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Current Opinion in Lipidology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548974/remnant-lipoproteins
#1
Anette Varbo, Børge G Nordestgaard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent advances in the field of remnant lipoproteins and remnant cholesterol with a focus on cardiovascular disease risk. RECENT FINDINGS: In line with previous years' research, current observational, genetic, and mechanistic studies find remnant lipoproteins (defined in different ways) to be involved in atherosclerosis development and cardiovascular disease risk. High concentrations of remnant cholesterol could explain some of the residual risk of cardiovascular disease seen after LDL cholesterol lowering...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509674/evidence-for-more-intensive-cholesterol-lowering
#2
Handrean Soran, See Kwok, Safwaan Adam, Jan Hoong Ho, Paul N Durrington
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In randomized clinical trials, reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk with cholesterol-lowering drugs correlates with the LDL cholesterol decrease. However, because the majority have investigated a fixed statin dose, current guidelines disagree about the use of statin dose titration or non-statin adjunctive cholesterol-lowering drugs. RECENT FINDINGS: We conducted a meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials with CVD end-points, comparing two intensities of lipid-lowering regimens within the same population, using varying statins doses and/or potency, ezetimibe or PCSK9 inhibitors and compared the observed number of patients needed to be treated for 10 years to prevent one CVD event (NNT) with NNT predicted from trials of predominantly single-dose statin...
May 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504983/serum-inhibitory-factor-1-high-density-lipoprotein-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#3
Laurent O Martinez, Annelise Genoux, Jean Ferrières, Thibaut Duparc, Bertrand Perret
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The atheroprotective properties of HDL are supported by epidemiological and preclinical research. However, the results of interventional trials paradoxically indicate that drugs increasing HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) do not reduce coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. Moreover, Mendelian randomization studies have shown no effect of HDL-C-modifying variants on CAD outcome. Thus, the protective effects of HDL particles are more governed by their functional status than their cholesterol content...
May 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463860/molecular-diagnosis-of-familial-hypercholesterolaemia
#4
Colin A Graham, Mark J Latten, Padraig J Hart
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Familial hypercholesterolaemia is a hereditary disorder of lipoprotein metabolism which causes a lifelong increase in LDL-C levels resulting in premature coronary heart disease. The present review looks at some of the recent literature on how molecular methods can be used to assist in the definitive diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia in a range of patient groups. RECENT FINDINGS: Several recent studies have shown that the prevalence of clinical familial hypercholesterolaemia is higher than previously thought at 1/200 to 1/300, and that 2-5% of patients presenting with early myocardial infarction can be found to have a familial hypercholesterolaemia mutation...
April 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463859/adiponectin-lipids-and-atherosclerosis
#5
Niki Katsiki, Christos Mantzoros, Dimitri P Mikhailidis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adiponectin is an adipokine with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiatherogenic, pro-angiogenic, vasoprotective and insulin-sensitizing properties. Several factors may influence adiponectin levels, such as genetic polymorphisms, obesity / body fat distribution, diet and exercise as well as cardiovascular risk factors such as sleep deprivation and smoking as well as medications. Adiponectin has been proposed as a potential prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target in patients with cardiometabolic diseases...
April 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459707/hdl-and-the-menopause
#6
Samar R El Khoudary
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent provocative findings on conventional and novel metrics of HDL including HDL-C, HDL subclasses and HDL cholesterol efflux capacity as related to menopause. RECENT FINDINGS: Pattern of menopause-related changes in HDL-C are not consistent, suggesting a complex relationship between HDL and menopause. Growing body of literature indicates that higher levels of HDL-C may not be consistently cardio-protective in midlife women, suggesting a potential change in other metrics of HDL that could not be captured by the static metric HDL-C...
April 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445176/novel-lipid-modifying-drugs-to-lower-ldl-cholesterol
#7
Arjen J Cupido, Laurens F Reeskamp, John J P Kastelein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Statins have long been the cornerstone for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, because of perceived adverse effects and insufficient efficacy in certain groups of patients, considerable interest exists in the search for alternatives to lower LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and the recent approvals of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors underlines the success of this quest. Here, we give an updated overview on the most recent developments in the area of LDL-C lowering agents...
