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Animal Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267421/use-of-pig-as-a-model-for-mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapies-for-bone-regeneration
#1
Marcello Rubessa, Kathryn Polkoff, Massimo Bionaz, Elisa Monaco, Derek J Milner, Scott J Holllister, Michael S Goldwasser, Matthew B Wheeler
Bone is a plastic tissue with a large healing capability. However, extensive bone loss due to disease or trauma requires extreme therapy such as bone grafting or tissue-engineering applications. Presently, bone grafting is the gold standard for bone repair, but presents serious limitations including donor site morbidity, rejection, and limited tissue regeneration. The use of stem cells appears to be a means to overcome such limitations. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) have been the choice thus far for stem cell therapy for bone regeneration...
March 7, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267420/fto-promotes-adipogenesis-through-inhibition-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-in-porcine-intramuscular-preadipocytes
#2
Xiaoling Chen, Yanliu Luo, Gang Jia, Guangmang Liu, Hua Zhao, Zhiqing Huang
Numerous studies have demonstrated that FTO plays an important role in adipogenesis. Herein, we designed a small interfering RNA targeting FTO to knock down its endogenous expression and investigated its effects on the proliferation and differentiation of porcine intramuscular preadipocytes. Its possible mechanism was also investigated. We showed that FTO silencing significantly decreased the level of phospho-Histone H3 protein and inhibited the proliferation of porcine intramuscular preadipocytes. In addition, the expressions of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα) were down-regulated, but the expression of β-catenin was up-regulated, by FTO silencing...
March 7, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267411/ovar-mhc-polymorphism-in-malpura-and-avikalin-sheep-vaccinated-for-peste-des-petits-ruminants-ppr-virus
#3
G R Gowane, Najif Akram, L L L Prince, Ved Prakash, Arun Kumar
India harbors a vast diversity of sheep (40 breeds). The study was carried out to assess the genetic diversity of DRB1 and DQA2 locus of the ovar-MHC and their possible association with Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus vaccine response in Malpura and Avikalin sheep breeds maintained at an organized institute flock in the semi-arid region of India. Genetic analysis revealed the rich diversity of DRB1 locus with 23 alleles in Malpura and 21 alleles in Avikalin sheep that included 9 new alleles. DQA2 locus also had rich diversity with 19 alleles in Malpura and 20 alleles in Avikalin sheep that included 7 new alleles...
March 7, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267410/combined-haplotypes-of-casr-gene-sequence-variants-and-their-associations-with-growth-traits-in-cattle
#4
Binglin Yue, Fuhai Han, Jiyao Wu, Yanhuan Wang, Chunlei Zhang, Xingtang Fang, Xinglei Qi, Yueyu Bai, Hong Chen
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a Class C G-protein coupled receptor that regulates food intake and assimilation. However, studies on the relationship between CaSR gene and growth traits in cattle are deficient. The aim of this study was to examine the association of the CaSR polymorphism with growth traits in cattle breeds. Four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one previously reported SNP (NC_007299.5: g.67630865T>C, 67638409G>C, 67660395G>C, 67661546C>G, and 67661892A>C) were identified in the bovine CaSR gene using DNA sequencing and PCR-SSCP methods in 520 individuals from three representative breeds...
March 7, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267409/myogenic-differentiation-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-fetal-bovine-bone-marrow
#5
Lucas Hidenori Okamura, Paloma Cordero, Jaime Palomino, Victor Hugo Parraguez, Cristian Gabriel Torres, Oscar Alejandro Peralta
The myogenic potential of bovine fetal MSC (bfMSC) derived from bone marrow (BM) remains unknown; despite its potential application for the study of myogenesis and its implications for livestock production. In the present study, three protocols for in vitro myogenic differentiation of bfMSC based on the use of DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza), myoblast-secreted factor Galectin-1 (Gal-1), and myoblast culture medium SkGM-2 BulletKit were used. Plastic-adherent bfMSC were isolated from fetal BM collected from abattoir-derived fetuses...
