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Current Opinion in Lipidology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922847/apolipoprotein-e-metabolism-and-functions-in-brain-and-its-role-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Fan Liao, Hyejin Yoon, Jungsu Kim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: APOE4 genotype is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Prevailing evidence suggests that amyloid β plays a critical role in Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this article is to review the recent findings about the metabolism of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and amyloid β and other possible mechanisms by which ApoE contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: ApoE isoforms have differential effects on amyloid β metabolism...
December 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906714/central-nervous-system-regulation-of-hepatic-lipid-and-lipoprotein-metabolism
#2
Jennifer Taher, Sarah Farr, Khosrow Adeli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatic lipid and lipoprotein metabolism is an important determinant of fasting dyslipidemia and the development of fatty liver disease. Although endocrine factors like insulin have known effects on hepatic lipid homeostasis, emerging evidence also supports a regulatory role for the central nervous system (CNS) and neuronal networks. This review summarizes evidence implicating a bidirectional liver-brain axis in maintaining metabolic lipid homeostasis, and discusses clinical implications in insulin-resistant states...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906713/milk-fat-biomarkers-and-cardiometabolic-disease
#3
Ulf Risérus, Matti Marklund
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dairy is a major food group with potential impact on cardiometabolic health. Self-reported dairy intake has limitations that can partly be avoided by using biomarkers. This review aims to summarize the evidence of odd-chain saturated fatty acids (OCFAs), that is, pentadecanoic acid (C15 : 0) and heptadecanoic acid (17 : 0), as biomarkers of dairy fat intake. In addition, the associations of OCFA biomarkers with cardiometabolic disease will be overviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Adipose tissue 15 : 0 is the preferred biomarker but also circulating 15 : 0, and to a weaker extent 17 : 0, reflects both habitual and changes in dairy intake...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906712/inflammation-remodeling-and-other-factors-affecting-hdl-cholesterol-efflux
#4
Graziella E Ronsein, Tomáš Vaisar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HDL to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages is a predictor of cardiovascular risk independent of HDL cholesterol levels. However, the molecular determinants of HDL cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) are largely unknown. RECENT FINDINGS: The term HDL defines a heterogeneous population of particles with distinct size, shape, protein, and lipid composition. Cholesterol efflux is mediated by multiple pathways that may be differentially modulated by HDL composition...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898581/kinetics-of-plasma-triglycerides-in-abdominal-obesity
#5
Elias Björnson, Martin Adiels, Marja-Riitta Taskinen, Jan Borén
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Abdominal obesity is associated with a number of important metabolic abnormalities including liver steatosis, insulin resistance and an atherogenic lipoprotein profile (termed dyslipidemia). The purpose of this review is to highlight recent progress in understanding the pathogenesis of this dyslipidemia. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent results from kinetic studies using stable isotopes indicate that the hypertriglyceridemia associated with abdominal obesity stems from dual mechanisms: (1) enhanced secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and (2) impaired clearance of these lipoproteins...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875339/apolipoprotein-ciii-is-a-new-player-in-diabetes
#6
Lisa Juntti-Berggren, Per-Olof Berggren
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type-1 and type-2 diabetes are diseases with an increasing number of patients and a complex, multifactorial pathogenesis. Apolipoprotein (apo) CIII is increased in both types of diabetes and interventions preventing the increase have effects on the development of diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: ApoCIII affects intracellular Ca-handling by activating voltage-gated Ca-channels. ApoCIII is produced within the pancreatic islets and it increases in parallel with the development of insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes...
November 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870654/dietary-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-prediabetes
#7
Christophe Noll, André C Carpentier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Experimental evidences are strong for a role of long-chain saturated fatty acids in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Ectopic accretion of triglycerides in lean organs is a characteristic of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes and has been linked to end-organ complications. The contribution of disordered dietary fatty acid (DFA) metabolism to lean organ overexposure and lipotoxicity is still unclear, however. DFA metabolism is very complex and very difficult to study in vivo in humans...
November 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870653/apolipoprotein-l1-and-apolipoprotein-a-iv-and-their-association-with-kidney-function
#8
Florian Kronenberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common disease with an estimated prevalence of 10-12%. There are pronounced differences between ethnicities with a 3-fold to 4-fold higher lifetime risk for end-stage kidney disease in African Americans compared to European Americans. The purpose of this review was to discuss recent findings on two apolipoproteins (apolipoprotein L1 and A-IV) in the context of kidney disease and kidney function. RECENT FINDINGS: The observation that certain apolipoprotein L1 risk genotypes that are only present in African Americans might explain a major fraction of the ethnic differences for nondiabetic CKD has set the stage for this otherwise under-researched apolipoprotein...
