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Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation

Axel Colling, Ross Lunt, Jemma Bergfeld, Leanne McNabb, Kim Halpin, Susan Juzva, Kim Newberry, Chris Morrissy, Cameron Loomes, Simone Warner, Ibrahim Diallo, Peter Kirkland, Christopher C Broder, Gemma Carlile, Mai Hlaing Loh, Caryll Waugh, Lynda Wright, James Watson, Debbie Eagles, Kurt Zuelke, Sam McCullough, Peter Daniels
Obtaining statistically sound numbers of sera from Hendra virus (HeV)-infected horses is problematic because affected individuals usually die or are euthanized before developing a serum antibody response. As a consequence, test validation becomes a challenge. Our approach is an extension of OIE principles for provisional recognition and included 7 validation panels tested across multiple laboratories that provided estimates for test performance characteristics. At a 0.4 S/P cutoff, 16 of 19 sera from HeV-infected horses gave positive results in the HeV soluble G, indirect ELISA (HeVsG iELISA; DSe 84...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Michael E Pesato, Ashley G Boyle, Marie-Eve Fecteau, Alexander Hamberg, Billy I Smith
Many neoplasms have been reported in goats; however, neoplasia of the rumen is rarely reported. A 9-y-old castrated male pygmy goat was presented with a history of respiratory stertor, fever, and anorexia. A respiratory diagnostic work-up including skull and thorax radiographs and endoscopy revealed minor enlargement of the arytenoids but no other abnormal findings. After a month of little improvement on symptomatic treatment and worsening general health, the goat was euthanized. On autopsy, the forestomachs, liver, spleen, diaphragm, and the ventral and lateral aspects of the cranial third of the walls of the peritoneal cavity were adhered to one another by fibrinous and fibrous adhesions...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Rachel Pittaway, Ying Wu, Balazs Szladovits, Alejandro Suárez-Bonnet, Emma J Scurrell, Oliver A Garden, Gerry Polton, Simon L Priestnall
Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma or null-cell lymphoma is a clinical entity reported in people, classified according to the unique appearance of large pleomorphic cells that express CD30. Null-cell lymphoma has also been described in dogs when neither CD3 nor CD79α is expressed by the tumor. We describe a case of lymphoma in the dog in which neoplastic cells did not express routine B- or T-lymphocyte markers on flow cytometry or immunohistochemistry; however, cells immunohistochemically labeled for CD30. The dog in our case died 5 mo after initial presentation, confirming a poor prognosis...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Paula R Almeida, Elis Lorenzetti, Raquel S Cruz, Tatiane T Watanabe, Priscila Zlotowski, Amauri A Alfieri, David Driemeier
Rotavirus (RV) is an important viral pathogen causing diarrhea in piglets and other mammals worldwide. We describe 34 cases from 4 diarrheal outbreaks caused by RV in unvaccinated farrowing units in southern Brazil from 2011 to 2013. We performed autopsy, histologic examinations, bacterial culture, RV immunohistochemistry (IHC), and enteric virus detection through molecular assays for rotavirus A, B, and C, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, sapovirus, norovirus, and kobuvirus...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Duane T March, Kimberly Vinette-Herrin, Andrew Peters, Ellen Ariel, David Blyde, Doug Hayward, Les Christidis, Brendan P Kelaher
To improve understanding of pathophysiologic processes occurring in green sea turtles ( Chelonia mydas) stranded along the east coast of Australia, we retrospectively examined the hematologic and biochemical blood parameters of 127 green turtles admitted to 2 rehabilitation facilities, Dolphin Marine Magic (DMM) and Taronga Zoo (TZ), between 2002 and 2016. The predominant size class presented was small immature animals (SIM), comprising 88% and 69% of admissions to DMM and TZ, respectively. Significant differences in blood profiles were noted between facility, size, and outcome...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Salwa Al-Mouqatea, Mohammad Alkhamis, Batool Akbar, Abdulmohsen Ali, Hameed Al-Aqeel, Ahmed Bin-Heji, Mohammed Razzaque, Julio Alvarez, Andres Perez
Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is endemic in Kuwait; cattle identified as TB-positive using the caudal fold test (CFT) are culled. We used a Bayesian approach to estimate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the IFNγ assay and ELISA, which are not routinely used in Kuwait in CFT-negative dairy cattle. Blood samples from CFT-negative cattle ( n = 384) collected from 38 dairy farms were tested by IFNγ assay and ELISA. The Se and Sp (95% CI) of the IFNγ were 85.0% (67.6-95.3%) and 90.4% (86.7-95.3%), respectively, whereas estimates for the ELISA were 61...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Angelica Stranieri, Alessia Giordano, Saverio Paltrinieri, Chiara Giudice, Valentina Cannito, Stefania Lauzi
