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Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613139/evaluation-of-the-relationship-between-the-minimum-inhibitory-concentration-of-ceftiofur-and-third-generation-cephalosporins-in-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-food-producing-animals
#1
Mototaka Hiki, Yasuhito Shimizu, Michiko Kawanishi, Manao Ozawa, Hitoshi Abo, Akemi Kojima, Ryoji Koike, Satowa Suzuki, Tetsuo Asai, Shuichi Hamamoto
To enable future comparison of the antimicrobial susceptibility data between bacteria obtained from animals and humans, it is necessary to compare the relationships between minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of veterinary and human medicine. We evaluated the relationship between the MIC of ceftiofur (CTF) and the MICs of other third-generation cephalosporins (TGCs): cefotaxime (CTX), cefpodoxime (CPDX), and ceftazidime (CAZ), determined by the broth microdilution method using 118 cefazolin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from food-producing animals...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613116/reduction-of-thoroughbred-racing-fatalities-at-new-york-racing-association-racetracks-using-a-multi-disciplinary-mortality-review-process
#2
Scott E Palmer, Sean P McDonough, Hussni O Mohammed
Between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015, findings of a New York State Gaming Commission-Cornell University postmortem examination program were utilized in a multi-disciplinary mortality review process to review 129 racing fatalities at Thoroughbred racetracks operated by the New York Racing Association (NYRA). Musculoskeletal fractures comprised 79% of the fatalities; cardiopulmonary conditions accounted for 12% of the fatalities. Other causes of death included gastrointestinal (3%), respiratory (5%), and central nervous system (2%) conditions...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599620/blackleg-in-cattle-a-case-report-of-fetal-infection-and-a-literature-review
#3
Camila C Abreu, Erin E Edwards, John F Edwards, Philippa M Gibbons, Jeann Leal de Araújo, Raquel R Rech, Francisco A Uzal
Clostridium chauvoei causes blackleg in cattle. The disease has been reported worldwide, and although it can be prevented by vaccination, sporadic cases and occasional outbreaks still occur. We describe a case of blackleg in a 2-y-old, pregnant Gyr cow with in utero transmission to the fetus. The cow had characteristic gross and microscopic lesions of blackleg including widespread necrohemorrhagic and emphysematous skeletal and myocardial myositis, and fibrinous pericarditis. Her uterus contained a near-term, markedly emphysematous fetus with skeletal muscle and myocardial lesions similar to those seen in the dam...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599616/a-survey-of-methods-used-for-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-in-veterinary-diagnostic-laboratories-in-the-united-states
#4
David A Dargatz, Matthew M Erdman, Beth Harris
Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to animal and human health worldwide, requiring a collaborative, holistic approach. The U.S. Government has developed a national strategy to address antimicrobial resistance, with one component being to monitor antimicrobial resistance in agricultural settings. We developed a survey to collect information about antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) from the veterinary diagnostic laboratory community in the United States, assessing current practices and technologies and determining how AST information is shared...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599615/histopathology-case-definition-of-naturally-acquired-salmonella-enterica-serovar-dublin-infection-in-young-holstein-cattle-in-the-northeastern-united-states
#5
Heidi L Pecoraro, Belinda Thompson, Gerald E Duhamel
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin ( Salmonella Dublin) is a host-adapted bacterium that causes high morbidity and mortality in dairy cattle worldwide. A retrospective search of archives at the New York Animal Health Diagnostic Center revealed 57 culture-confirmed Salmonella Dublin cases from New York and Pennsylvania in which detailed histology of multiple tissues was available. Tissues routinely submitted by referring veterinarians for histologic evaluation included sections of heart, lungs, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599613/immunohistochemical-analysis-of-canine-and-feline-muscle-disorders-using-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissues
