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Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation

John D Loy, Laura Leger, Aspen M Workman, Michael L Clawson, Ece Bulut, Bing Wang
Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is one of the most significant diseases of cattle. Bacterial pathogens involved in BRDC include Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Histophilus somni, and Pasteurella multocida. We developed and evaluated a multiplexed real-time hydrolysis probe (rtPCR) assay using block-based Peltier and rotary-based thermocycling on lung tissue, nasal swabs, and deep nasopharyngeal swabs. The rtPCR results were compared to culture or a gel-based M. bovis PCR using statistical analysis to determine optimum quantification cycle (Cq) cutoffs to maximize agreement...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Ying-Tao Zhang, Xiao-Qin Guo, Johnny D Callahan, Gui-Li Yuan, Gui-Hong Zhang, Yao Chen, Hai-Bing Zhang, Laura A Pulscher, Jia-Hai Lu, Gregory C Gray
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a highly contagious respiratory virus causing severe morbidity in pigs worldwide. Control strategies for PRRSV often rely on detecting PRRSV, culling or isolating sick pigs, disinfecting pig barns, vaccination, and monitoring for virus spread. Given the high economic impact of PRRSV on pig farms, there is a great need for rapid and reliable PRRSV detection assays. We compared the performance of 2 commercial reverse-transcription real-time PCR (RT-rtPCR) assays, the VetMAX PRRSV NA and EU reagents (ABI assay) and the PRRSV general RT-rtPCR kit (Anheal assay), for the molecular detection of PRRSV in sera collected from pigs in China...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Anabel Cruz-Romero, Dora Romero-Salas, Ángel Osvaldo Alvarado-Félix, Mariel Aguilar-Domínguez, José Luis Ochoa-Valencia, Domingo Alvarado-Esquivel, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, José Alfredo Zamarripa-Barboza, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano
We determined the seropositive percentage and the determinants of Leptospira exposure in domestic donkeys presented for slaughter in the State of Durango, Mexico. We examined 194 donkeys in 4 gathering premises. Sera of donkeys were analyzed for anti- Leptospira IgG antibodies using a microscopic agglutination assay with a panel of 7 Leptospira antigens. The association between Leptospira seropositivity and general characteristics of donkeys was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Antibodies against Leptospira (for at least 1 of the 7 Leptospira serovars examined) were found in 151 of 194 (77...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Shimaa M Ghoniem, Ayman H El Deeb, Mohammed G Aggour, Hussein A Hussein
We developed a multiplex reverse-transcription real-time PCR (RT-rtPCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the main equine respiratory viruses: equid alphaherpesviruses 1 and 4 (EHV-1, -4) and equine influenza virus (EIV; species Influenza A virus). The primers and probes amplified only the targeted viruses, and there were no inter-assay cross-amplifications or nonspecific interactions. The multiplex assay efficiencies were 92.5%, 97%, and 90% for EHV-1, EHV-4, and EIV, respectively. The R2 values of the monoplex and multiplex assays were ⩾0...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Raphaela Stimmelmayr, David S Rotstein, Grazieli Maboni, Brian T Person, Susan Sanchez
We describe lipid pneumonia in 5 of 24 Arctic foxes ( Vulpes lagopus) in association with morbillivirus infection, and lymphoid depletion in 3 of these 5 foxes. Canine distemper virus (CDV) immunohistochemistry yielded positive staining in lung, lymph nodes, spleen, adipose tissue, and renal pelvic urothelial cells in 5 cases. Liver and bone marrow samples collected from these cases tested positive for morbillivirus by reverse-transcription PCR assay. Strains belonged to the CDV Arctic lineage based on sequencing of the hemagglutinin gene followed by phylogenetic analysis...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Patrizia Danesi, Christian Falcaro, Silvia Ravagnan, Graziana Da Rold, Elena Porcellato, Michela Corrò, Roberta Iatta, Claudia Cafarchia, Antonio Frangipane di Regalbono, Wieland Meyer, Gioia Capelli
We used a real-time PCR (rtPCR) targeting a 150-bp amplicon of the mitochondrial small subunit of ribosomal RNA (mtSSU rRNA) to screen for Pneumocystis DNA in lungs of wild squirrels ( Callosciurus finlaysonii, n = 85) and river rats ( Myocastor coypus, n = 43) in Italy. The rtPCR revealed Pneumocystis DNA in 20 of 85 (24%) squirrels and in 35 of 43 (81%) river rats, and was more sensitive than a nested PCR that targets a portion of the mtSSU rRNA and the mitochondrial large subunit of rRNA (mtLSU rRNA). Phylogenetic analysis based on mtSSU rRNA and mtLSU rRNA sequences showed distinct Pneumocystis sequence types in these rodents...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Korakrit Poonsuk, Luis G Giménez-Lirola, Ronaldo L Magtoto, Ju Ji, David H Baum, Christopher J Rademacher, Justin T Brown, Jianqiang Zhang, Chong Wang, Rodger G Main, Jeffrey J Zimmerman
