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Seminars in Cancer Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088584/proton-pump-inhibition-and-cancer-therapeutics-a-specific-tumor-targeting-or-it-is-a-phenomenon-secondary-to-a-systemic-buffering
#1
REVIEW
Enrico Spugnini, Stefano Fais
One of the unsolved mysteries in oncology includes the strategies that cancer cells adopt to cope with an adverse microenvironment. However, we knew, from the Warburg's discovery that through their metabolism based on sugar fermentation, cancer cells acidify their microenvironment and this progressive acidification induces a selective pressure, leading to the development of very malignant cells entirely armed to survive in the hostile microenvironment generated by their own metabolism. In the last decades a primordial role for proton exchangers has been supported as a key tumor advantage in facing off the acidic milieu...
January 11, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088583/environmental-carcinogenesis-and-ph-homeostasis-not-only-a-matter-of-dysregulated-metabolism
#2
REVIEW
Kévin Hardonnière, Laurence Huc, Odile Sergent, Jørn A Holme, Dominique Lagadic-Gossmann
According to the World Health Organization, around 20% of all cancers would be due to environmental factors. Among these factors, several chemicals are indeed well recognized carcinogens. The widespread contaminant benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), an often used model carcinogen of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' family, has been suggested to target most, if not all, cancer hallmarks described by Hanahan and Weinberg. It is classified as a group I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer; however, the precise intracellular mechanisms underlying its carcinogenic properties remain yet to be thoroughly defined...
January 11, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077309/physical-and-biological-characteristics-of-multi-drug-resistance-mdr-an-integral-approach-considering-ph-and-drug-resistance-in-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Ziad Omran, Paula Scaife, Simon Stewart, Cyril Rauch
The role of the Warburg effect in cancer remains to be elucidated with a resurgence in research efforts over the past decade. Why a cancer cell would prefer to use energy inefficient glycolysis, leading to an alteration of pH both inside and outside of the cell, remains to be uncovered. The development of MDR represents a major challenge in the treatment of cancer and it is explained, so far, by the over expression of drug transporters such as the well-known and archetypal P-glycoprotein (Pgp). However, controversies exist regarding the function of Pgp in multi-drug resistance...
January 8, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065864/value-of-ph-regulators-in-the-diagnosis-prognosis-and-treatment-of-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Sara Granja, Diana Tavares-Valente, Odília Queirós, Fátima Baltazar
Altered metabolism, associated with acidification of the extracellular milieu, is one of the major features of cancer. As pH regulation is crucial for the maintenance of all biological functions, cancer cells rely on the activity of lactate exporters and proton transporters to regulate their intracellular pH. The major players in cancer pH regulation are proton pump ATPases, sodium-proton exchangers (NHEs), monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), carbonic anhydrases (CAs) and anion exchangers (AEs), which have been shown to be upregulated in several human malignancies...
January 5, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017644/piercing-the-armor-of-lung-cancer-with-genome-medicine
#5
EDITORIAL
Jianqin Gu, Xiangdong Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 23, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007556/roles-of-ph-and-the-na-h-exchanger-nhe1-in-cancer-from-cell-biology-and-animal-models-to-an-emerging-translational-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Christian Stock, Stine Falsig Pedersen
Acidosis is characteristic of the solid tumor microenvironment. Tumor cells, because they are highly proliferative and anabolic, have greatly elevated metabolic acid production. To sustain a normal cytosolic pH homeostasis they therefore need to either extrude excess protons or to neutralize them by importing HCO3(-), in both cases causing extracellular acidification in the poorly perfused tissue microenvironment. The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) is a ubiquitously expressed acid-extruding membrane transport protein, and upregulation of its expression and/or activity is commonly correlated with tumor malignancy...
December 19, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894849/a-global-view-of-regulatory-networks-in-lung-cancer-an-approach-to-understand-homogeneity-and-heterogeneity
#7
REVIEW
Jiapei Lu, William Wang, Menglin Xu, Yuping Li, Chengshui Chen, Xiangdong Wang
A number of new biotechnologies are used to identify potential biomarkers for the early detection of lung cancer, enabling a personalized therapy to be developed in response. The combinatorial cross-regulation of hundreds of biological function-specific transcription factors (TFs) is defined as the understanding of regulatory networks of molecules within the cell. Here we integrated global databases with 537 patients with lung adenocarcinoma (ADC), 140 with lung squamous carcinoma (SCC), 9 with lung large-cell carcinoma (LCC), 56 with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), and 590 without cancer with the understanding of TF functions...
