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Seminars in Cancer Biology

Timur R Samatov, Vladimir V Galatenko, Andreas Block, Maxim Yu Shkurnikov, Alexander G Tonevitsky, Udo Schumacher
The major issues hampering progress in the treatment of cancer patients are distant metastases and drug resistance to chemotherapy. Metastasis formation is a very complex process, and looking at gene signatures alone is not enough to get deep insight into it. This paper reviews traditional and novel approaches to identify gene signature biomarkers and intratumoural fluid pressure both as a novel way of creating predictive markers and as an obstacle to cancer therapy. Finally recently developed in vitro systems to predict the response of individual patient derived cancer explants to chemotherapy are discussed...
September 14, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Tri Le, David E Gerber
The advent of precision medicine in non-small cell lung cancer has remarkably altered the direction of research and improved clinical outcomes. The identification of molecular subsets with differential response to targeted therapies began with the identification of epidermal growth factor receptor mutated tumors in subsets of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Emboldened by unprecedented response rates to kinase inhibitors seen in that subset, the oncologic community searched for other molecular subsets featuring oncogene addiction...
September 13, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Gaia Cantelli, Eva Crosas-Molist, Mirella Georgouli, Victoria Sanz-Moreno
The Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGFβ) pathway mediates a broad spectrum of cellular processes and is involved in several diseases, including cancer. TGFβ has a dual role in tumours, acting as a tumour suppressor in the early phase of tumorigenesis and as a tumour promoter in more advanced stages. In this review, we discuss the effects of TGFβ-driven transcription on all stages of tumour progression, with special focus on lung cancer. Since some TGFβ target genes are specifically involved in promoting metastasis, we speculate that these genes might be good targets to block tumour progression without compromising the tumour suppressor effects of the TGFβ pathway...
August 29, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Antonis Giakountis, Panagiotis Moulos, Michalis E Sarris, Pantelis Hatzis, Iannis Talianidis
SMYD3 is a member of the SET and MYND-domain family of methyl-transferases, the increased expression of which correlates with poor prognosis in various types of cancer. In liver and colon tumors, SMYD3 is localized in the nucleus, where it interacts with RNA Pol II and H3K4me3 and functions as a selective transcriptional amplifier of oncogenes and genes that control cell proliferation and metastatic spread. Smyd3 expression has a high discriminative power for the characterization of liver tumors and positively correlates with poor prognosis...
August 20, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Yan Qin, Sergey Rodin, Oscar E Simonson, Frédéric Hollande
As one of the predominant protein families within the extracellular matrix both structurally and functionally, laminins have been shown to be heavily involved in tumor progression and drug resistance. Laminins participate in key cellular events for tumor angiogenesis, cell invasion and metastasis development, including the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and basement membrane remodeling, which are tightly associated with the phenotypic characteristics of stem-like cells, particularly in the context of cancer...
August 1, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Prasad R Dandawate, Dharmalingam Subramaniam, Roy A Jensen, Shrikant Anant
Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer diagnosed in women worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the USA. Despite the development of newer diagnostic methods, selective as well as targeted chemotherapies and their combinations, surgery, hormonal therapy, radiotherapy, breast cancer recurrence, metastasis and drug resistance are still the major problems for breast cancer. Emerging evidence suggest the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a population of cells with the capacity to self-renew, differentiate and be capable of initiating and sustaining tumor growth...
October 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Anupam Bishayee, Gautam Sethi
Natural products represent a rich source for the discovery and development of cancer preventive and anticancer drugs. Nearly, 80% of all drugs approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration during the last three decades for cancer therapy are either natural products per se or are based thereon, or mimicked natural products in one form or another. With the advent and refinement of new technologies, such as genetic techniques for production of secondary plant metabolites, combinatorial synthesis and high-throughput screening, it is expected that novel compounds from natural sources, including medicinal plants, would be identified and developed as safe and effective chemopreventive and anticancer drugs...
October 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Hye-Won Yum, Hye-Kyung Na, Young-Joon Surh
The implication of inflammatory tissue damage in pathophysiology of human cancer as well as some metabolic disorders has been under intense investigation. Numerous studies have identified a series of critical signaling molecules involved in cellular responses to inflammatory stimuli. These include nuclear factor κB, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1. The proper regulation of these transcription factors mediating pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling hence provides an important strategy for the chemoprevention of inflammation-associated cancer...
October 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Komal Raina, Dileep Kumar, Rajesh Agarwal
Recently, there is a paradigm shift that the whole food-derived components are not 'idle bystanders' but actively participate in modulating aberrant metabolic and signaling pathways in both healthy and diseased individuals. One such whole food from Cucurbitaceae family is 'bitter melon' (Momordica charantia, also called bitter gourd, balsam apple, etc.), which has gained an enormous attention in recent years as an alternative medicine in developed countries. The increased focus on bitter melon consumption could in part be due to several recent pre-clinical efficacy studies demonstrating bitter melon potential to target obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations as well as its pre-clinical anti-cancer efficacy against various malignancies...
October 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Laura Pasqualucci, Baochun Zhang
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common form of B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma worldwide and comprises a heterogeneous group of malignancies that originate from the malignant transformation of germinal center (GC) B cells. Over the past decade, significant improvement has been achieved in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis underlying this disease, thanks in part to the implementation of powerful genomic technologies allowing genome-wide structural and functional analyses. These studies revealed the presence of multiple oncogenic alterations dysregulating signal transduction pathways that are normally required for the normal biology of the cells from which these tumors are derived...