Routine testing of breeding herd oral fluid (OF) samples for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) IgG and/or IgA is used to track levels of PEDV immunity over time. However, OFs contain particles of feed, feces, and inorganic material that detract from the quality of the sample. We clarified swine OF samples using lyophilized chitosan-based formulas (A-C) tested by PEDV IgG and IgA ELISAs. To evaluate both the immediate and residual effects of treatment on antibody detection, samples were tested immediately post-treatment, then stored at 4°C and retested at 2, 4, and 6 days post-treatment (DPT)...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Hamsini Yagneswar, Jeffrey M Todd, Leslie C Sharkey, Aaron Rendahl, Kelly Tart
Clot waveforms are generated by coagulation analyzers, such as the ACL-TOP, that utilize photo-optical turbidimetric methods to measure prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), which are standard clotting tests (SCTs). Additional quantitative clot waveform analysis (CWA) parameters include maximum velocity of the PT curve (PT1d), maximum acceleration of the aPTT curve (aPTT2d), and their change in optical density (ODdelta). We explored the potential for CWA to contribute unique information compared to SCTs and quantitative fibrinogen assay (QFA) in dogs with clinical indications for laboratory evaluation of coagulation...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Yoichi Matsumori, Maki Aizawa, Yoshiko Sakai, Daisuke Inoue, Michiko Kodani, Osamu Tsuha, Akira Beppu, Yoshimasa Hirashima, Ryota Kono, Akifumi Ohtani, Tohru Yanase, Hiroaki Shirafuji, Tomoko Kato, Shogo Tanaka, Makoto Yamakawa
Peaton virus (PEAV; family Peribunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus) appears to be capable of producing congenital malformations in ruminants; however, its pathogenicity remains unknown given its relatively low incidence. We evaluated the relationship between congenital abnormalities of calves and PEAV infection by serologic, epidemiologic, pathologic, and virologic investigations using specimens from 31 malformed calves in the years 1996-2016 in Japan. Antibody testing was carried out for known teratogenic viruses, including Akabane, Aino, Chuzan, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses, in the precolostral sera of these abnormal calves, but all results were negative...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Brittany McHale, Anibal G Armién, Lorelei L Clarke, Daniel R Rissi
Embryonal central nervous system (CNS) tumor is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises from the neural crest. Herein we describe an embryonal tumor in the brain of an adult male domestic goose ( Anser anser) that was euthanized after a short history of wandering and lethargy. Grossly, a focal, bright-red, soft plaque was present on the ventral aspect of the brain, extending from the optic chiasm to the midbrain, as well as into the dorsal neuroparenchyma. Histologically, the nodule consisted of a poorly demarcated population of neoplastic cells arranged in streams and bundles, and occasionally palisading around small capillaries (pseudorosettes)...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Abdullah D Alanazi, Robert Puschendorf, Bashir Salim, Mohamed S Alyousif, Ibrahim O Alanazi, Hajri R Al-Shehri
We conducted a cross-sectional study to detect trypanosome infections of horses and donkeys in the Riyadh Province of Saudi Arabia. DNA was extracted from blood samples collected from 368 horses and 142 donkeys, and subjected to universal first ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1)-PCR followed by Trypanosoma evansi species-specific RoTat1.2-PCR. The universal ITS1-PCR revealed T. evansi infection in horses ( n = 12; 3.3%) and donkeys ( n = 4; 2.8%). There was no significant effect of sex or age on the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in horses or donkeys...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Tomomi Minamoto, Joseph C Parambeth, Rosemary L Walzem, Harold R Payne, Jonathan A Lidbury, Jan S Suchodolski, Jörg M Steiner
Changes in proportions of lipoprotein classes have been described in disease states in humans. In veterinary medicine, hyperlipidemia can cause complications, such as cutaneous xanthomas, liver disease, cholelithiasis, pancreatitis, glomerular disease, lipemia retinalis, or peripheral neuropathy, but there are few reports regarding lipoproteins in diseased animals. For canine serum, we partially validated continuous lipoprotein density profiling (CLPDP), a novel density gradient ultracentrifugation technique...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Pompei Bolfa, Lusan DellaGrotte, Teri Weronko, Anibal G Armien
We report a case of cutaneous epithelioid hemangiosarcoma in a dog in which the majority of the neoplastic cells displayed histologic and ultrastructural features similar to those seen in granular cell tumors (GCTs). This intersection of hemangiosarcoma and granular cell change adds to the argument that GCTs are heterogeneous in histologic origin and underlines the fact that pathologists should not consider all GCTs as a single entity. The combination of histology in typical areas of the tumor with ultrastructural changes and the correct immunohistochemical markers can facilitate the accurate diagnosis of tumors with granular cell differentiation...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Thanikul Srithunyarat, Anna Svensson, Sofia Hanås, Odd V Höglund, Ragnvi Hagman, Inger Lilliehöök, Ulf Olsson, Ingrid Ljungvall, Jens Häggström, Bodil Ström Holst, Ann Pettersson, Katja Höglund
