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Current Opinion in Lipidology

Niels P Riksen, Rinke Stienstra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is increasingly recognized that profound metabolic changes occur in activated myeloid cells, which shape their inflammatory phenotype and cellular functions. The purpose of this review is to summarize the accumulating evidence that major metabolic adaptations occur in monocytes and macrophages in the context of atherosclerosis ultimately modulating atherosclerotic plaque formation. RECENT FINDINGS: Plaque macrophages show a profound metabolic reprogramming which is driven by atherogenic factors in the plaque microenvironment, such as damage associated molecular patterns, modified lipoproteins, and hypoxia...
July 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Holger Winkels, Erik Ehinger, Yanal Goshesh, Dennis Wolf, Klaus Ley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The immune system plays a critical role in the development and modulation of atherosclerosis. New high-parameter technologies, including mass cytometry (CyTOF) and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq), allow for an encompassing analysis of immune cells. Unexplored marker combinations and transcriptomes can define new immune cell subsets and suggest their functions. Here, we review recent advances describing the immune cells in the artery wall of mice with and without atherosclerosis...
July 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Janine van Duijn, Johan Kuiper, Bram Slütter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atherosclerosis and the clinical consequence of cardiovascular disease remain the leading cause of death worldwide. Both an increase in cholesterol levels, as well as immune responses drive the pathogenesis of this disease. Although much is known about the role of many immune cell subsets in atherogenesis, research into the role of CD8 T cells is limited. RECENT FINDINGS: Both atheroprotective and atherogenic functions of CD8 T cells have been reported...
July 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Kia M Peters, Rachel B Wilson, Nica M Borradaile
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) appears to be independently associated with the development of atherosclerosis. The biological mechanisms underlying this association are complex, and likely involve liver-resident cell types other than hepatocytes. Thus, we review recent evidence that non-parenchymal hepatic cell responses to lipid excess contribute to the pathogenesis of both NAFLD and atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Significant independent associations between NAFLD and atherosclerosis have been identified through cross-sectional studies and meta-analyses...
July 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Katrin Niisuke, Katalin V Horvath, Bela F Asztalos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The inverse association between HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been unequivocally proven in the past several decades. However, some interventions aiming to increase HDL-C failed to reduce CVD risk. HDL is structurally and functionally complex and HDL-associated metrics other than HDL-C, such as the concentration, composition, and functionality of HDL particles, have been considered as better determinants of CVD risk. A large body of recent research has addressed changes in HDL functions and HDL subpopulations in CVD with the goal of discovering novel and reliable biomarkers and targets for the treatment or prevention of CVD...
May 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Kamal Awad, Maciej Banach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In humans, cholesterol biosynthesis varies diurnally, reaching its peak at night. Therefore, choosing the time of statin administration is critical because of their different half-lives. Dose timing becomes more important in patients with polypharmacy because it might affect their adherence to the statin therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Herein, we narratively summarized the available clinical studies (n = 17) and meta-analyses (n = 2) that compared the morning with the evening dose of statins in terms of safety and efficacy, with special focus on their low-density lipoprotein-lowering effects...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Handrean Soran, Jan Hoong Ho, Paul N Durrington
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acquired hypocholesterolaemia occurs more commonly than inherited hypocholesterolaemia but has received little attention in the literature. In this review, we discuss the causes and underlying mechanisms of acquired hypocholesterolaemia and its relevance to safety of therapeutically induced decreased LDL cholesterol levels. RECENT FINDINGS: Hypocholesterolaemia is increasingly identified as cholesterol testing becomes more widespread in the assessment of cardiovascular risk...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Alexander N Orekhov
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lipoprotein-induced intracellular lipid accumulation (foam cell formation) is a trigger of atherogenesis at the subendothelial arterial cell level. The purpose of this review is to describe the recent data related to the possible mechanisms of LDL-induced formation of lipid-laden foam cells and their role in the onset and development of atherosclerotic lesion. RECENT FINDINGS: The most interesting current studies are related to the factors affecting foam cell formation...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Alessandro Menotti, Paolo Emilio Puddu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Seven Countries Study (SCS) of Cardiovascular Diseases started midway last century and was the pioneer investigation of coronary heart disease (CHD) at international level. The 16 cohorts of middle-aged men enrolled in eight nations of seven countries allowed to show large differences of CHD incidence and mortality across different cultures, partly explained by average levels of serum cholesterol and dietary habits, that is, Western type patterns in the high-risk populations, and Mediterranean or Oriental type in Southern Europe and Japan...
