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Seminars in Cancer Biology

F Klauschen, K-R Müller, A Binder, M Bockmayr, M Hägele, P Seegerer, S Wienert, G Pruneri, S de Maria, S Badve, S Michiels, T O Nielsen, S Adams, P Savas, F Symmans, S Willis, T Gruosso, M Park, B Haibe-Kains, B Gallas, A M Thompson, I Cree, C Sotiriou, C Solinas, M Preusser, S M Hewitt, D Rimm, G Viale, S Loi, S Loibl, R Salgado, C Denkert
The extent of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), along with immunomodulatory ligands, tumor-mutational burden and other biomarkers, has been demonstrated to be a marker of response to immune-checkpoint therapy in several cancers. Pathologists have therefore started to devise standardized visual approaches to quantify TILs for therapy prediction. However, despite successful standardization efforts visual TIL estimation is slow, with limited precision and lacks the ability to evaluate more complex properties such as TIL distribution patterns...
July 7, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Richard Rosenquist, Manel Esteller, Christoph Plass
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 7, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Peter W Nagle, John Th M Plukker, Christina T Muijs, Peter van Luijk, Robert P Coppes
Cancer treatment, in particular radiotherapy and chemotherapy, is often hindered by an inherent resistance of cancer cells. Cancer stem cells in particular have previously been shown to be more resistant than other cells within a tumor and are thought repopulate the tumour after therapies. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to develop tools and techniques that can be used to study mechanisms of resistance of cancer stem cells as potential treatment targets. Organoids (and cancer-derived organoids), are three-dimensional tissue-resembling cellular clusters derived from tissue or tumor specific stem cells that mimic the in vivo (tumor) characteristics, as well as (tumor) cell heterogeneity...
June 29, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Stephan Marquardt, Manish Solanki, Alf Spitschak, Julio Vera, Brigitte M Pützer
Metastasis is one of the most challenging issues in cancer patient management, and effective therapies to specifically target disease progression are missing, emphasizing the urgent need for developing novel antimetastatic therapeutics. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) gained fast attention as a minor population of highly malignant cells within liquid and solid tumors that are responsible for tumor onset, self-renewal, resistance to radio- and chemotherapies, and evasion of immune surveillance accelerating recurrence and metastasis...
June 29, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Xu Qian, Xiaobo Nie, Wenhao Yao, Konrad Klinghammer, Holger Sudhoff, Andreas M Kaufmann, Andreas E Albers
One of the greatest challenges in systemic treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a small tumor cell population, namely, cancer stem-like cells (CSC). CSC can regenerate and maintain a heterogenic tumor by their self-renewal capacity. Their potential ability to be more resistant to and survival after chemo- and radiation therapy was also identified. Further studies have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to this CSC-associated resistance. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge of HNSCC-CSC, with regard to ROS as a possible and novel therapeutic approach in targeting CSC...
June 20, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Rindert Missiaen, Massimiliano Mazzone, Gabriele Bergers
Tumor angiogenesis and escape of immunosurveillance are two cancer hallmarks that are tightly linked and reciprocally regulated by paracrine signaling cues of cell constituents from both compartments. Formation and remodeling of new blood vessels in tumors is abnormal and facilitates immune evasion. In turn, immune cells in the tumor, specifically in context with an acidic and hypoxic environment, can promote neovascularization. Immunotherapy has emerged as a major therapeutic modality in cancer but is often hampered by the low influx of activated cytotoxic T-cells...
June 20, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Anton Buzdin, Maxim Sorokin, Andrew Garazha, Marina Sekacheva, Ella Kim, Nikolay Zhukov, Ye Wang, Xinmin Li, Souvik Kar, Christian Hartmann, Amir Samii, Alf Giese, Nicolas Borisov
Anticancer target drugs (ATDs) specifically bind and inhibit molecular targets that play important roles in cancer development and progression, being deeply implicated in intracellular signaling pathways. To date, hundreds of different ATDs were approved for clinical use in the different countries. Compared to previous chemotherapy treatments, ATDs often demonstrate reduced side effects and increased efficiency, but also have higher costs. However, the efficiency of ATDs for the advanced stage tumors is still insufficient...
June 20, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Djordje Atanackovic, Tim Luetkens
In the past few years we have seen remarkable paradigm shifts in the treatment of many solid tumors due to the introduction of inhibitors targeting immune checkpoints such as PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4. Recent results indicate that checkpoint inhibition also represents a very promising approach for certain types of hematologic malignancies. Unfortunately, treatment with checkpoint inhibitors is also associated with substantial toxicities and high costs and only a subset of patients appears to derive clinical benefit from these treatments...
June 15, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Hui-Zi Chen, Russell Bonneville, Sameek Roychowdhury
The utilization of genomic data to direct treatment for cancer patients represents the central tenet in precision oncology, in which a patient is matched to a specific drug or therapy based on the genetic drivers detected in his or her tumor rather than the tumor's histologic classification. The expected but not always realized outcomes of molecularly matched therapies include increased response rates, more durable responses, deeper responses, and decreased number of therapy-related side effects. In this review, we will discuss different facets of utilizing genomic data to direct the increasingly complex care of cancer patients...
