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Current Opinion in Ophthalmology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306625/visualization-of-the-retina-and-vitreous-during-vitreoretinal-surgery-new-technologies
#1
Sarah P Read, Jorge A Fortun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Visualization remains a critical factor in successful ocular surgery.Here we review new technology that has the potential to allow for safer and more efficient retinal surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitreoretinal surgery poses unique visualization challenges such as the need for specialized optical systems and the delicate and microscopic features of retinal structures. Better retinal visualization allows for new approaches to increasingly complex retinal cases...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257299/optic-pathway-glioma-of-childhood
#2
Nailyn Rasool, Jeffrey G Odel, Michael Kazim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optic pathway gliomas (OPG) are the most common tumor of the anterior visual pathway and can involve the optic nerve, chiasm, tract, and optic radiations. They are typically benign lesions, often pilocytic astrocytomas, which are diagnosed in childhood. We review the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of these lesions in patients with and without neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). RECENT FINDINGS: Most commonly, patients diagnosed with OPG have NF-1 especially if the lesions are bilateral...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257298/advancements-of-vitreoretinal-surgical-machines
#3
Xihui Lin, Daniel Apple, Jonathan Hu, Asheesh Tewari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews current advancements in vitreoretinal surgical machines. RECENT FINDINGS: The most recent advancement in vitreoretinal surgical machines include 27-gauge vitrectomy probes, new cutter designs, higher cut rate, improved intraocular pressure control, new endoillumination technologies, and combined anterior/posterior segment capabilities. SUMMARY: With recent advancements in vitreoretinal surgical machines, surgical incisions have become less traumatic and fluidics control has led to a more controlled posterior segment vitrectomy...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257297/new-concepts-in-the-molecular-understanding-of-uveal-melanoma
#4
David Reichstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy, and its metastases are deadly. Significant work has been done to elucidate the molecular framework that causes uveal melanoma development and metastasis. This review is intended to highlight the most recent breakthroughs in the molecular understanding of uveal melanoma. RECENT FINDINGS: Monosomy of chromosome 3 and class 2 gene-expression profile ARE well-known INDICATORS of melanoma metastasis...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212157/current-approaches-to-myopia-control
#5
Seo Wei Leo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myopia is a global problem, being particularly prevalent in the urban areas of east and southeast Asia. In addition to the direct economic and social burdens, associated ocular complications may lead to substantial vision loss. With prevalence of myopia above 80% and high myopia over 20%, it is crucial to control myopia. The aim of this review to is provide an update on the interventions to slow the onset of myopia and retard its progression. RECENT FINDINGS: The epidemic of myopia is characterized by increasingly early onset, combined with high myopia progression rates...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151748/applications-of-antisense-oligonucleotides-for-the-treatment-of-inherited-retinal-diseases
#6
Rob W J Collin, Alejandro Garanto
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the last years, antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) have gained attention as a therapeutic tool for the treatment of ocular diseases such as cytomegalovirus retinitis, keratitis-induced corneal neovascularization, and inherited retinal diseases (IRDs). In this review, we summarize the recent key findings, and describe the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead to translate AON-based therapies to the clinic, in particular for IRDs. RECENT FINDINGS: The efficacy of AONs to restore splice defects and cellular phenotypes associated with a common mutation in CEP290 was demonstrated in patient-derived optic cups and in a transgenic mouse model, respectively...
February 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151747/the-early-treatment-diabetic-retinopathy-study-historical-review-and-relevance-to-today-s-management-of-diabetic-macular-edema
#7
Nidhi Relhan, Harry W Flynn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an historical review of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) in the management of diabetic macular edema (DME), and to discuss its relevance to the management of DME. RECENT FINDINGS: The ETDRS reported that argon laser treatment is beneficial in the management of 'clinically significant' DME. The study provided guidelines for the treatment with focal and/or grid laser based on fluorescein angiographic patterns. In today's world, with the advent of optical coherence tomography, 'clinically significant' DME is now classified into center-involved DME (CI DME) and noncenter-involved DME (non-CI DME)...
February 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141766/choroidal-nevus-a-review-of-prevalence-features-genetics-risks-and-outcomes
#8
Jason L Chien, Kareem Sioufi, Thamolwan Surakiatchanukul, Jerry A Shields, Carol L Shields
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the prevalence, clinical features, imaging findings, cytogenetics, and risks and outcomes of choroidal nevus. RECENT FINDINGS: Choroidal nevus is a benign melanocytic tumor, often discovered incidentally on ophthalmic examination. This lesion is generally well circumscribed and pigmented. The prevalence of choroidal nevus in postequatorial region in United States adults (≥40 years old) is approximately 5%. Choroidal nevus is associated with higher lifetime unopposed estrogen and greater BMI...
January 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141765/role-of-cytokines-and-treatment-algorithms-in-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#9
M Elizabeth Hartnett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Currently, severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is diagnosed by clinical evaluation and not a laboratory test. Laser is still considered standard care. However, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents are being used and there are questions whether and/or if to use them, what dose or type of agent should be considered and what agent may be most beneficial in specific cases. Also unclear are the effects of laser or anti-VEGF on severe ROP, refractive outcomes or infant development...
