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Current Opinion in Lipidology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207435/statin-associated-immune-mediated-myopathy-biology-and-clinical-implications
#1
Lisa Christopher-Stine, Pari Basharat
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the last 6 years, our understanding of statin-associated myopathy expanded to include not only a toxic myopathy with limited and reversible side-effects but also an autoimmune variety in which statins likely induce an autoimmune myopathy that is both associated with a specific autoantibody and responsive to immunosuppression and immune modulation. This review widens the reader's understanding of statin myopathy to include an autoimmune process. RECENT FINDINGS: Statin-associated immune-mediated myopathy provides an example of an environmental trigger (statins) directly implicated in an autoimmune disease associated with a genetic predisposition as well as potential risk factors including concomitant diseases and specific statins...
February 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207434/leveraging-information-from-genetic-risk-scores-of-coronary-atherosclerosis
#2
Themistocles L Assimes, Elias L Salfati, Liana C Del Gobbo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified ∼60 loci for coronary artery disease (CAD). Through genetic risk scores (GRSs), investigators are leveraging this genomic information to gain insights on both the fundamental mechanisms driving these associations as well as their utility in improving risk prediction. RECENT FINDINGS: GRSs of CAD track with the earliest atherosclerosis lesions in the coronary including fatty streaks and uncomplicated raised lesions...
February 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169871/dietary-adherence-and-cardiovascular-risk
#3
Deepak Bhatnagar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169870/the-role-of-registries-and-genetic-databases-in-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#4
Iris Kindt, Pedro Mata, Joshua W Knowles
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review how leveraging familial hypercholesterolemia registries can impact molecular genetic research and precision medicine. RECENT FINDINGS: Familial hypercholesterolemia is both much more common and more phenotypically heterogeneous than previously thought with some evidence for significant genotype to phenotype correlations. Genetic testing for familial hypercholesterolemia is becoming both more widely available and cheaper, spurring conversations about its clinical utility...
February 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169869/low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-mutational-analysis-in-diagnosis-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#5
Mafalda Bourbon, Ana C Alves, Eric J Sijbrands
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present up to date evidence on the pathogenicity of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) variants and to propose a strategy that is suitable for implementation in the clinical work-up of familial hypercholesterolaemia. RECENT FINDINGS: More than 1800 variants have been described in the LDLR gene of patients with a clinical diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia; however, less than 15% have functional evidence of pathogenicity. SUMMARY: The spectrum of variants in the LDLR identified in patients with clinical familial hypercholesterolaemia is increasing as novel variants are still being reported...
February 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157722/genotype-guided-diagnosis-in-familial-hypercholesterolemia-clinical-management-and-concerns
#6
Paul N Hopkins, Stacey R Lane
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we examine benefits and concerns associated with genetic testing in the clinical management of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). RECENT FINDINGS: Application of next-generation sequencing and other advances provide improved yield of causal mutations compared with older methods and help disclose underlying pathophysiology in many instances. Concerns regarding clinical application of genetic testing remain. SUMMARY: More widespread application of genetic testing for FH in the USA may be forthcoming...
February 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157721/complexity-of-mechanisms-among-human-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-variants
#7
Jacqueline S Dron, Robert A Hegele
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are many reports of human variants in proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) that are either gain-of-function (GOF) or loss-of-function (LOF), with downstream effects on LDL cholesterol and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, data on particular mechanisms have only been minimally curated. RECENT FINDINGS: GOF variants are individually ultrarare, affect all domains of the protein, act to reduce LDL receptor expression through several mechanisms, are a minor cause of familial hypercholesterolemia, have been reported mainly within families, have variable LDL cholesterol-raising effects, and are associated with increased CVD risk mainly through observational studies in families and small cohorts...
February 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134664/the-walking-dead-macrophage-inflammation-and-death-in-atherosclerosis
#8
Mary M Kavurma, Katey J Rayner, Denuja Karunakaran
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent studies that describe novel inflammatory and signaling mechanisms that regulate macrophage death in atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Macrophages contribute to all stages of atherosclerosis. The traditional dogma states that in homeostatic conditions, macrophages undergo apoptosis and are efficiently phagocytosed to be cleared by a process called efferocytosis. In advanced atherosclerosis, however, defective efferocytosis results in secondary necrosis of these uncleared apoptotic cells, which ultimately contributes to the formation of the characteristic necrotic core and the vulnerable plaque...
January 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134663/sr-b1-and-pdzk1-partners-in-hdl-regulation
#9
Bernardo L Trigatti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To outline the roles of SR-B1 and PDZK1 in hepatic selective HDL cholesterol uptake and reverse cholesterol transport and the consequences for atherosclerosis development. RECENT FINDINGS: Much of our understanding of the physiological roles of SR-B1 and PDZK1 in HDL metabolism and atherosclerosis comes from studies of genetically manipulated mice. These show SR-B1 and PDZK1 play key roles in HDL metabolism and protection against atherosclerosis...
