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Current Opinion in Lipidology

Erin E Mulvihill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The intestine is highly efficient at absorbing and packaging dietary lipids onto the structural protein apoB48 for distribution throughout the body. Here, we summarize recent advances into understanding the physiological and pharmacological actions of the proglucagon-derived peptides: glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucagon like peptide 2 (GLP-2) on intestinal lipoprotein secretion. RECENT FINDINGS: Several recent studies have elucidated mechanisms underlying the paradoxical effects of GLP-1 and GLP-2 on intestinal production of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs)...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Jean-Pierre Rabès, Sophie Béliard, Alain Carrié
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview of molecular diagnosis for familial hypercholesterolemia in France including descriptions of the mutational spectrum, polygenic susceptibility and perspectives for improvement in familial hypercholesterolemia diagnosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Molecular testing for familial hypercholesterolemia is recommended for patients with a LDL-cholesterol level above 190 mg/dl (adults) associated with criteria related to personal and family history of hypercholesterolemia and premature cardiovascular disease...
January 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Ryan M Bradley, Robin E Duncan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (LPAATs)/acylglycerophosphate acyltransferases (AGPATs) are a homologous group of enzymes that all catalyze the de novo formation of phosphatidic acid from lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and a fatty acyl-CoA. This review seeks to resolve the apparent redundancy of LPAATs through examination of recent literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent molecular studies suggest that individual LPAAT homologues produce functionally distinct pools of phosphatidic acid, whereas gene ablation studies demonstrate unique roles despite a similar biochemical function...
January 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Amy C Burke, Murray W Huff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Regression, or reversal, of atherosclerosis has become an important clinical objective. The development of consistent models of murine atherosclerosis regression has accelerated this field of research. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent mouse studies that reveal molecular mechanisms as well as therapeutics targeted for regression. RECENT FINDINGS: Atherosclerosis regression does not involve the same mechanisms as progression in reverse order...
January 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Dominic S Ng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lecithin cholesterol acyltyransferase (LCAT) deficiency is a rare monogenic disorder causing lipoprotein dysregulation and multiple organ dysfunctions, including renal impairment. LCAT knockout mice have been shown informative in elucidating mechanisms of many major clinical morbid phenotypes. Extended characterization of the LDL receptor/LCAT double knockout (Ldlr/Lcat-DKO or DKO) mice had led to the discovery of a number of novel protective metabolic phenotypes, including resistance to obesity, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and insulin resistance...
January 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Natalie Smyth, Michèle Ramsay, Frederick J Raal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the prevalence and population-specific genetic heterogeneity of familial hypercholesterolemia in South Africa. RECENT FINDINGS: This review highlights the paucity of data on familial hypercholesterolemia in South Africa, and the urgent need to uncover the mutation profiles in lipid-associated genes, causing an increase in LDL-cholesterol in the different ethnic groups. Case reports and small studies have shown that familial hypercholesterolemia, although apparently uncommon, is present in black Africans...
January 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Andrea Volta, G Kees Hovingh, Aldo Grefhorst
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by high LDL cholesterol and an elevated risk to develop coronary heart disease. Mutations in LDL receptor-mediated cholesterol uptake are the main cause of familial hypercholesterolemia. However, multiple mutations in various other genes are also associated with high LDL cholesterol and even familial hypercholesterolemia. Thus, pharmaceuticals that target these genes and proteins might be attractive treatment options to reduce LDL cholesterol...
January 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Martine Paquette, Jacques Genest, Alexis Baass
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has recently been renewed interest in the study of the various facets of familial hypercholesterolemia, a severe monogenic disease associated with elevated LDL-cholesterol and premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the present review, novel data presenting the frequency of familial hypercholesterolemia as well as factors modulating the cardiovascular risk in familial hypercholesterolemia will be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have showed that familial hypercholesterolemia is much more prevalent than initially thought...