March 7, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267404/an-investigation-on-the-expression-level-of-interleukin-10-il-10-in-the-healthy-and-mastitic-holstein-cows-and-the-bioinformatics-analysis-of-nucleosome-profile
#6
Bahareh Varzandian, Mostafa Ghaderi-Zefrehei, Saeid Hosseinzadeh, Mostafa Sayyadi, Vahideh Taghadosi, Sara Varzandian
Cytokines are immune regulators that play an essential role in regulating immune response against various infections. The present study focused on the possible association between the expression level of Interleukin 10 (IL-10) in blood and milk samples of 25 healthy and 25 mastitic cows in Fars province, Iran, using a quantitative real-time PCR assay. The experimental groups were categorized according to the number of calvings. The expression level of IL-10 was significantly higher in the blood and milk samples of mastitic cows compared to the healthy ones...
March 7, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103144/role-of-different-natural-antioxidants-in-the-modulation-of-mrna-expression-of-apoptotic-molecules-in-the-livers-of-carbon-tetrachloride-intoxicated-rats
#7
Nouf M Al-Rasheed, Naglaa F El-Orabi, Laila Mohamed Fadda, Hanaa Mahmoud Ali, Nawal M Al-Rasheed, Yieldez Bassiouni, Abeer Mohammad Aldbass
Overexpression of nuclear factor (NF-κB) or activation of Smad3 by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β1) induced by oncogenes results in overexpression of fibrotic processes and hence cell death. The objective of this study is to examine whether Silymarin (Sil) alone or in combination with Vitamin E (Vit E) and/or Curcumin (Cur) plays a modulatory role against the overexpression of NF-κB, and TGF-β that induced in response to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration. The present work revealed that CCl4 induced elevation of in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Apoptosis regulator (Bax), Smad3, TGF-β, and NF-kB hepatic mRNA expression (using Real-time PCR), administration of Sil alone downregulated these expressions...
January 19, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103142/mapping-of-calf-death-in-japanese-black-cattle
#8
Takashi Hirano, Shota Nishimura, Hiromi Hara, Yoshikazu Sugimoto, Kei Hanzawa
Weak calf syndrome (WCS) is a major cause of calf death in Japanese Black cattle. Among IARS disorders, the isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase c.235G>C mutation has been identified as one of the causes of WCS. However, calf deaths differing from those attributed to IARS disorder has been occurring. To identify other genes potentially responsible for these calf deaths, we constructed three populations of three bulls (Bull-1, -2 and -3) that did not carry the IARS mutation, and dead calves (18, 28, and 31 calves) and healthy cattle (18, 15, and 10 cattle) sired by these bulls...
January 19, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103141/modification-of-the-genome-of-domestic-animals
#9
Samantha N Lotti, Kathryn M Polkoff, Marcello Rubessa, Matthew B Wheeler
In the past few years, new technologies have arisen that enable higher efficiency of gene editing. With the increase ease of using gene editing technologies, it is important to consider the best method for transferring new genetic material to livestock animals. Microinjection is a technique that has proven to be effective in mice but is less efficient in large livestock animals. Over the years, a variety of methods have been used for cloning as well as gene transfer including; nuclear transfer, sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT), and liposome-mediated DNA transfer...
January 19, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075701/expression-analysis-of-genes-associated-with-prolificacy-in-fecb-carrier-and-noncarrier-indian-sheep
#10
S Goyal, J Aggarwal, P K Dubey, B P Mishra, P Ghalsasi, C Nimbkar, B K Joshi, R S Kataria
The effect of FecB mutation on the gene expression in FecB carrier and noncarrier estrous synchronized ewes, has been analyzed. For this study the whole ovarian tissues and Graafian follicles were collected from estrus synchronized FecB carrier Garole, and non-carrier Deccani Indian sheep, showing remarkable differences in the numbers of preovulatory follicles among two groups. Eleven potential candidate genes (BMP15, GDF9, BMP4, BMP7, BMPR1B, BMPR1A, SMAD9, LHCGR, FSHR, IGF1R, and STAT5) were selected for their expression analysis by SybrGreen based real-time PCR, across ovaries and Graafian follicles of different fecundity groups, for having better insights into the effect of FecB genotypes on follicular development...
