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Seminars in Cancer Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511887/antioxidant-polyphenols-in-cancer-treatment-friend-foe-or-foil
#1
REVIEW
Gian Luigi Russo, Idolo Tedesco, Carmela Spagnuolo, Maria Russo
Cancer prevention can be probably obtained with easier, faster and less financial strains by pursuing educational programs aimed to induce changes in lifestyle, starting from dietary habits. In the past decades, observational and case-control studies tried to establish a functional relationship between cancer mortality and morbidity and diet. The field becomes even more intricate when scientists investigated which dietary components are responsible for the putative, protective effects of fruits and vegetables against cancer...
May 13, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511886/numtogenesis-as-a-mechanism-for-development-of-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Keshav K Singh, Aaheli Roy Choudhury, Hemant K Tiwari
Transfer of genetic material from cytoplasmic organelles to the nucleus, an ongoing process, has implications in evolution, aging, and human pathologies such as cancer. The transferred mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments in the nuclear genome are called nuclear mtDNA or NUMTs. We have named the process numtogenesis, defining the term as the transfer of mtDNA into the nuclear genome, or, less specifically, the transfer of mitochondria or mitochondrial components into the nucleus. There is increasing evidence of the involvement of NUMTs in human biology and pathology...
May 13, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506645/multiple-roles-of-glyoxalase-1-mediated-suppression-of-methylglyoxal-glycation-in-cancer-biology-involvement-in-tumour-suppression-tumour-growth-multidrug-resistance-and-target-for-chemotherapy
#3
REVIEW
Naila Rabbani, Mingzhan Xue, Martin O Weickert, Paul J Thornalley
Glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) is part of the glyoxalase system in the cytoplasm of all human cells. It catalyses the glutathione-dependent removal of the endogenous reactive dicarbonyl metabolite, methylglyoxal (MG). MG is formed mainly as a side product of anaerobic glycolysis. It modifies protein and DNA to form mainly hydroimidazolone MG-H1 and imidazopurinone MGdG adducts, respectively. Abnormal accumulation of MG, dicarbonyl stress, increases adduct levels which may induce apoptosis and replication catastrophe. In the non-malignant state, Glo1 is a tumour suppressor protein and small molecule inducers of Glo1 expression may find use in cancer prevention...
May 12, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502611/defining-the-momiome-promiscuous-information-transfer-by-mobile-mitochondria-and-mitochondrial-genome
#4
REVIEW
Bhupendra Singh, Josephine S Modica-Napolitano, Keshav K Singh
Mitochondria are complex intracellular organelles that have long been identified as the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells because of the central role they play in oxidative metabolism. A resurgence of interest in the study of mitochondria during the past decade has revealed that mitochondria also play key roles in cell signaling, proliferation, cell metabolism and cell death, and that genetic and/or metabolic alterations in mitochondria contribute to a number of diseases, including cancer. Mitochondria have been identified as signaling organelles, capable of mediating bidirectional intracellular information transfer: anterograde (from nucleus to mitochondria) and retrograde (from mitochondria to nucleus)...
May 11, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499833/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-cancer-potential-roles-of-atf5-and-the-mitochondrial-upr
#5
REVIEW
Pan Deng, Cole M Haynes
Mitochondria form a cellular network of organelles, or cellular compartments, that efficiently couple nutrients to energy production in the form of ATP. As cancer cells rely heavily on glycolysis, historically mitochondria and the cellular pathways in place to maintain mitochondrial activities were thought to be more relevant to diseases observed in non-dividing cells such as muscles and neurons. However, more recently it has become clear that cancers rely heavily on mitochondrial activities including lipid, nucleotide and amino acid synthesis, suppression of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis as well as oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for growth and survival...
May 9, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487205/mitochondrial-determinants-of-cancer-health-disparities
#6
REVIEW
Aaheli Roy Choudhury, Keshav K Singh
Mitochondria are involved in the generation of energy, cell growth and differentiation, cellular signaling, cell cycle control, and cell death. To date, the mitochondrial basis of cancer disparities is unknown. The goal of this review is to provide an understanding and a framework of mitochondrial determinants that may contribute to cancer disparities in racially different populations. Mitochondria, which are multi-functional, have been implicated in the initiation and progression of cancers in relation to metabolic alterations in transformed cells...