November 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870652/fatty-acid-metabolism-in-macrophages-a-target-in-cardio-metabolic-diseases
#9
Louise Ménégaut, Charles Thomas, Laurent Lagrost, David Masson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies have highlighted that macrophages dynamically and autonomously handle all the facets of fatty acid (FA) metabolism including FA oxidation and FA synthesis as well as the synthesis of monounsaturated FAs and long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated FAs. RECENT FINDINGS: Macrophage M2 polarization is associated with an increase of FA oxidation. However, whether increased FA oxidation simply correlates with or is required for M2 polarization needs to be further evaluated...
November 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798488/challenges-in-the-health-economics-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#10
Richard Norman, Gerald F Watts, William Weintraub, Samuel S Gidding
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Implementation of effective interventions often requires evidence regarding value, that is, whether they are worth what we pay for them. This review explores recent evidence concerning cost-effectiveness in familial hypercholesterolemia, and discusses the cause of, and likelihood of solutions to, the paucity of such evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: Cost-effectiveness analysis in familial hypercholesterolemia has been limited almost exclusively to adult populations...
October 27, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749370/recent-explanatory-trials-of-the-mode-of-action-of-drug-therapies-on-lipoprotein-metabolism
#11
Dick C Chan, P Hugh R Barrett, Gerald F Watts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysregulated lipoprotein metabolism leads to increased plasma concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins. We highlight the findings from recent studies of the effect of lipid-regulating therapies on apolipoprotein metabolism in humans employing endogenous labelling with stable isotopically labelled isotopomers. RECENT FINDINGS: Fish oil supplementation and niacin treatment both reduce fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels by decreasing the hepatic secretion of VLDL-apoB-100 (apoB) and apoB-48-containing chylomicron particles in obese and/or type 2 diabetes...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676198/pharmacogenomic-approaches-to-lipid-regulating-trials
#12
Marie-Jeanne Bertrand, Marie-Pierre Dubé, Jean-Claude Tardif
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Randomized clinical outcome trials are costly, long, and often yield neutral or modestly positive results, and these issues have impeded cardiovascular drug development in the past decade. Despite the significant reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality with statins, substantial residual risk of major cardiovascular events remains. This could be because of the difficulty of demonstrating benefits of new drugs in addition to the current standard of care in unselected populations as well as the interindividual variability in drug response...
September 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676197/human-microbiome-as-therapeutic-intervention-target-to-reduce-cardiovascular-disease-risk
#13
Annefleur M Koopen, Albert K Groen, Max Nieuwdorp
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The absolute burden of cardiovascular risk remains high despite currently available preventive and therapeutic options. In search for novel therapeutic leads, mounting evidence has linked the gut microbiota as well as their metabolites to the development of cardiometabolic diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: The intestinal microbiota influences the host via different metabolic pathways as inducer of endotoxemia, formation of trimethylamine-N-oxide, production of short chain fatty acids, and is a regulator in intestinal bile acid metabolism...
September 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676196/new-oral-agents-for-treating-dyslipidemia
#14
Steven E Gryn, Robert A Hegele
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview of orally administered lipid-lowering therapies under development. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data support statins for intermediate risk primary prevention, and ezetimibe for high-risk secondary prevention. Novel agents in development include bempedoic acid and gemcabene, and work continues on one remaining cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor, anacetrapib, to determine whether this class can reduce cardiovascular risk...
September 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805977/lipoproteins-and-amyloid-vascular-disease
#15
John P Kane, Mary J Malloy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805976/trojan-horses-for-drugs-a-new-role-for-lipoproteins
#16
Giuseppe Ciccarella, Gertrud Lund, Silvio Zaina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805975/acetate-is-the-master-of-its-fate-genetics-and-molecular-biology-bimonthly-update
#17
Francesca Amati, Christian Widmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805974/diabetes-medications-improve-cardiovascular-outcomes-the-paradigm-shifts
#18
Kenneth Cusi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805973/hyperlipidaemia-in-immunosuppression
#19
Maaike Kockx, Leonard Kritharides
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805972/editorial-introductions
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
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