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Seminars in Cancer Biology

Michaël Duruisseaux, Manel Esteller
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Advances in our understanding of the genomics of lung cancer have led to substantial progress in the treatment of specific molecular subsets. Immunotherapy also emerges as a major breakthrough in lung cancer treatment. However, challenges remain as a consensual approach for early lung cancer detection remains elusive while primary or secondary drug resistance eventually leads to treatment failure in all patients with advanced disease. Furthermore, a large portion of patients are still treated with conventional chemotherapy that is only modestly effective...
September 14, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Margaret L Axelrod, Douglas B Johnson, Justin M Balko
The treatment and prognosis of metastatic melanoma has changed substantially since the advent of novel immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), agents that enhance the anti-tumor immune response. Despite the success of these agents, clinically actionable biomarkers to aid patient and regimen selection are lacking. Herein, we summarize and review the evidence for candidate biomarkers of response to ICIs in melanoma. Many of these candidates can be examined as parts of a known molecular pathway of immune response, while others are clinical in nature...
September 13, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
C Theresa Vincent, Jonas Fuxe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Ilaria Peluso, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Roberto Ambra, Gianni Pastore, George Perry
The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are fundamental in inflammation and cancer control, through the crosstalk between the redox regulated nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor-kB (NFκB) gene expression. MAPKs regulate various cellular activities involved in cancer progression, including proliferation, apoptosis and immune escape and blockade of upstream kinases is a current therapeutic strategy. However, these therapies are associated with some adverse effects and with the paradoxical activation of the MAPKs pathway...
September 11, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Jessica Nordlund, Ann-Christine Syvänen
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy in children. ALL arises from the malignant transformation of progenitor B- and T-cells in the bone marrow into leukemic cells, but the mechanisms underlying this transformation are not well understood. Recent technical advances and decreasing costs of methods for high-throughput DNA sequencing and SNP genotyping have stimulated systematic studies of the epigenetic changes in leukemic cells from pediatric ALL patients. The results emerging from these studies are increasing our understanding of the epigenetic component of leukemogenesis and have demonstrated the potential of DNA methylation as a biomarker for lineage and subtype classification, prognostication, and disease progression in ALL...
September 5, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Andrea Nicolini, Paola Ferrari, Michael J Duffy
Following a diagnosis of breast cancer, the most immediate challenges in patient management are the determination of prognosis and identification of the most appropriate adjuvant systemic therapy. Determining prognosis can best be addressed with a combination of traditional clinicopathological prognostic factors, biomarkers such as HER2/neu and specific multigene genes tests. Amongst the best validated prognostic multigene tests are uPA/PAI1, Oncotype DX and MammaPrint. Oncotype DX and MammaPrint, may be used for predicting outcome and aiding adjunct therapy decision making in patients with ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancers that are either lymph node-negative or node positive (1-3 metastatic nodes), while uPA/PAI-1 may be similarly used in ER-positive, lymph node-negative patients...
September 4, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Bhupender Sharma, Shamsher S Kanwar
Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally. Many prominent cancer-associated molecules have been identified over the recent years which include EGFR, CD44, TGFbRII, HER2, miR-497, NMP22, BTA, Fibrin/FDP etc. These biomarkers are often used for screening, detection, diagnosis, prognosis, prediction and monitoring of cancer development. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an essential component in all human cells which is present on the inner leaflet of the cell membrane. The oxidative stress causes exposure of PS on the surface of the vascular endothelium in the cancer cells (lung, breast, pancreatic, bladder, skin, brain metastasis, rectal adenocarcinoma etc...
September 1, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Priscila M Kosaka, Montserrat Calleja, Javier Tamayo
Most of the cancer deaths could be avoided by early detection of the tumor when it is confined to its primary site and it has not metastasized. To this aim, one of the most promising strategies is the discovery and detection of protein biomarkers shed by the young tumor to the bloodstream. Proteomic technologies, mainly mass spectrometry and multiplexed immunoassays, have rapidly developed during last years with improved limits of detection and multiplexing capability. Unfortunately, these developments together major investments and large international efforts have not resulted into new useful protein biomarkers...
August 31, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Deeptashree Nandi, Pradeep Singh Cheema, Neha Jaiswal, Alo Nag
The past few decades have witnessed a tremendous progress in understanding the biology of cancer, which has led to more comprehensive approaches for global gene expression profiling and genome-wide analysis. This has helped to determine more sophisticated prognostic and predictive signature markers for the prompt diagnosis and precise screening of cancer patients. In the search for novel biomarkers, there has been increased interest in FoxM1, an extensively studied transcription factor that encompasses most of the hallmarks of malignancy...
August 27, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Jose I Martin-Subero, Christopher C Oakes
The epigenetic landscape undergoes a widespread modulation during embryonic development and cell differentiation. Within the hematopoietic system, B cells are perhaps the cell lineage with a more dynamic DNA methylome during their maturation process, which involves approximately one third of all the CpG sites of the genome. Although each B-cell maturation step displays its own DNA methylation fingerprint, the DNA methylome is more extensively modified in particular maturation transitions. These changes are gradually accumulated in specific chromatin environments as cell differentiation progresses and reflect different features and functional states of B cells...
August 26, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Luciana Marinelli, Gian Carlo Tenore, Ettore Novellino
Mounting evidences are supporting a key role of distinct gut bacteria in the occurrence and progression of intestinal and extra-intestinal tumors. More importantly, it has been recently demonstrated that some gut bacteria strains synergize with largely-used anticancer drugs as alkylating or immune checkpoint blockade agents thus optimizing the immune response against multiple solid cancers. However, the exact role played by each gut bacterium in cancer occurrence and response to therapy is still in its infancy; and the current knowledge, although exciting, still needs to be transferred from mice models to human beings...
