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Animal Biotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358646/short-hairpin-mediated-myostatin-knockdown-resulted-in-altered-expression-of-myogenic-regulatory-factors-with-enhanced-myoblast-proliferation-in-fetal-myoblast-cells-of-goats
#1
Rohit Kumar, Satyendra Pal Singh, Abhijit Mitra
Myostatin (MSTN) is a well-known negative regulator of skeletal muscle development. Reduced expression due to natural mutations in the coding region and knockout as well as knockdown of MSTN results in an increase in the muscle mass. In the present study, we demonstrated as high as 60 and 52% downregulation (p < 0.01) of MSTN mRNA and protein in the primary fetal myoblast cells of goats using synthetic shRNAs (n = 3), without any interferon response. We, for the first time, evaluated the effect of MSTN knockdown on the expression of MRFs (namely, MyoD, Myf5), follistatin (FST), and IGFs (IGF-1 & IGF-2) in goat myoblast cells...
March 30, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358589/evaluation-of-genetic-diversity-population-structure-and-relationship-between-legendary-vechur-cattle-and-crossbred-cattle-of-kerala-state-india
#2
G Radhika, T V Aravindakshan, S Jinty, K Ramya
The legendary Vechur cattle of Kerala, described as a very short breed, and the crossbred (CB) Sunandini cattle population exhibited great phenotypic variation; hence, the present study attempted to analyze the genetic diversity existing between them. A set of 14 polymorphic microsatellites were chosen from FAO-ISAG panel and amplified from genomic DNA isolated from blood samples of 30 Vechur and 64 unrelated crossbred cattle, using fluorescent labeled primers. Both populations revealed high genetic diversity as evidenced from high observed number of alleles, Polymorphic Information Content and expected heterozygosity...
March 30, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358284/molecular-cloning-of-porcine-sun5-gene-and-association-between-a-snp-with-litter-size-trait
#3
Zhenhua Zhao, Yonggang Liu
SUN domain-containing protein 5 (SUN5) is an important reproduction related gene. In this study, we cloned the full-length coding sequence of porcine SUN5 gene through RT-PCR. Sequence analysis of this gene revealed that the pig SUN5 gene encodes a protein of 383 amino acids that has high homology with the SUN5 protein of eight species: wild Bactrian camel (95%), alpaca (95%), Yangtze River dolphin (94%), sperm whale (94%), sheep (93%), black flying fox (93%), goat (92%), and horse (91%). This gene is structured into 13 exons and 12 introns as revealed by computer-assisted analysis...
March 30, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358238/expression-profiling-and-identification-of-novel-snps-in-catsper2-gene-and-their-influence-on-sperm-motility-parameters-in-bovines
#4
A Sivakumar, Subodh Kumar, H M Yathish, Chinmoy Mishra, Rajendra Prasad Modi, Rajni Chaudhary, Subuhi Khan, B Sivamani, S K Ghosh, Mihir Sarkar
122 randomly selected Vrindavani cattle were studied to detect polymorphism in four fragments of the CatSper2 gene that were comprised of exon 2, 4, 5, and 6 with flanking regions. Using PCR-SSCP and sequencing analysis, three SNPs (T157C, C273A, and A274C) in the first fragment, one SNP (C30G) in the second fragment, and two SNPs (T86G and T292C) in the fourth fragment were identified. The third fragment did not reveal any polymorphism. The SNPs were used for construction of haplotypes and three haplotypes were found...
March 30, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358237/combined-treatment-with-demecolcine-and-6-dimethylaminopurine-during-postactivation-improves-developmental-competence-of-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-embryos-in-pigs
#5
Joohyeong Lee, Jinyoung You, Geun-Shik Lee, Seung Tae Lee, Sang-Hwan Hyun, Eunsong Lee
This study determined the effects of postactivation treatment with demecolcine and/or 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) on in vivo and in vitro developmental competence of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos in pigs. SCNT embryos were treated for 4 hours with 0.4 µg/mL demecolcine, 2 mM 6-DMAP, or both after electric activation, then transferred to surrogate pigs or cultured for 7 days. The formation rate of SCNT embryos with a single pronucleus was higher in combined treatment with demecolcine and 6-DMAP (95...
