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Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation

Benjamin E Curtis, Sally A Nofs, Megan Ahearne, Monica List, Matti Kiupel
A 19.5-y-old, male domestic yak ( Bos grunniens) with a history of sudden unexpected death was submitted for autopsy. The yak had hemoabdomen, and a large blood clot was attached to the liver and forestomachs. The hepatic artery had a saccular aneurysm with a 1-cm tear. The arterial wall at the site of the rupture was thin, and the luminal surface was roughened with yellow streaks. The arterial wall adjacent to the rupture was thickened, white, firm, and less elastic than normal arterial walls. Cause of death was concluded to be acute exsanguination...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Julie Arsenault, Jagdip Singh Sohal, Anne Leboeuf, Pierre Hélie, Gilles Fecteau, Yves Robinson, Yvan L'Homme
Paratuberculosis is a chronic infectious enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). In sheep, the antemortem detection of the infection is challenging given the slow progression of the disease and the lack of sensitive, specific, and cost-effective validated tests. We adapted an in-house real-time PCR (rtPCR) assay targeting the multi-copy IS 900 element of MAP. The sensitivity and specificity of this essay for the detection of MAP infection were estimated in a convenience sample of culled ewes from 7 infected flocks and compared to a commercial fecal rtPCR, a commercial ELISA, and fecal culture...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Camila C Abreu, Patricia C Blanchard, John M Adaska, Robert B Moeller, Mark Anderson, Mauricio A Navarro, Santiago S Diab, Francisco A Uzal
Blackleg is an infectious disease of cattle and rarely other ruminants, produced by Clostridium chauvoei and characterized by necrotizing myositis. In most cases of blackleg, the large muscles of the pectoral and pelvic girdles are affected, with other skeletal muscles and the heart involved less frequently. We studied 29 blackleg cases selected from the archives of the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, 1991-2015. Immunohistochemistry was also evaluated to detect C. chauvoei in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of cattle...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Brieuc Cossic, Jacqueline A Hill, Marta Cercone, Teresa Southard
Carcinosarcomas are biphasic malignant tumors composed of 2 distinct neoplastic cell populations, epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells. A 13-y-old, female, mixed-breed goat was presented with a 1-wk history of anuria and lethargy. Transabdominal ultrasonography showed an irregular and heterogeneous structure in the region of the bladder and uterus and changes in the echogenicity of both kidneys. Given the poor prognosis, euthanasia was elected. Autopsy revealed a large mass within the uterine cervix and confirmed the changes in the urinary tract...
October 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Katie M Boes, Carolyn A Sink, Melinda S Camus, Stephen R Werre
Method validation studies characterize the performance of new laboratory methods relative to established methods using quality guidelines in order to define the new method's performance characteristics and to identify differences that could influence data interpretation. We investigated the performance of an in-clinic dry chemistry analyzer (Catalyst One, IDEXX) for measuring 19 routine plasma biochemistry analytes in dogs, cats, and horses. We analyzed 2 levels of quality control material (QCM) in duplicate twice daily for 5 d to determine the coefficient of variation (CV), percent bias, observed total error (TEobs ), and sigma metric (σ) for each analyte at each level of QCM...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Sonia J Moisá, Sharif S Aly, Terry W Lehenbauer, William J Love, Paul V Rossitto, Alison L Van Eenennaam, Sophia C Trombetta, Eduarda M Bortoluzzi, Lindsey E Hulbert
We conducted a nested, case-control study of pre-weaned dairy calves ( n = 477; 4 California dairy farms) to assess the association between bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and hematologic biomarkers, including plasma haptoglobin (Hp) and plasma bactericide (PB). At each location, heifer or bull dairy calves were observed 2-4 times per week until confirmed as BRD-positive using parallel interpretation of thoracic ultrasound examination and auscultation. In addition, control calves were enrolled after being confirmed as BRD-negative using ultrasound and auscultation...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Effie Lee, Maria Fuller, Mandi Carr, Jim Manavis, John Finnie
We describe the clinicopathologic features of an ovine case of Krabbe disease (globoid cell leukodystrophy). Brain lesions, sometimes bilaterally distributed, were present in the cerebellar peduncles, cerebellar folia white matter, medulla, pons, and spinal cord and characterized by marked myelin loss and numerous large macrophages (globoid cells), which tended to aggregate perivascularly. Gemistocytic astrocytes were abundant, and their nuclei were frequently abnormal. The activity of the deficient enzyme, galactosylceramide β-galactosidase, was undetectable in this neurologic disorder compared to age- and breed-matched control brains, and levels of the neurotoxic substrate, psychosine, were markedly elevated...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Ashley C Weiser, Korakrit Poonsuk, Sarah A Bade, Phillip C Gauger, Marisa Rotolo, Karen Harmon, Wendy M Gonzalez, Chong Wang, Rodger Main, Jeffrey J Zimmerman
