V1B and ATP6V0A4 mutations affect two different subunits of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase proton-pump, the B1 and a4 subunits, and are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983878/erratum-to-ultrapure-dialysis-water-obtained-with-additional-ultrafilter-may-reduce-inflammation-in-patients-on-hemodialysis
#5
Biagio Di Iorio, Lucia Di Micco, Dario Bruzzese, Luca Nardone, Luigi Russo, Pietro Formisano, Vittoria D'Esposito, Domenico Russo
In original publication, the Table 4 was incorrect. The correct Table has been given below.
October 6, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975589/admission-hyperphosphatemia-increases-the-risk-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-hospitalized-patients
#6
Charat Thongprayoon, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Michael A Mao, Ankit Sakhuja, Stephen B Erickson
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the association between elevated admission serum phosphate and risk of in-hospital acute kidney injury (AKI) is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of AKI in hospitalized patients stratified by admission serum phosphate level. METHODS: This is a single-center retrospective study conducted at a tertiary referral hospital. All hospitalized adult patients who had admission phosphate measurement available between January and December 2013 were enrolled...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975543/the-accelerated-hepatitis-b-virus-vaccination-schedule-among-hemodialysis-patients-does-it-work-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Mahmoud Hamada Imam
BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis patients possess particular attributes which increase the susceptibility to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. HBV vaccination significantly decreased the number of new HBV-infected patients. However, the conventional vaccination schedule requires a 6-months duration. This study aimed to examine the efficacy the accelerated vaccination schedule among hemodialysis patients. METHODS: In this study, 202 consecutive hemodialysis patients at New Jeddah hospital were enrolled...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956309/pregnancy-related-acute-kidney-injury-in-high-income-countries-still-a-critical-issue
#8
REVIEW
Fadi Fakhouri, Clément Deltombe
The rate of pregnancy-associated acute kidney injury (P-AKI) has dwindled in high income countries mainly following the legalization of abortion in the seventies and early eighties and the general improvement in obstetrical care. P-AKI has not however disappeared from high income countries and several reports indicate that its frequency has even increased during the last decade. The reasons for such evolution are probably an improved surveillance and reporting of P-AKI and a more aggressive approach to the treatment of pregnancy complications, with unintended renal side effects...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942478/bone-in-ckd-why-the-era-edta-ckd-mbd-working-group-organized-a-dedicated-meeting
#9
EDITORIAL
Sandro Mazzaferro, Ziad A Massy, Marc Vervloet, Mario Cozzolino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 23, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940158/vitamin-d-and-osteoporosis-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#10
REVIEW
Paul Lips, David Goldsmith, Renate de Jongh
Osteoporotic fractures are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Morbidity and mortality are higher in CKD patients with a fracture than in the general population. The assessment of bone mineral density for fracture prediction may be useful at all CKD stages. It should be considered when this influences treatment decisions. Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with CKD, particularly in patients with proteinuria, due to loss of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and its binding protein. Vitamin D supplementation should be prescribed early in the course of renal disease...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933050/toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-mediates-inflammation-and-tissue-injury-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#11
REVIEW
Giacomo Garibotto, Annalisa Carta, Daniela Picciotto, Francesca Viazzi, Daniela Verzola
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of receptors of the innate immune system which detect pathogen-associated and danger-associated molecular patterns in order to initiate an inflammatory response. TLR2 and TLR4 downward signaling causes the production of proinflammatory cytokines that can induce insulin resistance and cardiovascular damage in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In diabetic nephropathy, TLR4, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2), and NLRP3 inflammasome are involved in the production and persistence of inflammation...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918595/successful-pregnancy-in-a-ckd-patient-on-a-low-protein-supplemented-diet-an-opportunity-to-reflect-on-ckd-and-pregnancy-in-mexico-an-emerging-country
#12
Julia Nava, Silvia Moran, Veronica Figueroa, Adriana Salinas, Margy Lopez, Rocio Urbina, Abril Gutierrez, Jose Luis Lujan, Alejandra Orozco, Rafael Montufar, Giorgina B Piccoli
Pregnancy is probably the most important challenge in young women with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The challenge is greater in developing countries, in which access to dialysis is uneven, and prenatal care for CKD patients is not uniformly available. This case report summarizes some of the challenges faced by pregnant CKD women in a developing country. A 35-year-old woman, affected by an undiagnosed kidney disease, experienced preeclampsia at 24 years of age, and started dialysis in emergency at age 31 in the context of severe preeclampsia in her second pregnancy...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918589/isolated-pancreas-rejections-do-not-have-an-adverse-impact-on-kidney-graft-survival-whereas-kidney-rejections-are-associated-with-adverse-pancreas-graft-survival%C3%A2-in-simultaneous-pancreas-kidney-transplantation
#13
Irfan Moinuddin, Muhammad Sohail Yaqub, Tim Taber, John Powelson, Jonathan Fridell, Asif Sharfuddin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Diabetic Kidney Disease is associated with excessive mortality and morbidity. Simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation (SPK) significantly improves quality of life and increases life expectancy of uremic diabetic patients. It is not known whether pancreas and kidney rejections in these transplant patients is concordant or discordant. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND MEASUREMENTS: We analyzed clinical data on all SPK transplants performed between 2003 and 2014 at Indiana University to assess the impact of isolated or combined pancreas and kidney rejections on patient and allograft outcomes...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918587/genome-wide-association-studies-of-albuminuria-towards-genetic-stratification-in-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
