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Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752704/university-sports-rivalries-provide-insights-on-coalitional-psychology-territorial-context-influences-reactions-to-vocal-signals-of-allegiance
#1
Daniel J Kruger, Michael Falbo, Sophie Blanchard, Ethan Cole, Camille Gazoul, Noreen Nader, Shannon Murphy
Sports are an excellent venue for demonstrating evolutionary principles to audiences not familiar with academic research. Team sports and sports fandom feature dynamics of in-group loyalty and intergroup competition, influenced by our evolved coalitional psychology. We predicted that reactions to expressions signaling mutual team/group allegiance would vary as a function of the territorial context. Reactions should become more prevalent, positive, and enthusiastic as one moves from the home territory to a contested area, and from a contested area to a rival's territory during active rival engagement...
May 11, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736611/men-s-interest-in-allying-with-a-previous-combatant-for-future-group-combat
#2
Nicole Barbaro, Justin K Mogilski, Todd K Shackelford, Michael N Pham
Intra- and intergroup conflict are likely to have been recurrent features of human evolutionary history; however, little research has investigated the factors that affect men's combat alliance decisions. The current study investigated whether features of previous one-on-one combat with an opponent affect men's interest in allying with that opponent for future group combat. Fifty-eight undergraduate men recruited from a psychology department subject pool participated in a one-on-one laboratory fight simulation...
May 8, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713872/evidence-for-the-adaptive-learning-function-of-work-and-work-themed-play-among-aka-forager-and-ngandu-farmer-children-from-the-congo-basin
#3
Sheina Lew-Levy, Adam H Boyette
Work-themed play may allow children to learn complex skills, and ethno-typical and gender-typical behaviors. Thus, play may have made important contributions to the evolution of childhood through the development of embodied capital. Using data from Aka foragers and Ngandu farmer children from the Central African Republic, we ask whether children perform ethno- and gender-typical play and work activities, and whether play prepares children for complex work. Focal follows of 50 Aka and 48 Ngandu children were conducted with the aim of recording children's participation in 12 categories of work and work-themed play...
April 30, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619667/food-sharing-across-borders-first-observation-of-intercommunity-meat-sharing-by-bonobos-at-luikotale-drc
#4
Barbara Fruth, Gottfried Hohmann
Evolutionary models consider hunting and food sharing to be milestones that paved the way from primate to human societies. Because fossil evidence is scarce, hominoid primates serve as referential models to assess our common ancestors' capacity in terms of communal use of resources, food sharing, and other forms of cooperation. Whereas chimpanzees form male-male bonds exhibiting resource-defense polygyny with intolerance and aggression toward nonresidents, bonobos form male-female and female-female bonds resulting in relaxed relations with neighboring groups...
April 5, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556968/why-only-humans-shed-emotional-tears-evolutionary-and-cultural-perspectives
#5
Asmir Gračanin, Lauren M Bylsma, Ad J J M Vingerhoets
Producing emotional tears is a universal and uniquely human behavior. Until recently, tears have received little serious attention from scientists. Here, we summarize recent theoretical developments and research findings. The evolutionary approach offers a solid ground for the analysis of the functions of tears. This is especially the case for infant crying, which we address in the first part of this contribution. We further elaborate on the antecedents and (intra- and interpersonal) functions of emotional tears in adults...
March 20, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526014/judaism-as-a-group-evolutionary-strategy-a-critical-analysis-of-kevin-macdonald-s-theory
#6
Nathan Cofnas
MacDonald argues that a suite of genetic and cultural adaptations among Jews constitutes a "group evolutionary strategy." Their supposed genetic adaptations include, most notably, high intelligence, conscientiousness, and ethnocentrism. According to this thesis, several major intellectual and political movements, such as Boasian anthropology, Freudian psychoanalysis, and multiculturalism, were consciously or unconsciously designed by Jews to (a) promote collectivism and group continuity among themselves in Israel and the diaspora and (b) undermine the cohesion of gentile populations, thus increasing the competitive advantage of Jews and weakening organized gentile resistance (i...