May 6, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476658/protein-kinase-c-as-a-tumor-suppressor
#7
REVIEW
Alexandra C Newton
Protein kinase C (PKC) has historically been considered an oncoprotein. This stems in large part from the discovery in the early 1980s that PKC is directly activated by tumor-promoting phorbol esters. Yet three decades of clinical trials using PKC inhibitors in cancer therapies not only failed, but in some cases worsened patient outcome. Why has targeting PKC in cancer eluded successful therapies? Recent studies looking at the disease for insight provide an explanation: cancer-associated mutations in PKC are generally loss-of-function (LOF), supporting an unexpected function as tumor suppressors...
May 2, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476657/pkb-akt-dependent-regulation-of-inflammation-in-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Fengyuan Tang, Yuhua Wang, Brian A Hemmings, Curzio Rüegg, Gongda Xue
Chronic inflammation is a major cause of human cancer. Clinical cancer therapies against inflammatory risk factors are strategically determined. To rationally guide a novel drug development, an improved mechanistic understanding on the pathological connection between inflammation and carcinogenesis is essential. PI3K-PKB signaling axis has been extensively studied and shown to be one of the key oncogenic drivers in most types of cancer. Pharmacological inhibition of the components along this signaling axis is of great interest for developing novel therapies...
May 2, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476656/defining-the-role-of-the-rsk-isoforms-in-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Thibault Houles, Philippe P Roux
The 90kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) family is a group of Ser/Thr protein kinases (RSK1-4) that function downstream of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway. RSK regulates many substrates involved in cell survival, growth, and proliferation, and as such, deregulated RSK activity has been associated with multiple cancer types. RSK expression and activity are dysregulated in several malignancies, including breast, prostate, and lung cancer, and available evidence suggests that RSK may be a promising cancer therapeutic target...
May 2, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473255/inhibition-of-akt-and-other-agc-kinases-a-target-for-clinical-cancer-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Vincent Prêtre, Andreas Wicki
AGC kinases have been identified to contribute to cancer development and progression. Currently, most AGC inhibitors in clinical development are Akt inhibitors such as MK-2206 or GDC-0068, which are known to promote cell growth arrest and to sensitize cancer cells to radiotherapy. Response rates in clinical trials with single agent Akt inhibitors are typically low. The observed adverse events are within the expected limits for compounds inhibiting the PI3K-mTOR axis. Preclinical and early clinical data for combination therapies are accumulating...
May 1, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473254/pdk1-at-the-crossroad-of-cancer-signaling-pathways
#11
REVIEW
Paolo Armando Gagliardi, Alberto Puliafito, Luca Primo
Rational target therapy of cancer would benefit from the identification of new targets that can be easily inhibited by small molecules. An increasing amount of evidence hints at 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1 or PDPK1) as an intriguing and underexplored target for cancer therapy. Several reports show that PDK1 expression is dysregulated in multiple cancer types. Furthermore PDK1 is implicated in signaling pathways frequently altered in cancer, such as PI3K/Akt, Ras/MAPK and Myc. PDK1 targeting has been proven to be effective in experimental models harboring alterations of these pathways...
May 1, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473253/g-protein-coupled-receptor-kinases-grks-in-tumorigenesis-and-cancer-progression-gpcr-regulators-and-signaling-hubs
#12
REVIEW
Laura Nogués, Julia Palacios-García, Clara Reglero, Verónica Rivas, María Neves, Catalina Ribas, Petronila Penela, Federico Mayor
Increasing evidences point to G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), a subfamily of protein kinase A/G/C-like kinases, as relevant players in cancer progression, in a cell-type and tumor-specific way. Alterations in the expression and/or activity of particular GRKs have been identified in several types of tumors, and demonstrated to modulate the proliferation, survival or invasive properties of tumor cells by acting as integrating signaling nodes. GRKs are able to regulate the functionality of both G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and growth factor receptors and to directly control cytosolic, cytoskeletal or nuclear signaling components of pathways relevant for these processes...
May 1, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467889/pi3k-akt-mtor-inhibition-in-cancer-immunotherapy-redux
#13
REVIEW
Jake S O'Donnell, Daniela Massi, Michele W L Teng, Mario Mandala
Cancer therapies will increasingly be utilized in combination to treat advanced malignancies so as to increase their long-term efficacy in a greater proportion of patients. In particular, much attention has focused on developing targeted therapies that inhibit the PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling network which is dysregulated in many cancer types. In addition, there is now a growing appreciation that targeting of these pathways can impact not only on cancer cells, but also host immunity. The clinical success of cancer immunotherapies targeting T-cell immune checkpoint receptors PD-1/PD-L1 has demonstrated the importance of immunoevasion as a hallmark of cancer...