#6
Takanori Shiga, Kazuyuki Uchida, James K Chambers, Hiroyuki Nakayama
Histochemical techniques used in examination of muscle biopsies typically require frozen sections. Given that most of the specimens submitted to a veterinary laboratory for diagnosis are formalin-fixed, the choice of staining methods is limited. We aimed to further advance the diagnostic capabilities of pathologists presented with formalin-fixed muscle samples and to describe the differences in immunohistopathologic findings between neurogenic and myogenic muscle disorders. Based on hematoxylin and eosin staining, we defined in dogs the histologic lesions in 4 neurogenic disorders (degenerative myelopathy and polyneuropathy) and 2 myogenic disorders (dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599612/mycobacterioses-in-dogs-and-cats-from-buenos-aires-argentina
#7
Soledad Barandiaran, Marcela Martínez Vivot, Elvira Falzoni, María Jimena Marfil, Gabriela Pérez Tort, Paula Rovatti, Mónica Fernández, Ricardo Iachini, Fernanda Satek, Adriana Duchene, Martín José Zumárraga
Mycobacterioses can produce nonspecific clinical signs in dogs and cats that make diagnosis difficult. Furthermore, the full characterization of mycobacterial agents is not always possible or practical. We characterized mycobacteria detected through cytology in 12 dogs and 7 cats with generalized clinical signs from the province of Buenos Aires in Argentina. In dogs, molecular testing confirmed the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) in 8 cases and M. fortuitum in 1 case. All dogs were Miniature Schnauzers, suggesting that this breed may be more susceptible to M...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599611/effects-of-storage-temperature-and-repeated-freeze-thaw-cycles-on-stability-of-bovine-plasma-concentrations-of-haptoglobin-and-ceruloplasmin
#8
Paulo G M A Martins, Philipe Moriel, John D Arthington
We evaluated the effects of storage temperature (-20 or -80°C) and handling procedure on plasma concentrations of bovine haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin. Within each temperature, whole blood samples were: centrifuged within 2 h of collection and plasma kept frozen until analysis (control); refrigerated at 4°C for 24 h before plasma harvest and freezing (24H); or plasma harvested and frozen within 2 h after collection, but then plasma samples were thawed and refrozen 1 wk (1X), 1 and 2 wk (2X), or 1, 2 and 3 wk (3X) before analyses...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581363/detection-of-canine-adenovirus-1-in-red-foxes-vulpes-vulpes-and-raccoons-procyon-lotor-in-germany-with-a-taqman-real-time-pcr-assay
#9
Silke Hechinger, Svenja Scheffold, Hans-Peter Hamann, Michael Zschöck
We developed a real-time (rt)PCR assay based on TaqMan probe technology for the specific detection of canine adenovirus 1 (CAdV-1). The assay is able to detect three 50% tissue culture infectious dose/mL in CAdV-1-containing cell culture supernatant. Viral genomes were not amplified of canine adenovirus 2 or of several bovine, porcine, and avian adenoviruses. In silico analysis provided no indication of amplification of other heterologous genomes. The sensitivity of the real-time assay exceeded that of a conventional gel-based CAdV-1 PCR by a factor of 100...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580838/a-diagnostic-pathologist-s-guide-to-carpal-disease-in-racehorses
#10
Julie B Engiles, Holly Stewart, Jennifer Janes, Laura A Kennedy
As a pathologist, postmortem examination of the equine carpus can be daunting. The anatomy is complex and oftentimes, small or subtle lesions have significant impact on lameness and secondary lesions such as catastrophic musculoskeletal fractures and other injuries. In performance horses, particularly racehorses, the carpus is a common site of injury and source of lameness. Given the predisposition of racehorses to developing carpal disease, familiarity with clinically relevant anatomy and common developmental, degenerative, traumatic, and inflammatory processes are imperative for thorough postmortem examination...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580831/markers-of-oxidative-stress-in-dogs-with-heart-failure
#11