January 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141764/crispr-applications-in-ophthalmologic-genome-surgery
#10
Thiago Cabral, James E DiCarlo, Sally Justus, Jesse D Sengillo, Yu Xu, Stephen H Tsang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review seeks to summarize and discuss the application of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated systems (Cas) for genome editing, also called genome surgery, in the field of ophthalmology. RECENT FINDINGS: Precision medicine is an emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account the variability of an individual's genetic sequence. Various groups have used CRISPR-Cas genome editing to make significant progress in mammalian preclinical models of eye disease, the basic science of eye development in zebrafish, the in vivo modification of ocular tissue, and the correction of stem cells with therapeutic applications...
January 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141763/use-of-video-games-for-the-treatment-of-amblyopia
#11
Alexander J E Foss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the literature up to recent for the use of videos, videogames and dichoptic stimulation as a treatment for amblyopia. RECENT FINDINGS: There have been three strategies explored. The first is to use videos and videogames monocularly with the normal eye covered. The second is dichoptic stimulation with a common background presented to both eyes and an enriched foreground to the amblyopic eye. The third are games specifically designed to generate stereopsis...
January 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177968/editorial-introduction
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898471/green-disease-in-optical-coherence-tomography-diagnosis-of-glaucoma
#13
REVIEW
Mohamed S Sayed, Michael Margolis, Richard K Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become an integral component of modern glaucoma practice. Utilizing color codes, OCT analysis has rendered glaucoma diagnosis and follow-up simpler and faster for the busy clinician. However, green labeling of OCT parameters suggesting normal values may confer a false sense of security, potentially leading to missed diagnoses of glaucoma and/or glaucoma progression. RECENT FINDINGS: Conditions in which OCT color coding may be falsely negative (i...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898470/lamina-cribrosa-in-glaucoma
#14
REVIEW
J Crawford Downs, Christopher A Girkin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article presents, summarizes, and interprets the most recent advances in the study and understanding of the lamina cribrosa in glaucoma, in the context of previous work. RECENT FINDINGS: The lamina is an active living structure that responds to strain by changing morphology at the micro-scale and macro-scale in glaucoma. Changes in lamina cribrosa morphology in glaucoma include posteriorization of the laminar insertion into the sclera, increased cupping or depth of the lamina cribrosa, and the development of focal lamina cribrosa defects...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898469/update-on-pigment-dispersion-syndrome-and-pigmentary-glaucoma
#15
REVIEW
Kingsley Okafor, Kateki Vinod, Steven J Gedde
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present article reviews the clinical features and pathogenesis of pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma and provides an update regarding their diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Newer imaging modalities including ultrasound biomicroscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography facilitate visualization of the iris concavity characteristic of eyes with pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Patients with pigmentary glaucoma may be distinguished from those with other glaucoma types by the presence of typical symptoms, personality type, and patterns of diurnal intraocular pressure fluctuation...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898468/update-on-ciliary-body-laser-procedures
#16
REVIEW
Behzad Amoozgar, Eileen N Phan, Shan C Lin, Ying Han
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are currently various options available for glaucoma treatment procedures ranging from laser to penetrating to nonpenetrating surgeries. Innovations in glaucoma surgical therapeutics include features such as external application, focused tissue effects, and minimal manipulation as these factors all help lower the risk of side-effects in addition to increasing the success rate of the treatment. Traditional diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation (TSCPC) is invasive and destructive...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898467/an-update-on-therapeutic-modalities-for-the-prevention-of-angle-closure-glaucoma
#17
REVIEW
Behzad Amoozgar, Sasan Moghimi, Ying Han, Shan C Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Angle closure glaucoma is a prominent burden for the worldwide health system. Because this disorder is commonly asymptomatic, and can lead to irreversible blindness, the proper screening and early management of this disease can be critical. The definitions of angle closure and consequently its treatment guidelines have been dynamically modified and updated in the past decades. Surgical and laser techniques have been adapted to address the different mechanisms involved in the manifestation of the disease and properly prevent its progression in different stages...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898466/genetics-and-genetic-testing-for-glaucoma
#18
REVIEW
Matthew A Miller, John H Fingert, Daniel I Bettis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent decades, investigators have identified numerous genes and genetic factors that cause or contribute risk for glaucoma. These findings have increased our understanding of disease mechanisms, provided us with new diagnostic tools, and may allow for development of improved therapies for glaucoma. However, genetic testing is most useful when it is reserved for appropriate patients. The purpose of this article is to review key points and recent developments regarding the genetics and genetic testing for glaucoma and to provide recommendations for when genetic testing may be warranted...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875350/pediatric-glaucoma-review-of-recent-literature
#19
REVIEW
Annette Giangiacomo, Allen Beck
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to update the clinician on the recent work in the field of pediatric glaucoma. RECENT FINDINGS: Using the iCare tonometer to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) in children is highly successful. New data from the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study show that after 5 years of follow-up the risk of developing glaucoma is similar between patients that receive initial intraocular lens implantation and those who are left aphakic...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828897/patch-graft-materials-for-glaucoma-tube-implants
#20
REVIEW
John T Lind, Thomas S Shute, Arsham Sheybani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patch graft materials serve multiple purposes in glaucoma surgery. There are several choices of patch graft materials from which the surgeon can choose. Therefore, knowledge as to the choices and the potential risks and benefits of patch graft materials is imperative for the glaucoma surgeon. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies evaluate both patch graft materials and techniques. This evaluation is timely as facility reimbursement changes may also impact utilization and technique...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
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