Catecholamines can be used to evaluate neuroendocrine tumors, stress, and potentially pain, but catecholamines degrade rapidly. Their metabolites normetanephrine (NME) and metanephrine (ME) have better stability in urine. In cats, urine sampling in a home environment would be beneficial to reduce effects of clinical stress and simplify sampling. We evaluated a human urine ELISA for analysis of NME and ME in feline urine, and investigated the effects of acidification, cat tray pellets, and storage time at room temperature up to 8...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Nicholas P Ilchyshyn, Paola Monti
Cell structures morphologically consistent with Blastocystis were aspirated from a subcutaneous facial swelling in a 13-mo-old pet duck. On PCR analysis and sequencing, the organism was confirmed as Blastocystis sp. subtype 7. Blastocystis is a single-celled protist that is found in the intestinal tract of many species, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and insects. A complete understanding of the lifecycle and pathogenesis of the parasite remains elusive. Blastocystis has been implicated in human and animal disease; however, its role is controversial given that it is commonly found among healthy gut microbiota...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Arya Sobhakumari, Sabine A Hargrave, Ashley E Hill, Robert H Poppenga
Backyard layer chickens may be exposed to a variety of metals in the environment, including lead. The potential public health concerns associated with lead exposure prompted us to systematically screen liver samples from backyard layers submitted to the diagnostic laboratory to estimate the prevalence of lead exposure. Over a period of 1 y, we tested 1,476 chicken livers, of which 45 were found to have lead concentrations of 0.9-41 µg/g. The lead-positive cases were investigated by follow-up questions to the bird owners on the environment, general management of the flock, and egg consumption of family members...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Hannah E Wong, Joanna Hedley, Nadene Stapleton, Brian Murphy, Simon L Priestnall
Odontoameloblastomas (previously incorporated within ameloblastic odontomas) are matrix-producing odontogenic mixed tumors and are closely related in histologic appearance to the 2 other types of matrix-producing odontogenic mixed tumors: odontomas and ameloblastic fibro-odontomas. The presence or absence of intralesional, induced non-neoplastic tissue must be accounted for in the diagnosis. Herein we describe a naturally occurring odontoameloblastoma with extensive chondroid cementum deposition in a guinea pig ( Cavia porcellus)...
September 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Joseph J Modarelli, Pamela J Ferro, Maria D Esteve-Gasent
Real-time PCR (rtPCR) tests have become a method of choice in many diagnostic settings, both animal and human. A concern remains, however, regarding rtPCR assay inhibition during nucleic acid extraction and/or rtPCR reaction process that may result in false-negative results. The use of an internal positive control, either endogenous or exogenous, to mitigate this issue has become more commonplace. We identified and standardized an endogenous internal positive control that can be utilized in rtPCR assays targeting canine-specific pathogens in either a singleplex or multiplex format...
September 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Juan F Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Michael M Garner, Matti Kiupel
In this retrospective study, we describe the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical findings in a series of primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms in African hedgehogs ( Atelerix albiventris). Twelve CNS neoplasms were found among 762 African hedgehog submissions (1.6%) to a private diagnostic laboratory in an 18-y period. The median age of affected hedgehogs was 3.5 y. No sex predilection was found. Hindlimb paresis, weakness, and ataxia were the most commonly reported clinical signs. Gangliogliomas ( n = 6) and astrocytomas ( n = 5) were the most commonly observed neoplasms; one oligodendroglioma was found...
September 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Shotaro Nakagun, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Kenichi Watanabe, Kotaro Matsumoto, Michihito Tagawa, Genya Shimbo, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi
An 8-y 9-mo-old male Pug dog was presented because of anorexia, hindlimb ataxia, vomiting, and progressive weight loss. Clinical examinations revealed atrophic hindlimb muscles with decreased postural reaction, enlargement of the cardiac silhouette and megaesophagus on radiograph, and reduced cardiac contractility on ultrasonography. The dog died 10 d after the initial examination, and an autopsy was performed. Grossly, the heart was enlarged, with multifocal-to-coalescing extensive plaque-like areas of discoloration on the epicardial surface...
September 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
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