March 30, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355117/molecular-cloning-identification-and-expression-patterns-of-myostatin-gene-in-water-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis
#6
Peng Zhu, Haiyang Li, Guiting Huang, Jiayu Cui, Ruimen Zhang, Kuiqing Cui, Sufang Yang, Deshun Shi
Myostatin (MSTN), also named growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8), is a transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family member with a key role in the negative regulation of skeletal muscle growth. However, its role in ovarian folliculogenesis remains unclear. To provide us with a basis for understanding this role, we cloned MSTN and examined its expression patterns in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). The complete ORF of the water buffalo MSTN gene is 1,128 nucleotides, which encode a 375 amino acid protein and sharing 99% identity at the deducted amino acid level with that of Bos taurus...
March 29, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350488/effect-of-supplemental-trace-minerals-on-hsp-70-mrna-expression-in-commercial-broiler-chicken
#7
U Rajkumar, A Vinoth, E Pradeep Kumar Reddy, M Shanmugam, S V Rama Rao
The effects of supplementing the organic forms of selenium (Se), chromium (Cr), and zinc (Zn) on Hsp-70 mRNA expression and body weight in broiler chickens were evaluated. 200 chicks were equally distributed into stainless steel battery brooders at the rate of 5 birds per pen and reared under heat stress condition up to 42(nd) day. The chicks were fed with three experimental diets supplemented with organic forms of Se (0.30 mg/kg), Cr (2 mg/kg), and Zn (40 mg/kg) during the starter and finisher phases and a control diet without any supplementation...
March 28, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346054/genomic-regions-in-local-endangered-sheep-encode-potentially-favorable-genes
#8
Bianca Moioli, Roberto Steri, Gennaro Catillo
The economic evaluation of farm animal genetic resources plays a key role in developing conservation programs. However, to date, the link between diversity as assessed by neutral genetic markers and the functional diversity is not yet understood. Two genome-wide comparisons, using over 44,000 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, identified the markers with the highest difference in allele frequency between the Alpago endangered breed and two clusters, composed of four specialized dairy sheep, and four meat breeds respectively...
March 27, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267421/use-of-pig-as-a-model-for-mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapies-for-bone-regeneration
#9
Marcello Rubessa, Kathryn Polkoff, Massimo Bionaz, Elisa Monaco, Derek J Milner, Scott J Holllister, Michael S Goldwasser, Matthew B Wheeler
Bone is a plastic tissue with a large healing capability. However, extensive bone loss due to disease or trauma requires extreme therapy such as bone grafting or tissue-engineering applications. Presently, bone grafting is the gold standard for bone repair, but presents serious limitations including donor site morbidity, rejection, and limited tissue regeneration. The use of stem cells appears to be a means to overcome such limitations. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) have been the choice thus far for stem cell therapy for bone regeneration...
March 7, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267420/fto-promotes-adipogenesis-through-inhibition-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-in-porcine-intramuscular-preadipocytes
#10
Xiaoling Chen, Yanliu Luo, Gang Jia, Guangmang Liu, Hua Zhao, Zhiqing Huang
Numerous studies have demonstrated that FTO plays an important role in adipogenesis. Herein, we designed a small interfering RNA targeting FTO to knock down its endogenous expression and investigated its effects on the proliferation and differentiation of porcine intramuscular preadipocytes. Its possible mechanism was also investigated. We showed that FTO silencing significantly decreased the level of phospho-Histone H3 protein and inhibited the proliferation of porcine intramuscular preadipocytes. In addition, the expressions of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα) were down-regulated, but the expression of β-catenin was up-regulated, by FTO silencing...
