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Seminars in Cancer Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213689/new-developments-in-mechanisms-of-prostate-cancer-progression
#1
REVIEW
Nicholas Howard, Marco Clementino, Donghern Kim, Lei Wang, Angela Verma, Xianglin Shi, Zhuo Zhang, Robert S DiPaola
Prostate cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer in men. The etiology of prostate cancer development and the mechanisms underlying androgen-independent progression remains to be further investigated. There are many known targets for prostate cancer therapy including the androgen receptor (AR) axis, but resistance eventually develops in advanced disease suggesting the need to better understand mechanisms of resistance and consideration of multi-targeted therapy. Mechanisms contributing to resistance may include gene amplifications, gene mutations, AR splice variants, and changes in expression of androgen receptor co-regulatory proteins...
September 10, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213688/an-epigenetic-perspective-on-tumorigenesis-loss-of-cell-identity-enhancer-switching-and-namirna-network
#2
REVIEW
Ying Liang, Peng Xu, Qingping Zou, Huaibing Luo, Wenqiang Yu
Various tumorigenic theories have been proposed in the past century, which contribute to the prevention and treatment of cancer clinically. However, the underlying mechanisms of the initiation of cancer, drug resistance, neoplasm relapse, and metastasis are still challenging to be panoramically addressed. Based on the abundant evidence provided by others and us, we postulate that Tumor Initiated by Loss of Cell Identity (LOCI), which is an inevitable initiating event of tumorigenesis. As a result, normal cells are transformed into the cancerous cell...
September 10, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208341/an-epigenetic-perspective-on-tumorigenesis-loss-of-cell-identity-enhancer-switching-and-namirna-network
#3
REVIEW
Ying Liang, Peng Xu, Qingping Zou, Huaibing Luo, Wenqiang Yu
Various tumorigenic theories have been proposed in the past century, which contribute to the prevention and treatment of cancer clinically. However, the underlying mechanisms of the initiation of cancer, drug resistance, neoplasm relapse, and metastasis are still challenging to be panoramically addressed. Based on the abundant evidence provided by others and us, we postulate that Tumor Initiated by Loss of Cell Identity (LOCI), which is an inevitable initiating event of tumorigenesis. As a result, normal cells are transformed into the cancerous cell...
September 9, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30205139/epigenetic-modulation-of-metabolism-in-glioblastoma
#4
REVIEW
Zhen Dong, Hongjuan Cui
Epigenetic and metabolic alterations in cancer cells are highly associated. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a complicated pathological process with dysregulated methylation and histone modifications. Metabolic modulation of epigenetics in gliomas was previously summarized. However, epigenetic modulation is also important in metabolic decision. Recently, there has been a tremendous increase in understanding of DNA methylation, chromatin modulation, and non-coding RNAs in the regulation of cell metabolism, especially glycolytic metabolism in GBM...
September 8, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30189250/targeting-the-paracrine-hormone-dependent-guanylate-cyclase-cgmp-phosphodiesterases-signaling-pathway-for-colorectal-cancer-prevention
#5
REVIEW
N S Yarla, H Gali, G Pathuri, S Smriti, V Madka, J Panneerselvam, G Kumar, M Farooqui, C V Rao
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related-deaths. The risk of development of CRC is complex and multifactorial, and includes disruption of homeostasis of the intestinal epithelial layer mediated though dysregulations of tumor suppressing/promoting signaling pathways. Guanylate cyclase 2C (GUCY2C), a membrane-bound guanylate cyclase receptor, is present in the apical membranes of intestinal epithelial cells and maintains homeostasis. GUCY2C is activated upon binding of paracrine hormones (guanylin and uroguanylin) that lead to formation of cyclic GMP from GTP and activation of downstream signaling pathways that are associated with normal homeostasis...
September 3, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171980/cancer-testis-antigens-unique-cancer-stem-cell-biomarkers-and-targets-for-cancer-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Olga Gordeeva
Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) are considered as unique and promising cancer biomarkers and targets for cancer therapy. CTAs are multifunctional protein group with specific expression patterns in normal embryonic and adult cells and various types of cancer cells. CTAs are involved in regulating of the basic cellular processes during development, stem cell differentiation and carcinogenesis though the biological roles and cell functions of CTA families remain largely unclear. Analysis of CTA expression patterns in embryonic germ and somatic cells, pluripotent and multipotent stem cells, cancer stem cells and their cell descendants indicates that rearrangements of characteristic CTA profiles (aberrant expression) could be associated with cancer transformation and failure of the developmental program of cell lineage specification and germ line restriction...
