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Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30357606/social-networks-and-knowledge-transmission-strategies-among-baka-children-southeastern-cameroon
#1
Sandrine Gallois, Miranda J Lubbers, Barry Hewlett, Victoria Reyes-García
The dynamics of knowledge transmission and acquisition, or how different aspects of culture are passed from one individual to another and how they are acquired and embodied by individuals, are central to understanding cultural evolution. In small-scale societies, cultural knowledge is largely acquired early in life through observation, imitation, and other forms of social learning embedded in daily experiences. However, little is known about the pathways through which such knowledge is transmitted, especially during middle childhood and adolescence...
December 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324537/eyes-more-than-other-facial-features-enhance-real-world-donation-behavior
#2
Caroline Kelsey, Amrisha Vaish, Tobias Grossmann
Humans often behave more prosocially when being observed in person and even in response to subtle eye cues, purportedly to manage their reputation. Previous research on this phenomenon has employed the "watching eyes paradigm," in which adults displayed greater prosocial behavior in the presence of images of eyes versus inanimate objects. However, the robustness of the effect of eyes on prosocial behavior has recently been called into question. Therefore, the first goal of the present study was to attempt to replicate this effect...
December 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306399/rituals-repetitiveness-and-cognitive-load-a-competitive-test-of-ritual-benefits-for-stress
#3
Johannes Alfons Karl, Ronald Fischer
A central hypothesis to account for the ubiquity of rituals across cultures is their supposed anxiolytic effects: rituals being maintained because they reduce existential anxiety and uncertainty. We aimed to test the anxiolytic effects of rituals by investigating two possible underlying mechanisms for it: cognitive load and repetitive movement. In our pre-registered experiment (osf.io/rsu9x), 180 undergraduates took part in either a stress or a control condition and were subsequently assigned to either control, cognitive load, undirected movement, a combination of undirected movement and cognitive load, or a ritualistic intervention...
December 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30251001/pairs-of-genetically-unrelated-look-alikes-further-tests-of-personality-similarity-and-social-affiliation
#4
Nancy L Segal, Brittney A Hernandez, Jamie L Graham, Ulrich Ettinger
Relationships of physical resemblance to personality similarity and social affiliation have generated considerable discussion among behavioral science researchers. A "twin-like" experimental design (involving genetically unrelated look-alikes, U-LAs) explores associations among resemblance in appearance, the Big Five personality traits, self-esteem, and social attraction within an evolutionary framework. The Personality for Professionals Inventory (PfPI), NEO/NEO-FFI-3, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and a Social Relationship Survey were variously completed by 45 U-LA pairs, identified from the "I'm Not a Look-Alike" project, Mentorn Media, and personal referrals...
December 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30251000/honor-and-violence-an-account-of-feuds-duels-and-honor-killings
#5
John Thrasher, Toby Handfield
We present a theory of honor violence as a form of costly signaling. Two types of honor violence are identified: revenge and purification. Both types are amenable to a signaling analysis whereby the violent behavior is a signal that can be used by out-groups to draw inferences about the nature of the signaling group, thereby helping to solve perennial problems of social cooperation: deterrence and assurance. The analysis shows that apparently gratuitous acts of violence can be part of a system of norms that are Pareto superior to alternatives without such signals...
December 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090999/tandem-androgenic-and-psychological-shifts-in-male-reproductive-effort-following-a-manipulated-win-or-loss-in-a-sporting-competition
#6
Daniel P Longman, Michele K Surbey, Jay T Stock, Jonathan C K Wells
Male-male competition is involved in inter- and intrasexual selection, with both endocrine and psychological factors presumably contributing to reproductive success in human males. We examined relationships among men's naturally occurring testosterone, their self-perceived mate value (SPMV), self-esteem, sociosexuality, and expected likelihood of approaching attractive women versus situations leading to child involvement. We then monitored changes in these measures in male rowers (N = 38) from Cambridge, UK, following a manipulated "win" or "loss" as a result of an indoor rowing contest...