April 30, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450177/ovarian-cancer-stem-cells-more-questions-than-answers
#14
REVIEW
P B Ottevanger
Epithelial ovarian cancer is a highly lethal disease, which is usually diagnosed at a late stage with extensive metastases in the abdominal cavity. Ovarian cancer either develops from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) or from serous intra-epithelial carcinoma (STIC). Primary therapy consists of debulking surgery and platinum based chemotherapy. The success of debulking surgery depends on surgical skills but also on the gene signature of the tumour. Debulking surgery combined with first line platinum based chemotherapy, frequently leads to complete remission...
April 24, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450176/expanding-perspectives-on-the-significance-of-mitophagy-in-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Lauren E Drake, Maya Z Springer, Logan P Poole, Casey J Kim, Kay F Macleod
Mitophagy is a selective mode of autophagy in which mitochondria are specifically targeted for degradation at the autophagolysosome. Mitophagy is activated by stresses such as hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, DNA damage, inflammation and mitochondrial membrane depolarization and plays a role in maintaining mitochondrial integrity and function. Defects in mitophagy lead to mitochondrial dysfunction that can affect metabolic reprogramming in response to stress, alter cell fate determination and differentiation, which in turn affects disease incidence and etiology, including cancer...
April 24, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445781/mitochondrial-ros-control-of-cancer
#16
REVIEW
María Del Pilar Sosa Idelchik, Ulrike Begley, Thomas J Begley, J Andrés Melendez
Mitochondria serves a primary role in energy maintenance but also function to govern levels of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS). ROS have long been established to play a critical role in tumorigenesis and are now considered to be integral to the regulation of diverse signaling networks that drive proliferation, tumor cell survival and malignant progression. mROS can damage DNA, activate oncogenes, block the function of tumor suppressors and drive migratory signaling. The mitochondrion's oxidant scavenging systems including SOD2, Grx2, GPrx, Trx and TrxR are key of the cellular redox tone...
April 23, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445780/mitochondrial-ribosomes-in-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Hyun-Jung Kim, Priyanka Maiti, Antoni Barrientos
Mitochondria play fundamental roles in the regulation of life and death of eukaryotic cells. They mediate aerobic energy conversion through the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system, and harbor and control the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. As a descendant of a bacterial endosymbiont, mitochondria retain a vestige of their original genome (mtDNA), and its corresponding full gene expression machinery. Proteins encoded in the mtDNA, all components of the multimeric OXPHOS enzymes, are synthesized in specialized mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes)...
April 23, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442298/how-to-study-and-overcome-tumor-heterogeneity-with-circulating-biomarkers-the-breast-cancer-case
#18
REVIEW
Valentina Appierto, Serena Di Cosimo, Carolina Reduzzi, Valentina Pala, Vera Cappelletti, Maria Grazia Daidone
Breast cancer ranks first among female cancer-related deaths in Western countries. As the primary tumor can often be controlled by surgical resection, the survival of women with breast cancer is closely linked to the incidence of distant metastases. Molecular screening by next generation sequencing highlighted the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of solid tumors as well as the clonal evolution of cancer cells during progression and under treatment pressure. Such findings question whether an optimal assessment of disease progression and a screening for druggable mutations should be based on molecular features of primary or recurrent/metastatic lesions and therefore represent a crucial element for failure or success of personalized medicine...
April 22, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438662/never-let-it-go-stopping-key-mechanisms-underlying-metastasis-to-fight-pancreatic-cancer
#19
REVIEW
E Giovannetti, C L van der Borden, A E Frampton, A Ali, O Firuzi, G J Peters
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an extremely aggressive neoplasm, predicted to become the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths before 2030. This dismal trend is mainly due to lack of effective treatments against its metastatic behavior. Therefore, a better understanding of the key mechanisms underlying metastasis should provide new opportunities for therapeutic purposes. Genomic analyses revealed that aberrations that fuel PDAC tumorigenesis and progression, such as SMAD4 loss, are also implicated in metastasis...
April 21, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412456/dietary-proanthocyanidins-prevent-ultraviolet-radiation-induced-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-through-enhanced-repair-of-damaged-dna-dependent-activation-of-immune-sensitivity
#20
REVIEW
Santosh K Katiyar, Harish C Pal, Ram Prasad
Numerous plant products have been used to prevent and manage a wide variety of diseases for centuries. These products are now considered as promising options for the development of more effective and less toxic alternatives to the systems of medicine developed primarily in developed countries in the modern era. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) are of great interest due to their anti-carcinogenic effects that have been demonstrated using various tumor models including ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced non-melanoma skin cancer...
April 12, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
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