Cristian Pattaro
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been very successful in unraveling the polygenic structure of several complex diseases and traits. In the case of albuminuria, despite the large sample size achieved by some studies, results look sparse with a limited number of loci reported so far. This review searched for GWAS studies of albumin excretion, albuminuria, and proteinuria. The resulting picture sets elements of uniqueness for albuminuria GWAS with respect to other complex traits. So far, very few loci associated with albuminuria have been validated by means of genome-wide significant evidence or formal replication...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900872/the-use-of-bone-mineral-density-measured-by-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-dxa-and-peripheral-quantitative-computed-microtomography-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
REVIEW
Martin Jannot, Fabrice Mac-Way, Vanessa Lapierre, Marie-Helene Lafage-Proust
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for fractures. The current evaluation of fracture risk is based upon the combination of various clinical factors and quantitative imaging of bone. X-ray-based tools were developed to evaluate bone status and predict fracture risk. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is available worldwide. Longitudinal studies showed that low areal Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measured by DXA predicts fractures in the CKD population as it does in non uremic populations, with good specificity and moderate sensitivity...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884267/diet-and-enteral-nutrition-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-not-on-dialysis-a-review-focusing-on-fat-fiber-and-protein-intake
#16
REVIEW
Alice Sabatino, Giuseppe Regolisti, Ilaria Gandolfini, Marco Delsante, Filippo Fani, Maria Cristina Gregorini, Enrico Fiaccadori
The clinical data available on dietary requirements of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not on dialysis are limited and largely inconclusive in terms of the renal, cardiovascular and nutritional outcomes achievable through dietary modifications. Restriction of protein intake during the early stages of CKD may in fact slow its progression, but at the same time this approach may also lead to protein-energy wasting, if energy intake is not adequate and properly monitored. Unfortunately, compliance to dietary recommendations is traditionally low in this patient population...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875476/treatment-of-primary-membranous-nephropathy-where-are-we-now
#17
REVIEW
Andrea Angioi, Nicola Lepori, Ana Coloma López, Sanjeev Sethi, Fernando C Fervenza, Antonello Pani
In the last 10 years, basic science and clinical research have made important contributions to the understanding and management of primary membranous nephropathy (MN). The identification of antibodies directed against the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) and thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A protein have added a new perspective on diagnosis, monitoring the immunological activity, predicting prognosis and guiding therapy in patients with primary MN. Mounting evidence suggests that quantification and follow-up of antiPLA2R Abs levels can help in assessing prognosis and evaluate the response to treatment...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840540/a-more-tubulocentric-view-of-diabetic-kidney-disease
#18
REVIEW
Letizia Zeni, Anthony G W Norden, Giovanni Cancarini, Robert J Unwin
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common complication of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) Types 1 and 2, and prevention of end stage renal disease (ESRD) remains a major challenge. Despite its high prevalence, the pathogenesis of DN is still controversial. Initial glomerular disease manifested by hyperfiltration and loss of glomerular size and charge permselectivity may initiate a cascade of injuries, including tubulo-interstitial disease. Clinically, 'microalbuminuria' is still accepted as an early biomarker of glomerular damage, despite mounting evidence that its predictive value for DN is questionable, and findings that suggest the proximal tubule is an important link in the development of DN...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840494/ultrapure-dialysis-water-obtained-with-additional-ultrafilter-may-reduce-inflammation-in-patients-on-hemodialysis
#19
Biagio Di Iorio, Lucia Di Micco, Dario Bruzzese, Luca Nardone, Luigi Russo, Pietro Formisano, Vittoria D'Esposito, Domenico Russo
BACKGROUND: Patients on standard dialysis, in particular those on high-flux and high-efficiency dialysis, are exposed to hundreds of liters of dialysis-water per week. The quality of dialysis-water is a factor responsible for inflammation in dialysis patients. Inflammation is a potent trigger of atherosclerosis and a pathogenetic factor in anemia, increasing mortality and morbidity in dialysis patients. Current systems for water treatment do not completely eliminate bacteria and endotoxins...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831705/predictors-of-first-ischemic-lower-limb-ulcer-in-dialysis-patients-an-observational-cohort-study
#20
Simeone Andrulli, Chiara Chiavenna, Maria Carla Bigi, Monica Crepaldi, Cesare Dell'Oro, Flavia Tentori, Celestina Manzoni, Giuseppe Bacchini, Mauro Maria Corti, Giuseppe Pontoriero
BACKGROUND: Lower limb ischemia affects the quality of life, physical activity and life expectancy of dialysis patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with ischemic foot ulcers considering clinical, laboratory and therapeutic domains. METHODS: This observational cohort study was based on data from the Nephrology and Dialysis Department database of Alessandro Manzoni Hospital, Lecco (Italy). All of the incident patients who started dialysis between 1 January 1999 and 29 February 2012 were enrolled, excluding temporary guests, patients with acute renal failure and patients with previous limb ischemia or amputation...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
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