April 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Martine Paquette, Alexis Baass
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Familial hypercholesterolemia is a frequent genetic disease associated with a high lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Statins are the cornerstone of treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia; however, with the advent of novel LDL-cholesterol lowering therapies, it has become necessary to identify familial hypercholesterolemia subjects presenting a significant residual CVD risk. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the recent literature concerning cardiovascular risk stratification in familial hypercholesterolemia...
April 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Klaus G Parhofer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Dawn C Schwenke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Theodosios D Filippatos, Eliza C Christopoulou, Moses S Elisaf
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current data suggest that proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors may affect many metabolic pathways beyond lowering LDL cholesterol. The aim of the present manuscript is to present these so-called pleiotropic effects of PCSK9 inhibitors. RECENT FINDINGS: PCSK9 may affect the activity of other receptors beyond LDL receptors (LDLR), such as cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), very-low-density-lipoprotein (VLDL) receptors, apolipoprotein (Apo) E receptors, LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP-1) and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter (ABCA1)...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Marie-Eve Piché, Senthil K Vasan, Leanne Hodson, Fredrik Karpe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Upper body abdominal and lower body gluteofemoral fat depot masses display opposing associations with plasma lipid and lipoprotein and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles. We review developments on adipose tissue fatty acid metabolism in the context of body fat distribution and how that might be related to adverse lipid and lipoprotein profiles and CVD risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data have confirmed the paradoxical relationship of upper abdominal and lower body gluteofemoral adiposity and CVD risk...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Paul N Durrington
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Valentina Rodriguez, Jonathan D Newman, Arthur Z Schwartzbard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia is necessary because of its impact on cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death in patients with diabetes. In the past, standard treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia focused only on correcting lipids. Although this remains the mainstay of treatment, because new antihyperglycemic treatments reduce cardiovascular events with minimal effect on dyslipidemia, a new approach is both timely and relevant. RECENT FINDINGS: LDL-lowering remains the focus of treatment for diabetic dyslipidemia, especially in patients with both diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Alicia J Jenkins, Paul Welsh, John R Petrie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview of recent publications that extend clinically relevant knowledge relating to metformin's effects on lipids and atherosclerotic vascular disease and/or provide insights into the drug's mechanisms of action on the heart and vasculature. RECENT FINDINGS: We focus on original research in humans or in human tissues. Several recently completed randomized clinical trials have reported effects of metformin on surrogate measures of atherosclerotic vascular disease, including carotid-intima media thickness, vascular reactivity and calcification in people with Type 1 (T1D) and Type 2 (T2D) diabetes as well as nondiabetic dysglycaemia...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Joerg Heeren, Ludger Scheja
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article explores how the interplay between lipid metabolism and thermogenic adipose tissues enables proper physiological adaptation to cold environments in rodents and humans. RECENT FINDINGS: Cold exposure triggers systemic changes in lipid metabolism, which increases fatty acid delivery to brown adipose tissue (BAT) by various routes. Next to fatty acids generated intracellularly by de-novo lipogenesis or by lipolysis at lipid droplets, brown adipocytes utilize fatty acids released by white adipose tissue (WAT) for adaptive thermogenesis...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Michael H Davidson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Chia-Hua Wu, Alan Daugherty, Hong Lu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
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