January 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
David M Ng, Amanda J Hooper, Matthew I Bellgard, John R Burnett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the role, utility and current status of patient registries for rare genetic lipid disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: The creation and maintenance of rare genetic lipid disorder patient registries is critical for disease monitoring, improving clinical best practice, facilitating research and enabling the development of novel therapeutics. An open-source disease registry platform, termed the Rare Disease Registry Framework, has been developed, optimized and deployed for homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Kiran Musunuru
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent advances with respect to the use of human pluripotent stem cells to study the genetics of blood lipid traits. RECENT FINDINGS: Human pluripotent stem cell models have been used to elucidate the mechanisms by which genes contribute to dyslipidemia, to discover new lipid-related DNA variants and genes, and to perform drug screens. SUMMARY: In addition to enabling a better understanding of the genetic basis of lipid metabolism, human pluripotent stem cells are identifying potential therapeutic targets as well as potential therapies...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Nabil G Seidah, Michel Chrétien, Majambu Mbikay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The nine members of the proprotein convertase family play major physiological roles during development and in the adult, and their dysregulation leads to various diseases. The primary objective of this article is to review recent findings on the clinical importance of some of these convertases concentrating mostly on PCSK9, the ninth member of the convertase family. This includes the transcriptional and translational regulation of PCSK9, its ability to enhance the degradation of LDL receptor (LDLR), and the implication of PCSK9 in inflammation and sepsis...
January 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Michael A Iacocca, Robert A Hegele
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: DNA copy number variations (CNVs) are quantitative structural rearrangements that include deletions, duplications, and higher order amplifications. Because of technical limitations, the contribution of this common form of genetic variation to regulation of lipid metabolism and dyslipidemia has been underestimated. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature involving CNVs and dyslipidemias has focused mainly on rare CNVs causing familial hypercholesterolemia, and a common CNV polymorphism as the major determinant of lipoprotein(a) plasma concentrations...
January 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Jacqueline S Dron, Robert A Hegele
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rare large-effect genetic variants underlie monogenic dyslipidemias, whereas common small-effect genetic variants - single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) - have modest influences on lipid traits. Over the past decade, these small-effect SNPs have been shown to cumulatively exert consistent effects on lipid phenotypes under a polygenic framework, which is the focus of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Several groups have reported polygenic risk scores assembled from lipid-associated SNPs, and have applied them to their respective phenotypes...
January 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Lauren Sharan, Richard A Krasuski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Susanne Pfeiler, Norbert Gerdes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Stella Trompet, Chris J Packard, J Wouter Jukema
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Manja Koch, Majken K Jensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Laurens F Reeskamp, Emma C E Meessen, Albert K Groen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent insights into the measurement and cellular basis of transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) in humans and to explore TICE as a therapeutic target for increasing reverse cholesterol transport. RECENT FINDINGS: TICE is the net effect of cholesterol excretion by the enterocyte into the intestinal lumen and is the balance between input and output fluxes through the enterocytes. These fluxes are: cholesterol excretion into the intestinal lumen mainly via ATP-binding cassette (ABC) G5/8, cholesterol absorption from the intestine by Niemann-Pick C1 like protein 1, the uptake of plasma lipoproteins by enterocytes at the basolateral membrane, and the excretion of cholesterol in chylomicrons into the lymph...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Priska Stahel, Changting Xiao, Gary F Lewis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lipoproteins secreted by the intestine can contribute to dyslipidemia and may increase risk for CVD. This review focuses on how dietary carbohydrates can impact the production of chylomicrons, thereby influencing plasma concentrations of triglycerides and lipoproteins. RECENT FINDINGS: Hypercaloric diets high in monosaccharides can exacerbate postprandial triglyceride concentration...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Laurence D Parnell, Jose M Ordovas, Chao-Qiang Lai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Postprandial lipemia (PPL), the prolonged increase in plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins following food consumption, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Genetic variation, environment and the interplay between these direct an individual's postprandial lipid response. From such interplay, inducible and reversible epigenetic changes arise. Increasing evidence suggests epigenetic variation contributes to postprandial response in lipids and risk...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
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