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Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202675/acute-hepatic-steatosis-a-helpful-diagnostic-feature-in-metallic-phosphide-poisoned-horses
#1
Jonathan H Fox, Brian F Porter, Leslie Easterwood, Justin R V Hildenbrand, Pierre Hélie, James Smylie, Donal O'Toole
Metal phosphides, particularly zinc and aluminum phosphide, occasionally poison horses and other equids following their use as rodenticides and insecticides. Grain-based aluminum phosphide baits are used to control rodents such as prairie dogs. The clinical course in intoxicated horses is short (<24-48 h), and animals may be found dead. Hepatic lesions caused by phosphine poisoning are not well described. Laboratory confirmation depends on detecting phosphine gas in gastric contents. Eight horses and a mule were exposed to zinc phosphide used to control prairie dogs on a Wyoming ranch...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202674/determination-of-the-diversity-of-astroviruses-in-feces-from-cats-in-florida
#2
Patricia E Lawler, Kirstin A Cook, Hannah G Williams, Linda L Archer, Karen E Schaedel, Natalie M Isaza, James F X Wellehan
Astroviruses are small, nonenveloped RNA viruses that have been linked to numerous diseases in a variety of species, including enteric disease in humans and cheetahs. Species Mamastrovirus 2, previously known as feline astrovirus, has been isolated from the feces of domestic cats and cheetahs. A total of 122 cat fecal samples from Alachua County, FL Animal Services and the Veterinary Community Outreach Program at the University of Florida were analyzed, and 35 contained astroviral RNA that was amplified and identified using consensus RT-PCR and sequence analysis...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202673/enzootic-calcinosis-in-horses-grazing-solanum-glaucophyllum-in-argentina
#3
Ernesto R Odriozola, Alejandro M Rodríguez, Juan F Micheloud, Germán J Cantón, Rubén D Caffarena, Eduardo J Gimeno, José J Bodega, Pedro Gardey, Fortunato B Iseas, Federico Giannitti
Solanum glaucophyllum, a toxic plant known for its calcinogenic effects, causes enzootic calcinosis in ruminant and monogastric animals. We describe an outbreak of enzootic calcinosis that occurred in a herd of 110 horses grazing pastureland heavily contaminated with S. glaucophyllum in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Ten horses developed clinical signs, and 6 horses died. Clinical signs included abnormal gait (stiff-legged action, short strides), stiffness, thoracolumbar kyphosis, reluctance to move, wide stance, chronic weight loss, weakness, recumbency, and difficulty standing...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202672/sensitivity-and-specificity-levels-of-two-rapid-assays-for-antibodies-to-anaplasma-spp-in-dogs
#4
Jiayou Liu, Matthew Eberts, Hannah Bewsey, Thomas P O'Connor, Ramaswamy Chandrashekar, Edward B Breitschwerdt
Canine anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease of dogs that results following infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum or Anaplasma platys. The SNAP 4Dx Plus test (IDEXX Laboratories) and the VetScan Canine Anaplasma Rapid test (Abaxis) are commercial in-house rapid tests for the detection of antibody to these 2 antigenically related Anaplasma species. We evaluated 2 tests using serum and whole blood samples obtained from reference laboratories and veterinary hospitals. Samples were obtained from regions of the country known to be habitats of the primary tick vectors...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202671/natural-lymphatic-atypical-actinobacillosis-in-cattle-caused-by-actinobacillus-lignieresii
#5
Rubén D Caffarena, Ana Rabaza, Laura Casaux, Melissa Macías Rioseco, Carlos O Schild, Cecilia Monesiglio, Martín Fraga, Federico Giannitti, Franklin Riet-Correa
Bovine actinobacillosis is typically characterized by pyogranulomatous glossitis (wooden tongue). The involvement of other tissues, generally the skin or lymph nodes, has been regarded as atypical or cutaneous. We describe herein 2 outbreaks of actinobacillosis affecting primarily the lymph nodes of the head and neck. The disease affected 40 of 540 lactating cows in a dairy herd and 5 of 335 two-y-old steers in a beef herd. Multiple or single, occasionally ulcerated nodules were observed in the region of the mandible, neck, and shoulder, including the parotid, submandibular, retropharyngeal, and prescapular lymph nodes...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199537/equine-renal-hemangiosarcoma-clinical-presentation-pathologic-features-and-pstat3-expression
#6
Katherine Hughes, Victoria H L Scott, Maximilian Blanck, Timothy P Barnett, Jannie Spanner Kristiansen, Alastair K Foote
Hemangiosarcoma is an uncommon tumor in horses. We characterized 3 cases of equine renal hemangiosarcoma, focusing on clinical and pathologic features, and describe occurrence of the epithelioid variant of hemangiosarcoma in one of these cases. Nuclear expression of phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) was assessed to analyze potential inappropriate STAT3 activation as a component of tumor pathogenesis. Clinical signs in the 3 horses included insidious weight loss, followed in one case by serosanguineous nasal discharge and terminal epistaxis, and nonspecific signs of abdominal pain...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192554/prognostic-significance-of-ki67-and-its-correlation-with-mitotic-index-in-dogs-with-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-treated-with-19-week-chop-based-protocol
#7
Oscar R Sierra Matiz, Juliana Santilli, Leticia A Anai, Maria C L Da Silva, Felipe A Sueiro, Júlio L Sequeira, Larissa F Magalhães, Geórgia M Magalhães, Mirela Tinucci Costa, Sabryna G Calazans
