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Animal Biotechnology

Sourabh Sulabh, Manjit Panigrahi, Sheikh Firdous Ahmad, Rajat Varshney, Ankita Verma, Naseer Ahmad Baba, Satish Kumar, Soni Kumari, Anuj Chauhan, Pushpendra Kumar, Bharat Bhushan
Subclinical mastitis, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus, has a global economic impact all over the world. Hence, it needs to be resolved on higher priority which may be attained via. selection of mastitis resistant animals or inclusion of mastitis resistant trait into herd apart from management care. Diverse hosts with various genetic make-ups encounter pathogens in a diverse manner which in turn leads to contradicting outcome of the disease. Identification of species-wise or breed-wise differential expressed genes in response to S...
May 2, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
José Humberto Vilar Da Silva, Fernando González-Cerón, Elizabeth W Howerth, Romdhane Rekaya, Samuel E Aggrey
Cysteine is a nonessential amino acid in poultry nutrition. Poultry diets are deficient in cysteine, but the bird's cysteine need is met through the transsulfuration pathway (TSP) where homocysteine is converted to cysteine: a process catalyzed by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH). Cysteine is also a major component of keratinized protein found in feathers, but the extent to which cysteine is involved in feather and skin development in poultry is unknown. We randomly assigned chicks to control and treatment (control diet plus 100 mg/kg body weight of propargylglycine which is an inhibitor of CTH) diets...
April 30, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Jolanta Opiela, Bülent Bülbül, Joanna Romanek
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secreted factors on bovine in vitro embryo development using MSCs in different culture systems: SOF medium, SOF medium conditioned by MSCs in monolayer, and in reverse drop and by embryo culture in coculture with MSCs. Statistically highly significant differences were noted between the number of blastocysts derived cultures in all tested culture systems. The in vitro culture in SOF turned out to be the most optimal...
April 30, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Yunyun Jin, Qing Yang, Meng Zhang, Sihuan Zhang, Hanfang Cai, Ruihua Dang, Chuzhao Lei, Hong Chen, Xianyong Lan
Adipocyte differentiation-associated long noncoding RNA (ADNCR) is a newly discovered lncRNA. It plays function by targeting miR-204 to significantly regulates the expression of the target SIRT1 gene in preadipocytes both at the level of mRNA and protein, thereby inhibiting adipogenesis. The tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system PCR (T-ARMS-PCR) strategy is fast and accuracy at a negligible cost for SNP genotyping in large samples. In the study, a novel SNP g.1263T>A in intron 1 of bovine ADNCR gene was found...
April 9, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Mukesh N Kher, Navin R Sheth, Vaibhav D Bhatt
The extent of subclinical mastitis in three breeds of cattle, Kankrej, Gir, and Crossbred, was performed at cattle farms in Anand town of Gujarat State, India. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis in crossbred cattle was higher compared to local breed of cattle. Causative agents identified using 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular method were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus megaterium. In vitro antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate extract of plant Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae) was checked by agar well diffusion method against four isolated and molecularly identified microorganisms...
March 28, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Michelle A Miguel, Claro N Mingala
Salmonella infection can cause septicemia, acute or chronic enteritis and wasting in weaned pigs, but may occur in other age groups. The bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) gene plays an important role in the natural defense of the host and is found to be associated with resistance/susceptibility to Salmonella infection and identified as a candidate gene for disease resistance breeding in pig. This study was conducted to screen the resistance and/or susceptibility of pigs to Salmonella infection, to determine the genotype and evaluate presence of resistant allele of the BPI gene in population of pigs, and to establish genetic data for pig breeders for the improvement of Philippine pig industry...
March 26, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Mei Jin, Ming Cao, Mingxing Chu, Jing'ai Piao, Xu Guo, Fengqin Zhao, Jun Piao
Liaoning cashmere goats are the most precious genetic resources in China. The function of LAMTOR3 [late endosomal/lysosomal adaptor, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and mammalian target of rapamycin activator 3/MAPK scaffold protein 1] gene is expressed in the skin of Liaoning cashmere goats. In situ hybridization (ISH) found that LAMTOR3 is expressed in the inner root sheath (IRS) of hair follicles. During the anagen or catagen phase, the expression of LAMTOR3 is higher in secondary hair follicles than in primary hair follicles...
