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Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation

Varankpicha Kochakul, Kittikorn Boonsri, Saruda Tiwananthagorn, Chalermchart Somgird, Chatchote Thitaram, Kidsadagon Pringproa
Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is one of the most important viral infectious diseases affecting the elephant population worldwide, especially juveniles and young adults. We developed a chromogenic in situ hybridization (ISH) test for detection of EEHV in Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus). Digoxigenin (DIG) DNA probes from the polymerase and terminase genes of EEHV were synthesized using a PCR DIG-labeling method, and detection of hybridized probe to target EEHV DNA was carried out by anti-DIG immunolabeling...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Katherine Hughes, Andrew M Borman
Adiaspiromycosis is a mycotic infection caused by thermally dimorphic fungi classified as Emmonsia parva and E. crescens (formerly Chrysosporium spp.) until recently, when new classifications were proposed. We document the pathologic findings in a severe case of adiaspiromycosis, with lymph node involvement, in a wild European rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus). The rabbit exhibited granulomatous pneumonia with tracheobronchial lymph node enlargement. Histopathologically, the lung was expanded by myriad, densely cellular, heterophilic and granulomatous foci, surrounding bi- to trilaminar adiaspores...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Caroline Andrews, Jodie Gerdin, Jon Patterson, Elizabeth L Buckles, Scott D Fitzgerald
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is classified as a select agent and is capable of causing mortality in humans and a number of veterinary species. Herein, we describe 3 cases of EEE in puppies in Michigan and New York. Two puppies were euthanized following an acute history of seizures and obtundation. A littermate of one of these puppies died 2 wk earlier following a history of anorexia and fever. All 3 puppies lacked significant gross anatomic lesions at autopsy and tested negative for rabies virus...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Monika Harms, Volker Schmidt, Tilo Heydel, Jutta Hauptmann, Christine Ahlers, Rene Bergmann, Christoph G Baums
Avian intestinal spirochetosis (AIS), an important but neglected disease in laying hens, is caused by Brachyspira pilosicoli, B. intermedia, and B. alvinipulli. Poultry are also frequently colonized by putatively nonpathogenic species such as B. murdochii and B. innocens. We evaluated the differentiation of Brachyspira species by 3 methods: sequencing of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidase gene ( nox), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and a new multiplex (m)PCR targeting genes such as the tryptophanase A gene ( tnaA) and the p-aminobenzoyl-glutamate hydrolase subunit B gene ( abgB)...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Juan M Corpa, Francisco Carvallo, Mark L Anderson, Akinyi C Nyaoke, Janet D Moore, Francisco A Uzal
Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus septicemia of alpacas and llamas, also called alpaca fever, is characterized clinically by fever, depression, recumbency, and death, and pathologically by polyserositis. Although a few natural and experimental cases of the disease have been reported, very little information about the pathology of spontaneous cases has been published. We present a detailed gross and microscopic description of 3 spontaneous cases of alpaca fever and review the literature on this condition...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Megan C Romano, Alan T Loynachan, Dave C Bolin, Uneeda K Bryant, Laura Kennedy, Mike S Filigenzi, Birgit Puschner, Robert H Poppenga, Cynthia L Gaskill
Use of the neurotoxic rodenticide bromethalin has steadily increased since 2011, resulting in an increased incidence of bromethalin intoxications in pets. Presumptive diagnosis of bromethalin toxicosis relies on history of possible rodenticide exposure coupled with compatible neurologic signs or sudden death, and postmortem examination findings that eliminate other causes of death. Diagnosis is confirmed by detecting the metabolite desmethylbromethalin (DMB) in tissues. In experimental models, spongiform change in white matter of the central nervous system (CNS) is the hallmark histologic feature of bromethalin poisoning...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Cory S Bridges, Pamela S Miller, Jonathan A Lidbury, Jan S Suchodolski, Yaling Yi, John F Engelhardt, Jörg M Steiner