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of lymphoma in dogs. We evaluated Ki67 immunoexpression and mitotic index (MI) in dogs diagnosed with DLBCL and treated with a 19-wk CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) protocol. Twenty-nine lymph node samples from dogs diagnosed with DLBCL were analyzed for Ki67 immunostaining, and positive cells present in 1 cm2 were counted in a grid reticle for comparison of survival times above and below the means. The Ki67 mean was 107, and the MI mean was 21...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188759/identifying-free-text-features-to-improve-automated-classification-of-structured-histopathology-reports-for-feline-small-intestinal-disease
#8
Abdullah Awaysheh, Jeffrey Wilcke, François Elvinger, Loren Rees, Weiguo Fan, Kurt Zimmerman
The histologic evaluation of gastrointestinal (GI) biopsies is the standard for diagnosis of a variety of GI diseases (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] and alimentary lymphoma [ALA]). The World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Gastrointestinal International Standardization Group proposed a reporting standard for GI biopsies consisting of a defined set of microscopic features. We compared the machine classification accuracy of free-text microscopic findings with those represented in the WSAVA format with a diagnosis of IBD and ALA...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153038/a-divergent-pseudoglandular-configuration-of-cutaneous-plasmacytoma-in-dogs
#9
Brittany McHale, Uriel Blas-Machado, Fabiano N Oliveira, Daniel R Rissi
Cutaneous and mucocutaneous plasmacytoma (PCT) is a common neoplasm of dogs. Tumors can be single or multiple and occur predominantly in the oral cavity, lip, ears, digits, and trunk. Although these tumors typically offer no diagnostic challenge for the pathologist, subsets of PCTs with atypical morphologic configurations may make differentiation from other neoplasms difficult. We describe 6 cases of canine cutaneous and mucocutaneous PCT with pseudoglandular arrangement of neoplastic cells. The mean age of affected dogs was 11...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153035/an-unusual-presentation-of-pseudocowpox-associated-with-an-outbreak-of-pustular-ulcerative-vulvovaginitis-in-a-swedish-dairy-herd
#10
Gunilla Blomqvist, Karin Ullman, Thomas Segall, Elenor Hauzenberger, Lena Renström, Karin Persson-Waller, Mikael Leijon, Jean-Francois Valarcher
Species Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV; family Poxviridae) is known to cause pustular cutaneous disease in cattle. We describe an outbreak of pseudocowpox with an unusual clinical picture in a free-stall dairy herd of ~80 cows. Approximately 90% of the cows had vesicles, erosions, papules, and scabs on the vulva and vaginal mucosa. Histologic analysis of biopsy tissues indicated a primary, although not specified, viral infection. Transmission electron microscopy revealed parapoxvirus particles in both tissue and vesicular materials...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148297/detection-of-pseudorabies-virus-by-duplex-droplet-digital-pcr-assay
#11
Meishen Ren, Hua Lin, Shijie Chen, Miao Yang, Wei An, Yin Wang, Changhua Xue, Yinjie Sun, Yubao Yan, Juan Hu
Aujeszky's disease, caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV), has damaged the economy of the Chinese swine industry. A large number of PRV gene-deleted vaccines have been constructed based on deletion of the glycoprotein E ( gE) gene combined with other virulence-related gene deletions, such as thymidine kinase ( TK), whereas PRV wild-type strains contain an intact gE gene. We developed a sensitive duplex droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay to rapidly detect PRV wild-type isolates and gE gene-deleted viral vaccines...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145799/gangrenous-dermatitis-in-chickens-and-turkeys
#12
Carlos D Gornatti-Churria, Manuela Crispo, H L Shivaprasad, Francisco A Uzal
Gangrenous dermatitis (GD) is a disease of chickens and turkeys that causes severe economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Clostridium septicum, Clostridium perfringens type A, and occasionally Clostridium sordellii are considered the main causes of GD, although Staphylococcus aureus and other aerobic bacteria may also be involved in some cases of the disease. GD has become one of the most significant diseases of commercial turkeys in the United States. Several infectious and/or environmental immunosuppressive factors can predispose to GD...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145787/pneumocystosis-in-dogs-meta-analysis-of-43-published-cases-including-clinical-signs-diagnostic-procedures-and-treatment
#13
Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang, Andrea Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Abigail Guija-De-Arespacochaga, Andrea Klang, Herbert Weissenböck, Frank Künzel
We evaluated 43 published cases of dogs with confirmed Pneumocystis infection regarding the value of clinical parameters indicating the presence of the disease as well as tools for the detection of the pathogen. The assessed parameters included clinical signs, laboratory findings, results of thoracic radiography, autopsy, histopathology, methods for the detection of Pneumocystis, as well as medical therapy. Pneumocystosis was diagnosed most often in certain breeds (Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Miniature Dachshund) with a predisposition for impaired immunity...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145786/cephalexin-susceptibility-breakpoint-for-veterinary-isolates-clinical-laboratory-standards-institute-revision
#14
Mark G Papich, Cindy Lindeman