March 22, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Jingting Shu, Gaige Ji, Ming Zhang, Yunjie Tu, Yanju Shan, Yifan Liu, Xiaojun Ju, Di Zhang
TNNI1 encodes the slow skeletal muscle isoform of troponin I. In the present study, the basic characteristic and expressing profile of the TNNI1 gene was first explored in Gaoyou ducks. Full-length TNNI1 cDNA of Gaoyou duck was obtained using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA consisted of a 57-base pair (bp) 5'UTR, a 345-bp 3'UTR, and a 564-bp open reading frame. The predicted protein was predicted to be hydrophilic, nonsecretory protein and contained 17 phosphorylation sites...
March 20, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Shih-Han Wang, Chuen-Yu Cheng, Chao-Jung Chen, Hong-Lin Chan, Hsin-Hsin Chen, Pin-Chi Tang, Chih-Feng Chen, Yen-Pai Lee, San-Yuan Huang
Heat stress leads to decreased fertility in roosters. This study investigated the global protein expression in response to acute heat stress in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens (TCCs). Twelve 45-week-old roosters were randomly allocated to the control group maintained at 25°C, and three groups subjected to acute heat stress at 38°C for 4 h, with 0, 2, and 6 h of recovery, respectively. Testis samples were collected for hematoxylin and eosin staining, apoptosis assay, and protein analysis...
March 19, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Li Zheng, Gui-Min Zhang, Yan-Peng Dong, Yi-Fan Wen, Dong Dong, Chu-Zhao Lei, Xing-Lei Qi, Hong Chen, Li-Jun Huo, Yong-Zhen Huang
As a member of MYLK family, MYLK4 gene may play a vital role in muscle development. In this study, one novel single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was identified the bovine MYLK4 by sequencing pooled DNA samples (pool-Seq) and forced polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (forced PCR-RFLP) methods. Overall, we reported one mutation (SNP1) in the intron 10 region within the bovine MYLK4 gene in 559 individuals representing five main cattle breeds from China (Nanyang, NY; Qinchuan; Jiaxian, JX; Pinan cattle; and Caidamu cattle, CDM)...
March 14, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Yong-Zhen Huang, Li-Na Qian, Jian Wang, Chun-Lei Zhang, Xing-Tang Fang, Chu-Zhao Lei, Xian-Yong Lan, Yun Ma, Yue-Yu Bai, Feng-Peng Lin, Hong Chen
The α-adducin (ADD1) is a subunit of adducin which is a cytoskeleton heterodimeric protein. Adducin participates in oocytes chromosome meiosis of mice, prompting adducin has an effect on embryonic development. Adducin gene mutation has significantly functional change. So the present study was to identify and characterize polymorphisms within the coding region of the bovine ADD1 gene among different cattle breeds. Here, 11 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs 1-11) were identified by DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism, there were one synonymous mutation in exon 1 (SNP1); four missense mutations in exons 4, 7, and 8 (SNPs 3-6); and six mutations in introns 4, 12, 13, and 14 (SNPs 2, 7-10)...
March 12, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Lipsa Dash, Saravanan Subramaniam, Sagar A Khulape, Bikash Ranjan Prusty, Kamal Pargai, Shirish D Narnaware, Niteen V Patil, Bramhadev Pattnaik
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious, and economically devastating viral disease of domestic and wildlife species. For effective implementation of FMD control program, there is an imperative need for developing a rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnostics which help in the identification of serotypes involved in the outbreaks. The humoral immune response of the Camelidae is unique since in these animals 75% of circulating antibodies are constituted by heavy-chain antibodies and 25% are conventional immunoglobulin with two identical heavy chains...
March 12, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
A S Selvaramesh, Pushpendra Kumar, Chinmoy Mishra, Tarun K Bhattacharya, Bharat Bhushan, Ashok Kumar Tiwari, Vishesh Kumar Saxena, Arjava Sharma
The genetic polymorphism of Mx1 gene was explored in Indian chicken breeds. PCR-RFLP analysis in 102 bp fragment of partial intron 13 and partial exon 14 of Mx1 gene revealed two genotypes viz. RS and SS with two alleles viz. R and S both in Naked Neck and Tellicherry breeds of chicken. The homozygous genotype RR was not identified. When deduced amino acid sequences were compared, the asparagine amino acid was found to be substituted in "R" allele for serine in "S" allele. PCR-SSCP analysis of 284 bp fragment in 5'-UTR and partial promoter region revealed three genotypes viz...
March 4, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Tomoko Eguchi-Ogawa, Tatsuya Matsubara, Daisuke Toki, Naohiko Okumura, Asako Ando, Hitoshi Kitagawa, Hirohide Uenishi
Widely used antipig CD4 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) fail to recognize CD4 alleles characteristic of miniature pig lines such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH) miniature pigs and microminipigs. We surveyed polymorphisms in the coding sequence of the porcine CD4 gene among Western and Oriental pig breeds and Japanese wild boars and investigated their distribution. Of the 13 alleles that we identified among the 47 animals, 2 in group I and 3 in group II were found exclusively in Western breed pigs. Group IV alleles, which included mAb-nonbinding alleles, were found frequently in Oriental breed pigs, suggesting that the mAb-nonbinding allele arose from the gene pool of Oriental pigs...