November 25, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867044/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-cancer-chemoprevention-by-phytochemicals-from-dietary-and-medicinal-plants
#8
REVIEW
Anuradha Sehrawat, Ruchi Roy, Subrata K Pore, Eun-Ryeong Hahm, Suman K Samanta, Krishna B Singh, Su-Hyeong Kim, Kamayani Singh, Shivendra V Singh
Cancer chemoprevention, a scientific term coined by Dr. Sporn in the late seventies, implies use of natural or synthetic chemicals to block, delay or reverse carcinogenesis. Phytochemicals derived from edible and medicinal plants have been studied rather extensively for cancer chemoprevention using preclinical models in the past few decades. Nevertheless, some of these agents (e.g., isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables like broccoli and watercress) have already entered into clinical investigations. Examples of widely studied and highly promising phytochemicals from edible and medicinal plants include cruciferous vegetable constituents (phenethyl isothiocyanate, benzyl isothiocyanate, and sulforaphane), withaferin A (WA) derived from a medicinal plant (Withania somnifera) used heavily in Asia, and an oriental medicine plant component honokiol (HNK)...
November 17, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865897/enigmas-in-tumor-resistance-to-kinase-inhibitors-and-calculation-of-the-drug-resistance-index-for-cancer-dric
#9
REVIEW
C I Edvard Smith
Darwinian selection is also applicable when antibiotics, the immune system or other host factors shape the repertoire of microorganisms, and similarly, clonal selection is the hallmark of tumor evolution. The ongoing revolution in new anti-cancer treatment modalities, combined with an unprecedented precision in characterizing malignant clones at the level below one percent, profoundly improves the understanding of repertoire-tuning mechanisms. There is no fundamental difference between selection of the tumor cells in the presence, or absence, of therapy...
November 16, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845189/genome-analyses-identify-the-genetic-modification-of-lung-cancer-subtypes
#10
REVIEW
Yong Zhang, Diane C Wang, Lin Shi, Bijun Zhu, Zhihui Min, Jianjun Jin
Lung cancer is a highly intricate and heterogeneous disease with genomic diversity in each subtype. Global analyses of gene expression and sequencing provided us new understanding of the genetic variation between small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), including adenocarcinoma (ADC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The genetic variations of lung cancer subtypes in genomic studies were integrated and further analyzed using bioinformatics methods. The lung cancer subtypes share some genetic variations such as the dysfunction of tumor suppressor gene TP53, and also harbor specific variations of their own such as MET in ADC, FGFR1 and FGFR3 in SCC and MYC in SCLC...
November 11, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840279/regulatory-roles-of-epigenetic-modulators-modifiers-and-mediators-in-lung-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Lin Shi, Minghuan Zheng, Jiayuan Hou, Bijun Zhu, Xiangdong Wang
Lung cancer as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths can be initiated and progressed by the interaction between dynamically genetic and epigenetic elements, although mechanisms mediating lung cancer development and progression remain unclear. Tumor progenitor genes may contribute to lung carcinogenesis and cancer progression, are epigenetically disrupted at the early stages of malignancies even before mutations, and alter cell differentiation throughout tumor evolution. The present review explores potential roles and mechanisms of epigenetic modulators, modifiers and mediators in the development of lung cancer...
November 10, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840278/roles-of-tumor-heterogeneity-in-the-development-of-drug-resistance-a-call-for-precision-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Duojiao Wu, Diane C Wang, Yunfeng Cheng, Mengjia Qian, Miaomiao Zhang, Qi Shen, Xiangdong Wang
The drug resistance limits the optimal efficacy of drugs during target therapies for lung cancer and requires the development of precision medicine to identify and develop new highly selective drugs and more precise tailoring of medicine to the target population. Lung cancer heterogeneity as a potential cause of drug resistance to targeted therapy may foster tumor evolution and adaptation and fade personalized-medicine strategies. The present review elucidates the influence of tumor heterogeneity on drug efficacy and resistance, and discusses potential strategies to combat heterogeneity for cancer treatment...
November 10, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840277/tomorrow-s-genome-medicine-in-lung-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Diane C Wang, Xiangdong Wang
Tomorrow's genome medicine in lung cancer should focus more on the homogeneity and heterogeneity of lung cancer which play an important role in the development of drug resistance, genetic complexity, as well as confusion and difficulty of early diagnosis and therapy. Chromosome positioning and repositioning may contribute to the sensitivity of lung cancer cells to therapy, the heterogeneity associated with drug resistance, and the mechanism of lung carcinogenesis. The CCCTC-binding factor plays critical roles in genome topology and function, increased risk of carcinogenicity, and potential of lung cancer-specific mediations...
