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Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

Erin Gaffney-Stomberg, Phillip Marszewski, Michael MacArthur, James P McClung, Ronald W Matheny
High-protein diets are generally considered beneficial for calcium (Ca) economy and bone health. Improved intestinal Ca absorption efficiency may be one mechanism by which higher-protein diets affect Ca homeostasis and bone health. The signaling pathways and individual amino acids (AA) responsible for this effect have not been fully elucidated and may involve the transcellular pathway, paracellular pathway or a combination. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether a mixture of AA and/or functionally distinct individual AA directly affect paracellular Ca absorption across an intestinal epithelial cell model (Caco-2 Bbe)...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Jiali Chen, Bing Yu, Daiwen Chen, Zhiqing Huang, Xiangbing Mao, Ping Zheng, Jie Yu, Junqiu Luo, Jun He
Intestinal barrier plays key roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Inflammation and oxidative damage can severely destroy the intestinal integrity of mammals. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a natural polyphenol present in human diet and plants, possessing potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of CGA and its molecular mechanisms on intestinal barrier function in a porcine model. Twenty-four weaned pigs were allotted to two groups and fed with a basal diet or a basal diet containing 1000 mg/kg CGA...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Arashdeep Singh, Rizaldy C Zapata, Adel Pezeshki, Roger D Reidelberger, Prasanth K Chelikani
Inulin, a popular prebiotic fiber, has been reported to promote satiety and fat loss; however, the dose-response effects of inulin on energy balance and diet preference, and whether the metabolic effects are independent of calorie restriction are not well characterized. Therefore, we compared the effects of diets varying in inulin concentrations on food intake, energy expenditure, body composition, gut microbiota and hormones, and assessed whether inulin-induced hypophagia was due to reduced diet preference...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Carina Cristina Montalvany-Antonucci, Marina Campos Zicker, Adaliene Versiani Matos Ferreira, Soraia Macari, Erivan Schnaider Ramos-Junior, Ricardo Santiago Gomez, Thaís Santos Ferreira Pereira, Mila Fernandes Moreira Madeira, Sandra Yasuyo Fukada, Ildeu Andrade, Tarcília Aparecida Silva
A high-fat (HF) diet leads to detrimental effects on alveolar bone (AB); however, the mechanisms linking adiposity to bone loss are poorly understood. This study investigated if AB resorption induced by an HF diet is associated with the regulation of inflammatory gene expression and if adipocytes can directly interfere with osteoclastogenesis. We also evaluated the effects of diet restriction (DR) on bone phenotype. C57BL6/J mice were fed normal chow or an HF diet for 12 weeks. Samples of maxillae, femur, blood and white adipose tissue were analyzed...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Amy Leiferman, Jiang Shu, Ryan Grove, Juan Cui, Jiri Adamec, Janos Zempleni
Exosomes are nanoparticles that transfer cargos from donor cells to recipient cells where they elicit changes in gene expression and metabolism. Evidence suggests that exosomes and their cargos are also absorbed from dietary sources such as bovine milk, and bovine exosomes promote the growth of myofibers in murine C2C12 myotube cell cultures. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the dietary intake of bovine milk exosomes alters strength, gene expression and amino acid profiles in murine skeletal muscles...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Yi-Yung Chen, Madhulika B Gupta, Rob Grattton, Theresa L Powell, Thomas Jansson
Folate deficiency in pregnancy is associated with neural tube defects, restricted fetal growth and fetal programming of diseases later in life. Fetal folate availability is dependent on maternal folate levels and placental folate transport capacity, mediated by two key transporters, Folate Receptor-α and Reduced Folate Carrier (RFC). We tested the hypothesis that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with decreased folate transporter expression and activity in isolated syncytiotrophoblast microvillous plasma membranes (MVM)...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Jason L Robinson, Laura E McBreairty, Edward W Randell, Scott V Harding, Renee K Bartlett, Janet A Brunton, Robert F Bertolo
Methionine partitioning between protein turnover and a considerable pool of transmethylation precursors is a critical process in the neonate. Transmethylation yields homocysteine, which is either oxidized to cysteine (i.e., transsulfuration), or is remethylated to methionine by folate- or betaine- (from choline) mediated remethylation pathways. The present investigation quantifies the individual and synergistic importance of folate and betaine for methionine partitioning in neonates. To minimize whole body remethylation, 4-8-d-old piglets were orally fed an otherwise complete diet without remethylation precursors folate, betaine and choline (i...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Priscila Haygert, Karine Roversi, Laura Hautrive Milanesi, Luana Haselein Maurer, Camila Camponogara, Thiago Duarte, Raquel Cristine S Barcelos, Tatiana Emanuelli, Sara Marchesan Oliveira, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Fabíola Trevizol, Marilise Escobar Burger