September 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959606/coalitional-play-fighting-and-the-evolution-of-coalitional-intergroup-aggression
#7
Michelle Scalise Sugiyama, Marcela Mendoza, Frances White, Lawrence Sugiyama
Dyadic play fighting occurs in many species, but only humans are known to engage in coalitional play fighting. Dyadic play fighting is hypothesized to build motor skills involved in actual dyadic fighting; thus, coalitional play fighting may build skills involved in actual coalitional fighting, operationalized as forager lethal raiding. If human psychology includes a motivational component that encourages engagement in this type of play, evidence of this play in forager societies is necessary to determine that it is not an artifact of agricultural or industrial conditions...
September 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948887/steroid-hormone-reactivity-in-fathers-watching-their-children-compete
#8
Louis Calistro Alvarado, Martin N Muller, Melissa A Eaton, Melissa Emery Thompson
This study examines steroid production in fathers watching their children compete, extending previous research of vicarious success or failure on men's hormone levels. Salivary testosterone and cortisol levels were measured in 18 fathers watching their children play in a soccer tournament. Participants completed a survey about the game and provided demographic information. Fathers with higher pregame testosterone levels were more likely to report that referees were biased against their children's teams, and pre- to postgame testosterone elevation was predicted by watching sons compete rather than daughters as well as perceptions of unfair officiating...
September 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804220/trash-talking-and-trolling
#9
Kevin M Kniffin, Dylan Palacio
Among the extra-physical aspects of team sports, the ways in which players talk to each other are among the more colorful but understudied dimensions of competition. To contribute an empirical basis for examining the nature of "trash talk," we present the results of a study of 291 varsity athletes who compete in the top division among US universities. Based on a preliminary review of trash-talk topics among student-athletes, we asked participants to indicate the frequency with which they have communicated or heard others talk about opposing players' athleticism, playing ability, physical appearance, boyfriends, girlfriends, sexual behavior, parents, and home institution during competitions...
September 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916128/may-god-guide-our-guns-visualizing-supernatural-aid-heightens-team-confidence-in-a-paintball-battle-simulation
#10
Jeremy Pollack, Colin Holbrook, Daniel M T Fessler, Adam Maxwell Sparks, James G Zerbe
The perceived support of supernatural agents has been historically, ethnographically, and theoretically linked with confidence in engaging in violent intergroup conflict. However, scant experimental investigations of such links have been reported to date, and the extant evidence derives largely from indirect laboratory methods of limited ecological validity. Here, we experimentally tested the hypothesis that perceived supernatural aid would heighten inclinations toward coalitional aggression using a realistic simulated coalitional combat paradigm: competitive team paintball...
June 18, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909546/toward-a-natural-history-of-team-sports
#11
Kevin M Kniffin, Michelle Scalise Sugiyama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909545/coalitional-physical-competition-acute-salivary-steroid-hormone-responses-among-juvenile-male-soccer-players-in-hong-kong
#12
Timothy S McHale, Wai-Chi Chee, Ka-Chun Chan, David T Zava, Peter B Gray
A large body of research links testosterone and cortisol to male-male competition. Yet, little work has explored acute steroid hormone responses to coalitional, physical competition during middle childhood. Here, we investigate testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and cortisol release among ethnically Chinese boys in Hong Kong (N = 102), aged 8-11 years, during a soccer match (n = 84) and an intrasquad soccer scrimmage (n = 81), with 63 participants competing in both treatments. The soccer match and intrasquad soccer scrimmage represented out-group and in-group treatments, respectively...
June 16, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713872/evidence-for-the-adaptive-learning-function-of-work-and-work-themed-play-among-aka-forager-and-ngandu-farmer-children-from-the-congo-basin
#13
Sheina Lew-Levy, Adam H Boyette
Work-themed play may allow children to learn complex skills, and ethno-typical and gender-typical behaviors. Thus, play may have made important contributions to the evolution of childhood through the development of embodied capital. Using data from Aka foragers and Ngandu farmer children from the Central African Republic, we ask whether children perform ethno- and gender-typical play and work activities, and whether play prepares children for complex work. Focal follows of 50 Aka and 48 Ngandu children were conducted with the aim of recording children's participation in 12 categories of work and work-themed play...
June 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619667/food-sharing-across-borders-first-observation-of-intercommunity-meat-sharing-by-bonobos-at-luikotale-drc
#14
Barbara Fruth, Gottfried Hohmann
Evolutionary models consider hunting and food sharing to be milestones that paved the way from primate to human societies. Because fossil evidence is scarce, hominoid primates serve as referential models to assess our common ancestors' capacity in terms of communal use of resources, food sharing, and other forms of cooperation. Whereas chimpanzees form male-male bonds exhibiting resource-defense polygyny with intolerance and aggression toward nonresidents, bonobos form male-female and female-female bonds resulting in relaxed relations with neighboring groups...
