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Seminars in Cancer Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811077/the-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-a-fuel-to-pancreatic-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Uzma Shahab, Mohd Kaleem Ahmad, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Mohd Waseem, Binish Arif, Moinuddin, Saheem Ahmad
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGEs) was first illustrated in the year 1992. RAGE is a single-transmembrane and multi-ligand component of the immunoglobulin protein super family. The engagement of RAGE turns out to an establishment of numerous intracellular signalling mechanisms resulting in the progression and perpetuation of many types of cancer including, the pancreatic cancer. The present review primarily focuses on the multi-ligand activation of RAGEs leading to the downstream signalling cascade activation...
August 12, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807546/epigenetic-drivers-of-tumourigenesis-and-cancer-metastasis
#2
REVIEW
Aniruddha Chatterjee, Euan J Rodger, Michael R Eccles
Since the completion of the first human genome sequence and the advent of next generation sequencing technologies, remarkable progress has been made in understanding the genetic basis of cancer. These studies have mainly defined genetic changes as either causal, providing a selective advantage to the cancer cell (a driver mutation) or consequential with no selective advantage (not directly causal, a passenger mutation). A vast unresolved question is how a primary cancer cell becomes metastatic and what are the molecular events that underpin this process...
August 11, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782608/mechanisms-that-drive-inflammatory-tumor-microenvironment-tumor-heterogeneity-and-metastatic-progression
#3
REVIEW
Li Yang, P Charles Lin
of cancer metastases has been largely ineffective. It is paramount to understand the mechanisms underlying the metastatic process, of which the tumor microenvironment is an indispensable participant. What are the critical cellular and molecular players at the primary tumor site where metastatic cascade initiates? How is tumor-associated inflammation regulated? How do altered vasculatures contribute to metastasis? What is the dynamic nature or heterogeneity of primary tumors and what are the challenges to catch a moving target? This review summarizes recent progress, mechanistic understanding, and options for metastasis-targeted therapy...
August 3, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782607/novel-epigenetic-therapies-in-hematological-malignancies-current-status-and-beyond
#4
REVIEW
Paolo Gallipoli, Brian J P Huntly
Over the last decade transcriptional dysregulation and altered epigenetic programs have emerged as a hallmark in the majority of hematological cancers. Several epigenetic regulators are recurrently mutated in many hematological malignancies. In addition, in those cases that lack epigenetic mutations, altered function of epigenetic regulators has been shown to play a central role in the pathobiology of many hematological neoplasms, through mechanisms that are becoming increasingly understood. This, in turn, has led to the development of small molecule inhibitors of dysregulated epigenetic pathways as novel targeted therapies for hematological malignancies...
August 3, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782606/epigenetics-in-ovarian-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Yanina Natanzon, Ellen L Goode, Julie M Cunningham
Ovarian cancer is a disease with a poor prognosis and little progress has been made to improve treatment. It is now recognized that there are several histotypes of ovarian cancer, each with distinct epidemiologic and genomic characteristics. Cancer therapy is moving beyond classical chemotherapy to include epigenetic approaches. Epigenetics is the dynamic regulation of gene expression by DNA methylation and histone post translational modification in response to environmental cues. Improvement in technology to study DNA methylation has enabled a more agnostic approach and, with larger samples sets, has begun to unravel how epigenetics contributes to the etiology, response to chemotherapy and prognosis in of ovarian cancer...
August 3, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778402/epigenetics-in-mds
#6
REVIEW
Michael Heuser, Haiyang Yun, Felicitas Thol
Epigenetic regulators are the largest group of genes mutated in MDS patients. Most mutated genes belong to one of three groups of genes with normal functions in DNA methylation, in H3K27 methylation/acetylation or in H3K4 methylation. Mutations in the majority of epigenetic regulators disrupt their normal function and induce a loss-of-function phenotype. The transcriptional consequences are often failure to repress differentiation programs and upregulation of self-renewal pathways. However, the mechanisms how different epigenetic regulators result in similar transcriptional consequences are not well understood...
August 2, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778403/epigenetic-dysregulation-in-chronic-myeloid-leukaemia-a-myriad-of-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-options
#7
REVIEW
Steffen Koschmieder, David Vetrie
The onset of global epigenetic changes in chromatin that drive tumor proliferation and heterogeneity is a hallmark of many forms cancer. Identifying the epigenetic mechanisms that govern these changes and developing therapeutic approaches to modulate them, is a well-established avenue pursued in translational cancer medicine. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) arises clonally when a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) acquires the capacity to produce the constitutively active tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL1 fusion protein which drives tumor development...