A balanced intake of fatty acids (FA) of both omega-6 (n-6) and -3 (n-3) series is essential for memory. The Mediterranean diet (MD), rich in n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) and low n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio, has shown beneficial influences on health. Inversely, the Western diet contains saturated fats, including hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF, rich in trans fat) and interesterified fat (IF), making the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio high. Due to the health impairments caused by HVF, it has been replaced by IF in processed foods...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Fei Koon Chan, Chin Hsu, Tsai-Chung Li, Wen-Hung Chen, Kuo-Tang Tseng, Pei-Min Chao
The α-eleostearic acid (α-ESA) in bitter melon seed oil (BMSO) is efficiently converted by the body into rumenic acid. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of BMSO on skeletal muscle fiber-type switch and endurance capacity in mice, with or without exercise training. In a 3×2 factorial design, C57BL/6J mice were fed a 30% high-fat diet composed of soybean oil, butter or a 1:1 mixture of BMSO and soybean oil, i.e., SB, BT and BM diets, respectively, and were allocated to be sedentary or undergo exercise (Ex)...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Jae Kyeom Kim, Jung Hyun Park, Hyeong Jun Ku, Sung Hwan Kim, Ye Jin Lim, Jeen Woo Park, Jin Hyup Lee
Acrolein (2-propenal) is ubiquitous in the environment and connections exist between acrolein exposure and lung cancer risk. Here we investigated the effects of naringin on acrolein induced-lung injuries in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were allocated into four groups: Vehicle group (no acrolein), Naringin only group (80 mg of naringin/kg bw + no acrolein), Acrolein group (ACR group; acrolein), and Naringin + Acrolein group (NAG+ACR group; 80 mg of naringin/kg bw and acrolein). The mice were subjected acute acrolein inhalation (10 ppm for 12 h) in an inhalation chamber and naringin was intraperitoneally administered to the mice one hour before acrolein exposure...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Josiane Érica Miyamoto, Ana Carolina G Ferraz, Mariana Portovedo, Andressa Reginato, Marcella Aparecida Stahl, Leticia Martins Ignacio-Souza, Kenny L Chan, Adriana Souza Torsoni, Marcio Alberto Torsoni, Ana Paula Badan Ribeiro, Marciane Milanski
Interesterified fats have largely replaced hydrogenated vegetable fat, which is rich in trans fatty acids, in the food industry as an economically viable alternative, generating interest to study their health effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect that interesterification of oils and fat has on lipid-induced metabolic dysfunction, hepatic inflammation and ER stress. Five week-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups, submitted to either normocaloric and normolipidic diet containing 10% of lipids from unmodified soybean oil (SO) or from interesterified soybean oil (ISO), and one more group submitted to a high fat diet (HFD) containing 60% of fat from lard as a positive control, for 8 or 16 weeks...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Miao-Miao Zhou, Lin Ding, Min Wen, Hong-Xia Che, Jia-Qi Huang, Tian-Tian Zhang, Chang-Hu Xue, Xiang-Zhao Mao, Yu-Ming Wang
Recent studies have shown that a high-fat diet (HFD) is involved in both metabolic dysfunction and cognitive deficiency and that docosahexaenoic-acid-enriched phospholipids (DHA-PLs) have beneficial effects on obesity and cognitive impairment. However, there are only a few studies comparing differences between DHA-PC and DHA-PS in HFD-induced Alzheimer's disease (AD) models. After 8 weeks feeding with HFD, 10-month-old SAMP8 mice were fed with 1% (w/w) DHA-PC or 1% DHA-PS (biosynthesized from DHA-PC) for 8 weeks; we then tested the behavioral performances in the Barnes maze test and Morris maze test...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Foteini Malliou, Ioanna Andreadou, Frank J Gonzalez, Antigone Lazou, Eva Xepapadaki, Ioanna Vallianou, George Lambrinidis, Emmanuel Mikros, Marios Marselos, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis, Maria Konstandi
Oleuropein (OLE), a main constituent of olive, exhibits antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects, while it reduces the infarct size in chow- and cholesterol-fed rabbits. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) has essential roles in the control of lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis. This study focused on the mechanisms underlying the hypolipidemic activity of OLE and, specifically, on the role of PPARα activation in the OLE-induced effect. Theoretical approach using Molecular Docking Simulations and luciferase reporter gene assay indicated that OLE is a ligand of PPARα...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Tao Wang, Ping Xiang, Jung-Heun Ha, Xiaoyu Wang, Caglar Doguer, Shireen R L Flores, Yujian James Kang, James F Collins
