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Current Opinion in Ophthalmology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771749/brillouin-microscopy-assessing-ocular-tissue-biomechanics
#1
Seok Hyun Yun, Dimitri Chernyak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Assessment of corneal biomechanics has been an unmet clinical need in ophthalmology for many years. Many researchers and clinicians have identified corneal biomechanics as source of variability in refractive procedures and one of the main factors in keratoconus. However, it has been difficult to accurately characterize corneal biomechanics in patients. The recent development of Brillouin light scattering microscopy heightens the promise of bringing biomechanics into the clinic...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708932/adenoviral-keratitis-a-review-of-the-epidemiology-pathophysiology-clinical-features-diagnosis-and-management
#2
Amro A Omari, Shahzad I Mian
INTRODUCTION: Adenoviral keratitis is a common and bothersome ocular infection that produces a lot of burden on healthcare systems and patients. The goal of this article is to provide a review of the topic, with an emphasis on current attempts at advancing strategies in diagnosis and management. PATIENTS/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-eight articles and one textbook published on adenoviral keratitis were reviewed. The findings on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and management were summarized...
April 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708931/recent-advances-in-wavefront-guided-lasik
#3
Edward Manche, Joshua Roe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Laser vision correction remains an active area of research, and there have been many recent advances in the field. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the recent advances for one of the most common methods of laser vision correction, wavefront-guided laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK). RECENT FINDINGS: Recent technological advancements in wavefront aberrometry are largely responsible for the improved visual outcomes that have been recently reported...
April 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708930/management-of-chronic-complications-associated-with-herpes-zoster-ophthalmicus
#4
Saujanya Vadoothker, Bennie H Jeng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) has the potential to cause significant visual morbidity and functional disability in patients with recalcitrant disease, keratitis, and postherpetic neuralgia. This article will review the current methods of prevention and treatment of anterior segment-related chronic complications of HZO. RECENT FINDINGS: HZO-related anterior segment ocular complications can range to include conjunctivitis, keratitis, and uveitis that can all be difficult to manage...
April 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708929/surgical-management-of-herpetic-keratitis
#5
Sonal Tuli, Matthew Gray, Ankit Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss the options for, and recent developments in, the surgical treatment of herpes keratitis. Although the mainstay of treatment of herpetic keratitis is topical or oral antiviral agents, surgical intervention may be necessary for corneal melting or long-term complications such as scarring, lipid keratopathy, necrotizing keratitis, and neurotrophic keratitis. RECENT FINDINGS: There are a number of surgical therapies available for herpes keratitis...
April 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708928/revisiting-monovision-for-presbyopia
#6
Abdallah Mahrous, Jessica B Ciralsky, Edward C Lai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Presbyopia is an inevitable age-related loss of accommodation that results in spectacle dependence with common everyday near-vision tasks. Many surgical approaches to presbyopic correction have been investigated, with monovision correction being amongst the most common and attractive options. In this article, we will review the advantages and disadvantages of the new modalities of presbyopic monovision correction. RECENT FINDINGS: New methods such as mini-monovision, corneal inlays, and multifocal corneal ablation aim to maximize stereopsis and decrease the anisometropic side effects of conventional monovision...
April 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708927/cytomegalovirus-keratitis
#7
Samuel C Faith, Asad F Durrani, Vishal Jhanji
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) keratitis, albeit an uncommon manifestation of this ubiquitous pathogen, can lead to devastating ocular morbidity. Timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment are also unfortunately uncommon. The purpose of this review is to discuss recently published literature regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy of CMV keratitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Classic clinical presentations of CMV keratitis are known; however, current investigations further elucidate characteristics of typical versus atypical disease...
April 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708926/pain-management-after-photorefractive-keratectomy
#8
Oren Golan, J Bradley Randleman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review current concepts regarding the mechanisms of postoperative pain after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and review available treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: Many clinical studies have established the safety and efficacy of different topical and systematic therapeutic agents and techniques for the treatment of postoperative pain after PRK, especially topical nonsteroidal anti inflammatory agents and oral nonsteroidal and narcotic medications...
April 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702494/current-vaccines-for-the-prevention-of-herpes-zoster
#9
Allister Gibbons, Anat Galor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the recent advances in the prevention of herpes zoster. The recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of an adjuvanted subunit vaccine may have a significant impact on the prevention of herpes zoster ophthalmicus. RECENT FINDINGS: There are currently two commercially available vaccines for the prevention of herpes zoster: a live-attenuated vaccine and a new recombinant subunit vaccine. The latter has been shown to be more effective, have fewer contraindications, but requires two separate inoculations, has higher reactogenicity, and has only short-term postmarketing surveillance...
April 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697436/extended-depth-of-focus-intraocular-lenses-for-presbyopia
#10
Sruti S Akella, Viral V Juthani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the various extended depth of focus (EDOF) intraocular lenses currently available to patients and to describe visual outcomes and patient satisfaction. RECENT FINDINGS: EDOF lenses are a relatively new option for presbyopic correction. Preliminary studies show high levels of spectacle independence and patient satisfaction. The only United States Federal Drug Administration-approved intraocular lens currently on market is the TECNIS Symfony (Johnson and Johnson Vision, Jacksonville, FL)...