June 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516303/living-slow-and-being-moral-life-history-predicts-the-dual-process-of-other-centered-reasoning-and-judgments
#7
Nan Zhu, Skyler T Hawk, Lei Chang
Drawing from the dual process model of morality and life history theory, the present research examined the role of cognitive and emotional processes as bridges between basic environmental challenges (i.e., unpredictability and competition) and other-centered moral orientation (i.e., prioritizing the welfare of others). In two survey studies, cognitive and emotional processes represented by future-oriented planning and emotional attachment, respectively (Study 1, N = 405), or by perspective taking and empathic concern, respectively (Study 2, N = 424), positively predicted other-centeredness in prosocial moral reasoning (Study 1) and moral judgment dilemmas based on rationality or intuition (Study 2)...
June 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222651/grandmothers-and-children-s-schooling-in-sub-saharan-africa
#8
Sandor Schrijner, Jeroen Smits
Under poor circumstances, co-residence of a grandmother is generally considered to be beneficial for (grand)children. Empirical evidence does not unequivocally support this expectation and suggests that the grandmother's importance depends on the family's circumstances. We study the relationship between grandmother's co-residence and children's schooling in sub-Saharan Africa under a broad range of circumstances. Results make clear that the effect of a co-residing grandmother varies but is almost always positive...
March 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204792/possible-balancing-selection-in-human-female-homosexuality
#9
Andrea Camperio Ciani, Umberto Battaglia, Linda Cesare, Giorgia Camperio Ciani, Claudio Capiluppi
A growing number of researchers suggest that female homosexuality is at least in part influenced by genetic factors. Unlike for male homosexuality, few familial studies have attempted to explore maintenance of this apparently fitness-detrimental trait in the population. Using multiple recruitment methods, we explored fecundity and sexual orientation within the pedigrees of 1,458 adult female respondents. We compared 487 homosexual and 163 bisexual with 808 heterosexual females and 30,203 of their relatives...
March 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164487/correction-to-altruistic-behavior-among-twins-willingness-to-fight-and-self-sacrifice-for-their-closest-relatives
#10
Encarnación Tornero, Juan F Sánchez-Romera, José J Morosoli, Alexandra Vázquez, Ángel Gómez, Juan R Ordoñana
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The presentation of the article title and subtitle was incorrect.
March 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159722/inbreeding-in-southeastern-spain-the-impact-of-geography-and-demography-on-marital-mobility-and-marital-distance-patterns-1900-1969
#11
R Calderón, C L Hernández, G García-Varela, D Masciarelli, P Cuesta
In this paper, the structure of a southeastern Spanish population was studied for the first time with respect to its inbreeding patterns and its relationship with demographic and geographic factors. Data on consanguineous marriages (up to second cousins) from 1900 to 1969 were taken from ecclesiastic dispensations. Our results confirm that the patterns and trends of inbreeding in the study area are consistent with those previously observed in most non-Cantabrian Spanish populations. The rate of consanguineous marriages was apparently stable between 1900 and 1935 and then sharply decreased since 1940, which coincides with industrialization in Spain...
March 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143184/measuring-the-unmeasurable-the-psychometrics-of-life-history-strategy
#12
Stefan L K Gruijters, Bram P I Fleuren
Within evolutionary biology, life-history theory is used to explain cross-species differences in allocation strategies regarding reproduction, maturation, and survival. Behavioral scientists have recently begun to conceptualize such strategies as a within-species individual characteristic that is predictive of behavior. Although life history theory provides an important framework for behavioral scientists, the psychometric approach to life-history strategy measurement-as operationalized by K-factors-involves conceptual entanglements...
March 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080969/altruistic-behavior-among-twins-willingness-to-fight-and-self-sacrifice-for-their-closest-relatives
#13
Encarnación Tornero, Juan F Sánchez-Romera, José J Morosoli, Alexandra Vázquez, Ángel Gómez, Juan R Ordoñana
According to kin selection theory, indirect reproductive advantages may induce individuals to care for others with whom they share genes by common descent, and the amount of care, including self-sacrifice, will increase with the proportion of genes shared. Twins represent a natural situation in which this hypothesis can be tested. Twin pairs experience the same early environment because they were born and raised at the same time and in the same family but their genetic relatedness differs depending on zygosity...