Barbara Verk, Alenka Nemec Svete, Janez Salobir, Vida Rezar, Aleksandra Domanjko Petrič
We tested the hypothesis that indirect measures of oxidative stress (vitamin E, glutathione peroxidase, and malondialdehyde) differ in dogs in heart failure resulting from either myxomatous mitral valve disease or dilated cardiomyopathy. Dogs were classified according to the International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council (ISACHC) classification. Additionally, the effect of cardiac therapy on oxidative stress parameters and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in advanced stages of congestive heart failure was investigated...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578617/a-serologic-survey-of-mycoplasma-spp-in-farmed-bison-bison-bison-herds-in-western-canada
#12
Ana L Bras, Muhammad Suleman, Murray Woodbury, Karen Register, Herman W Barkema, Jose Perez-Casal, M Claire Windeyer
Mycoplasma bovis is emerging as an important pathogen of farmed bison in North America and is associated with high morbidity and mortality in affected herds. We developed an in-house ELISA to detect antibodies against Mycoplasma spp. in bison sera. The aims of the study were to estimate the seroprevalence against Mycoplasma spp. in bison herds with or without past history of M. bovis-associated disease, and to determine potential risk factors for seropositivity to Mycoplasma spp. in farmed bison in western Canada...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578596/high-resolution-melting-analysis-of-gyra-codon-84-and-grla-codon-80-mutations-conferring-resistance-to-fluoroquinolones-in-staphylococcus-pseudintermedius-isolates-from-canine-clinical-samples
#13
Monica Loiacono, Piera Anna Martino, Francesca Albonico, Francesca Dell'Orco, Manuela Ferretti, Sergio Zanzani, Michele Mortarino
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an opportunistic pathogen of dogs and cats. A high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) protocol was designed and tested on 42 clinical isolates with known fluoroquinolone (FQ) susceptibility and gyrA codon 84 and grlA codon 80 mutation status. The HRMA approach was able to discriminate between FQ-sensitive and FQ-resistant strains and confirmed previous reports that the main mutation site associated with FQ resistance in S. pseudintermedius is located at position 251 (Ser84Leu) of gyrA...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548623/pneumocystis-carinii-infection-with-severe-pneumomediastinum-and-lymph-node-involvement-in-a-whippet-mixed-breed-dog
#14
Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang, Andrea Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea Klang, Sibylle Kneissl, Armin Pirker, Sarina Shibly, Stephanie von Ritgen, Herbert Weissenböck, Frank Künzel
A 3.5-y-old Whippet mixed-breed dog was presented with a history of respiratory distress, exercise intolerance, and generalized demodicosis. Hematologic alterations included marked leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Radiographic examination showed a diffuse interstitial and mild peripheral alveolar lung pattern and pneumomediastinum. Because the cytologic examination of the bronchoalveolar aspirate was not diagnostic and a persistent perforation of the upper respiratory tract could not be ruled out, the dog was submitted to thoracoscopy, and subsequently the left cranial lung lobe as well as mediastinal and sternal lymph nodes were resected...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548572/analytical-validation-of-a-reference-laboratory-elisa-for-the-detection-of-feline-leukemia-virus-p27-antigen
#15
Jesse S Buch, Genevieve H Clark, Roberta Cahill, Brendon Thatcher, Peter Smith, Ramaswamy Chandrashekar, Christian M Leutenegger, Thomas P O'Connor, Melissa J Beall
Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is an oncogenic retrovirus of cats. Immunoassays for the p27 core protein of FeLV aid in the detection of FeLV infections. Commercial microtiter-plate ELISAs have rapid protocols and visual result interpretation, limiting their usefulness in high-throughput situations. The purpose of our study was to validate the PetChek FeLV 15 ELISA, which is designed for the reference laboratory, and incorporates sequential, orthogonal screening and confirmatory protocols. A cutoff for the screening assay was established with 100% accuracy using 309 feline samples (244 negative, 65 positive) defined by the combined results of FeLV PCR and an independent reference p27 antigen ELISA...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548570/embolic-mycotic-encephalitis-in-a-cow-following-mortierella-wolfii-infection-of-a-surgery-site