August 29, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30149066/oxidative-stress-modulating-drugs-have-preferential-anticancer-effects-involving-the-regulation-of-apoptosis-dna-damage-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-autophagy-metabolism-and-migration
#7
REVIEW
Jen-Yang Tang, Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Fu Ou-Yang, Ming-Feng Hou, Hurng-Wern Huang, Hui-Ru Wang, Kun-Tzu Li, Sundas Fayyaz, Chih-Wen Shu, Hsueh-Wei Chang
To achieve preferential effects against cancer cells but less damage to normal cells is one of the main challenges of cancer research. In this review, we explore the roles and relationships of oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis, DNA damage, ER stress, autophagy, metabolism, and migration of ROS-modulating anticancer drugs. Understanding preferential anticancer effects in more detail will improve chemotherapeutic approaches that are based on ROS-modulating drugs in cancer treatments.
August 24, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30130664/pancreatic-cancer-stem-cells-a-state-or-an-entity
#8
REVIEW
Patrick C Hermann, Bruno Sainz
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common type of pancreatic cancer, has a median overall survival of 6-12 months and a 5-year survival of less than 7%. While PDAC currently represents the 4th most frequent cause of death due to cancer worldwide, it is expected to become the second leading cause of cancer-related death by 2030. These alarming statistics are primarily due to both the inherent chemoresistant and metastatic nature of this tumor, and the existence of a subpopulation of highly plastic "stem"-like cells within the tumor, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs)...
August 18, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30130663/cancer-cell-plasticity-impact-on-tumor-progression-and-therapy-response
#9
REVIEW
Victoria da Silva-Diz, Laura Lorenzo-Sanz, Adrià Bernat-Peguera, Marta Lopez-Cerda, Purificación Muñoz
Most tumors exhibit intra-tumor heterogeneity, which is associated with disease progression and an impaired response to therapy. Cancer cell plasticity has been proposed as being an important mechanism that, along with genetic and epigenetic alterations, promotes cancer cell diversity and contributes to intra-tumor heterogeneity. Plasticity endows cancer cells with the capacity to shift dynamically between a differentiated state, with limited tumorigenic potential, and an undifferentiated or cancer stem-like cell (CSC) state, which is responsible for long-term tumor growth...
August 18, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30130662/current-understanding-and-clinical-utility-of-mirnas-regulation-of-colon-cancer-stem-cells
#10
REVIEW
Mariangela De Robertis, Maria Luana Poeta, Emanuela Signori, Vito Michele Fazio
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) in colorectal tumorigenesis are suggested to be responsible for initiation, development and propagation of colorectal cancer (CRC) and have been extensively characterized by the expression of phenotypic determinants, such as surface or intracellular proteins. The generation of CSCs is likely due to a dysregulation of the signaling pathways that principally control self-renewal and pluripotency in normal intestinal stem cells (ISCs) through different (epi)genetic changes that define cell fate, identity, and phenotype of CSCs...
August 18, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092255/some-chinks-in-ras-armor
#11
EDITORIAL
Asfar S Azmi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 6, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30082187/the-role-of-tumor-dna-as-a-diagnostic-tool-for-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#12
REVIEW
Jason Y K Chan, Gooi Zhen, Nishant Agrawal
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents the most common type of head and neck cancer worldwide. However, despite advances in cancer care globally there has been little progress in HNSCC, with survival remaining static and slightly worse in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with 5 year survivals remaining at ∼50%. Conventional analysis of tissue through cytopathology or histopathology are the mainstay of diagnosis. Furthermore there are no useful biomarkers for disease diagnosis or surveillance...
August 3, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081230/nk-cells-shape-pancreatic-and-oral-tumor-microenvironments-role-in-inhibition-of-tumor-growth-and-metastasis
#13
REVIEW
Anahid Jewett, Janko Kos, Yuman Fong, Meng-Wei Ko, Tahmineh Safaei, Milica Perišić Nanut, Kawaljit Kaur
We have recently shown that natural killer (NK) cells select and differentiate cancer stem cells (CSCs)/undifferentiated tumors via secreted and membrane bound IFN-gamma (IFN-γ) and TNF-alpha (TNF-α), preventing tumor growth and inducing remodeling of the tumor microenvironment. Since many conventional therapeutic strategies, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy remain fairly unsuccessful in treating CSCs/poorly differentiated tumors, there has been an increasing interest in NK cell-targeted immunotherapy for the treatment of aggressive tumors...
August 3, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081229/replication-stress-response-in-cancer-stem-cells-as-a-target-for-chemotherapy
#14
REVIEW
Gwenola Manic, Antonella Sistigu, Francesca Corradi, Martina Musella, Ruggero De Maria, Ilio Vitale
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are subpopulations of multipotent stem cells (SCs) responsible for the initiation, long-term clonal maintenance, growth and spreading of most human neoplasms. Reportedly, CSCs share a very robust DNA damage response (DDR) with embryonic and adult SCs, which allows them to survive endogenous and exogenous genotoxins. A range of experimental evidence indicates that CSCs have high but heterogeneous levels of replication stress (RS), arising from, and being boosted by, endogenous causes, such as specific genetic backgrounds (e...