April 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697435/management-of-herpes-simplex-virus-epithelial-keratitis
#11
Mehdi Roozbahani, Kristin M Hammersmith
PURPOSE: To review recent advancements in the management of herpes simplex virus (HSV) epithelial keratitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Trifluridine eye drop, acyclovir (ACV) ointment, ganciclovir gel, and oral ACV are still the main therapeutic agents. Cryopreserved amniotic membrane has been recently used as an adjuvant treatment. Resistance to ACV has become a concerning issue. The animal models of HSV vaccine are able to reduce HSV keratitis. New antivirals are under development...
April 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553953/robotic-assisted-surgery-in-ophthalmology
#12
Marc D de Smet, Gerrit J L Naus, Koorosh Faridpooya, Marco Mura
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Provide an overview of the current landscape of robotics in ophthalmology, including the pros and cons of system designs, the clinical development path, and the likely future direction of the field. RECENT FINDINGS: Robots designed for eye surgery should meet certain basic requirements. Three designs are currently being developed: smart surgical tools such as the steady hand, comanipulation devices and telemanipulators using either a fixed or virtual remote center of motion...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553952/potential-applications-of-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-glaucoma
#13
Anna Dastiridou, Vikas Chopra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel, noninvasive imaging modality that allows assessment of the retinal and choroidal vasculature. The scope of this review is to summarize recent studies using OCTA in glaucoma and highlight potential applications of this new technology in the field of glaucoma. RECENT FINDINGS: OCTA studies have shown that retinal vascular changes may not develop solely as a result of advanced glaucoma damage...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538184/sutureless-transscleral-fixation-of-secondary-intraocular-lenses
#14
Eric Nudleman, Yoshihiro Yonekawa, Jonathan L Prenner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The surgical approach to eyes needing a secondary intraocular lens have evolved rapidly in recent years. Here, we will focus on techniques for scleral-fixation of intraocular lenses (IOLs), and will review the evidence for their safety and efficacy. RECENT FINDINGS: Transscleral fixation of IOLs refers the placement of lens haptics within scleral tunnels to stabilize the lens in eyes that lack adequate capsular support. Various surgical techniques have been reported recently to accomplish this goal...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538182/gene-therapy-in-optic-nerve-disease
#15
Adam DeBusk, Mark L Moster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Highlight some of the recent advances in gene therapy and gene modification for optic nerve disease to promote axon regeneration, neuroprotection, and increased visual functioning. RECENT FINDINGS: Visual loss secondary to optic nerve damage occurs in numerous ophthalmologic and neurologic conditions. Damaged retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) do not regenerate once they undergo apoptosis after injury. Gene therapy has been studied to replace gene mutations in disorders affecting the optic nerve as well as to alter genes responsible for suppressing or activating pathways of optic nerve growth and regeneration...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538181/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-the-management-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#16
Eric W Schneider, Samuel C Fowler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) provides rapid, flow-based imaging of the retinal and choroidal vasculature in a noninvasive manner. This review contrasts this novel technique with conventional angiography and discusses its current uses and limitations in the management of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). RECENT FINDINGS: Initial work with OCT-A has focused on its ability to identify choriocapillaris flow alterations in dry AMD and to sensitively detect choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVs) in neovascular AMD...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538180/plaque-brachytherapy-for-posterior-uveal-melanoma-in-2018-improved-techniques-and-expanded-indications
#17
David Reichstein, Kayla Karan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Plaque brachytherapy remains the dominant globe-sparing therapy of uveal melanoma. This report highlights recent advances, which have expanded plaque brachytherapy's uses as well as improved the surgical technique. RECENT FINDINGS: Plaque brachytherapy is effective for tumors that may previously have demanded enucleation. Plaque brachytherapy can be used to control large melanomas as well as melanomas touching the optic nerve. Improvements in planning and design have made plaque therapy simpler for the surgical operator and may reduce collateral radiation damage to normal ocular structures...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528862/implantation-removal-and-replacement-of-subretinal-electronic-implants-for-restoration-of-vision-in-patients-with-retinitis-pigmentosa
#18
Katrin Gekeler, Karl Ulrich Bartz-Schmidt, Helmut Sachs, Robert E MacLaren, Katarina Stingl, Eberhart Zrenner, Florian Gekeler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the efforts to restore vision through subretinal implants in patients with degenerative retinal diseases. In addition to the current technique and its latest improvements, it will focus on the surgical technique of implantation as well as explantation and reimplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: The durability of the current subretinal implant RETINA IMPLANT Alpha AMS has increased substantially compared with the predecessor model RETINA IMPLANT Alpha IMS...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528860/deep-learning-applications-in-ophthalmology
#19
Ehsan Rahimy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the emerging applications of deep learning in ophthalmology. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that various deep learning models are capable of detecting and diagnosing various diseases afflicting the posterior segment of the eye with high accuracy. Most of the initial studies have centered around detection of referable diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. SUMMARY: Deep learning has shown promising results in automated image analysis of fundus photographs and optical coherence tomography images...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561286/top-five-legal-pitfalls-in-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#20
Darius M Moshfeghi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the common areas of medicolegal risk during retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening. RECENT FINDINGS: Most malpractice risk in ROP comes from systemic errors that ultimately result in failure to screen the patient in a timely fashion, resulting in failures to intervene and/or refer in a timely fashion. Currently, the emphasis is engaging the family members, the hospital staff, and clinic staff to pro-actively manage ROP patients and ensure that they are screened in a timely fashion...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
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