March 7, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267411/ovar-mhc-polymorphism-in-malpura-and-avikalin-sheep-vaccinated-for-peste-des-petits-ruminants-ppr-virus
#11
G R Gowane, Najif Akram, L L L Prince, Ved Prakash, Arun Kumar
India harbors a vast diversity of sheep (40 breeds). The study was carried out to assess the genetic diversity of DRB1 and DQA2 locus of the ovar-MHC and their possible association with Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus vaccine response in Malpura and Avikalin sheep breeds maintained at an organized institute flock in the semi-arid region of India. Genetic analysis revealed the rich diversity of DRB1 locus with 23 alleles in Malpura and 21 alleles in Avikalin sheep that included 9 new alleles. DQA2 locus also had rich diversity with 19 alleles in Malpura and 20 alleles in Avikalin sheep that included 7 new alleles...
March 7, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267410/combined-haplotypes-of-casr-gene-sequence-variants-and-their-associations-with-growth-traits-in-cattle
#12
Binglin Yue, Fuhai Han, Jiyao Wu, Yanhuan Wang, Chunlei Zhang, Xingtang Fang, Xinglei Qi, Yueyu Bai, Hong Chen
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a Class C G-protein coupled receptor that regulates food intake and assimilation. However, studies on the relationship between CaSR gene and growth traits in cattle are deficient. The aim of this study was to examine the association of the CaSR polymorphism with growth traits in cattle breeds. Four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one previously reported SNP (NC_007299.5: g.67630865T>C, 67638409G>C, 67660395G>C, 67661546C>G, and 67661892A>C) were identified in the bovine CaSR gene using DNA sequencing and PCR-SSCP methods in 520 individuals from three representative breeds...
March 7, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267409/myogenic-differentiation-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-fetal-bovine-bone-marrow
#13
Lucas Hidenori Okamura, Paloma Cordero, Jaime Palomino, Victor Hugo Parraguez, Cristian Gabriel Torres, Oscar Alejandro Peralta
The myogenic potential of bovine fetal MSC (bfMSC) derived from bone marrow (BM) remains unknown; despite its potential application for the study of myogenesis and its implications for livestock production. In the present study, three protocols for in vitro myogenic differentiation of bfMSC based on the use of DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza), myoblast-secreted factor Galectin-1 (Gal-1), and myoblast culture medium SkGM-2 BulletKit were used. Plastic-adherent bfMSC were isolated from fetal BM collected from abattoir-derived fetuses...
March 7, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267404/an-investigation-on-the-expression-level-of-interleukin-10-il-10-in-the-healthy-and-mastitic-holstein-cows-and-the-bioinformatics-analysis-of-nucleosome-profile
#14
Bahareh Varzandian, Mostafa Ghaderi-Zefrehei, Saeid Hosseinzadeh, Mostafa Sayyadi, Vahideh Taghadosi, Sara Varzandian
Cytokines are immune regulators that play an essential role in regulating immune response against various infections. The present study focused on the possible association between the expression level of Interleukin 10 (IL-10) in blood and milk samples of 25 healthy and 25 mastitic cows in Fars province, Iran, using a quantitative real-time PCR assay. The experimental groups were categorized according to the number of calvings. The expression level of IL-10 was significantly higher in the blood and milk samples of mastitic cows compared to the healthy ones...
March 7, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854153/genetic-factors-affecting-pork-quality-halothane-and-rendement-napole-genes
#15
Ramon Cesar D Salas, Claro N Mingala
The most common pork quality problems are pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) and acid pork (AP). PSE is associated with the expression of recessive halothane (Hal) allele Hal(n). Recessive Hal pigs (Hal(nn)) have defective Ca(2+) release channels (CRC) or Ryanodine Receptors (RYR1) within the sarcoplasmic reticulum that allow uncontrolled release of Ca(2+) in response to stress. Abnormal lactic acid metabolism caused by stress prior to slaughter leads to the sudden drop in postmortem muscle pH producing the PSE pork...