#16
Benjamin Curtis, Charlotte Hollinger, Ailam Lim, Matti Kiupel
A 5-y-old Holstein dairy cow had surgery for a suspected displaced abomasum 10 d postpartum, developed acute neurologic signs at day 19, and was found dead 21 d postpartum. At autopsy, there was a peri-incisional intramuscular abscess that communicated with the peritoneal cavity, as well as hemorrhage and malacia involving the brain, and multiple nodules in the liver, kidneys, and lungs. Fungal hyphae were seen histologically at the surgery site, on the surface of the liver, and in lesions of severe necrotizing vasculitis in the lungs, kidneys, brain, and liver...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548568/genetic-antigenic-and-pathogenic-characteristics-of-newcastle-disease-viruses-isolated-from-geese-in-china
#17
Qianqian Xu, Junfeng Sun, Mengying Gao, Shasha Zhao, Huairan Liu, TingTing Zhang, Zongxi Han, Xiangang Kong, Shengwang Liu
Four Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains were isolated from domestic, commercial geese that showed clinical signs that were believed to be the result of NDV infections. The genetic, antigenic, and pathogenic characteristics of the 4 NDVs were compared with those of NDV strains that were isolated from chickens. The complete genomes of 2 of the NDV strains contained 15,186 nucleotides (nt); the other 2 contained 15,192 nt, and exhibited the typical genomic organization of genotype II NDV and molecular characteristics of VIId NDVs...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548023/membranous-ventricular-septal-aneurysm-in-a-black-tailed-prairie-dog-cynomys-ludovicianus
#18
Timothy K Cooper
Ventricular septal defects are one of the most common congenital cardiac malformations in animals, and most often affect the membranous portion of the septum. These defects may rarely close spontaneously. An adult male black-tailed prairie dog ( Cynomys ludovicianus) had a smooth shiny botryoid red mass arising from the area of the septal cusp of the right atrioventricular (tricuspid) valve and membranous interventricular septum, and bulging into the right ventricular lumen. Histology and special staining demonstrated a membranous ventricular septal defect closed by the adherence of the septal cusp of the tricuspid valve to the muscular septum (so-called membranous ventricular septal aneurysm or aneurysm of the [peri]membranous ventricular septum)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545345/systemic-necrotizing-polyarteritis-in-three-weaned-lambs-from-one-flock
#19
Mark Wessels, Ben Strugnell, Nick Woodger, Martin Peat, Severina Anna La Rocca, Akbar Dastjerdi
Systemic necrotizing polyarteritis was diagnosed in three 7-11-mo-old lambs from the same flock. Aneurysmal dilation and rupture of the gastroduodenal artery in 1 lamb resulted in fatal hemorrhage. All lambs had severe necrotizing vasculitis involving the small intestine, abomasum, mesentery, kidney, and heart with concurrent lymphocytic enteritis. Immunohistochemistry for T- and B-lymphocytes and macrophages found a T-cell- and macrophage-dominant transmural vascular infiltrate and T-cell-associated enteritis...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545343/alcelaphine-gammaherpesvirus-1-induced-malignant-catarrhal-fever-in-a-watusi-bos-taurus-africanus-steer-in-a-north-american-game-park
#20
Robert J Bildfell, Hong Li, Benjamin E Alcantar, Cristina W Cunha, Dan S Bradway, Kirsten S Thomas
A 10-y-old Watusi ( Bos taurus africanus) steer housed at a drive-through game park in Winston, Oregon developed severe clinical illness including fever, marked nasal discharge, injected scleral and conjunctival membranes, plus oral hemorrhages and erosions. The animal responded poorly to supportive treatment and was euthanized. Additional gross findings at postmortem examination included papules and erosive lesions on the tongue, hemorrhagic large intestine, and multifocal cardiac hemorrhages. Histopathologic findings included multifocal lymphoplasmacytic vasculitis plus fibrin exudation in heart and tongue...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
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