August 24, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Bin-Zhi Qian
Metastatic disease is the major challenge of cancer that accounts for over 90% of total cancer lethality. Mounting clinical and preclinical data now indicate that inflammation, a potent immune and repair response, is indispensable for metastasis. In this review we describe our current understanding of how major inflammatory cells contribute to metastatic cascade with a focus on the primary tumour. We also discuss exciting new directions for future research and novel therapeutic approaches to tackle metastatic disease through targeting inflammation...
August 21, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Valeria Curti, Arianna Di Lorenzo, Marco Dacrema, Jianbo Xiao, Sayed Mohammad Nabavi, Maria Daglia
Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites which have been studied extensively for their health-promoting properties, and which could also exert pharmacological activities ranging from anti-inflammatory effects, to cytotoxic activity against cancer cells. The main mechanism for programmed cell death is represented by apoptosis, and its dysregulation is involved in the etiopathology of cancer. As such, substances able to induce apoptosis in cancer cells could be used as new anticancer agents. The aim of this paper is to review literature data on the apoptotic effects of polyphenols and the molecular mechanisms through which they induce these effects in cancer cells...
August 19, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Charli Dominguez, Justin M David, Claudia Palena
Tumor growth and progression are the products of complex signaling networks between different cell types within the tumor and its surrounding stroma. In particular, established tumors are known to stimulate an inflammatory reaction via the secretion of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors that favor the recruitment of a range of infiltrating immune cell populations into the tumor microenvironment. While potentially able to exert tumor control, this inflammatory reaction is typically seized upon by the tumor to promote its own growth and progression towards metastasis...
August 18, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Manoj K Pandey, Subash C Gupta, Ali Nabavizadeh, Bharat B Aggarwal
Although it is widely accepted that better food habits do play important role in cancer prevention and treatment, how dietary agents mediate their effects remains poorly understood. More than thousand different polyphenols have been identified from dietary plants. In this review, we discuss the underlying mechanism by which dietary agents can modulate a variety of cell-signaling pathways linked to cancer, including transcription factors, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), activator protein-1 (AP-1), β-catenin/Wnt, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor- gamma (PPAR-γ), Sonic Hedgehog, and nuclear factor erythroid 2 (Nrf2); growth factors receptors (EGFR, VEGFR, IGF1-R); protein Kinases (Ras/Raf, mTOR, PI3K, Bcr-abl and AMPK); and pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, interleukins, COX-2, 5-LOX)...
August 16, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Uzma Shahab, Mohd Kaleem Ahmad, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Mohd Waseem, Binish Arif, Moinuddin, Saheem Ahmad
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGEs) was first illustrated in the year 1992. RAGE is a single-transmembrane and multi-ligand component of the immunoglobulin protein super family. The engagement of RAGE turns out to an establishment of numerous intracellular signalling mechanisms resulting in the progression and perpetuation of many types of cancer including, the pancreatic cancer. The present review primarily focuses on the multi-ligand activation of RAGEs leading to the downstream signalling cascade activation...
August 12, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Aniruddha Chatterjee, Euan J Rodger, Michael R Eccles
Since the completion of the first human genome sequence and the advent of next generation sequencing technologies, remarkable progress has been made in understanding the genetic basis of cancer. These studies have mainly defined genetic changes as either causal, providing a selective advantage to the cancer cell (a driver mutation) or consequential with no selective advantage (not directly causal, a passenger mutation). A vast unresolved question is how a primary cancer cell becomes metastatic and what are the molecular events that underpin this process...
August 11, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Paolo Gallipoli, Brian J P Huntly
Over the last decade transcriptional dysregulation and altered epigenetic programs have emerged as a hallmark in the majority of hematological cancers. Several epigenetic regulators are recurrently mutated in many hematological malignancies. In addition, in those cases that lack epigenetic mutations, altered function of epigenetic regulators has been shown to play a central role in the pathobiology of many hematological neoplasms, through mechanisms that are becoming increasingly understood. This, in turn, has led to the development of small molecule inhibitors of dysregulated epigenetic pathways as novel targeted therapies for hematological malignancies...
August 4, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Li Yang, P Charles Lin
Treatment of cancer metastasis has been largely ineffective. It is paramount to understand the mechanisms underlying the metastatic process, of which the tumor microenvironment is an indispensable participant. What are the critical cellular and molecular players at the primary tumor site where metastatic cascade initiates? How is tumor-associated inflammation regulated? How do altered vasculatures contribute to metastasis? What is the dynamic nature or heterogeneity of primary tumors and what are the challenges to catch a moving target? This review summarizes recent progress, mechanistic understanding, and options for metastasis-targeted therapy...
August 3, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Yanina Natanzon, Ellen L Goode, Julie M Cunningham
Ovarian cancer is a disease with a poor prognosis and little progress has been made to improve treatment. It is now recognized that there are several histotypes of ovarian cancer, each with distinct epidemiologic and genomic characteristics. Cancer therapy is moving beyond classical chemotherapy to include epigenetic approaches. Epigenetics is the dynamic regulation of gene expression by DNA methylation and histone post translational modification in response to environmental cues. Improvement in technology to study DNA methylation has enabled a more agnostic approach and, with larger samples sets, has begun to unravel how epigenetics contributes to the etiology, response to chemotherapy and prognosis in of ovarian cancer...
August 3, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
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