January 11, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060576/evagreen-based-multiplex-real-time-pcr-assay-for-rapid-differentiation-of-wild-type-and-glycoprotein-e-deleted-bovine-herpesvirus-1-strains
#11
Sachin S Pawar, Chetan D Meshram, Niraj K Singh, Mohini Saini, B P Mishra, Praveen K Gupta
Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) is an important viral pathogen causing significant economic losses to the cattle industry. Glycoprotein E-deleted marker vaccines form the basis for BoHV-1 control programs widely, wherein detection and differentiation of wild-type and gE-deleted vaccine strains is of crucial importance for proper disease management. In the present study, we report an EvaGreen-based multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (EGRT-PCR) assay for rapid differentiation of wild-type and glycoprotein E-deleted strains of BoHV-1...
January 6, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051918/genetic-variation-in-fabp4-and-evaluation-of-its-effects-on-beef-cattle-fat-content
#12
Daniel E Goszczynski, Juliana Papaleo-Mazzucco, María V Ripoli, Edgardo L Villarreal, Andrés Rogberg-Muñoz, Carlos A Mezzadra, Lilia M Melucci, Guillermo Giovambattista
FABP4 is a protein primarily expressed in adipocytes and macrophages that plays a key role in fatty acid trafficking and lipid hydrolysis. FABP4 gene polymorphisms have been associated with meat quality traits in cattle, mostly in Asian breeds under feedlot conditions. The objectives of this work were to characterize FABP4 genetic variation in several worldwide cattle breeds and evaluate possible genotype effects on fat content in a pasture-fed crossbred (Angus-Hereford-Limousin) population. We re-sequenced 43 unrelated animals from nine cattle breeds (Angus, Brahman, Creole, Hereford, Holstein, Limousin, Nelore, Shorthorn, and Wagyu) and obtained 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) over 3,164 bp, including four novel polymorphisms...
January 4, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736301/polymorphisms-of-flanking-region-of-the-asb15-gene-and-their-associations-with-performance-traits-in-chicken
#13
Y C Wang, R L Han, Z J Li, J Geng, Y D Tian, R R Jiang, J P Wu, X T Kang
Research on the identity of genes and their relationship with traits of economic importance in chickens could assist in the selection of poultry. In this study, an F2 resource population of Gushi chickens crossed with Anka broilers was used to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the flanking region of the ASB15 gene by DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). One SNP of -1271 C>T in 5' flanking region of the chicken ASB15 gene and two SNPs of the 10618 A>G and 10716 G>A in 3' flanking region were identified...
January 2, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715465/comparison-of-cryopreservation-protocols-single-and-two-steps-and-thawing-fast-and-slow-for-canine-sperm
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Maíra M Brito, Cristina F Lúcio, Daniel S R Angrimani, João Diego A Losano, Andressa Dalmazzo, Marcílio Nichi, Camila I Vannucchi
In addition to the existence of several cryopreservation protocols, no systematic research has been carried out in order to confirm the suitable protocol for canine sperm. This study aims to assess the effect of adding 5% glycerol during cryopreservation at 37°C (one-step) and 5°C (two-steps), in addition of testing two thawing protocols (37°C for 30 seconds, and 70°C for 8 seconds). We used 12 sperm samples divided into four experimental groups: Single-Step - Slow Thawing Group; Two-Step - Slow Thawing Group; Single-Step - Fast Thawing Group; and Two-Step - Fast Thawing Group...
January 2, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715461/correlation-of-the-a-fabp-gene-polymorphism-and-mrna-expression-with-intramuscular-fat-content-in-three-yellow-chicken-and-hetian-black-chicken
#15
Yong Wang, Hongwei Chen, Diangang Han, Ying Chen, Gemingguli Muhatai, Tursunjan Kurban, Jinming Xing, Jianzhong He
The adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) is considered a candidate gene for fat metabolism; thus, it affects fat deposition in chickens. The present study was designed to examine the polymorphism and mRNA abundance of the A-FABP gene with intramuscular fat (IMF) in the pectoralis muscles (PM) and leg muscles (LM) of Three-yellow Chicken (TYC) and Hetian-black Chicken (HTBC). In total, 60 TYCs and 60 HTBCs were sacrificed using exsanguination at market age. The IMF contents of the PM and LM in the HTBC were significantly higher than those in the TYC...