July 3, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Yan-Ying Zhao, Ya-Qiu Lin, Ya-Ou Xu
Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is an inflammation-related protein mainly produced by immune cells, such as monocyte/macrophages and activated T lymphocytes. It is essential for the survival and proinflammatory activity of immune cells. However, the function of AIF-1 in chicken still has not been defined. In the present study, AIF-1-like (AIF1L) gene was identified in Luning chicken. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the molecular weight of the chicken AIF-1 protein was 16290.8 Da. AIF1L contained a Ca2+ binding EF hand and could interact with actin filament...
July 3, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Muhammad Ibrahim, Sohail Ahmad, Irfan Safdar Durrani, Aqib Iqbal, Iqbal Munir, Zahoor Ahmad Swati
Pakistan is rich in sheep genetic resources. Balkhi, Hashtnagri, and Michni are neighboring sheep populations found in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. In this study, we analyzed the genetic structures and bottleneck incidents within these sheep populations using 31 microsatellite DNA markers. Total numbers of 116, 100, and 95 alleles, with average numbers of 3.20, 3.26, and 3.74 alleles per locus were observed, respectively, in Balkhi, Hashtnagri, and Michni population. Mean observed heterozygosity was 0...
July 3, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Shuai Chang, Xiaoling Chen, Zhiqing Huang, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Hong Chen, Jun He, Junqiu Luo, Ping Zheng, Jie Yu, Yuheng Luo
Sodium butyrate (SB), a sodium salt of butyric acid, has been shown to improve the animal production performance. The aim of this work was to test the effect of feeding mice with diets containing different dose of SB (1, 3, and 5%) on oxidative fiber formation. Dietary SB supplementation had no effect on body weights and food intakes. Dietary SB supplementation upregulated the expressions of oxidative fiber-related protein including MyHC I, MyHC IIa, myoglobin, and troponin-I-slow. Dietary SB supplementation also upregulated the expressions of phospho-FoxO1 and MEF2C protein, but did not affect total FoxO1 protein expression...
July 3, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Wen L Bai, Su J Zhao, Ze Y Wang, Yu B Zhu, Yun L Dang, Yu Y Cong, Hui L Xue, Wei Wang, Liang Deng, Dan Guo, Shi Q Wang, Yan X Zhu, Rong H Yin
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a novel class of eukaryotic transcripts. They are thought to act as a critical regulator of protein-coding gene expression. Herein, we identified and characterized 13 putative lncRNAs from the expressed sequence tags from secondary hair follicle of Cashmere goat. Furthermore, we investigated their transcriptional pattern in secondary hair follicle of Liaoning Cashmere goat during telogen and anagen phases. Also, we generated intracellular regulatory networks of upregulated lncRNAs at anagen in Wnt signaling pathway based on bioinformatics analysis...
July 3, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Shurun Zhang, Xiaoling Chen, Zhiqing Huang, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Jun He, Ping Zheng, Jie Yu, Junqiu Luo, Yuheng Luo, Hong Chen
Skeletal myoblast differentiation is controlled by a multitude of transcription factors and signal pathways. Myogenin is a critical transcriptional regulator in the initiation and maintenance of myoblast differentiation. The Akt/FoxO1 signal pathway plays an important role in myoblast differentiation. MicroRNAs are a kind of small noncoding RNAs that have been regarded as important regulators in skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of microRNA-27a (miR-27a) on myogenin expression and Akt/FoxO1 signal pathway during porcine myoblast differentiation...
July 3, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Eufrocina P Atabay, Roseline D Tadeo, Edwin C Atabay, Emma V Venturina, Rafael A Fissore, Claro N Mingala
Phospholipase C zeta, a novel sperm-specific protein which is widely known to induce oocyte activation following fertilization, had already been characterized in various mammalian species, but not in water buffaloes thus far. The present study was conducted to initially characterize and compare the sequences of PLCZ1 gene of swamp and riverine buffaloes. Semen samples were collected; total RNA was extracted and reverse-transcribed. PLCZ1 cDNA was then amplified, and submitted for sequencing. Buffalo PLCZ1 gene yielded a sequence of 1905 base pair nucleotides translated into 634 bp amino acids...
July 3, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
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