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Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143184/measuring-the-unmeasurable-the-psychometrics-of-life-history-strategy
#1
Stefan L K Gruijters, Bram P I Fleuren
Within evolutionary biology, life-history theory is used to explain cross-species differences in allocation strategies regarding reproduction, maturation, and survival. Behavioral scientists have recently begun to conceptualize such strategies as a within-species individual characteristic that is predictive of behavior. Although life history theory provides an important framework for behavioral scientists, the psychometric approach to life-history strategy measurement-as operationalized by K-factors-involves conceptual entanglements...
November 15, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080969/altruistic-behavior-among-twins-willingness-to-fight-and-self-sacrifice-for-their-closest-relatives
#2
Encarnación Tornero, Juan F Sánchez-Romera, José J Morosoli, Alexandra Vázquez, Ángel Gómez, Juan R Ordoñana
According to kin selection theory, indirect reproductive advantages may induce individuals to care for others with whom they share genes by common descent, and the amount of care, including self-sacrifice, will increase with the proportion of genes shared. Twins represent a natural situation in which this hypothesis can be tested. Twin pairs experience the same early environment because they were born and raised at the same time and in the same family but their genetic relatedness differs depending on zygosity...
October 28, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043501/salmon-bias-or-red-herring-comparing-adult-mortality-risks-ages-30-90-between-natives-and-internal-migrants-stayers-returnees-and-movers-in-rotterdam-the-netherlands-1850-1940
#3
Paul Puschmann, Robyn Donrovich, Koen Matthijs
The purpose of this research is to empirically test the salmon bias hypothesis, which states that the "healthy migrant" effect-referring to a situation in which migrants enjoy lower mortality risks than natives-is caused by selective return-migration of the weak, sick, and elderly. Using a unique longitudinal micro-level database-the Historical Sample of the Netherlands-we tracked the life courses of internal migrants after they had left the city of Rotterdam, which allowed us to compare mortality risks of stayers, returnees, and movers using survival analysis for the study group as a whole, and also for men and women separately...
December 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994008/how-do-hunter-gatherer-children-learn-subsistence-skills-a-meta-ethnographic-review
#4
Sheina Lew-Levy, Rachel Reckin, Noa Lavi, Jurgi Cristóbal-Azkarate, Kate Ellis-Davies
Hunting and gathering is, evolutionarily, the defining subsistence strategy of our species. Studying how children learn foraging skills can, therefore, provide us with key data to test theories about the evolution of human life history, cognition, and social behavior. Modern foragers, with their vast cultural and environmental diversity, have mostly been studied individually. However, cross-cultural studies allow us to extrapolate forager-wide trends in how, when, and from whom hunter-gatherer children learn their subsistence skills...
December 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871516/stability-and-change-in-in-group-mate-preferences-among-young-people-in-ethiopia-are-predicted-by-food-security-and-gender-attitudes-but-not-by-expected-pathogen-exposures
#5
Craig Hadley, Daniel Hruschka
There is broad anthropological interest in understanding how people define "insiders" and "outsiders" and how this shapes their attitudes and behaviors toward others. As such, a suite of hypotheses has been proposed to account for the varying degrees of in-group preference between individuals and societies. We test three hypotheses related to material insecurity, pathogen stress, and views of gender equality among cross-sectional (n = 1896) and longitudinal (n = 1002) samples of young people in Ethiopia (aged 13-17 years at baseline) to explore stability and change in their preferences for coethnic spouses...
December 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840481/self-interest-and-the-design-of-rules
#6
Manvir Singh, Richard Wrangham, Luke Glowacki
Rules regulating social behavior raise challenging questions about cultural evolution in part because they frequently confer group-level benefits. Current multilevel selection theories contend that between-group processes interact with within-group processes to produce norms and institutions, but within-group processes have remained underspecified, leading to a recent emphasis on cultural group selection as the primary driver of cultural design. Here we present the self-interested enforcement (SIE) hypothesis, which proposes that the design of rules importantly reflects the relative enforcement capacities of competing parties...
December 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822079/interethnic-interaction-strategic-bargaining-power-and-the-dynamics-of-cultural-norms-a-field-study-in-an-amazonian-population
#7
John Andrew Bunce, Richard McElreath
Ethnic groups are universal and unique to human societies. Such groups sometimes have norms of behavior that are adaptively linked to their social and ecological circumstances, and ethnic boundaries may function to protect that variation from erosion by interethnic interaction. However, such interaction is often frequent and voluntary, suggesting that individuals may be able to strategically reduce its costs, allowing adaptive cultural variation to persist in spite of interaction with out-groups with different norms...
December 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812217/what-shall-we-talk-about-in-farsi-content-of-everyday-conversations-in-iran
#8
Mahdi Dahmardeh, R I M Dunbar
Previous empirical studies have suggested that language is primarily used to exchange social information, but our evidence on this derives mainly from English speakers. We present data from a study of natural conversations among Farsi (Persian) speakers in Iran and show that not only are conversation groups the same size as those observed in Europe and North America, but people also talk predominantly about social topics. We argue that these results reinforce the suggestion that language most likely evolved for the transmission of information about the social world...
December 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799087/the-null-relation-between-father-absence-and-earlier-menarche
#9
Kitae Sohn
Researchers have claimed that the absence of a biological father accelerates the daughter's menarche. This claim was assessed by employing a large and nationally representative sample of Indonesian women. We analyzed 11,138 ever-married women aged 15+ in the Indonesian Family Life Survey 2015. We regressed age at menarche on the interaction of father absence (vs. presence) and mother absence (vs. presence) at age 12 with or without childhood covariates. For robustness checks, we performed a power analysis, re-ran the same specification for various subgroups, and varied the independent variable of interest...
