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Current Opinion in Lipidology

Kamal Awad, Maciej Banach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In humans, cholesterol biosynthesis varies diurnally, reaching its peak at night. Therefore, choosing the time of statin administration is critical because of their different half-lives. Dose timing becomes more important in patients with polypharmacy because it might affect their adherence to the statin therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Herein, we narratively summarized the available clinical studies (n = 17) and meta-analyses (n = 2) that compared the morning with the evening dose of statins in terms of safety and efficacy, with special focus on their low-density lipoprotein-lowering effects...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Handrean Soran, Jan Hoong Ho, Paul N Durrington
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acquired hypocholesterolaemia occurs more commonly than inherited hypocholesterolaemia but has received little attention in the literature. In this review, we discuss the causes and underlying mechanisms of acquired hypocholesterolaemia and its relevance to safety of therapeutically induced decreased LDL cholesterol levels. RECENT FINDINGS: Hypocholesterolaemia is increasingly identified as cholesterol testing becomes more widespread in the assessment of cardiovascular risk...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Alexander N Orekhov
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lipoprotein-induced intracellular lipid accumulation (foam cell formation) is a trigger of atherogenesis at the subendothelial arterial cell level. The purpose of this review is to describe the recent data related to the possible mechanisms of LDL-induced formation of lipid-laden foam cells and their role in the onset and development of atherosclerotic lesion. RECENT FINDINGS: The most interesting current studies are related to the factors affecting foam cell formation...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Alessandro Menotti, Paolo Emilio Puddu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Seven Countries Study (SCS) of Cardiovascular Diseases started midway last century and was the pioneer investigation of coronary heart disease (CHD) at international level. The 16 cohorts of middle-aged men enrolled in eight nations of seven countries allowed to show large differences of CHD incidence and mortality across different cultures, partly explained by average levels of serum cholesterol and dietary habits, that is, Western type patterns in the high-risk populations, and Mediterranean or Oriental type in Southern Europe and Japan...
April 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Martine Paquette, Alexis Baass
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Familial hypercholesterolemia is a frequent genetic disease associated with a high lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Statins are the cornerstone of treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia; however, with the advent of novel LDL-cholesterol lowering therapies, it has become necessary to identify familial hypercholesterolemia subjects presenting a significant residual CVD risk. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the recent literature concerning cardiovascular risk stratification in familial hypercholesterolemia...
April 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Sheila A Doggrell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review considers what we have learnt from the clinical outcome trials with the cetrapibs; the inhibitors of cholesteryl ester transfer protein that increase HDL cholesterol levels; torcetrapib, dalcetrapib, evacetrapib and anacetrapib. RECENT FINDINGS: Although an off-target increase in blood pressure may have contributed to the failure of torcetrapib in Investigation of Lipid Level Management to Understand its Impact in Atherosclerotics Events, recent evidence shows that torcetrapib also increased atherogenic apoproteins, and this may have contributed to its failure...
April 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Neale D Ridgway, Kexin Zhao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cholesterol is delivered to the limiting membrane of late endosomes by Niemann-Pick Type C1 and C2 proteins. This review summarizes recent evidence that cholesterol transfer from endosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum and other organelles is mediated by lipid-binding proteins that localize to membrane contact sites (MCS). RECENT FINDINGS: LDL-cholesterol in the late endosomal/lysosomes is exported to the plasma membrane, where most cholesterol resides, and the endoplasmic reticulum, which harbors the regulatory complexes and enzymes that control the synthesis and esterification of cholesterol...
April 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Venetia Bazioti, Anouk M La Rose, Marit Westerterp
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Leukocytosis, elevated blood leukocyte levels, is associated with enhanced cardiovascular risk in humans. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) drive leukocyte production in a process called hematopoiesis, which mainly occurs in the bone marrow, and under certain conditions also in other organs such as the spleen. Cholesterol accumulation in HSPCs enhances hematopoiesis, increasing levels of blood monocytes that infiltrate into atherosclerotic plaques. Although HSPC proliferation and monocytosis enhance atherogenesis in several studies, concomitant decreases in LDL-cholesterol levels have also been reported, associated with anti-atherogenic effects...