August 1, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774835/current-and-emerging-biomarkers-in-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system-possible-diagnostic-prognostic-and-therapeutic-applications
#8
REVIEW
Ishaq N Khan, Najeeb Ullah, Deema Hussein, Kulvinder S Saini
Recent investments in research associated with the discovery of specific tumor biomarkers important for efficient diagnosis and prognosis of the patients are beginning to bear fruit. Key biomarkers could potentially outweigh traditional radiological or pathological methods by enabling specificity of early detection, when coupled with tumor molecular profiling and clinical associations. Only few biomarkers are approved by regulatory authorities for Central Nervous System Tumors (CNSTs), despite the evaluation of a large number of CNST related markers during clinical trials...
July 31, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774834/role-of-forkhead-box-class-o-proteins-in-cancer-progression-and-metastasis
#9
REVIEW
Chang Geun Kim, Hyemin Lee, Nehal Gupta, Sharavan Ramachandran, Itishree Kaushik, Sangeeta Srivastava, Sung-Hoon Kim, Sanjay K Srivastava
It is now widely accepted that several gene alterations including transcription factors are critically involved in cancer progression and metastasis. Forkhead Box Class O proteins (FoxOs) including FoxO1/FKHR, FoxO3/FKHRL1, FoxO4/AFX and FoxO6 transcription factors are known to play key roles in proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis, cell metabolism, aging and cancer biology through their phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation and methylation. Though FoxOs are proved to be mainly regulated by upstream phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, the role of FoxOs in cancer progression and metastasis still remains unclear so far...
July 31, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774833/foxo-in-b-cell-lymphopoiesis-and-b-cell-neoplasia
#10
REVIEW
Alexey Ushmorov, Thomas Wirth
FOX O family transcription factors are important for differentiation and function of multiple cell types. In B lymphocytes they play a critical role. The activity of FOXOs is directly regulated both by signaling from B cell receptor (BCR) and cytokine receptors. FOXO1 action controls the transition between differentiation stages of B cell development. In comparison to other FOXO family members, FOXO1 plays a superior role in the regulation of early stages of B-cell differentiation. Although being known as a negative regulator of cell proliferation and therefore potential tumor suppressor, FOXO1 is downregulated only in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) subtypes...
July 31, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754330/bacterial-infection-increases-risk-of-carcinogenesis-by-targeting-mitochondria
#11
REVIEW
Jesper A B Strickertsson, Claus Desler, Lene Juel Rasmussen
As up to a fifth of all cancers worldwide, have now been linked to microbial infections, it is essential to understand the carcinogenic nature of the bacterial/host interaction. This paper reviews the bacterial targeting of mediators of mitochondrial genomic fidelity and of mitochondrial apoptotic pathways, and compares the impact of the bacterial alteration of mitochondrial function to that of cancer. Bacterial virulence factors have been demonstrated to induce mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and to modulate DNA repair pathways of the mitochondria...
July 25, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712719/ages-rages-and-s-rage-friend-or-foe-for-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Saheem Ahmad, Hamda Khan, Zeba Siddiqui, Mohd Yasir Khan, Shahnawaz Rehman, Uzma Shahab, Tatyana Godovikova, Vladimir Silnikov, Moinuddin
Impaired awareness of glycation biology in cancer initiation and progression is one of the fundamental reasons for its meticulous investigation of the molecules involved in signalling pathway. Glycation of biological macromolecules results in the progression of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) that proliferates the process of carcinogenesis by activation of transcription factors and release of cytokines. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGEs) with the binding of its different ligands like; AGEs, HMGB1 and S100 activate the signalling arrays...
July 13, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687249/etiopathogenesis-of-oncocytomas
#13
REVIEW
Marcelo Correia, Pedro Pinheiro, Rui Batista, Paula Soares, Manuel Sobrinho-Simões, Valdemar Máximo
Oncocytomas are distinct tumors characterized by an abnormal accumulation of defective and (most probably) dysfunctional mitochondria in cell cytoplasm of such tumors. This particular phenotype has been studied for the last decades and the clarification of the etiopathogenic causes are still needed. Several mechanisms involved in the formation and maintenance of oncocytomas are accepted as reasonable causes, but the relevance and contribution of each one for oncocytic transformation may depend on different cancer etiopathogenic contexts...