May 30, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Anil K Sharma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Giuseppe Curigliano
In gynecological cancers tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and upregulation of immune-related gene signatures have been associated with a better prognosis. Knowledge of tumor immunogenicity and associated gene signatures suggests that the tumor immune landscape is a key determinant to define patient prognosis and potentially to predict response to immune-checkpoint inhibitors. The aim of this review is to give an overview of immune gene signatures across gynecology histological cancer types, defining their prognostic and potential predictive role...
May 26, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
George Cyriac, Leena Gandhi
Immune checkpoint inhibition with anti-PD-1 therapy has been notably successful in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and changed standard practice in multiple settings. However, despite some durable benefits seen, the majority of unselected patients with NSCLC fail to respond to checkpoint inhibitors. Patient selection is crucial and will become even more important in the development of combination therapies with immune checkpoint inhibitors. PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) has emerged as the most commonly used clinical biomarker of response and overall tumor mutational burden (TMB) is being explored as a clinical biomarker...
May 19, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Sunny H Wong, Thomas N Y Kwong, Chun-Ying Wu, Jun Yu
The involvement of microorganisms in cancer has been increasing recognized. Collectively, microorganisms have been estimated to account for ∼20% of all cancers worldwide. Recent advances in metagenomics and bioinformatics have provided new insights on the microbial ecology in different tumors, pinpointing the roles of microorganisms in cancer formation, development and response to treatments. Furthermore, studies have emphasized the importance of host-microbial and inter-microbial interactions in the cancer microbiota...
May 18, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Wei Wang, Raju Kandimalla, Hao Huang, Lina Zhu, Ying Li, Feng Gao, Ajay Goel, Xin Wang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Similar to many other malignancies, CRC is a heterogeneous disease, making it a clinical challenge for optimization of treatment modalities in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. A more precise understanding of the biological properties that distinguish patients with colorectal tumors, especially in terms of their clinical features, is a key requirement towards a more robust, targeted-drug design, and implementation of individualized therapies...
May 17, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Dingxiao Zhang, Dean G Tang, Kiera Rycaj
It is becoming increasingly clear that virtually all types of human cancers harbor a small population of stem-like cancer cells (i.e., cancer stem cells, CSCs). These CSCs preexist in primary tumors, can self-renew and are more tolerant of standard treatments, such as antimitotic and molecularly targeted agents, most of which preferentially eliminate differentiated and proliferating cancer cells. CSCs are therefore postulated as the root of therapy resistance, relapse and metastasis. Aside from surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, immunotherapy is now established as the fourth pillar in the therapeutic armamentarium for patients with cancer, especially late-stage and advanced cancers...
May 9, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Maggie Haitian Wang, Heather J Cordell, Kristel Van Steen
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) detect common genetic variants associated with complex disorders. With their comprehensive coverage of common single nucleotide polymorphisms and comparatively low cost, GWAS are an attractive tool in the clinical and commercial genetic testing. This review introduces the pipeline of statistical methods used in GWAS analysis, from data quality control, association tests, population structure control, interaction effects and results visualization, through to post-GWAS validation methods and related issues...
May 1, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Tobias Gutting, Elke Burgermeister, Nicolai Härtel, Matthias P Ebert
Immunotherapy is the latest revolution in cancer therapy. It continues to show impressive results in malignancies like melanoma and others. At least so far, effects are modest in colorectal cancer (CRC) and only a subset of patients benefits from already approved checkpoint inhibitors. In this review, we discuss major hurdles of immunotherapy like the immunosuppressive niche and low immunogenicity of CRC next to current achievements of checkpoint inhibitors, interleukin treatment and adoptive cell transfer (dendritic cells/cytokine induced killer cells, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, chimeric antigen receptor cells, T cell receptor transfer) in pre-clinical models and clinical trials...
April 28, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Jeffery Ho, Xianchun Li, Lin Zhang, Yonghao Liang, Wei Hu, Johnny C W Yau, Hung Chan, Tony Gin, Matthew T V Chan, Gary Tse, William K K Wu
Malignancy of the pancreas is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality, with the highest case-fatality of all cancers. Nevertheless, the lack of sensitive biomarkers and presence of biological heterogeneity precludes its early detection and effective treatment. The recent introduction of next-generation sequencing allows characterization of multiple driver mutations at genome- and exome-wide levels. Sequencing of DNA and RNA from circulating tumour cells has also opened an exciting era of non-invasive procedures for tumour detection and prognostication...
April 25, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Bi Ning Zhang, Andrés Bueno Venegas, Ian D Hickson, Wai Kit Chu
Genome instability and cell cycle dysregulation are commonly associated with cancer. DNA replication stress driven by oncogene activation during tumorigenesis is now well established as a source of genome instability. Replication stress generates DNA damage not only during S phase, but also in the subsequent mitosis, where it impacts adversely on chromosome segregation. Some regions of the genome seem particularly sensitive to replication stress-induced instability; most notably, chromosome fragile sites. In this article, we review some of the important issues that have emerged in recent years concerning DNA replication stress and fragile site expression, as well as how chromosome instability is minimized by a family of ring-shaped protein complexes known as SMC proteins...
April 21, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
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