We compared the performance of clinicopathologic and molecular tests used in the antemortem diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). From 16 FIP and 14 non-FIP cats, we evaluated retrospectively the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios (LRs) of serum protein electrophoresis, α 1 -acid glycoprotein (AGP) on peripheral blood, screening reverse-transcription nested PCR (RT-nPCR) on the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR), and spike (S) gene sequencing on peripheral blood, body cavity effusions, and tissue, as well as body cavity cytology and delta total nucleated cell count (ΔTNC)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Robert B Moeller, Beate Crossley, John M Adaska, Gary Hsia, Richard Kahn, Patricia C Blanchard
A group of Holstein first-calved heifers developed small pustules and ulcers on the vulva and in the vagina during the first 1-4 wk postpartum. The lesions varied from small red pinpoint foci to pustules and ulcers, 3-5 mm diameter. Some ulcers coalesced to form large ulcerated areas up to 15 mm diameter. In some animals, these ulcers progressed to become deep ulceration of the vaginal and vulvar mucosa with >50% of the mucosa involved. Vaginal biopsies from 4 heifers and vaginal individual swabs from 8 heifers for a combined sampling of 9 heifers were taken for clinical assessment...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Han-Byeol Jung, Min-Hee Kang, Hee-Myung Park
Worsening renal function and azotemia in patients with heart failure (HF) are strongly associated with disease severity and poor prognosis. Increasing interest in this correlation led to the description and classification of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). We evaluated the role of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in the early detection of CRS in dogs with HF. Ten healthy dogs and 31 dogs admitted with HF were included in our study. NGAL and troponin-I were measured on samples collected on the day of admission; creatinine was measured on admission and again on day 7...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Patti K Kiser, Christiane V Löhr, Danielle Meritet, Sean T Spagnoli, Milan Milovancev, Duncan S Russell
Although quantitative assessment of margins is recommended for describing excision of cutaneous malignancies, there is poor understanding of limitations associated with this technique. We described and quantified histologic artifacts in inked margins and determined the association between artifacts and variance in histologic tumor-free margin (HTFM) measurements based on a novel grading scheme applied to 50 sections of normal canine skin and 56 radial margins taken from 15 different canine mast cell tumors (MCTs)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Daniel R Rissi
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is one of the most important viral diseases of cats worldwide. Our study describes the neuropathology and the diagnostic features of 26 cases of FIP in domestic cats. The average age of affected individuals was 11.8 mo, and there was no sex or breed predisposition. Clinical neurologic signs were noted in 22 cases, and rabies was clinically suspected in 11 cases. Twenty cats had lesions in multiple organs, and 6 cats had lesions only in the brain. Gross neuropathologic changes occurred in 15 cases and consisted of hydrocephalus (10 cases), cerebellar herniation through the foramen magnum (6 cases), cerebral swelling with flattening of gyri (2 cases), and accumulation of fibrin within ventricles (2 cases) or leptomeninges (1 case)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Gustavo W Mello, Franklin Riet-Correa, Maria C Batista, Ciro J Carvalho, Alexandre C Dias, Fabio L Franklin, Silvana M Silva, Alex Dias
Farmers in the State of Piauí in northeastern Brazil reported nervous signs in ruminants and donkeys after ingestion of Brunfelsia uniflora at the start of the rainy season when the plant is flowering. Leaves of the plant, collected at the start or at the end of the rainy season, were administered in single doses of 5-20 g/kg body weight to 8 sheep and 3 donkeys. Two sheep and 1 donkey that ingested 10 g/kg of the plant in November at the start of the rainy season, when the plant was flowering, developed severe convulsions and diarrhea...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Hannah G Williams, Kirstin A Cook, Patricia E Lawler, Linda L Archer, Karen Schaedel, Natalie Isaza, James F X Wellehan
Astroviruses are viral pathogens that have been associated with enteric and neurologic disease in a variety of species. The domestic cat is a prominent host, with reports of astroviral infection being both highly prevalent and widely distributed in the feline population. Despite the potential for inducing significant disease, especially within shelter environments, there is currently only one reliable method of detection: standard reverse-transcription PCR using pan-astrovirus degenerate primers (consensus RT-PCR) with product sequencing...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Kristin A Clothier, Peony Kim, Asli Mete, Ashley E Hill