November 10, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840276/new-strategies-for-targeting-drug-combinations-to-overcome-mutation-driven-drug-resistance
#14
REVIEW
Linyan Wang, Haiyun Wang, Dongli Song, Menglin Xu, Michael Liebmen
Targeted therapies are suggested as an effective alternative for patients with cancer that harbor mutations, but treatment outcomes are frequently limited by primary or acquired drug resistance. The present review describes potential mechanisms of primary or acquired drug resistances to provide a resource for considering how to be overcome. We focus on strategies of targeted drug combinations to minimize the development of drug resistance within the context how resistance develops. Strategies benefit from the combined use of "omics" technologies, i...
November 10, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840275/genomic-mechanisms-of-transformation-from-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-to-lung-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Diane C Wang, Lin Shi, Zhenhua Zhu, Danyan Gao, Yong Zhang
Genetic variations in COPD and lung cancer may be one of the molecular mechanisms responsible for COPD-lung cancer transformation. The present review highlights main genetic variations co-existed in COPD and lung cancer and integrates the varied genes into four molecular mechanisms, e.g. activated cell proliferation pathway, tumor suppressor and DNA repair gene dysfunction, chronic inflammatory microenvironment, and impaired immune response, by which COPD epithelial cells may be transformed into tumorigenic status...
November 10, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609747/targeting-cancer-stem-cells-and-signaling-pathways-by-phytochemicals-novel-approach-for-breast-cancer-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Prasad R Dandawate, Dharmalingam Subramaniam, Roy A Jensen, Shrikant Anant
Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer diagnosed in women worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the USA. Despite the development of newer diagnostic methods, selective as well as targeted chemotherapies and their combinations, surgery, hormonal therapy, radiotherapy, breast cancer recurrence, metastasis and drug resistance are still the major problems for breast cancer. Emerging evidence suggest the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a population of cells with the capacity to self-renew, differentiate and be capable of initiating and sustaining tumor growth...
October 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565447/bioactive-natural-products-in-cancer-prevention-and-therapy-progress-and-promise
#17
Anupam Bishayee, Gautam Sethi
Natural products represent a rich source for the discovery and development of cancer preventive and anticancer drugs. Nearly, 80% of all drugs approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration during the last three decades for cancer therapy are either natural products per se or are based thereon, or mimicked natural products in one form or another. With the advent and refinement of new technologies, such as genetic techniques for production of secondary plant metabolites, combinatorial synthesis and high-throughput screening, it is expected that novel compounds from natural sources, including medicinal plants, would be identified and developed as safe and effective chemopreventive and anticancer drugs...
October 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546289/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-implications-for-its-cancer-chemopreventive-potential
#18
Hye-Won Yum, Hye-Kyung Na, Young-Joon Surh
The implication of inflammatory tissue damage in pathophysiology of human cancer as well as some metabolic disorders has been under intense investigation. Numerous studies have identified a series of critical signaling molecules involved in cellular responses to inflammatory stimuli. These include nuclear factor κB, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1. The proper regulation of these transcription factors mediating pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling hence provides an important strategy for the chemoprevention of inflammation-associated cancer...
October 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452666/promise-of-bitter-melon-momordica-charantia-bioactives-in-cancer-prevention-and-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Komal Raina, Dileep Kumar, Rajesh Agarwal
Recently, there is a paradigm shift that the whole food-derived components are not 'idle bystanders' but actively participate in modulating aberrant metabolic and signaling pathways in both healthy and diseased individuals. One such whole food from Cucurbitaceae family is 'bitter melon' (Momordica charantia, also called bitter gourd, balsam apple, etc.), which has gained an enormous attention in recent years as an alternative medicine in developed countries. The increased focus on bitter melon consumption could in part be due to several recent pre-clinical efficacy studies demonstrating bitter melon potential to target obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations as well as its pre-clinical anti-cancer efficacy against various malignancies...
October 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397504/food-based-natural-products-for-cancer-management-is-the-whole-greater-than-the-sum-of-the-parts
#20
REVIEW
Suleman S Hussain, Addanki P Kumar, Rita Ghosh
The rise in cancer incidence and mortality in developing countries together with the human and financial cost of current cancer therapy mandates a closer look at alternative ways to overcome this burgeoning global healthcare problem. Epidemiological evidence for the association between cancer and diet and the long latency of most cancer progression have led to active exploration of whole and isolated natural chemicals from different naturally occurring substances in various preclinical and clinical settings...
October 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
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