March 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Xiangyu Zhang, Trent D Evans, Se-Jin Jeong, Babak Razani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intracellular lipid metabolism is a complex interplay of exogenous lipid handling, trafficking, storage, lipolysis, and export. Recent work has implicated the cellular degradative process called autophagy in several aspects of lipid metabolism. We will discuss both the classical and novel roles of autophagy and the autophagic machinery in this setting. RECENT FINDINGS: The delivery of lipid droplets to lysosomes for hydrolysis, named lipophagy, was the first described functional role for autophagy in lipid metabolism...
March 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Joerg Heeren, Ludger Scheja
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article explores how the interplay between lipid metabolism and thermogenic adipose tissues enables proper physiological adaptation to cold environments in rodents and humans. RECENT FINDINGS: Cold exposure triggers systemic changes in lipid metabolism, which increases fatty acid delivery to brown adipose tissue (BAT) by various routes. Next to fatty acids generated intracellularly by de-novo lipogenesis or by lipolysis at lipid droplets, brown adipocytes utilize fatty acids released by white adipose tissue (WAT) for adaptive thermogenesis...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Michael H Davidson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Chia-Hua Wu, Alan Daugherty, Hong Lu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Uwe J F Tietge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Jillian Davidson, Dino Rotondo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Deepak Bhatnagar, Ahmad Shiraz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Sei Higuchi, M Concepción Izquierdo, Rebecca A Haeusler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 2 diabetes is associated with a characteristic dyslipidemia that may exacerbate cardiovascular risk. The causes of, and the effects of new antihyperglycemia medications on, this dyslipidemia, are under investigation. In an unexpected reciprocal manner, lowering LDL-cholesterol with statins slightly increases the risk of diabetes. Here we review the latest findings. RECENT FINDINGS: The inverse relationship between LDL-cholesterol and diabetes has now been confirmed by multiple lines of evidence...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Jan Freark de Boer, Vincent W Bloks, Esther Verkade, M Rebecca Heiner-Fokkema, Folkert Kuipers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a growing awareness that individual bile acid species exert different physiological functions, beyond their classical roles in bile formation and fat absorption, due to differential stimulatory effects on the bile-acid-activated receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and takeda G receptor 5 (TGR5). This review integrates recent findings on the role of individual bile acids and their receptors in metabolic control, with special emphasis on cholesterol homeostasis...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Coen van Solingen, Kaitlyn R Scacalossi, Kathryn J Moore
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Noncoding RNAs have emerged as important regulators of cellular and systemic lipid metabolism. In particular, the enigmatic class of long noncoding RNAs have been shown to play multifaceted roles in controlling transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene regulation. In this review, we discuss recent advances, current challenges and future opportunities in understanding the roles of lncRNAs in the regulation of lipid metabolism during health and disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite comprising the majority of the transcriptionally active regions of the human genome, lncRNA functions remain poorly understood, with fewer than 1% of human lncRNAs functionally characterized...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Laurent Yvan-Charvet, Bertrand Cariou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death worldwide with over 17 million deaths every year and represent a major public health challenge. The last decade has seen the emergence of novel antiatherogenic therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite intensive lipid and blood pressure interventions, the burden of CVD is expected to markedly progress because of the global aging of the population and increasing exposure to detrimental lifestyle-related risk...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Bastian Ramms, Philip L S M Gordts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Apolipoprotein (apo) C-III is a key player in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism and strongly associated with elevated plasma triglyceride levels. Several new studies added important insights on apoC-III and its physiological function confirming its promise as a valid therapeutic target. RECENT FINDINGS: APOC3 is expressed in liver and intestine and regulates triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) catabolism and anabolism. The transcriptional regulation in both organs requires different regulatory elements...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
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