Backyard poultry operations are increasingly popular and commonplace in both rural and suburban locations. Although Salmonella surveillance programs are well established for large commercial poultry systems, information on smaller operations is lacking. We identified the occurrence and serotype distribution of Salmonella spp. recovered from backyard flock cases submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (Davis, CA) in 2012-2015, and evaluated minimum inhibitory concentration for 12 antimicrobials as well as the lesions associated with Salmonella spp...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Mallory E Heimerman, Maria V Murgia, Ping Wu, Andre D Lowe, Wei Jia, Raymond R Rowland
Protein p72 is the major capsid protein of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and is an important target for test and vaccine development. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were prepared against a recombinant antigenic fragment, from amino acid (aa) 20-303, expressed in baculovirus. A total of 29 mAbs were recovered and tested by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) staining on ASFV Lisbon-infected Vero cells. Six antibodies were IFA-positive and selected for further characterization. Epitope mapping was performed against overlapping polypeptides expressed in E...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Erika Grandolfo, Antonio Parisi, Antonia Ricci, Eleonora Lorusso, Rocco de Siena, Adriana Trotta, Domenico Buonavoglia, Vito Martella, Marialaura Corrente
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Abortusequi is frequently reported as a cause of abortion in mares and neonatal septicemia and polyarthritis in Asian and African countries, but only sporadically in Europe and the United States. We report an outbreak of S. Abortusequi in foals in Italy, characterized by high mortality. In a herd of Murgese horses, 10 of 34 newborns died at birth and a further 7 died, after developing severe clinical signs, during the first 10 d of life. Tissue specimens from different organs of 2 dead foals, synovial fluids from 4 sick foals, and vaginal and rectal swabs from their dams were cultured...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Shannon G Kirejczyk, Anne L Burnum, Corrie C Brown, Kaori Sakamoto, Daniel R Rissi
Mesothelial papillary hyperplasia (MPH) has been described as an incidental finding on the epicardial surface of clinically normal laboratory Beagle dogs. We describe MPH in 4 dogs diagnosed with acute cardiac tamponade (1 case) or chronic cardiac disease (3 cases). Cardiac MPH appeared as distinct, soft, irregular villous plaques on the epicardial surface of the auricles and occasionally the ventricles. Histologically, areas of MPH were composed of multiple papillary fronds arising from the epicardial surface and projecting into the pericardial space...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Lalitha Peddireddi, Kelly A Foster, Elizabeth G Poulsen, Baoyan An, Quoc Hung Hoang, Catherine O'Connell, Joseph W Anderson, Daniel U Thomson, Gregg A Hanzlicek, Jianfa Bai, Richard A Hesse, Richard D Oberst, Gary A Anderson, Ivan Leyva-Baca
Fifty-three cattle of unknown serologic status that were not persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were commingled with 10 cattle that were PI with different strains of BVDV, and were monitored for an extended commingle period using a reverse-transcription real-time PCR (RT-rtPCR) BVDV assay on various sample types. Transient infections with BVDV were also assessed by virus isolation, virus neutralization (VN) assays, and direct buffy coat 5'-UTR sequencing. Infections were demonstrated in all cattle by RT-rtPCR; however, the detection rate was dependent on the type of sample...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Micaela E Zywicki, Sharon E Blohowiak, Ronald R Magness, Jeffrey L Segar, Pamela J Kling
Normative data for plasma chemistry values in pregnant and non-pregnant reproductive age ewes are scant. Availability of data would aid monitoring of ewe health for both research and veterinary medicine. We determined specific plasma chemistry 95% confidence reference intervals (RIs) in non-pregnant and pregnant ewes. Mixed Western-breed ewes were grouped based on phase of ovarian cycle: luteal ( n = 15), follicular ( n = 17), or late-gestation pregnant ( n = 102). Plasma samples were collected for analysis on a commercial biochemical analyzer...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Gordon Ehrensing, Linden E Craig
We evaluated 134 cutaneous plasmacytomas in 125 dogs submitted to the University of Tennessee surgical biopsy service between 2009 and 2012 to determine whether the presence of intravascular neoplastic cells had prognostic significance. Tumors occurred in middle-aged to geriatric dogs (range: 5-16 y, mean: 9.6 y) and most frequently involved the skin of the head and distal limbs. Diagnoses were made based on light microscopy, and in some cases confirmed by immunoreactivity of neoplastic cells for MUM1. Tumors were categorized as having or not having intravascular neoplastic cells within sections examined...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
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