Dietary iron overload in rodents impairs growth and causes cardiac hypertrophy, serum and tissue copper depletion, depression of serum ceruloplasmin (Cp) activity and anemia. Notably, increasing dietary copper content to ~25-fold above requirements prevents the development of these physiological perturbations. Whether copper supplementation can reverse these high-iron-related abnormalities has, however, not been established. The current investigation was thus undertaken to test the hypothesis that supplemental copper will mitigate negative outcomes associated with dietary iron loading...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Jing-Syuna Ruan, Jie-Kuan Lin, Yi-Ying Kuo, Yun-Wen Chen, Pei-Chun Chen
Lipotoxicity is associated with a high level of fatty acid accumulation in pancreatic β-cells. An overload of free fatty acids contributes to pancreatic β-cell apoptosis and dysfunction. Insulin secretion involves sequential ionic events upon glucose stimulation. ATP sensitive potassium (KATP ) channels serve as glucose sensors and effectively initiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This study investigated the effects of lipotoxicity on the trafficking of KATP channels in pancreatic β cells using chronic palmitic acid -injected mice and treated insulinoma cells...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Daniela Salinas-Rubio, Armando R Tovar, Iván Torre-Villalvazo, Omar Granados-Portillo, Nimbe Torres, José Pedraza-Chaverri, Lilia G Noriega
Metabolic profiling studies have highlighted increases in the plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations, which are hallmarks of the obese and insulin-resistant phenotype. However, little is known about how the increase of the BCAA concentration modifies the metabolic fate of FFA, and vice versa, in adipocytes. Therefore, we incubated differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes or primary adipocytes from rats fed a control or a high-fat diet with: (1) 0, 250, 500 and 1000 μM of leucine and determined the oxidation and incorporation of [1-14 C]-palmitate into lipids or proteins or (2) 0, 250, 500 or 1000 μM of palmitate and evaluated the oxidation and incorporation of [U-14 C]-leucine into lipids or proteins...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Yongeun Kim, Anthony D Gromovsky, J Mark Brown, Soonkyu Chung
The activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in innate immune cells is associated with enhanced production of pro-inflammatory lipid mediator eicosanoids that play a crucial role in propagating inflammation. Gamma-tocotrienol (γT3) is an unsaturated vitamin E that has been demonstrated to attenuate NLRP3-inflammasome. However, the role of γT3 in regulating eicosanoid formation is unknown. We hypothesized that γT3 abolishes the eicosanoid production by modulating the macrophage lipidome. LPS-primed bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were stimulated with saturated fatty acids (SFA) along with γT3, and the effects of γT3 in modulating macrophage lipidome were quantified by using mass spectrometry based-shotgun lipidomic approaches...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Wei Li, Renqiao Tang, Feifei Ma, Shengrong Ouyang, Zhuo Liu, Jianxin Wu
Folic acid (FA) supplementation may protect from obesity and insulin resistance, the effects and mechanism of FA on chronic high-fat-diet-induced obesity-related metabolic disorders are not well elucidated. We adopted a genome-wide approach to directly examine whether FA supplementation affects the DNA methylation profile of mouse adipose tissue and identify the functional consequences of these changes. Mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), normal diet (ND) or an HFD supplemented with folic acid (20 μg/ml in drinking water) for 10 weeks, epididymal fat was harvested, and genome-wide DNA methylation analyses were performed using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-seq)...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Lauren R Brink, Bo Lönnerdal
Milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) surround droplets delivering lipids to the breast-fed infant and are enriched with glycoproteins upon exocytosis out of the mammary cell. MFGM is typically removed during processing of cow milk for the manufacture of infant formula. Recent clinical trials have found that formula supplemented with bovine MFGM improved cognition. Here, we aimed to explore the mechanisms behind this improved developmental outcome. Sprague-Dawley rats were bred, and their litters were manipulated to either 10 pups to represent normal growth (N) or 16 pups to represent restricted growth (R) per dam...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Marcelo Gomes de Gomes, Leandro Cattelan Souza, André Rossito Goes, Lucian Del Fabbro, Carlos Borges Filho, Franciele Donato, Marina Prigol, Cristiane Luchese, Silvane Souza Roman, Robson Luiz Puntel, Silvana Peterini Boeira, Cristiano Ricardo Jesse
Sickness behavior is an expression of a central motivational state triggered by activation of the immune system, being considered a strategy of the organism to fight infection. Sickness behavior is induced by peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS can increase the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, which induce the activation of the kynurenine pathway (KP) and behavioral alterations. Previous studies have shown that omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) has anti-inflammatory properties...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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