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Current Opinion in Ophthalmology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426442/amniotic-membrane-use-for-management-of-corneal-limbal-stem-cell-deficiency
#1
Alfonso L Sabater, Victor L Perez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article reviews the most recent surgical techniques for management of corneal limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) using amniotic membrane tissue. RECENT FINDINGS: Early successes with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for the treatment of ocular surface disorders have encouraged clinicians to investigate new applications. The use of AMT as a temporary patch in emergency cases in which LSCD may develop has considerably improved the prognosis of these patients...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426441/diagnosis-of-corneal-limbal-stem-cell-deficiency
#2
Kyeong Hwan Kim, Shahzad I Mian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A state of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) can be secondary to a number of etiologies, resulting in either a reduction in the total number of limbal stem cells or an abnormality in stem cell function. Initially, the epithelium becomes irregular and hazy; however, this condition may progress to persistent corneal epithelial defects, stromal scarring, ulceration, and even perforation. Since LSCD secondary to a variety of etiologies may be reversible, and various factors are prognostic of disease progression, timely diagnosis is important...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406800/simple-limbal-epithelial-transplantation
#3
Virender S Sangwan, John A H Sharp
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Simple limbal epithelial transplant (SLET) is a technique for addressing limbal stem cell deficiency. Limbal tissue from a donor eye, typically the patient's fellow healthy eye, is transplanted onto an amniotic membrane attached to the surface of the diseased eye. SLET was developed to address limitations of other techniques. Specifically, the technical difficulty of ex-vivo expansion of cells required in some techniques and the larger amount of valuable limbal tissue harvested in techniques not relying on ex-vivo expansion...
April 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399069/conjunctival-limbal-autograft
#4
Sheraz M Daya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of conjunctival-limbal autografting (CLAU) for ocular surface rehabilitation with emphasis on more recent literature detailing outcomes of the procedure over the last 2 decades as well as technique variations and adjuvant techniques. RECENT FINDINGS: Limbal autografting initially described in 1964 by Barraquer and Strampelli and later popularized by Kenyon and Tseng is considered the best option for restoration of corneal phenotype in unilateral limbal stem-cell deficiency...
April 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399068/descemet-membrane-endothelial-keratoplasty-and-refractive-surgery
#5
C Maya Tong, Lamis Baydoun, Gerrit R J Melles
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) has become a first-line treatment in corneal endothelial diseases because of its exceptional clinical outcomes and low complication rates. Because of its improved refractive predictability, DMEK is now also considered for managing cases with endothelial decompensation following previous refractive procedures, or in combination with those. This article reviews the clinical outcomes in these cases and discusses the possibility of refractive interventions following DMEK...
April 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399067/role-of-the-corneal-epithelium-measurements-in-keratorefractive-surgery
#6
Marcella Q Salomão, Ana Luisa Hofling-Lima, Bernardo T Lopes, Ana Laura C Canedo, Daniel G Dawson, Rui Carneiro-Freitas, Renato Ambrósio
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Refractive surgery has stimulated considerable progress in corneal and anterior segment imaging, and optical characterization of the eye. From front surface corneal topography, we evolved to three-dimensional corneal tomography with limbus to limbus characterization of the front and back corneal surfaces and pachymetric mapping. Corneal anatomical evaluation has further evolved to layered or segmental tomography with the ability to characterize corneal epithelial thickness profile and the elevation of stromal front surface...
April 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399066/limbal-and-corneal-epithelial-homeostasis
#7
Ghasem Yazdanpanah, Sayena Jabbehdari, Ali R Djalilian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to describe the underlying mechanisms of corneal epithelial homeostasis in addition to illustrating the vital role of the limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) and the limbal niche in epithelial regeneration and wound healing. RECENT FINDINGS: The shedded corneal epithelial cells are constantly replenished by the LESCs which give rise to epithelial cells that proliferate, differentiate, and migrate centripetally. While some recent studies have proposed that epithelial stem cells may also be present in the central cornea, the predominant location for the stem cells is the limbus...
April 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399065/cultivated-limbal-epithelial-transplantation
#8
Paolo Rama, Giulio Ferrari, Graziella Pellegrini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an updated literature review on the status of cultivated limbal (corneal) epithelial transplantation. Cultivated limbal stem-cell transplantation recently received regulatory approval. We provide a comprehensive overview of recent developments in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: The current article reviews and highlights recent developments in the field of cultivated limbal stem-cell transplantation as retrieved from a literature search for the last year...
April 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383302/the-boston-keratoprosthesis
#9
Hajirah N Saeed, Swapna Shanbhag, James Chodosh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Boston keratoprosthesis (BKPro) is often the only hope for visual rehabilitation in severe corneal disease. Since Food and Drug Administration approval of the device in 1992, there have been a series of advances in its design, surgical techniques, and postoperative care, which have widened its applicability and decreased associated complications. The purpose of this review is to highlight the indications, management, outcomes, and advances in the BKPro literature...
April 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379859/refractive-error-in-underserved-adults-causes-and-potential-solutions
#10
V Swetha E Jeganathan, Alan L Robin, Maria A Woodward
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the epidemiology of uncorrected refractive errors (URE) in adults both in the United States and globally, health outcomes impacted by URE, common barriers to treatment, and propose potential interventions. RECENT FNDINGS: URE is the main cause of visual impairment and the second leading cause of blindness globally. Rates of URE are rising, and cause disability that reduces productivity, economic earnings, and the quality of life of affected individuals...