The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) uses cephalothin as the class representative for testing veterinary isolates for susceptibility to other first-generation cephalosporins, including cephalexin. We examined replacing cephalothin with cephalexin because cephalexin is used more often clinically. Bacterial isolates were obtained from dogs and cats from a national surveillance program. CLSI testing methods were used to determine the MIC for 4 cephalosporins used in veterinary medicine. Cephalexin clinical breakpoints for canine isolates were established by using published pharmacokinetic data and Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the probability of target attainment (PTA)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145785/adenosine-deaminase-activity-in-pig-saliva-analytical-validation-of-two-spectrophotometric-assays
#15
Fernando Tecles, Camila P Rubio, María D Contreras-Aguilar, Marina López-Arjona, Silvia Martínez-Miró, Silvia Martínez-Subiela, José J Cerón
We validated 2 assays for the measurement of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in the saliva of pigs: the Giusti-Galanti manual method (ADA-GG) and a commercial automated assay (Diazyme Laboratories; ADA-D). Intra-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) were <7 and 9%, and interassay CVs were <12 and 5%, for ADA-GG and ADA-D, respectively. Accuracy was measured by 2 methods: recovery and linearity-under-dilution. Recovery was 82.4-106.8% for ADA-GG, and 92.8-107.9% for ADA-D. Serial dilutions showed R(2) > 0...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145778/an-apparent-case-of-brodifacoum-toxicosis-in-a-whelping-dog
#16
Scott D Fitzgerald, Jennifer Martinez, John P Buchweitz
A 7-y-old Weimaraner bitch was presented to emergency service after 3 h of active labor with no puppies produced. Hemoabdomen and hemothorax were present at the time of surgery; prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were both found to be within normal ranges. Surgical cesarean section was performed; 4 dead puppies and 5 live puppies were delivered. Because hemostasis was difficult to achieve, a hysterectomy was performed; however, the dog died as the operation was being completed...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145759/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-urease-negative-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-mutant
#17
Hiroya Ito, Sayaka Takahashi, Tetsuo Asai, Yutaka Tamura, Koshi Yamamoto
An atypical urease-negative mutant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 2 was isolated in Japan. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the urease gene cluster revealed that the insertion of a short DNA sequence into the cbiM gene was responsible for the urease-negative activity of the mutant. Veterinary diagnostic laboratories should be watchful for the presence of aberrant urease-negative A. pleuropneumoniae isolates.
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105601/pooling-of-interdigital-swab-samples-for-pcr-detection-of-virulent-dichelobacter-nodosus
#18
Deborah Greber, Iwan Locher, Peter Kuhnert, Marc-André Butty, Kerstin Holdener, Joachim Frey, Gertraud Schüpbach-Regula, Adrian Steiner
Virulent ovine foot rot is a contagious foot disease. Given the development and validation of a real-time PCR to detect Dichelobacter nodosus isolates that contain the virulence-associated protease genes aprV2 and aprB2, the diagnosis of foot rot has made considerable progress. We evaluated pooling methods to reduce the number of samples during a foot rot control program. Samples of individual feet were compared to a 4-feet sample of the same sheep. All further analyses based on 4-feet samples (pools-of-5 and pools-of-10 4-feet samples) were compared to samples of individual sheep, and a risk-based herd sampling was evaluated and compared to the whole flock...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105585/fatal-cases-of-citrobacter-freundii-septicemia-and-encephalitis-in-sheep
#19
Huisheng Liu, Zhanqin Zhao, Yun Xue, Ke Ding, Qiao Xue
Citrobacter freundii is considered a ubiquitous organism and an opportunistic pathogen. Reports of C. freundii-associated disease in mammals have been very limited. We report an outbreak of C. freundii septicemia and encephalitis in sheep, with a high mortality rate; 13 adult sheep were found dead over a 6-d period on a farm in central China that housed ~1,370 sheep. Three animals were autopsied and showed septicemia, congestion of meningeal vessels, and pleural effusion. C. freundii was isolated in abundance in pure culture from 19 of 21 organs...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105571/accuracy-of-pcr-targeting-different-markers-for-staphylococcus-aureus-identification-a-comparative-study-using-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-as-the-gold-standard
#20
Mauro M Saraiva, Candice M De Leon, Silvana C Santos, Danilo T Stipp, Miliane M Souza, Lauro Santos Filho, Wondwossen A Gebreyes, Celso J Oliveira
Staphylococcus aureus is considered a major pathogen in veterinary and human medicine, and the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, such as livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus, means that reliable, inexpensive, and fast methods are required to identify S. aureus obtained from animal sources. We tested the accuracy of a PCR targeting the genes femA, nuc, and coa in identifying S. aureus from animals. A total of 157 Staphylococcus spp. isolates were examined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry; 18 different Staphylococcus species were identified...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
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