August 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Richard Rosenquist, Kostas Stamatopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Geoffrey M Matthews, Ricardo de Matos Simoes, Eugen Dhimolea, Michal Sheffer, Sara Gandolfi, Olga Dashevsky, Jeffrey D Sorrell, Constantine S Mitsiades
The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factor family plays critical roles in the pathophysiology of hematologic neoplasias, including multiple myeloma. The current review examines the roles that this transcription factor system plays in multiple myeloma cells and the nonmalignant accessory cells of the local microenvironment; as well as the evidence indicating that a large proportion of myeloma patients harbor genomic lesions which perturb diverse genes regulating the activity of NF-κB. This article also discusses the therapeutic targeting of the NF-κB pathway using proteasome inhibitors, a pharmacological class that has become a cornerstone in the therapeutic management of myeloma; and reviews some of the future challenges and opportunities for NF-κB-related research in myeloma...
August 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Valeria Spina, Davide Rossi
Splenic marginal zone lymphoma is a rare mature B-cell malignancy involving the spleen, bone marrow and blood. Over the past years, the rapid expansion of sequencing technologies allowing the genome-wide assessment of genomic, epigenetic and transcriptional changes has revolutionized our understanding of the biological basis of splenic marginal zone lymphoma by providing a comprehensive and unbiased view of the genes/pathways that are deregulated in this disease. NF-κB is a family of transcription factors that plays critical roles in development, survival, and activation of B lymphocytes...
August 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Larry Mansouri, Nikos Papakonstantinou, Stavroula Ntoufa, Kostas Stamatopoulos, Richard Rosenquist
The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway is constitutively activated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, and hence plays a major role in disease development and evolution. In contrast to many other mature B-cell lymphomas, only a few recurrently mutated genes involved in canonical or non-canonical NF-κB activation have been identified in CLL (i.e. BIRC3, MYD88 and NFKBIE mutations) and often at a low frequency. On the other hand, CLL B cells seem 'addicted' to the tumor microenvironment for their survival and proliferation, which is primarily mediated by interaction through a number of cell surface receptors, e...
August 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Ming-Qing Du
Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) invariably arises from a background of chronic microbial infection and/or autoimmune disorder at diverse mucosal sites. The prolonged chronic infection and/or autoimmunity generate active immune and inflammatory responses that provide a setting for evolution and development of autoreactive B-cells, their expansion and eventual malignant transformation following acquisition of genetic changes. The immune responses also play a critical role in sustaining the growth and survival of the transformed cells as shown by complete regression of a high proportion of MALT lymphoma of the stomach, ocular adnexa and skin following anti-microbial treatment...
August 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Stavroula Ntoufa, Maria Giovanna Vilia, Kostas Stamatopoulos, Paolo Ghia, Marta Muzio
Malignancies of mature B cells are quite distinctive in originating from well-differentiated cells. Hence, it is not paradoxical that, similar to their normal counterparts, most mature B cell lymphoma subtypes are critically dependent on microenvironmental cues. Such external signals are sensed by various receptors present on the malignant cells, including the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), eliciting a range of cellular responses, including proliferation but also anergy and apoptosis, often with disease-specific patterns...
August 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Daniel Krappmann, Michelle Vincendeau
Deregulations promoting constitutive activation of canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling are a common feature of many lymphoid malignancies. Due to their cellular origin and the pivotal role of NF-κB for the normal function of B lymphocytes, B-cell malignancies are particularly prone to genetic aberrations that affect the pathway. Key positive regulators of NF-κB signaling can act as oncogenes that are often prone to chromosomal translocation, amplifications or activating mutations. Negative regulators of NF-κB have tumor suppressor functions and are frequently inactivated either by genomic deletions or point mutations...
August 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Marc A Weniger, Ralf Küppers
Hodgkin and Reed/Sternberg (HRS) cells in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) show constitutive activity of both the canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathways. The central pathogenetic role of this activity is indicated from studies with HL cell lines, which undergo apoptosis upon NF-κB inhibition. Multiple factors contribute to the strong NF-κB activity of HRS cells. This includes interaction with other cells in the lymphoma microenvironment through CD30, CD40, BCMA and other receptors, but also recurrent somatic genetic lesions in various factors of the NF-κB pathway, including destructive mutations in negative regulators of NF-κB signaling (e...
August 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Suleman S Hussain, Addanki P Kumar, Rita Ghosh
The rise in cancer incidence and mortality in developing countries together with the human and financial cost of current cancer therapy mandates a closer look at alternative ways to overcome this burgeoning global healthcare problem. Epidemiological evidence for the association between cancer and diet and the long latency of most cancer progression have led to active exploration of whole and isolated natural chemicals from different naturally occurring substances in various preclinical and clinical settings...
July 7, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Georgios Kallifatidis, James Hoy, Bal L Lokeshwar
Prostate cancer (PCa), a hormonally-driven cancer, ranks first in incidence and second in cancer related mortality in men in most Western industrialized countries. Androgen and androgen receptor (AR) are the dominant modulators of PCa growth. Over the last two decades multiple advancements in screening, treatment, surveillance and palliative care of PCa have significantly increased quality of life and survival following diagnosis. However, over 20% of patients initially diagnosed with PCa still develop an aggressive and treatment-refractory disease...
June 28, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
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