June 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556968/why-only-humans-shed-emotional-tears-evolutionary-and-cultural-perspectives
#15
REVIEW
Asmir Gračanin, Lauren M Bylsma, Ad J J M Vingerhoets
Producing emotional tears is a universal and uniquely human behavior. Until recently, tears have received little serious attention from scientists. Here, we summarize recent theoretical developments and research findings. The evolutionary approach offers a solid ground for the analysis of the functions of tears. This is especially the case for infant crying, which we address in the first part of this contribution. We further elaborate on the antecedents and (intra- and interpersonal) functions of emotional tears in adults...
June 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526014/judaism-as-a-group-evolutionary-strategy-a-critical-analysis-of-kevin-macdonald-s-theory
#16
REVIEW
Nathan Cofnas
MacDonald argues that a suite of genetic and cultural adaptations among Jews constitutes a "group evolutionary strategy." Their supposed genetic adaptations include, most notably, high intelligence, conscientiousness, and ethnocentrism. According to this thesis, several major intellectual and political movements, such as Boasian anthropology, Freudian psychoanalysis, and multiculturalism, were consciously or unconsciously designed by Jews to (a) promote collectivism and group continuity among themselves in Israel and the diaspora and (b) undermine the cohesion of gentile populations, thus increasing the competitive advantage of Jews and weakening organized gentile resistance (i...
June 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516303/living-slow-and-being-moral-life-history-predicts-the-dual-process-of-other-centered-reasoning-and-judgments
#17
Nan Zhu, Skyler T Hawk, Lei Chang
Drawing from the dual process model of morality and life history theory, the present research examined the role of cognitive and emotional processes as bridges between basic environmental challenges (i.e., unpredictability and competition) and other-centered moral orientation (i.e., prioritizing the welfare of others). In two survey studies, cognitive and emotional processes represented by future-oriented planning and emotional attachment, respectively (Study 1, N = 405), or by perspective taking and empathic concern, respectively (Study 2, N = 424), positively predicted other-centeredness in prosocial moral reasoning (Study 1) and moral judgment dilemmas based on rationality or intuition (Study 2)...
June 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752704/university-sports-rivalries-provide-insights-on-coalitional-psychology-territorial-context-influences-reactions-to-vocal-signals-of-allegiance
#18
Daniel J Kruger, Michael Falbo, Sophie Blanchard, Ethan Cole, Camille Gazoul, Noreen Nader, Shannon Murphy
Sports are an excellent venue for demonstrating evolutionary principles to audiences not familiar with academic research. Team sports and sports fandom feature dynamics of in-group loyalty and intergroup competition, influenced by our evolved coalitional psychology. We predicted that reactions to expressions signaling mutual team/group allegiance would vary as a function of the territorial context. Reactions should become more prevalent, positive, and enthusiastic as one moves from the home territory to a contested area, and from a contested area to a rival's territory during active rival engagement...
May 11, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736611/men-s-interest-in-allying-with-a-previous-combatant-for-future-group-combat
#19
Nicole Barbaro, Justin K Mogilski, Todd K Shackelford, Michael N Pham
Intra- and intergroup conflict are likely to have been recurrent features of human evolutionary history; however, little research has investigated the factors that affect men's combat alliance decisions. The current study investigated whether features of previous one-on-one combat with an opponent affect men's interest in allying with that opponent for future group combat. Fifty-eight undergraduate men recruited from a psychology department subject pool participated in a one-on-one laboratory fight simulation...
May 8, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222651/grandmothers-and-children-s-schooling-in-sub-saharan-africa
#20
Sandor Schrijner, Jeroen Smits
Under poor circumstances, co-residence of a grandmother is generally considered to be beneficial for (grand)children. Empirical evidence does not unequivocally support this expectation and suggests that the grandmother's importance depends on the family's circumstances. We study the relationship between grandmother's co-residence and children's schooling in sub-Saharan Africa under a broad range of circumstances. Results make clear that the effect of a co-residing grandmother varies but is almost always positive...
March 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
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