We evaluated effects of handling procedures on detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in oral fluids (OFs) by reverse-transcription real-time PCR (RT-rtPCR). The experiments were conducted using a composite sample of PRRSV-positive OF collected from 5-wk-old pigs vaccinated 15 d earlier with a modified-live PRRSV vaccine. Five pre-extraction sample-handling steps and all combinations thereof were evaluated: 1) thaw temperature (4°C or 25°C); 2) sample diluent (1:1 dilution with nuclease-free water or guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol); 3a) sonication of the sample (yes or no); 3b) temperature (4°C or 25°C) at which step 3a was conducted; and 4) temperature at which the sample was maintained after step 3b and until RNA extraction was initiated (4°C or 25°C)...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Marta Pérez-Sancho, Ana I Vela, Pilar Horcajo, María Ugarte-Ruiz, Lucas Domínguez, José F Fernández-Garayzábal, Ricardo de la Fuente
Staphylococcus aureus encompasses 2 subspecies ( aureus and anaerobius) with significant differences in their epidemiology and pathogenicity. We evaluated the suitability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the rapid identification of both subspecies using a panel of 52 S. aureus isolates (30 subsp. anaerobius and 22 subsp. aureus) recovered from different origins, countries, and years. The on-board library identification system correctly identified 42 of 52 (81%) S...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Eva Spada, Roberta Perego, Luis Miguel Viñals Flórez, Maria Del Rosario Perlado Chamizo, Luciana Baggiani, Paola Dall'Ara, Daniela Proverbio
We compared 3 major cross-match (XM) tests to identify dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 7 blood incompatibilities in dogs as a result of anti-DEA 7 antibodies: gel (GEL), standard tube (TUBE) agglutination, and immunochromatography strips (STRIP). Blood samples from 42 dogs were typed for DEA 7; 2 tested DEA 7-positive (DEA 7+). The 40 DEA 7-negative (DEA 7-) plasma samples were cross-matched against the 2 DEA 7+ and 3 DEA 7- red blood cell (RBC) samples by GEL to identify samples with anti-DEA 7 antibodies. Twenty DEA 7- plasma samples without and with anti-DEA 7 antibodies were cross-matched with samples of the 2 DEA 7+ RBCs in a double-blind fashion using the TUBE and STRIP XM methods...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Sarah W Nelson, Christie T Hammons, Nola T Bliss, Sarah E Lauterbach, Michele M Zentkovich, Joshua N Lorbach, Jacqueline M Nolting, Andrew S Bowman
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a zoonotic pathogen threatening animal and public health; therefore, detection and monitoring of IAV in animal populations are critical components of a surveillance program. Swine are important hosts of IAV, wherein the virus can undergo rapid evolution. Several methods (i.e., nasal swabs, nasal wipes, and oral fluids) have been used to collect samples from swine for IAV surveillance. We utilized nasal wipes made from cotton gauze and multiple, polyester or mixed polyester fabrics to compare performance in the molecular detection and isolation of IAV...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Kendra L Bauer, Erin Latimer, Mitch Finnegan
A 2-y-old male Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus), with an elevated platelet count (1,100 × 109 /L [1,100 × 103 /mm3 ]), tested positive for elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 1A (EEHV-1A) on conventional PCR (cPCR) of EDTA whole blood. No clinical signs were ever reported and no treatment was administered, but low-level viremia persisted for 2.5 y based on results of cPCR and/or real-time PCR (rtPCR). Sequencing confirmed that the EEHV-1A detected was identical at the beginning through the end of the time period...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Valeria Martini, Maverick Melega, Fulvio Riondato, Laura Marconato, Marzia Cozzi, Serena Bernardi, Stefano Comazzi, Luca Aresu
Flow cytometry (FC) is widely applied to characterize and stage nodal lymphomas in dogs because it has a short turnaround time, requires minimally invasive sampling, and allows contemporary evaluation of neoplastic cells in the primary lesion and of blood and marrow involvement. We investigated advantages and limitations of FC in suspected extranodal lymphomas in dogs. The likelihood of obtaining a suitable FC sample was significantly lower for aspirates of extranodal lesions than for lymph node aspirates. However, we noted no differences among different extranodal lesion sites...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Aloka B Bandara, Ziwei Zuo, Kelly McCutcheon, Siddharth Ramachandran, James R Heflin, Thomas J Inzana