April 3, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824510/association-of-bf-rbp4-and-esr2-genotypes-with-litter-size-in-an-autochthonous-pig-population
#16
G P Laliotis, A Marantidis, M Avdi
The aim of the present study was to determine any potential association of the BF, RBP4, and ESR2 genes with reproduction traits in an autochthonous Greek pig population. The PCR-RFLP methodology was implemented for genotyping purposes of the examined genes. No deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed for the examined loci, while the B allele noted to be the more frequent in all analyzed genes. In addition, sows with the AA genotype of BF gene found to produce significantly lower numbers of the total born piglets (TNB) and number of piglets born alive (TNA), while the respective BB genotype significantly exceeded in TNB and NBA traits compared to the other two genotypes (P < 0...
April 3, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813832/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-il8-and-tlr4-genes-as-candidates-for-digital-dermatitis-resistance-susceptibility-in-holstein-cattle
#17
El-Sayed El-Shafaey, Ahmed Ateya, Hazem Ramadan, Rasha Saleh, Yousef Elseady, Eman Abo El Fadl, Sabry El-Khodery
Relatedness between single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL8 and TLR4 genes and digital dermatitis resistance/susceptibility was investigated in seventy Holstein dairy cows. Animals were assigned into two groups, affected group (n = 35) and resistant group (n = 35) based on clinical signs and previous history of farm clinical records. Blood samples were collected for DNA extraction to ampliy fragments of 267-bp and 382-bp for IL8 and TLR4 genes, respectively. PCR-DNA sequencing revealed three SNPs in each of IL8 and TLR4 genes...
April 3, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791596/antiviral-compounds-against-nucleocapsid-protein-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus
#18
Nipaporn Deejai, Yaowaluck Maprang Roshorm, Anchanee Kubera
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a severe diarrhea disease in swine that is caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Nucleocapsid (N) protein is the RNA-binding protein of PEDV, which plays an important role for virus life cycle. The aim of this research was to screen and characterize the compounds that could inhibit the activity of PEDV N protein. The gene encoding PEDV N protein obtained from PEDV Thai isolate was cloned and expressed in E. coli. Its amino acid sequence was employed to generate the three dimensional structure by homology modeling...
April 3, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791476/polymorphisms-of-the-toll-like-receptor-2-of-goats-capra-hircus-may-be-associated-with-somatic-cell-count-in-milk
#19
Christina T Ruiz-Rodriguez, Jessica R Brandt, Ryan Oliverio, Yasuko Ishida, Noa Guedj, Edgar F Garrett, Gila Kahila Bar-Gal, Nikolas Nikolaidis, Felipe C Cardoso, Alfred L Roca
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays an important role in recognition by the innate immune system of Gram-positive bacteria. As Gram-positive bacteria cause mastitis, we examined variations in the region of the TLR2 gene that codes for the extracellular domain. Samples of forty goats from a single dairy herd were collected, half with low SCC (≤200,000 cells/mL), and half with higher SCC. Two synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified: 840G > A and 1083A > G. One nonsynonymous SNP 739G > A was identified...
April 3, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623989/molecular-cloning-and-expression-profile-of-toll-like-receptor-3-from-an-indian-coldwater-fish-schizothorax-richardsonii-gray
#20
Kiran Belwal, Dimpal Thakuria, Vikas Dighe, Veena Pande, Amit Pande
The innate immune system recognizes pathogens through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the most important PRRs. TLR3 is a unique member of TLR family that recognizes double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a viral replication intermediate. There is a variation in its response among diverse fish species toward the same stimulants. We identified and cloned TLR3 from Indian snow trout, Schizothorax richardsonii and carried out its expression analysis in un-induced and poly (I:C) challenged fish...
April 3, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
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