January 2, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715460/bovine-sex-determining-region-y-cloning-optimized-expression-and-purification
#16
Bijan Soleymani, Sayed Hassan Hafezian, Ghodratollah Rahimi Mianji, Kamran Mansouri, Broomand Chaharaein, Ahmad Tajehmiri, Mehdi Sharifi Tabar, Ali Mostafaie
Sex determining region Y gene (SRY) is located on Y chromosome and encodes a protein with 229 amino acids. In this study, ORF region of SRY with a length of 690 bp was synthesized using PCR and ligated to pET28a (+), then transformed in E.coli DH5α. E.coli BL21 (DE3) strain was chosen to express recombinant bovine SRY protein. A set of optimization steps was taken including different concentrations of IPTG, glucose, and temperatures at differed incubation times after the induction. Results showed that temperature points and different concentrations of IPTG and glucose had a significant effect (p < 0...
January 2, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715456/sequence-based-structural-characterization-and-genetic-diversity-analysis-of-full-length-tlr4-cds-in-crossbred-and-indigenous-cattle
#17
Chinmoy Mishra, Subodh Kumar, Arvind Asaram Sonwane, H M Yathish, Rajni Chaudhary
The exploration of candidate genes for immune response in cattle may be vital for improving our understanding regarding the species specific response to pathogens. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is mostly involved in protection against the deleterious effects of Gram negative pathogens. Approximately 2.6 kb long cDNA sequence of TLR4 gene covering the entire coding region was characterized in two Indian milk cattle (Vrindavani and Tharparkar). The phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the bovine TLR4 was apparently evolved from an ancestral form that predated the appearance of vertebrates, and it is grouped with buffalo, yak, and mithun TLR4s...
January 2, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575333/gene-cloning-and-expression-of-cellulase-of-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-isolated-from-the-cecum-of-goose
#18
Linghong Sun, Jiangyan Cao, Ying Liu, Junjie Wang, Panpan Guo, Zaigui Wang
A kind of bacteria secreting cellulase and showing probiotic attributes was isolated from the cecum of goose and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and named as B. amyloliquefaciens S1. In vitro assays, the enzymatic activity of the strain was determined by the reducing-sugar method, and the proper culture conditions of producing cellulase and some properties of the cellulase were investigated. The cultural mixture of the bacteria had a high cellulase activity of 1...
January 2, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484003/expression-profiling-of-activin-type-iib-receptor-during-ontogeny-in-broiler-and-indigenous-chicken
#19
Pothana Boyina Guru Vishnu, Tarun K Bhattacharya, Pushpendra Kumar, R N Chaterjee, G V P P S Ravi Kumar, Chandan Paswan, Dushyanth Kotha Reddy, Athe Rajendra Prasad
Augmenting the meat production is among the primary breeding objective of genetic selection programs in poultry production. However, the knowledge about the expression of genes regulating muscle growth at the molecular level is inadequate. Activin type IIB receptor (ACTRIIB) has been reported to play vital role in the negative regulation of muscle growth by binding to multiple members of transforming growth factor-β superfamily. The present investigation was carried out to comprehend the trend of ACTRIIB messenger RNA in pectoralis major muscle during embryonic (E5-20) and post embryonic age (days 1, 14, 28, and 42) in both Control Broiler (CB) and Aseel by using Real-time PCR...
January 2, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385409/polypeptides-from-the-skin-of-rana-chensinensis-exert-the-antioxidant-and-antiapoptotic-activities-on-hacat-cells
#20
Xin Zhang, Yunyun Cheng, Yang Yang, Songcai Liu, Hui Shi, Chao Lu, Siming Li, Linyan Nie, Dan Su, Xuming Deng, Kexiang Ding, Linlin Hao
Studies have shown that frog skin secretes many types of peptides that are good for human skin. In this study, acid and enzymatic extracts of Rana skin peptides (acid/enzymatic Rana skin peptides, ARPs/ERPs) were obtained. The chemical and physical properties of the ARPs and ERPs were identified through UV scanning, HGLC, FRIT, and MS. MTS and flow cytometry were used to test the proproliferative and antiapoptotic effects of the ARPs and ERPs on human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). To elucidate the antiapoptotic mechanisms, the mRNA and protein levels of EGF (epidermal growth factor, which enhances stimulation of cellular proliferation in both cells and epithelial tissues) and caspase-3 were evaluated using quantitative RT-PCR...
January 2, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
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