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Current Opinion in Ophthalmology

Lynn H Trieu, Judith B Lavrich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the majority of our patients are spending significant time using computers and reading, it is important to understand any disease process that can affect one's near vision. Convergence insufficiency, not an uncommon condition, is still not screened for by most eyecare professionals. This review aims to report the current screening methods and diagnostic criteria, and to summarize the current treatment of convergence insufficiency. RECENT FINDINGS: The current literature shows that convergence insufficiency has a prevalence of 2-17% in the general population and an even higher rate, up to 49%, in patients who have suffered a traumatic brain injury...
July 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Suzanne W van Landingham, Jacqueline Diels, Mark J Lucarelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to describe the current state of physical therapy for facial nerve palsy, the evidence basis for these interventions and how therapy can be integrated with other medical and surgical interventions for facial nerve palsy, as it applies to ophthalmologists, oculoplastic surgeons and other specialists. RECENT FINDINGS: Many studies indicate that physical therapy is effective for the rehabilitation of patients with facial nerve palsy and can be used synergistically with interventions administered by physicians, such as targeted botulinum toxin injections...
July 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Bruce Michael Schnall, Anat Feingold
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide the most up to date information on postoperative infection associated with strabismus surgery, its diagnosis, management, and prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies show that topical povidone-iodide is effective in reducing the bacteria colony count at the incision site and preventing contamination during strabismus surgery. Repeating povidone-iodide 5% drops after surgical preparation and presoaking the sutures in povidone-iodide reduces bacterial contamination further...
July 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Adel H Alsuhaibani, Shaikha Al Eid
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In 1980, botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) was introduced for the treatment of strabismus and benign essential blepharospasm. Since then, a number of additional indications have been introduced, which continue to expand, providing less invasive solutions in managing different ophthalmic conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Successful trials of BTX-A injection into the lacrimal gland have been reported for the treatment of epiphora caused by primary lacrimal gland hyperlacrimation, functional tearing, gustatory tearing, and lacrimal outflow obstruction...
July 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Richard C Allen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Periocular rehabilitation of the patient with a facial nerve palsy has evolved over time. Although protection of the ocular surface is paramount, application of disfiguring tarsorrhaphies should be utilized only in special situations. The purpose of this review is to discuss current surgical and medical strategies in treatment of the periocular area in patients with facial nerve palsy to give maximal functional and cosmetic results. RECENT FINDINGS: Upper lid lagophthalmos is preferentially treated with upper eyelid weights...
July 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Christopher K Orr, Fahd Yazdanie, Roman Shinder
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Periocular sebaceous cell carcinoma is a rare malignancy that is often misdiagnosed leading to increased morbidity and mortality. This review aims to describe current knowledge on the disease to aid clinicians in timely diagnosis and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: New research has shown that the diagnosis of sebaceous cell carcinoma can be aided with immunohistochemical stains. A revision in the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system incorporates new tumor size classifications in the staging of eyelid carcinomas...
July 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Mostafa M Diab, Richard C Allen, Tamer I Gawdat, Ahmed S Saif
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review current practices for trachoma treatment with a focus on recent studies, particularly those discussing trachoma trichiasis surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Azithromycin eye drops twice daily for 3 days may be as efficient as oral azithromycin in treating active trachoma. Facial cleanliness and environmental improvement programming should employ a variety of behavior change techniques to give sustained improvements. Posterior lamellar tarsal rotation carries a lower risk for trichiasis recurrence and is more effective in severe trachoma trichiasis than bilamellar tarsal rotation...
June 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Kara C LaMattina, Anjum F Koreishi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to summarize the demographics and causes of paediatric uveitis and to discuss the latest treatment options for noninfectious paediatric uveitis. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last few years, reports out of Europe, Asia and the Americas have shown that the causes of paediatric uveitis can vary greatly geographically. With ongoing research into therapeutics, particularly the development of biologic agents, the treatment of noninfectious entities has evolved over time...
June 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Russell S Gonnering
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is confusion in all of healthcare, including oculofacial surgery, as to what is 'complex' and what is 'merely complicated'. Although in common usage, these terms tend to be interchangeable, the distinction is more than trivial. A different and somewhat unfamiliar toolset is needed to successfully navigate complex problems. This review will explore a methodology for the physician to understand what is complex in oculofacial surgery, the tools needed to optimize performance in a complex healthcare system and successfully manage patients with complex diseases...
