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Current Opinion in Lipidology

Ángel Baldán, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Better tools are sorely needed for both the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, which account for more than one-third of the deaths in Western countries. MicroRNAs typically regulate the expression of several mRNAs involved in the same biological process. Therapeutic manipulation of miRNAs could restore the expression of multiple players within the same physiologic pathway, and ideally offer better curative outcomes than conventional approaches that target only one single player within the pathway...
October 17, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Michel Farnier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: After the approval of alirocumab and evolocumab, the first two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9), this review provides an update on recent PCSK9 inhibitors data and describes recommendations for the use before the results of the ongoing cardiovascular endpoint trials. RECENT FINDINGS: New studies and complementary analysis of phase III trials have consistently shown that alirocumab and evolocumab are highly effective in reducing LDL-cholesterol and to some extent lipoprotein (a)...
October 17, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Dick C Chan, P Hugh R Barrett, Gerald F Watts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysregulated lipoprotein metabolism leads to increased plasma concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins. We highlight the findings from recent studies of the effect of lipid-regulating therapies on apolipoprotein metabolism in humans employing endogenous labelling with stable isotopically labelled isotopomers. RECENT FINDINGS: Fish oil supplementation and niacin treatment both reduce fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels by decreasing the hepatic secretion of VLDL-apoB-100 (apoB) and apoB-48-containing chylomicron particles in obese and/or type 2 diabetes...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Belinda A Di Bartolo, MyNgan Duong, Stephen J Nicholls
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) has received considerable interest by virtue of its favorable effects on atherogenic and protective lipid parameters. The impact of CETP inhibitors in large clinical outcome trials will be reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Population and genetic studies demonstrate that low CETP activity associates with lower rates of cardiovascular events. Inhibiting CETP activity in animal models has a favorable impact on experimental atherosclerosis...
September 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Marie-Jeanne Bertrand, Marie-Pierre Dubé, Jean-Claude Tardif
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Randomized clinical outcome trials are costly, long, and often yield neutral or modestly positive results, and these issues have impeded cardiovascular drug development in the past decade. Despite the significant reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality with statins, substantial residual risk of major cardiovascular events remains. This could be because of the difficulty of demonstrating benefits of new drugs in addition to the current standard of care in unselected populations as well as the interindividual variability in drug response...
September 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Annefleur M Koopen, Albert K Groen, Max Nieuwdorp
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The absolute burden of cardiovascular risk remains high despite currently available preventive and therapeutic options. In search for novel therapeutic leads, mounting evidence has linked the gut microbiota as well as their metabolites to the development of cardiometabolic diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: The intestinal microbiota influences the host via different metabolic pathways as inducer of endotoxemia, formation of trimethylamine-N-oxide, production of short chain fatty acids, and is a regulator in intestinal bile acid metabolism...
September 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Steven E Gryn, Robert A Hegele
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview of orally administered lipid-lowering therapies under development. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data support statins for intermediate risk primary prevention, and ezetimibe for high-risk secondary prevention. Novel agents in development include bempedoic acid and gemcabene, and work continues on one remaining cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor, anacetrapib, to determine whether this class can reduce cardiovascular risk...
September 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Jennifer G Robinson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Factors influencing guideline development may result in paradigm shifts in treatment recommendations. RECENT FINDINGS: The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guideline provides an example of how new methodology and findings from randomized clinical trials can result in a paradigm shift in the approach to cardiovascular prevention. This guideline moved away from a treat to cholesterol goal approach. Based on strong evidence of a net benefit in randomized clinical trials, statins were recommended to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in four groups of patient most likely to benefit...
September 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Kang H Zheng, Erik S G Stroes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Because human genetic studies and large clinical trials have demonstrated that HDL-cholesterol levels are not causally related to cardiovascular disease risk, attention has shifted toward the functional properties of HDL. Infusion of HDL mimetics containing apolipoprotein A-I remains a potential strategy to exploit the atheroprotective effects of HDL. RECENT FINDINGS: Three HDL mimetic drugs are under development and currently being evaluated in clinical trials...
September 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Hong Lu, Mary Sheppard, Alan Daugherty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Jillian Davidson, Dino Rotondo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Peter Clifton, Kirsty Turner, Jennifer Keogh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Laxmi N Rao Bondugulapati
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Godfrey S Getz, Paulette A Krishack, Catherine A Reardon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation associated with increased expression of the acute phase isoforms of serum amyloid A (SAA) and in humans is a plasma biomarker for future cardiovascular events. However, whether SAA is only a biomarker or participates in the development of cardiovascular disease is not well characterized. The purpose of this review is to summarize putative functions of SAA relevant to atherogenesis and in-vivo murine studies that directly examine the effect of SAA on atherosclerosis...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Elena Loche, Susan E Ozanne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we provide a summary of the current knowledge on the impact of early life nutrition on cardiovascular diseases that have emerged from studies in humans and experimental animal models. The involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease will be discussed in relation to the implications for the heart and the cardiovascular system. RECENT FINDINGS: Environmental cues, such as parental diet and a suboptimal in utero environment can shape growth and development, causing long-lasting cardiometabolic perturbations...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Kenneth R Feingold, Carl Grunfeld
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies have shown that chronic inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and psoriasis are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The mechanism by which inflammation increases cardiovascular disease is likely multifactorial but changes in HDL structure and function that occur during inflammation could play a role. RECENT FINDINGS: HDL levels decrease with inflammation and there are marked changes in HDL-associated proteins...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Hidde Douna, Johan Kuiper
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The number of deaths associated with cardiovascular disease remains high, despite great advances in treating the associated high levels of cholesterol. The main underlying pathology of cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis, which is recognized as a chronic autoimmune-like inflammatory disease. Hence, there is a pressing need to shed light on the immune pathways associated with atherosclerosis. B cells have long been thought to have a general protective effect in atherosclerosis...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Jan Borén, Kevin Jon Williams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Today, it is no longer a hypothesis, but an established fact, that increased plasma concentrations of cholesterol-rich apolipoprotein-B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins are causatively linked to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and that lowering plasma LDL concentrations reduces cardiovascular events in humans. Here, we review evidence behind this assertion, with an emphasis on recent studies supporting the 'response-to-retention' model - namely, that the key initiating event in atherogenesis is the retention, or trapping, of cholesterol-rich apoB-containing lipoproteins within the arterial wall...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Jixin Zhong, Saumya Kankanala, Sanjay Rajagopalan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death globally. The pathophysiology of atherosclerosis is not fully understood. Recent studies suggest dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4), a regulator of inflammation and metabolism, may be involved in the development of atherosclerotic diseases. Recent advances in the understanding of DPP4 function in atherosclerosis will be discussed in this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple preclinical and clinical studies suggest DPP4/glucagon-like peptide-1 axis is involved in the development of atherosclerotic disease...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
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