January 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092276/asialoglycoprotein-receptors-as-important-mediators-of-plasma-lipids-and-atherosclerosis
#10
Suleiman A Igdoura
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review seeks to describe the role of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGR) in modulating non-HDL lipoprotein levels, platelet numbers and atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Genetics studies have revealed that ASGR haplodeficiency provides protection from atherosclerosis. The potential interactions of ASGR with LDL receptor may regulate the rate of LDL uptake and as a result may lower plasma non-HDL cholesterol. ASGR clears senescent platelets and induces the expression of hepatic thrombopoietin...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092275/mechanistic-insights-from-combining-genomics-with-metabolomics
#11
Fotios Drenos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolomics directly measure substrates and products of biological processes and pathways. Based on instrumentation and throughput advances, the use of metabolomics has only recently become feasible at the population level. This has led to an intense interest in using the new information in combination with genomics, and other omics technologies, to give biological context to the rapidly accumulating associations between genes and diseases or their risk factors. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of metabolomics-genomic associations for the metabolic characterization of genes of interest has confirmed known pathways and permitted the identification of new ones...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059953/lipoprotein-a-new-insights-from-modern-genomics
#12
Mehdi Afshar, George Thanassoulis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is the strongest independent genetic risk factor for both myocardial infarction and aortic stenosis. It has also been associated with other forms of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) including ischemic stroke. Its levels are genetically determined and remain fairly stable throughout life. Elevated Lp(a), above 50 mg/dl, affects one in five individuals worldwide. RECENT FINDINGS: Herein, we review the recent epidemiologic and genetic evidence supporting the causal role of Lp(a) in CVD, highlight recommendations made by European and Canadian guidelines regarding Lp(a) and summarize the rapidly evolving field of Lp(a)-lowering therapies including antisense therapies and Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 inhibitors...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059952/atp-citrate-lyase-genetics-molecular-biology-and-therapeutic-target-for-dyslipidemia
#13
Amy C Burke, Murray W Huff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) has re-emerged as a drug target for LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering. We review ACLY as a therapeutic strategy, its genetics, its molecular and cellular biology, and also its inhibition. RECENT FINDINGS: ACLY is a critical enzyme linking glucose catabolism to lipogenesis by providing acetyl-CoA from mitochondrial citrate for fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Human genetic variants have been associated with enhanced growth and survival of several cancers, and with attenuated plasma triglyceride responses to dietary fish oil...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059951/human-genetic-insights-into-lipoproteins-and-risk-of-cardiometabolic-disease
#14
Nathan O Stitziel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human genetic studies have been successfully used to identify genes and pathways relevant to human biology. Using genetic instruments composed of loci associated with human lipid traits, recent studies have begun to clarify the causal role of major lipid fractions in risk of cardiometabolic disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The causal relationship between LDL cholesterol and coronary disease has been firmly established. Of the remaining two major fractions, recent studies have found that HDL cholesterol is not likely to be a causal particle in atherogenesis, and have instead shifted the causal focus to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059950/phenotype-vs-genotype-in-severe-familial-hypercholesterolemia-what-matters-most-for-the-clinician
#15
Raul D Santos
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Familial hypercholesterolemia is associated with a high lifetime risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, this risk is variable. This review evaluates recent evidence related to ASCVD risk stratification in familial hypercholesterolemia considering aspects of phenotype and genotype. RECENT FINDINGS: The heterogeneity in clinical, laboratory characteristics, and in ASCVD risk in both homozygous and heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia individuals in part can be attributed to the type of molecular defect...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030379/genotype-guided-diagnosis-in-familial-hypercholesterolemia-population-burden-and-cascade-screening
#16
Paul N Hopkins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, how genetic testing has provided major new insights regarding the population burden of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are reviewed. In addition, the role of genetic testing in cascade screening for FH and an updated Make Early Diagnoses to Prevent Early Death in MEDical PEDigrees algorithm for the clinical diagnosis of FH are presented. RECENT FINDINGS: For the first time, recent application of genetic testing for FH in large populations has provided firm estimates of the prevalence of FH (at least one in 220) in the USA...
December 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030378/does-lifestyle-contribute-to-disease-severity-in-patients-with-inherited-lipid-disorders
#17
Benoit J Arsenault, Nicolas Perrot, Patrick Couture
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, familial combined hyperlipidemia and hyperlipoprotein(a) are at high cardiovascular risk. Increasing evidence suggest that lifestyle-related risk factors such as physical inactivity, and poor diet quality could influence cardiovascular risk in these patients. Our objective is to review the evidence that supports the role of lifestyle-related factors in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in patients with inherited lipid disorders...
December 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030456/the-heart-outcomes-prevention-evaluation-hope-3-trial-where-do-we-stand
#18
Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Costas Tsioufis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030455/it-is-not-just-lipids-proatherogenic-vs-antiatherogenic-roles-for-amino-acids-in-macrophage-foam-cell-formation
#19
Oren Rom, Michael Aviram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030454/-examine-my-kidneys-and-my-heart-linking-renal-and-cardiovascular-disease
#20
Uwe J F Tietge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
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