Measurement of serum trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI) is used to assess exocrine pancreatic function in dogs and cats. Ferrets ( Mustela putorius furo) serve as valuable animal models for human diseases such as cystic fibrosis and other pulmonary diseases, and may be a useful model of other diseases including pancreatitis. We developed and analytically validated a competitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of TLI in ferret serum by determination of analytical sensitivity, assay linearity, accuracy of spiking recovery, precision, and reproducibility...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Robert B Moeller, Beate Crossley, Arlena Pipkin, Yanqiu Li, Udeni B R Balasuriya
A 2-y-old female Grant's zebra ( Equus quagga [ burchellii] boehmi) was presented with a clinical history of depression, anorexia, and weakness of 1-wk duration. Postmortem examination identified ulcers on the tongue and palate; a large abscess adjacent to the larynx; left lung consolidation; mild swelling, darkening, and congestion of the liver with accentuation of the lobular pattern; and edema and congestion of the distal small and large intestines. Histologic examination identified necrotizing bronchopneumonia, necrotizing hepatitis, nephritis, and enterocolitis...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Carly C Ginter Summarell, Thomas B Hairgrove, Megan E Schroeder, Robert Conley, Mangkey A Bounpheng
Bovine trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease that results in infertility, abortion, and calf age variability. To date, management strategies include testing for Tritrichomonas foetus and culling of infected males. Challenges associated with testing include cost of culture medium, time and labor burden of sample incubation and processing, and adverse effects of bacterial growth on detection sensitivity. To overcome these challenges, we developed a direct reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (direct RT-qPCR) utilizing smegma, eliminating the use of culture medium...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Chenxi Wang, Yongning Zhang, Guoxia Bing, Xuxiao Zhang, Caixia Wang, Mingyang Wang, Yipeng Sun, Shaoqiang Wu, Xiangmei Lin, Juan Pu, Jinhua Liu, Honglei Sun
Hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage is critical for virulence of influenza viruses. The amino acid residue at the P6 position of the HA cleavage site (HACS) has been shown to be most variable and to have a direct correlation with the cleavage efficiency and pathogenicity of H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in mammals. Among these amino acid variants, serine has been associated with the highest virulence in mammals, and its detection may serve as an indicator for H5N1 AIVs with high pathogenicity and potential public risk...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Jennifer A Luff, Rachel E Burns, Michelle Mader, Kara D Priest, Allison D Tuttle
Papillomaviruses (PVs) are found in many species and infect epithelial cells at both mucosal and cutaneous sites. PVs are generally species-specific and cause benign epithelial proliferations, often forming papillomas or plaques. Rarely, these infections can persist, allowing progression to in situ and invasive cancers. We describe herein a case of multiple cutaneous pigmented plaques from a California sea lion ( Zalophus californianus) that progressed to in situ and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The lesions were characterized by epithelial hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and hypergranulosis that bordered more dysplastic areas, and, at one site, bordered an invasive SCC...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Duncan S Russell, Lauren Jaworski, William C Kisseberth
Although inactivating mutations of tumor suppressor genes are well described in cell lines of canine osteosarcoma (OS), expression of tumor suppressor proteins in spontaneous disease is poorly characterized. We determined the immunohistochemical expression of p53, PTEN, Rb, and p16 in a large cohort of dogs with OS. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of canine OS were analyzed retrospectively. Primary tumor samples from 145 dogs, collected between 2003 and 2008, were evaluated by tissue microarray. Streptavidin-biotin complex immunohistochemistry was performed using monoclonal antibodies for Rb and PTEN and polyclonal antibodies for p16 and p53...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Tiffany L Jenkins, Dalen Agnew, Daniel R Rissi
A fibroblastic osteosarcoma with epithelioid and squamous differentiation in the distal femur of a 9-y-old spayed female Greyhound dog is described. Grossly, the tumor consisted of a pale-white, firm-to-hard mass that replaced the medullary and cortical areas of the distal end of the right femur. Histologically, the mass was composed predominantly of spindle cells admixed with areas of mineralized and non-mineralized osteoid matrix that were surrounded by stellate osteoblasts and scattered multinucleate giant cells, consistent with the diagnosis of a fibroblastic osteosarcoma...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Lyndal S Hulse, Danica Hickey, Jessica M Mitchell, Kenneth W Beagley, William Ellis, Stephen D Johnston