June 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Michael T Yen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review new developments in the medical and surgical treatment options for benign essential blepharospasm (BEB). RECENT FINDINGS: Botulinum toxin injections remain the mainstay treatment for BEB with several formulations currently commercially available. Reports in the medical literature support photochromatic modulation for the symptoms of photophobia, as well as oral medications and surgical myectomy for control of the motor signs of eyelid protractor spasm...
June 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Tanja Kalezic, Mostafa Mazen, Eric Kuklinski, Penny Asbell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ophthalmic herpes simplex virus (HSV) of the anterior segment is responsible for a range of corneal complications such as scarring, thinning, neovascularization, and severe loss of vision. This review provides current guidelines for treating anterior segment disease related to HSV. RECENT FINDINGS: We first review findings from the Herpetic Eye Disease Study (HEDS) clinical trials, and then review new topical and antiviral therapies developed since the HEDS studies...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Jennifer Y Li
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Herpes zoster is a common condition, and involvement of the trigeminal nerve results in herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). Acute keratitis is one of the most common of these ocular complications associated with HZO. The findings associated with and the management of acute zoster keratitis will be reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence rate of herpes zoster has been on the rise over the past several decades. At the same time, the average patient age at presentation is declining with similar trends also seen in HZO...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Ari Brandsdorfer, Joann J Kang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To perform a literature review of articles published between 2016 and 2017 to assess recent advances in intraocular lens (IOL) selection. RECENT FINDINGS: A literature review revealed five areas of recent study including advances in biometric technology, formula selection for challenging eyes, accurate astigmatic correction, adjustment of IOL calculations for postrefractive eyes with and without prerefractive surgery data, and use of intraoperative IOL calculations...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Karl Stonecipher, Joseph Parrish, Megan Stonecipher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review is intended to update and educate the reader on the currently available options for laser vision correction, more specifically, laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK). In addition, some related clinical outcomes data from over 1000 cases performed over a 1-year are presented to highlight some differences between the various treatment profiles currently available including the rapidity of visual recovery. The cases in question were performed on the basis of a decision tree to segregate patients on the basis of anatomical, topographic and aberrometry findings; the decision tree was formulated based on the data available in some of the reviewed articles...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Jimmy K Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Ronald R Krueger, Caio S Meister
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As a flapless procedure, SMILE brings benefits to refractive surgery, such as lower corneal biomechanical impact, less dry eye risk and less stromal bed exposure. However, the longer learning curve can be a risk factor for complications. This article aims to discuss SMILE complications and proposes a categorized analysis of occurrences, dividing into two groups: intraoperative and postoperative complications. Among intraoperative, we also suggest a subdivision between those related to the laser (lenticule construction), tissue separation (lenticule dissection) and tissue removal (lenticule extraction)...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Seok Hyun Yun, Dimitri Chernyak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Assessment of corneal biomechanics has been an unmet clinical need in ophthalmology for many years. Many researchers and clinicians have identified corneal biomechanics as source of variability in refractive procedures and one of the main factors in keratoconus. However, it has been difficult to accurately characterize corneal biomechanics in patients. The recent development of Brillouin light scattering microscopy heightens the promise of bringing biomechanics into the clinic...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Amro A Omari, Shahzad I Mian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adenoviral keratitis is a common and bothersome ocular infection that produces a lot of burden on healthcare systems and patients. The goal of this article is to provide a review of the topic, with an emphasis on current attempts at advancing strategies in diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Sixty-eight articles and one textbook published on adenoviral keratitis were reviewed. The findings on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and management were summarized...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Edward Manche, Joshua Roe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Laser vision correction remains an active area of research, and there have been many recent advances in the field. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the recent advances for one of the most common methods of laser vision correction, wavefront-guided laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK). RECENT FINDINGS: Recent technological advancements in wavefront aberrometry are largely responsible for the improved visual outcomes that have been recently reported...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Saujanya Vadoothker, Bennie H Jeng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) has the potential to cause significant visual morbidity and functional disability in patients with recalcitrant disease, keratitis, and postherpetic neuralgia. This article will review the current methods of prevention and treatment of anterior segment-related chronic complications of HZO. RECENT FINDINGS: HZO-related anterior segment ocular complications can range to include conjunctivitis, keratitis, and uveitis that can all be difficult to manage...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
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