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Current Opinion in Lipidology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176407/cholesterol-metabolism-in-humans-a-review-of-methods-and-comparison-of-results
#1
John S Millar, Marina Cuchel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cholesterol metabolism has been the object of intense investigation for decades. This review focuses on classical and novel methods assessing in vivo cholesterol metabolism in humans. Two factors have fueled cholesterol metabolism studies in the last few years: the renewed interest in the study of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) as an atheroprotective mechanism and the importance of the gut microbiome in affecting cholesterol metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent applications of these methods have spanned from the assessment of the effect on cholesterol synthesis, absorption or excretion of drugs (such as ezetimibe, PCSK9 inhibitors and plant sterols) and the gut microbiome to the more complex assessment of transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) and RCT...
November 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189433/transintestinal-cholesterol-excretion-in-humans
#2
Laurens F Reeskamp, Emma C E Meessen, Albert K Groen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent insights into the measurement and cellular basis of transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) in humans and to explore TICE as a therapeutic target for increasing reverse cholesterol transport. RECENT FINDINGS: TICE is the net effect of cholesterol excretion by the enterocyte into the intestinal lumen and is the balance between input and output fluxes through the enterocytes. These fluxes are: cholesterol excretion into the intestinal lumen mainly via ATP-binding cassette (ABC) G5/8, cholesterol absorption from the intestine by Niemann-Pick C1 like protein 1, the uptake of plasma lipoproteins by enterocytes at the basolateral membrane, and the excretion of cholesterol in chylomicrons into the lymph...
November 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135691/control-of-intestinal-lipoprotein-secretion-by-dietary-carbohydrates
#3
Priska Stahel, Changting Xiao, Gary F Lewis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lipoproteins secreted by the intestine can contribute to dyslipidemia and may increase risk for CVD. This review focuses on how dietary carbohydrates can impact the production of chylomicrons, thereby influencing plasma concentrations of triglycerides and lipoproteins. RECENT FINDINGS: Hypercaloric diets high in monosaccharides can exacerbate postprandial triglyceride concentration...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135690/microbiota-and-hdl-metabolism
#4
Kazuhiro Nakaya, Katsunori Ikewaki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Accumulating evidence has provided new insights regarding potentially effective therapeutic options targeting modulation of HDL metabolism, resulting in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The gut microbiota has now been convincingly linked to host health, but its impact on host lipid metabolism, especially HDL metabolism, remains poorly understood. This review focuses on the recent progress in establishing associations between gut microbiota and host HDL metabolism...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135689/vldl-triglyceride-accumulation-in-skeletal-muscle-and-adipose-tissue-in-type-2-diabetes
#5
Esben Søndergaard, Søren Nielsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Insulin resistance is closely linked to accumulation of lipid outside adipose tissue (ectopic fat storage). VLDL particles transport lipids from the liver to peripheral tissues. However, whether abnormalities in VLDL-triglyceride storage in muscle and adipose tissue exist in type 2 diabetes has previously been unknown, primarily because of methodological difficulties. Here, we review recent research on VLDL-triglyceride storage. RECENT FINDINGS: In a recent study, men with type 2 diabetes had increased skeletal muscle VLDL-triglyceride storage compared to weight-matched nondiabetic men, potentially leading to intramyocellular triglyceride accumulation...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135688/membrane-microdomains-and-the-regulation-of-hdl-biogenesis
#6
Jacques Genest, Adel Schwertani, Hong Y Choi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The major cardio-protective function of HDL is to remove excess cellular cholesterol in the process of HDL particle formation and maturation. The HDL biogenic procedure requiring protein-lipid interactions has been incompletely understood, and here we discuss recent progress and insights into the mechanism of HDL biogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: The initial and rate-limiting step of HDL biogenesis is the interaction between apoA-I and plasma membrane microdomains created by ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) transporter...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135687/environmental-and-epigenetic-regulation-of-postprandial-lipemia
#7
Laurence D Parnell, Jose M Ordovas, Chao-Qiang Lai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Postprandial lipemia (PPL), the prolonged increase in plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins following food consumption, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Genetic variation, environment and the interplay between these direct an individual's postprandial lipid response. From such interplay, inducible and reversible epigenetic changes arise. Increasing evidence suggests epigenetic variation contributes to postprandial response in lipids and risk...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095367/genetics-and-molecular-biology-controversies-on-mendelian-randomization-and-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-inhibitor-clinical-trials-more-data-still-necessary
#8
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095366/atherosclerosis-development-lipoproteins-and-beyond
#9
Kim van Kuijk, Andrew H Baker, Judith C Sluimer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095365/xenosterolemia-emerging-molecular-and-clinical-insights