July 4, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676460/nutrigenomics-in-cancer-revisiting-the-effects-of-natural-compounds
#14
REVIEW
Cornelia Braicu, Nikolay Mehterov, Boyan Vladimirov, Victoria Sarafian, Seyed Nabavi, Atanas G Atanasov, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Nutrigenomics effects have an important role in the manipulation of dietary components for human benefit, particularly in cancer prevention or treatment. The impact of dietary components, including phytochemicals, is largely studied by nutrigenomics, looking at the gene expression and molecular mechanisms interacting with bioactive compounds and nutrients, based on new 'omics' technologies. The high number of preclinical studies proves the relevant role of nutrigenomics in cancer management. By deciphering the network of nutrient-gene connections associated with cancer, relevant data will be transposed as therapeutic interventions for this devastating pathology and for fulfilling the concept of personalized nutrition...
July 1, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676459/shaping-functional-gut-microbiota-using-dietary-bioactives-to-reduce-colon-cancer-risk
#15
REVIEW
Derek V Seidel, M Andrea Azcárate-Peril, Robert S Chapkin, Nancy D Turner
Colon cancer is a multifactorial disease associated with a variety of lifestyle factors. Alterations in the gut microbiota and the intestinal metabolome are noted during colon carcinogenesis, implicating them as critical contributors or results of the disease process. Diet is a known determinant of health, and as a modifier of the gut microbiota and its metabolism, a critical element in maintenance of intestinal health. This review summarizes recent evidence demonstrating the role and responses of the intestinal microbiota during colon tumorigenesis and the ability of dietary bioactive compounds and probiotics to impact colon health from the intestinal lumen to the epithelium and systemically...
July 1, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673608/mitochondrial-biology-in-cancer-stem-cells
#16
REVIEW
Rute Loureiro, Katia A Mesquita, Silvia Magalhães-Novais, Paulo J Oliveira, Ignacio Vega-Naredo
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been suggested to be responsible for tumor re-growth and relapse. Physiological and morphological knowledge of CSCs may be essential for the development of new therapeutic strategies targeting cancer development, progression, and recurrence. Current research is focused on a deeper understanding of CSCs metabolic profiles, taking into consideration their energy demands. Energy metabolism and mitochondrial function are important factors operating on stemness maintenance and cell fate specification...
June 30, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673607/nanoparticle-formulations-to-enhance-tumor-targeting-of-poorly-soluble-polyphenols-with-potential-anticancer-properties
#17
REVIEW
Maria Cristina Bonferoni, Silvia Rossi, Giuseppina Sandri, Franca Ferrari
Polyphenols have been extensively studied for their relevant anticancer activity. Quite often however their instability, extensive metabolization, low bioavailability and poor solubility limit their application in cancer prevention and therapy. Formulation in nanoparticles has been widely proposed as a means to overcome these limits, maximize localization and specific activity at tumor site. The present review is intended as an update of literature regarding nanoparticulate carriers aimed to deliver polyphenols to the cancer site...
June 30, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669752/novel-molecular-adaptation-in-cancer-treatment-and-diagnostics-the-importance-of-molecular-cellular-and-ethical-aspects-in-an-emerging-field
#18
EDITORIAL
Oscar E Simonson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 29, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655520/the-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-cancer-and-immune-surveillance
#19
REVIEW
Luca Simula, Francesca Nazio, Silvia Campello
Mitochondria-shaping proteins control the dynamic equilibrium between fusion and fission of the mitochondrial network. Their balance is strictly required to regulate various processes, including the quality of mitochondria, cell metabolism, cell death, proliferation and cell migration. Alterations in these processes are frequently encountered in cancer, during both its onset and later progression, as evidence emerge connecting alterations in mitochondrial dynamics with cancer development. In recent years, novel therapeutic approaches to fight against different human tumors aim at exploiting the immune system's ability to specifically recognize tumor antigens, thus killing malignant cells in a process named immune-surveillance...
June 24, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647610/the-jak-stat3-axis-a-comprehensive-drug-target-for-solid-malignancies
#20
REVIEW
Jennifer Huynh, Nima Etemadi, Frédéric Hollande, Matthias Ernst, Michael Buchert
Intercellular communication between tumor cells, immune cells and the stroma characterises the tumor microenvironment, which is instrumental for establishing the ecological niche that fosters tumor growth and metastasis. While tumor cell intrinsic STAT3 signaling provides a crucial axis to support cell proliferation and survival, it also regulates many activities of the non-transformed cells that collectively make up the tumor microenvironment. Accordingly, excessive activation of STAT3 is a hallmark of many malignancies, and often occurs in response to cytokines of the IL-6 and IL-10 families...
June 21, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
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