Infectious diseases have contributed to the decline in the health of koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus) populations in the wild in some regions of Australia. Herein we report the development and validation of 2 multiplex real-time PCR (rtPCR) panels for the simultaneous detection of Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma spp., Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Chlamydia, including speciation and quantification of Chlamydia, in ocular, reproductive, and nasal swab samples in addition to semen and male urogenital and reproductive tissues, from koalas...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Giovanni Franzo, Matteo Legnardi, Cinzia Centelleghe, Claudia M Tucciarone, Mattia Cecchinato, Martí Cortey, Joaquim Segalés, Michele Drigo
Since the identification of species Porcine circovirus 2, the relevance of genus Circovirus has increased given its impact on the swine industry. A new species ( Porcine circovirus 3, PCV-3) has been detected in association with various clinical conditions. Consequently, there is an urgent need for reliable and widely accessible tests for both routine diagnostic and research purposes. We developed a direct PCR (requiring no DNA extraction) and a quantitative (q)PCR targeting the conserved rep gene to detect the PCV-3 genome...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Ida L Phillips, Cristina W Cunha, Dustin Galbraith, Margaret A Highland, Robert J Bildfell, Hong Li
Domestic and wild sheep are the natural reservoirs for ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF). Virtually all adult sheep are infected with OvHV-2 under natural flock conditions, and infection is normally subclinical. MCF-like clinical signs and typical histologic lesions in sheep have been linked during case investigations at veterinary diagnostic laboratories; however, the confirmation of naturally occurring MCF in sheep is problematic...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Miriam Leipig-Rudolph, Kathrin Busch, John F Prescott, Iman Mehdizadeh Gohari, Christian M Leutenegger, Walter Hermanns, Georg Wolf, Katrin Hartmann, Jutta Verspohl, Stefan Unterer
Acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome (AHDS), formerly named canine hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, is one of the most common causes of acute hemorrhagic diarrhea in dogs, and is characterized by acute onset of diarrhea, vomiting, and hemoconcentration. To date, histologic examinations have been limited to postmortem specimens of only a few dogs with AHDS. Thus, the aim of our study was to describe in detail the distribution, character, and grade of microscopic lesions, and to investigate the etiology of AHDS. Our study comprised 10 dogs with AHDS and 9 control dogs of various breeds, age, and sex...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Mary Lou Berninger, Emily O'Hearn, Richanne Lomkin, Ken Newens, Karyn A Havas
Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is a vesicular disease of horses, cattle, and pigs in the Western Hemisphere caused by viruses in the genus Vesiculovirus. Disease manifests as vesicles and erosions on the oral mucosa, teats, prepuce, and coronary band, and is similar in presentation to foot-and-mouth disease. Laboratory confirmation is therefore required. Conventional assays include competitive (c)ELISA and complement fixation (CF). The cELISA provides more accurate herd-level detection of VSV-exposed cattle, but may lack the ability to capture fluctuating antibody levels in individual animals...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Karen B Register, William D Boatwright, Karen M Gesy, Tyler C Thacker, Murray D Jelinski
Mycoplasma bovis is an important cause of disease in cattle and bison. Because the bacterium requires specialized growth conditions, many diagnostic laboratories routinely use PCR to replace or complement conventional isolation and identification methods. A frequently used target of such assays is the uvrC gene, which has been shown to be highly conserved among isolates. We discovered that a previously described PCR putatively targeting the uvrC gene amplifies a fragment from an adjacent gene predicted to encode a lipoprotein...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Leslie W Woods, Brant A Schumaker, Patricia A Pesavento, Beate M Crossley, Pamela K Swift
We reviewed case records from the California Animal Health and Food Safety (CAHFS) laboratory and the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) spanning 25 years (1990-2014) for all deer accessions submitted to CAHFS for pathology and/or histopathology, with and without a diagnosis of adenoviral hemorrhagic disease (AHD), in order to determine the prevalence of AHD in California. We also examined spatial and temporal distribution, age, and mule deer subspecies in deer that died from AHD. Of 483 deer submitted to CAHFS for diagnostic testing in 1990-2014, 17...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
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