March 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043501/salmon-bias-or-red-herring-comparing-adult-mortality-risks-ages-30-90-between-natives-and-internal-migrants-stayers-returnees-and-movers-in-rotterdam-the-netherlands-1850-1940
#14
Paul Puschmann, Robyn Donrovich, Koen Matthijs
The purpose of this research is to empirically test the salmon bias hypothesis, which states that the "healthy migrant" effect-referring to a situation in which migrants enjoy lower mortality risks than natives-is caused by selective return-migration of the weak, sick, and elderly. Using a unique longitudinal micro-level database-the Historical Sample of the Netherlands-we tracked the life courses of internal migrants after they had left the city of Rotterdam, which allowed us to compare mortality risks of stayers, returnees, and movers using survival analysis for the study group as a whole, and also for men and women separately...
December 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994008/how-do-hunter-gatherer-children-learn-subsistence-skills-a-meta-ethnographic-review
#15
Sheina Lew-Levy, Rachel Reckin, Noa Lavi, Jurgi Cristóbal-Azkarate, Kate Ellis-Davies
Hunting and gathering is, evolutionarily, the defining subsistence strategy of our species. Studying how children learn foraging skills can, therefore, provide us with key data to test theories about the evolution of human life history, cognition, and social behavior. Modern foragers, with their vast cultural and environmental diversity, have mostly been studied individually. However, cross-cultural studies allow us to extrapolate forager-wide trends in how, when, and from whom hunter-gatherer children learn their subsistence skills...
December 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871516/stability-and-change-in-in-group-mate-preferences-among-young-people-in-ethiopia-are-predicted-by-food-security-and-gender-attitudes-but-not-by-expected-pathogen-exposures
#16
Craig Hadley, Daniel Hruschka
There is broad anthropological interest in understanding how people define "insiders" and "outsiders" and how this shapes their attitudes and behaviors toward others. As such, a suite of hypotheses has been proposed to account for the varying degrees of in-group preference between individuals and societies. We test three hypotheses related to material insecurity, pathogen stress, and views of gender equality among cross-sectional (n = 1896) and longitudinal (n = 1002) samples of young people in Ethiopia (aged 13-17 years at baseline) to explore stability and change in their preferences for coethnic spouses...
December 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840481/self-interest-and-the-design-of-rules
#17
Manvir Singh, Richard Wrangham, Luke Glowacki
Rules regulating social behavior raise challenging questions about cultural evolution in part because they frequently confer group-level benefits. Current multilevel selection theories contend that between-group processes interact with within-group processes to produce norms and institutions, but within-group processes have remained underspecified, leading to a recent emphasis on cultural group selection as the primary driver of cultural design. Here we present the self-interested enforcement (SIE) hypothesis, which proposes that the design of rules importantly reflects the relative enforcement capacities of competing parties...
December 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822079/interethnic-interaction-strategic-bargaining-power-and-the-dynamics-of-cultural-norms-a-field-study-in-an-amazonian-population
#18
John Andrew Bunce, Richard McElreath
Ethnic groups are universal and unique to human societies. Such groups sometimes have norms of behavior that are adaptively linked to their social and ecological circumstances, and ethnic boundaries may function to protect that variation from erosion by interethnic interaction. However, such interaction is often frequent and voluntary, suggesting that individuals may be able to strategically reduce its costs, allowing adaptive cultural variation to persist in spite of interaction with out-groups with different norms...
December 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812217/what-shall-we-talk-about-in-farsi-content-of-everyday-conversations-in-iran
#19
Mahdi Dahmardeh, R I M Dunbar
Previous empirical studies have suggested that language is primarily used to exchange social information, but our evidence on this derives mainly from English speakers. We present data from a study of natural conversations among Farsi (Persian) speakers in Iran and show that not only are conversation groups the same size as those observed in Europe and North America, but people also talk predominantly about social topics. We argue that these results reinforce the suggestion that language most likely evolved for the transmission of information about the social world...
December 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799087/the-null-relation-between-father-absence-and-earlier-menarche
#20
Kitae Sohn
Researchers have claimed that the absence of a biological father accelerates the daughter's menarche. This claim was assessed by employing a large and nationally representative sample of Indonesian women. We analyzed 11,138 ever-married women aged 15+ in the Indonesian Family Life Survey 2015. We regressed age at menarche on the interaction of father absence (vs. presence) and mother absence (vs. presence) at age 12 with or without childhood covariates. For robustness checks, we performed a power analysis, re-ran the same specification for various subgroups, and varied the independent variable of interest...
December 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
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