December 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639123/a-multispecies-approach-to-co-sleeping-integrating-human-animal-co-sleeping-practices-into-our-understanding-of-human-sleep
#10
Bradley P Smith, Peta C Hazelton, Kirrilly R Thompson, Joshua L Trigg, Hayley C Etherton, Sarah L Blunden
Human sleeping arrangements have evolved over time and differ across cultures. The majority of adults share their bed at one time or another with a partner or child, and many also sleep with pets. In fact, around half of dog and cat owners report sharing a bed or bedroom with their pet(s). However, interspecies co-sleeping has been trivialized in the literature relative to interpersonal or human-human co-sleeping, receiving little attention from an interdisciplinary psychological perspective. In this paper, we provide a historical outline of the "civilizing process" that has led to current sociocultural conceptions of sleep as an individual, private function crucial for the functioning of society and the health of individuals...
September 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567606/autonomy-equality-and-teaching-among-aka-foragers-and-ngandu-farmers-of-the-congo-basin
#11
Adam H Boyette, Barry S Hewlett
The significance of teaching to the evolution of human culture is under debate. We contribute to the discussion by using a quantitative, cross-cultural comparative approach to investigate the role of teaching in the lives of children in two small-scale societies: Aka foragers and Ngandu farmers of the Central African Republic. Focal follows with behavior coding were used to record social learning experiences of children aged 4 to 16 during daily life. "Teaching" was coded based on a functional definition from evolutionary biology...
September 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547630/distinguishing-family-from-friends-implicit-cognitive-differences-regarding-general-dispositions-attitude-similarity-and-group-membership
#12
Rick O'Gorman, Ruth Roberts
Kinship and friendship are key human relationships. Increasingly, data suggest that people are not less altruistic toward friends than close kin. Some accounts suggest that psychologically we do not distinguish between them; countering this is evidence that kinship provides a unique explanatory factor. Using the Implicit Association Test, we examined how people implicitly think about close friends versus close kin in three contexts. In Experiment 1, we examined generic attitudinal dispositions toward friends and family...
September 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527148/review-of-walter-scheidel-s-the-great-leveler-violence-and-the-history-of-inequality-from-the-stone-age-to-the-twenty-first-century-princeton-princeton-university-press-2017
#13
Laura Betzig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523464/the-role-of-ontogeny-in-the-evolution-of-human-cooperation
#14
Michael Tomasello, Ivan Gonzalez-Cabrera
To explain the evolutionary emergence of uniquely human skills and motivations for cooperation, Tomasello et al. (2012, in Current Anthropology 53(6):673-92) proposed the interdependence hypothesis. The key adaptive context in this account was the obligate collaborative foraging of early human adults. Hawkes (2014, in Human Nature 25(1):28-48), following Hrdy (Mothers and Others, Harvard University Press, 2009), provided an alternative account for the emergence of uniquely human cooperative skills in which the key was early human infants' attempts to solicit care and attention from adults in a cooperative breeding context...
September 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516361/familiarity-with-own-population-s-appearance-influences-facial-preferences
#15
Carlota Batres, Mallini Kannan, David I Perrett
Previous studies have found that individuals from rural areas in Malaysia and in El Salvador prefer heavier women than individuals from urban areas. Several explanations have been proposed to explain these differences in weight preferences but no study has explored familiarity as a possible explanation. We therefore sought to investigate participants' face preferences while also examining the facial characteristics of the actual participants. Our results showed that participants from rural areas preferred heavier-looking female faces than participants from urban areas...
September 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497400/nothing-but-mammals-review-of-tim-clutton-brock-s-mammal-societies-wiley-2016
#16
Adrian V Jaeggi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695323/in-memoriam-anne-campbell-professor-in-psychology-durham-university-consulting-editor-for-human-nature
#17
Catharine Cross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560586/erratum-to-shodagor-family-strategies-balancing-work-and-family-on-the-water
#18
Kathrine E Starkweather
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285464/shodagor-family-strategies-balancing-work-and-family-on-the-water
#19
Kathrine E Starkweather
The Shodagor of Matlab, Bangladesh, are a seminomadic community of people who live and work on small wooden boats, within the extensive system of rivers and canals that traverse the country. This unique ecology places particular constraints on family and economic life and leads to Shodagor parents employing one of four distinct strategies to balance childcare and provisioning needs. The purpose of this paper is to understand the conditions that lead a family to choose one strategy over another by testing predictions about socioecological factors that impact the sexual division of labor, including a family's stage in the domestic cycle, aspects of the local ecology, and the availability of alloparents...
June 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280990/parenting-strategies-in-modern-and-emerging-economies-introduction-to-the-special-issue
#20
Kermyt G Anderson, Kathrine E Starkweather
Independent of ecology, subsistence strategy, social complexity, or other aspects of socioecology, the altricial nature of young humans requires mothers to have help raising their offspring. What seems to be context-dependent, however, is who the helpers are, how they invest, and what the impacts of that investment are. In a series of papers that focus on parental and alloparental investment across five populations, this special issue of Human Nature uses evolutionary theory to examine how socioecological context influences modes of direct parental investment among the boat-dwelling Shodagor of Bangladesh (Starkweather), modes of indirect paternal investment in the modern United States (Anderson), and the biological outcome of paternal investment for men in Jamaica (Gray et al...
June 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
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