#10
John Kane, Ernst Schaefer, Mary Malloy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095364/lipids-grease-the-wheels-of-the-immune-system
#11
Mathew Traini, Leonard Kritharides
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095363/role-of-dietary-advanced-glycation-end-products
#12
Peter Clifton, Jennifer Keogh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035915/the-shape-of-things-to-come-in-lipid-management-a-feast-of-reason
#13
Gerald F Watts, Erik S G Stroes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957862/triglyceride-lowering-trials
#14
Anthony C Keech, Alicia J Jenkins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview of current evidence about the independent role of high triglyceride levels for cardiovascular risk and for acute pancreatitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Natural experiments of Mendelian randomization have given us a deeper understanding about the molecular pathways involved in triglyceride metabolism. Individuals with low-triglyceride levels generally have lower rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). There has been a significant growth in the development of new agents that modulate enzymes involved in a variety of aspects of triglyceride packaging into VLDL or chylomicron particles, and triglyceride catabolism...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937411/implications-of-glagov-study
#15
Stephen J Nicholls, Rishi Puri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibition has emerged as a novel approach to lowering levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The impact of PCSK9 inhibition in statin-treated patients on coronary atherosclerosis had remained unknown. RECENT FINDINGS: The GLAGOV trial compared the effect of the PCSK9 inhibitor, evolocumab, and placebo on progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients treated with at least moderate intensity statin therapy...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922188/new-insights-into-the-role-of-glycosylation-in-lipoprotein-metabolism
#16
Marjolein A W van den Boogert, Daniel J Rader, Adriaan G Holleboom
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human genetics has provided new insights into the role of protein glycosylation in regulating lipoprotein metabolism. Here we review these new developments and discuss the biological insights they provide. RECENT FINDINGS: Case descriptions of patients with congenital defects in N-glycosylation (CDG-I) frequently describe a distinct hypocholesterolemia in these rare multisystem clinical syndromes. Two novel CDGs with disturbed Golgi homeostasis and trafficking defects result in mixed glycosylation disorders, hepatic steatosis and hypercholesterolemia...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914630/strategies-for-the-use-of-nonstatin-therapies
#17
Angela Pirillo, Giuseppe D Norata, Alberico L Catapano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dyslipidaemias are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD); in particular, high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) have been associated to a higher cardiovascular risk. Reducing LDL-C levels decreases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), and the greater the LDL-C reduction, the greater the decrease in cardiovascular risk. Although statins represent the first line lipid-lowering therapy, many patients do not reach the recommended goals or exhibit adverse side effects leading to therapy discontinuation; in addition, a significant percentage of statin-treated patients continue to experience cardiovascular events even in the presence of well controlled LDL-C levels, because of alterations in other lipid/lipoprotein classes, including triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902717/new-approaches-to-address-dyslipidemia
#18
Klaus G Parhofer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although lipid-lowering treatment with statins, ezetimibe, and PCSK9 inhibitors is a very successful strategy to prevent cardiovascular events, there is a need for further drug developments. Not all patients respond sufficiently to the available therapy (very high baseline values, intolerance). Furthermore, patients may be characterized by dyslipidemias not accessible to available drugs such as patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, chylomicronemia syndrome, or elevated lipoprotein(a)...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858885/recent-perspectives-on-the-role-of-nutraceuticals-as-cholesterol-lowering-agents
#19
Natalie Ward, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Maciej Banach, Gerald Watts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Reduction in circulating cholesterol is an important step in lowering cardiovascular risk. Although statins are the most frequently prescribed cholesterol-lowering medication, there remains a significant portion of patients who require alternative treatment options. Nutraceuticals are increasingly popular as cholesterol-lowering agents. Despite the lack of long-term trials evaluating their use on cardiovascular endpoints and mortality, several studies have demonstrated their potential cholesterol-lowering effects...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806190/the-challenges-of-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-9-inhibitors-for-lipid-guidelines-and-models-of-care
#20
Anthony S Wierzbicki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article reviews the challenges facing cardiovascular disease (CVD) guidelines committees. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical trials in high-risk populations have shown additional CVD event reduction with ezetimibe and proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin-9 inhibitors. These trials recruit middle-aged secondary prevention populations, whereas increasingly the population at risk of CVD comprises the elderly in primary prevention. Some major guidelines have moved from a lipid-target to a risk-based approach...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
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