August 3, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081228/targeting-cancer-stem-cells-and-their-niche-perspectives-for-future-therapeutic-targets-and-strategies
#15
REVIEW
Yue Zhao, Qiongzhu Dong, Jiahui Li, Kaili Zhang, Jie Qin, Jiangang Zhao, Qiye Sun, Zhefang Wang, Thomas Wartmann, Karl Walter Jauch, Peter J Nelson, LunXiu Qin, Christiane Bruns
A small subpopulation of cells within the bulk of tumors share features with somatic stem cells, in that, they are capable of self-renewal, they differentiate, and are highly resistant to conventional therapy. These cells have been referred to as cancer stem cells (CSCs). Recent reports support the central importance of a cancer stem cell-like niche that appears to help foster the generation and maintenance of CSCs. In response to signals provided by this microenvironment, CSCs express the tumorigenic characteristics that can drive tumor metastasis by the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) that in turn fosters the migration and recolonization of the cells as secondary tumors within metastatic niches...
August 3, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071257/a-promising-new-approach-to-cancer-therapy-targeting-iron-metabolism-in-cancer-stem-cells
#16
REVIEW
Mouradi El Hout, Leïla Dos Santos, Ahmed Hamaï, Maryam Mehrpour
Iron is an essential nutrient that facilitates cell proliferation and growth. Iron can be detrimental, however. The ability of iron to cycle between oxidized and reduced forms contributes to the formation of free radicals. An excess of free radicals leads to lipid peroxidation, more reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, damage to DNA and other biomolecules, and, if potentially, tumorigenesis. Iron also has a role in the maintenance of the tumor microenvironment and in metastasis. Pathways of iron acquisition, efflux, storage, and regulation are all perturbed in cancer, suggesting that reprogramming of iron metabolism is a central aspect of tumor cell survival...
July 30, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30063965/cysteine-cathepsins-their-biological-and-molecular-significance-in-cancer-stem-cells
#17
REVIEW
Pišlar Anja, Jewett Anahid, Kos Janko
Cysteine cathepsins are lysosomal peptidases involved on one hand in general intracellular protein degradation and, on the other, in the regulation of a number of specific physiological processes. Their integral role in extracellular matrix degradation and in processing growth factors, hormones and adhesion proteins is a driving force in cancer progression, triggering tumor proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Cancer stem cells are proposed to be a main factor of tumor initialization, heterogeneity and resistance to therapy...
July 29, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30059727/breast-cancer-stem-cells-features-key-drivers-and-treatment-options
#18
REVIEW
Jürgen Dittmer
The current view is that breast cancer is a stem cell disease characterized by the existence of cancer cells with stem-like features and tumor-initiating potential. These cells are made responsible for tumor dissemination and metastasis. Common therapies by chemotherapeutic drugs fail to eradicate these cells and rather increase the pool of cancer stem cells in tumors, an effect that may increase the likelyhood of recurrence. Fifteen years after the first evidence for a small stem-like subpopulation playing a major role in breast cancer initiation has been published a large body of knowledge has been accumulated regarding the signaling cascades and proteins involved in maintaining stemness in breast cancer...
July 27, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30059726/the-reversible-effects-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gdnf-in-the-human-brain
#19
REVIEW
Abiola Abdulrahman Ayanlaja, Baole Zhang, GuangQuan Ji, Yue Gao, Jie Wang, Kouminin Kanwore, DianShuai Gao
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent survival factor, and a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily acting on different neuronal activities. GDNF was originally identified as a neurotrophic factor crucially involved in the survival of dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway and is currently an established therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease. However, GDNF was later reported to be highly expressed in gliomas, especially in glioblastomas, and was demonstrated as a potent proliferation factor involved in the development and migration of gliomas...
July 27, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055950/challenges-and-opportunities-in-the-proteomic-characterization-of-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-ccrcc-a-critical-step-towards-the-personalized-care-of-renal-cancers
#20
REVIEW
Qing Kay Li, Christian P Pavlovich, Hui Zhang, Christopher R Kinsinger, Daniel W Chan
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer, comprising approximately 75% of all kidney tumors. Recent the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) studies have significantly advanced the molecular characterization of RCC and facilitated the development of targeted therapies. Such advances have improved the median survival of patients with advanced disease from less than 10 months prior to 2004 to 30 months by 2011. However, approximately 30% of localized ccRCC patients will nevertheless develop recurrence or metastasis after surgical resection of their tumor...
July 25, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
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