April 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441156/interpreting-lipoproteins-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
Katriina Nemes, Fredrik Åberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The pathophysiologies of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease are closely interlinked and associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia. Liver and cardiovascular disease may silently progress to advanced stages if alarming signs, such as abdominal obesity, elevated fasting and postprandial triglycerides, and low HDL cholesterol are overlooked. We review the metabolic mechanisms in NAFLD at the cellular level in the context of standard clinical lipid measurements...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441155/do-triglyceride-lowering-drugs-decrease-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease
#9
Kevin C Maki, Mary R Dicklin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the evidence supporting a relationship between lowering triglycerides (TGs) and TG-rich lipoprotein cholesterol (TGRL-C) levels and reduced atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) event risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Data from observational investigations, including studies of genetic variants, provide evidence consistent with a causal relationship between elevations in TG and TGRL-C and greater risk for ASCVD. Randomized controlled trial evidence of ASCVD risk reduction with therapies that substantially lower TG and TGRL-C is limited by the fact that no large-scale trial results have been published from a study that enrolled subjects selected specifically on the basis of TG or TGRL-C elevation, although three such trials are underway or in the planning stages...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441154/clarifying-complex-inheritance-apolipoprotein-c3-and-atherosclerosis
#10
David J Galton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe some steps in the progress in the molecular biology of a peptide, apolipoprotein C3; its gene mutations that render individuals susceptible or resistant to developing hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Data that lead to the development of a new therapeutic agent volanesorsen. SUMMARY: The agent blocks the function of the mRNA of apolipoprotein C3 and successfully treats severe hypertriglyceridaemia in phase 3 trials (Ionis Pharmaceuticals)...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426524/beyond-cascade-screening-detection-of-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-at-childhood-immunization-and-other-strategies
#11
Andrew C Martin, Damon A Bell, Tom Brett, Gerald F Watts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Familial hypercholesterolaemia is a common genetic disorder that accelerates premature coronary heart disease. Although effective treatments are available, the majority of individuals remain undiagnosed. We review new evidence for improving the detection of familial hypercholesterolaemia. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have demonstrated that universal screening of children for familial hypercholesterolaemia may be highly effective at the time of immunization if combined with reverse cascade testing of adult family members, who have a more immediate risk of a coronary event...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426523/increasing-hdl-c-levels-with-medication-current-perspectives
#12
Roelof Aj Smit, J Wouter Jukema, Stella Trompet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To date, observational studies have repeatedly demonstrated an inverse association between HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and cardiovascular outcomes. Although the efficacy of established HDL-modifying treatment strategies have been examined in multiple large-scale phase III trials, findings from these experimental studies conflict with the hypothesis that HDL-C levels are atheroprotective. In this review, we describe the trial evidence to date, and attempt to place these results in the broader context of recent hypotheses for the association between HDL-C levels and clinical outcomes...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460374/ldl-particle-number-and-size-and-cardiovascular-risk-anything-new-under-the-sun
#13
Janie Allaire, Cécile Vors, Patrick Couture, Benoît Lamarche
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide here an up-to-date perspective on the potential use of LDL particle number and size as complementary risk factors to predict and manage cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the clinical realm. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies show that a significant proportion of the population has discordant LDL particle number and cholesterol indices [non-HDL cholesterol (HDL-C)]. Data also show that risk prediction may be improved when using information on LDL particle number in patients with discordant particle number and cholesterol data...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459769/deep-thoughts-on-lipids-and-cognition
#14
Mouhammad Fathallah, Richard A Krasuski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459768/macrophage-mediated-mechanisms-in-atherosclerosis-still-tangled
#15
Feiming Ye, Jian-An Wang, Alan Daugherty, Hong Lu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459767/fatty-acid-metabolism-regulates-cell-survival-in-specific-niches
#16
Romano Regazzi, Christian Widmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459766/mode-of-action-of-berberine-on-lipid-metabolism-a-new-old-phytochemical-with-clinical-applications
#17
Amirhossein Sahebkar, Gerald F Watts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338522/developments-in-intestinal-cholesterol-transport-and-triglyceride-absorption
#18
Yared Paalvast, Jan Freark de Boer, Albert K Groen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent advances in research focused on intestinal lipid handling. RECENT FINDINGS: An important strategy in reducing atherosclerosis and risk of cardiovascular events is to increase the rate of reverse cholesterol transport, including its final step; cholesterol excretion from the body. The rate of removal is determined by a complex interplay between the factors involved in regulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption. One of these factors is a process known as transintestinal cholesterol excretion...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338521/ethnicity-lipids-and-cardiovascular-disease
#19
Katia Gazzola, Laurens Reeskamp, Bert-Jan van den Born
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of cardiovascular disease differs among ethnic groups and along geographic boundaries. At present, most of the projected increase in mortality from cardiovascular disease occurs in sub-Saharan African, Chinese and Southeast Asian populations. Ethnic disparities in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease coincide with quantitative and qualitative differences in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. High plasma cholesterol is one of the most important preventable causes of ischemic heart disease...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333714/novel-regulators-of-plasma-lipid-levels
#20
Natalia Loaiza, Federico Oldoni, Jan A Kuivenhoven
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight very recent studies identifying novel regulatory molecules and mechanisms in plasma lipid metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: Two novel regulatory mechanisms of LDL receptor (LDLR) intracellular trafficking have been described. The "COMMD/CCDC22/CCDC93" and "Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue" complexes were found to be involved in LDLR endosomal sorting and recycling, whereas the GRP94 was shown to protect LDLR from early degradation within the hepatocyte secretory pathway...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
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