April 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379858/keratolimbal-allograft
#11
Albert Y Cheung, Edward J Holland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Keratolimbal allograft (KLAL) transplants limbal tissue attached to a corneoscleral carrier from a cadaveric donor to deliver a large number of stem cells to the recipient. The present article will provide a review of KLAL focusing on the recent literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings pertain to tissue selection, immunosuppression and adverse event profiles, and postoperative complications (particularly related to immunologic rejection). SUMMARY: KLAL permits the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency eyes when there is no available living-related or autograft tissue with minimal risk of irreversible toxicity from modern systemic immunosuppression...
April 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376511/anterior-segment-migration-of-dexamethasone-implant-risk-factors-complications-and-management
#12
REVIEW
Ehsan Rahimy, Rahul N Khurana
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the risk factors, clinical course, and complications related to anterior segment migration of a dexamethasone (DEX) intravitreal implant, and review over potential management strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports have demonstrated that migration of a DEX implant into the anterior chamber may occur in patients with higher risk ocular characteristics. Although a relatively rare occurrence, DEX implant migration carries the possibility of inducing potentially vision-threatening corneal endothelial decompensation and edema...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376510/impact-of-intravitreal-pharmacotherapies-including-antivascular-endothelial-growth-factor-and-corticosteroid-agents-on-diabetic-retinopathy
#13
REVIEW
Charles C Wykoff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetic retinopathy is common and increasing in prevalence. Pharmacologic management of diabetic macular edema (DME) has improved tremendously over the last decade with the use of two families of intravitreally administered medications: antivascular endothelial growth factor-specific agents and corticosteroids. Clinical evaluation of these pharmaceuticals has demonstrated that they can have a substantial impact on diabetic retinopathy severity levels and the underlying retinal vasculature itself...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306625/visualization-of-the-retina-and-vitreous-during-vitreoretinal-surgery-new-technologies
#14
REVIEW
Sarah P Read, Jorge A Fortun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Visualization remains a critical factor in successful ocular surgery.Here we review new technology that has the potential to allow for safer and more efficient retinal surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitreoretinal surgery poses unique visualization challenges such as the need for specialized optical systems and the delicate and microscopic features of retinal structures. Better retinal visualization allows for new approaches to increasingly complex retinal cases...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257299/optic-pathway-glioma-of-childhood
#15
REVIEW
Nailyn Rasool, Jeffrey G Odel, Michael Kazim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optic pathway gliomas (OPG) are the most common tumor of the anterior visual pathway and can involve the optic nerve, chiasm, tract, and optic radiations. They are typically benign lesions, often pilocytic astrocytomas, which are diagnosed in childhood. We review the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of these lesions in patients with and without neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). RECENT FINDINGS: Most commonly, patients diagnosed with OPG have NF-1 especially if the lesions are bilateral...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257298/advancements-of-vitreoretinal-surgical-machines
#16
REVIEW
Xihui Lin, Daniel Apple, Jonathan Hu, Asheesh Tewari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews current advancements in vitreoretinal surgical machines. RECENT FINDINGS: The most recent advancement in vitreoretinal surgical machines include 27-gauge vitrectomy probes, new cutter designs, higher cut rate, improved intraocular pressure control, new endoillumination technologies, and combined anterior/posterior segment capabilities. SUMMARY: With recent advancements in vitreoretinal surgical machines, surgical incisions have become less traumatic and fluidics control has led to a more controlled posterior segment vitrectomy...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257297/new-concepts-in-the-molecular-understanding-of-uveal-melanoma
#17
REVIEW
David Reichstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy, and its metastases are deadly. Significant work has been done to elucidate the molecular framework that causes uveal melanoma development and metastasis. This review is intended to highlight the most recent breakthroughs in the molecular understanding of uveal melanoma. RECENT FINDINGS: Monosomy of chromosome 3 and class 2 gene-expression profile are well-known indicators of melanoma metastasis...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212157/current-approaches-to-myopia-control
#18
REVIEW
Seo Wei Leo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myopia is a global problem, being particularly prevalent in the urban areas of east and southeast Asia. In addition to the direct economic and social burdens, associated ocular complications may lead to substantial vision loss. With prevalence of myopia above 80% and high myopia over 20%, it is crucial to control myopia. The aim of this review to is provide an update on the interventions to slow the onset of myopia and retard its progression. RECENT FINDINGS: The epidemic of myopia is characterized by increasingly early onset, combined with high myopia progression rates...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151748/applications-of-antisense-oligonucleotides-for-the-treatment-of-inherited-retinal-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Rob W J Collin, Alejandro Garanto
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the last years, antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) have gained attention as a therapeutic tool for the treatment of ocular diseases such as cytomegalovirus retinitis, keratitis-induced corneal neovascularization, and inherited retinal diseases (IRDs). In this review, we summarize the recent key findings, and describe the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead to translate AON-based therapies to the clinic, in particular for IRDs. RECENT FINDINGS: The efficacy of AONs to restore splice defects and cellular phenotypes associated with a common mutation in CEP290 was demonstrated in patient-derived optic cups and in a transgenic mouse model, respectively...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151747/the-early-treatment-diabetic-retinopathy-study-historical-review-and-relevance-to-today-s-management-of-diabetic-macular-edema
#20
REVIEW
Nidhi Relhan, Harry W Flynn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an historical review of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) in the management of diabetic macular edema (DME), and to discuss its relevance to the management of DME. RECENT FINDINGS: The ETDRS reported that argon laser treatment is beneficial in the management of 'clinically significant' DME. The study provided guidelines for the treatment with focal and/or grid laser based on fluorescein angiographic patterns. In today's world, with the advent of optical coherence tomography, 'clinically significant' DME is now classified into center-involved DME (CI DME) and noncenter-involved DME (non-CI DME)...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
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