Histophilus somni is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for respiratory and systemic diseases of cattle and sheep. Rapid and accurate detection of H. somni is essential to distinguish H. somni from other potential pathogens for proper control and treatment of infections. Nanomaterial optical fiber biosensors (NOFS) recognize analyte interactions, such as DNA hybridization, with high specificity and sensitivity, and were applied to detect H. somni DNA in culture and clinical samples. An ionic self-assembled multilayer (ISAM) film was fabricated on a long-period grating optical fiber, and a biotinylated, nucleotide probe complementary to the H...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
John D Loy, Laura Leger, Aspen M Workman, Michael L Clawson, Ece Bulut, Bing Wang
Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is one of the most significant diseases of cattle. Bacterial pathogens involved in BRDC include Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Histophilus somni, and Pasteurella multocida. We developed and evaluated a multiplexed real-time hydrolysis probe (rtPCR) assay using block-based Peltier and rotary-based thermocycling on lung tissue, nasal swabs, and deep nasopharyngeal swabs. The rtPCR results were compared to culture or a gel-based M. bovis PCR using statistical analysis to determine optimum quantification cycle (Cq) cutoffs to maximize agreement...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Ying-Tao Zhang, Xiao-Qin Guo, Johnny D Callahan, Gui-Li Yuan, Gui-Hong Zhang, Yao Chen, Hai-Bing Zhang, Laura A Pulscher, Jia-Hai Lu, Gregory C Gray
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a highly contagious respiratory virus causing severe morbidity in pigs worldwide. Control strategies for PRRSV often rely on detecting PRRSV, culling or isolating sick pigs, disinfecting pig barns, vaccination, and monitoring for virus spread. Given the high economic impact of PRRSV on pig farms, there is a great need for rapid and reliable PRRSV detection assays. We compared the performance of 2 commercial reverse-transcription real-time PCR (RT-rtPCR) assays, the VetMAX PRRSV NA and EU reagents (ABI assay) and the PRRSV general RT-rtPCR kit (Anheal assay), for the molecular detection of PRRSV in sera collected from pigs in China...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Anabel Cruz-Romero, Dora Romero-Salas, Ángel Osvaldo Alvarado-Félix, Mariel Aguilar-Domínguez, José Luis Ochoa-Valencia, Domingo Alvarado-Esquivel, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, José Alfredo Zamarripa-Barboza, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano
We determined the seropositive percentage and the determinants of Leptospira exposure in domestic donkeys presented for slaughter in the State of Durango, Mexico. We examined 194 donkeys in 4 gathering premises. Sera of donkeys were analyzed for anti- Leptospira IgG antibodies using a microscopic agglutination assay with a panel of 7 Leptospira antigens. The association between Leptospira seropositivity and general characteristics of donkeys was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Antibodies against Leptospira (for at least 1 of the 7 Leptospira serovars examined) were found in 151 of 194 (77...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Shimaa M Ghoniem, Ayman H El Deeb, Mohammed G Aggour, Hussein A Hussein
We developed a multiplex reverse-transcription real-time PCR (RT-rtPCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the main equine respiratory viruses: equid alphaherpesviruses 1 and 4 (EHV-1, -4) and equine influenza virus (EIV; species Influenza A virus). The primers and probes amplified only the targeted viruses, and there were no inter-assay cross-amplifications or nonspecific interactions. The multiplex assay efficiencies were 92.5%, 97%, and 90% for EHV-1, EHV-4, and EIV, respectively. The R2 values of the monoplex and multiplex assays were ⩾0...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Raphaela Stimmelmayr, David S Rotstein, Grazieli Maboni, Brian T Person, Susan Sanchez
We describe lipid pneumonia in 5 of 24 Arctic foxes ( Vulpes lagopus) in association with morbillivirus infection, and lymphoid depletion in 3 of these 5 foxes. Canine distemper virus (CDV) immunohistochemistry yielded positive staining in lung, lymph nodes, spleen, adipose tissue, and renal pelvic urothelial cells in 5 cases. Liver and bone marrow samples collected from these cases tested positive for morbillivirus by reverse-transcription PCR assay. Strains belonged to the CDV Arctic lineage based on sequencing of the hemagglutinin gene followed by phylogenetic analysis...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Patrizia Danesi, Christian Falcaro, Silvia Ravagnan, Graziana Da Rold, Elena Porcellato, Michela Corrò, Roberta Iatta, Claudia Cafarchia, Antonio Frangipane di Regalbono, Wieland Meyer, Gioia Capelli
We used a real-time PCR (rtPCR) targeting a 150-bp amplicon of the mitochondrial small subunit of ribosomal RNA (mtSSU rRNA) to screen for Pneumocystis DNA in lungs of wild squirrels ( Callosciurus finlaysonii, n = 85) and river rats ( Myocastor coypus, n = 43) in Italy. The rtPCR revealed Pneumocystis DNA in 20 of 85 (24%) squirrels and in 35 of 43 (81%) river rats, and was more sensitive than a nested PCR that targets a portion of the mtSSU rRNA and the mitochondrial large subunit of rRNA (mtLSU rRNA). Phylogenetic analysis based on mtSSU rRNA and mtLSU rRNA sequences showed distinct Pneumocystis sequence types in these rodents...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
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