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Current Opinion in Lipidology

Maaike Kockx, Leonard Kritharides
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Nicole E M Jaspers, Paul M Ridker, Jannick A N Dorresteijn, Frank L J Visseren
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: We aim to outline the importance and the clinical implications of using predicted individual therapy-benefit in making patient-centered treatment decisions in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. Therapy-benefit concepts will be illustrated with examples of patients undergoing lipid management. RECENT FINDINGS: In both primary and secondary CVD prevention, the degree of variation in individual therapy-benefit is large. An individual's therapy-benefit can be estimated by combining prediction algorithms and clinical trial data...
September 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Sotirios Tsimikas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent developments in the field of RNA-directed therapeutics targeting lipid disorders that are not effectively managed. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite a number of approved therapies for lipid disorders, significant unmet needs are present in treating persistently elevated LDL-cholesterol, remnant-cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]. Small molecules and antibodies are effective modalities, but they are unable to adequately treat many patients with abnormal lipid parameters...
September 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Lubna Ali, Johan G Schnitzler, Jeffrey Kroon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evidence accumulates suggesting that cellular metabolic alterations fuel and dictate the inflammatory state of cells. In this review, we provide an overview of the observed metabolic reprogramming in endothelial cells and innate immune cells upon interaction with modified lipoproteins, thereby contributing to the progression of atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Inflammatory endothelial cells at sites exposed to disturbed flow patterns show increased glycolytic activity...
September 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Stéphane Ramin-Mangata, Valentin Blanchard, Gilles Lambert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our primary objective is to review the most recent findings on the biology of PCSK9 and on two key aspects of PCSK9 inhibition beyond LDL control of great clinical relevance: the regulation of lipoprotein (a) circulating levels by PCSK9 inhibitors and the putative diabetogenic effects of these novel therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: The reality of two distinct extracellular and intracellular pathways by which PCSK9 decreases the abundance of the LDLR at the surface of many cell types, most importantly hepatocytes, has recently been established...
September 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Karthickeyan Chella Krishnan, Margarete Mehrabian, Aldons J Lusis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sex differences are pervasive in metabolic and cardiovascular traits, yet they have often been ignored in human and animal model research. Sex differences can arise from reversible hormonal effects, from irreversible organizational (developmental) processes, and from gene expression differences from the X and Y chromosomes. We briefly review our current understanding of the impact of these factors in metabolic traits and disorders, with an emphasis on the recent literature...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Anton Gisterå, Daniel F J Ketelhuth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which subendothelial infiltration of lipoproteins leads to inflamed lesions in arteries. Despite improvements in secondary prevention, most cardiovascular events cannot be avoided with current therapies. This review focuses on novel mechanistic insights on lipid-driven immune activation, which could pave the way for new anti-inflammatory treatments for atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Immunometabolic interactions can shape the immune response...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Oren Rom, Luis Villacorta, Jifeng Zhang, Y Eugene Chen, Michael Aviram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Marlen Knobloch, Christian Widmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Manja Koch, Klodian Dhana, Majken K Jensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Pei-Yu Chen, Michael Simons
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite much effort, atherosclerosis remains an important public health problem, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. The purpose of this review is to provide an understanding of the role of endothelial cell fate change in atherosclerosis process. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies indicate that a process known as endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) may play an important role in atherosclerosis development. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) has been shown to be an important driver of the endothelial cell phenotype transition...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Tom T P Seijkens, Esther Lutgens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Targeted cancer therapies have revolutionized the treatment of cancer in the past decade, but cardiovascular toxicity is a rising problem in cancer patients. Here we discuss the effects of targeted cancer therapies on atherosclerosis. Increasing the awareness of these adverse effects will promote the development of evidence-based preventive strategies in the emerging field of cardiovascular oncology. RECENT FINDINGS: Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, immunomodulatory imide drugs, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors are successfully used as treatment for many types of solid and hematologic malignancies...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Carla Winter, Oliver Soehnlein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Development of atherosclerosis contributes to cardiovascular diseases that still are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Successful strategies for treating inflammatory aspects of atherosclerotic lesion development are rare. Here, we review new insights into the impact of circadian rhythmicity on atherogenesis and their potential for innovative time-optimized pharmacological treatment strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies on the circadian clock revealed an extensive influence on immune cell activity...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Niels P Riksen, Rinke Stienstra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is increasingly recognized that profound metabolic changes occur in activated myeloid cells, which shape their inflammatory phenotype and cellular functions. The purpose of this review is to summarize the accumulating evidence that major metabolic adaptations occur in monocytes and macrophages in the context of atherosclerosis ultimately modulating atherosclerotic plaque formation. RECENT FINDINGS: Plaque macrophages show a profound metabolic reprogramming which is driven by atherogenic factors in the plaque microenvironment, such as damage associated molecular patterns, modified lipoproteins, and hypoxia...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Holger Winkels, Erik Ehinger, Yanal Ghosheh, Dennis Wolf, Klaus Ley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The immune system plays a critical role in the development and modulation of atherosclerosis. New high-parameter technologies, including mass cytometry (CyTOF) and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq), allow for an encompassing analysis of immune cells. Unexplored marker combinations and transcriptomes can define new immune cell subsets and suggest their functions. Here, we review recent advances describing the immune cells in the artery wall of mice with and without atherosclerosis...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Janine van Duijn, Johan Kuiper, Bram Slütter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atherosclerosis and the clinical consequence of cardiovascular disease remain the leading cause of death worldwide. Both an increase in cholesterol levels, as well as immune responses drive the pathogenesis of this disease. Although much is known about the role of many immune cell subsets in atherogenesis, research into the role of CD8 T cells is limited. RECENT FINDINGS: Both atheroprotective and atherogenic functions of CD8 T cells have been reported...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Kia M Peters, Rachel B Wilson, Nica M Borradaile
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) appears to be independently associated with the development of atherosclerosis. The biological mechanisms underlying this association are complex, and likely involve liver-resident cell types other than hepatocytes. Thus, we review recent evidence that non-parenchymal hepatic cell responses to lipid excess contribute to the pathogenesis of both NAFLD and atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Significant independent associations between NAFLD and atherosclerosis have been identified through cross-sectional studies and meta-analyses...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Klaus G Parhofer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Dawn C Schwenke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Theodosios D Filippatos, Eliza C Christopoulou, Moses S Elisaf
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current data suggest that proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors may affect many metabolic pathways beyond lowering LDL cholesterol. The aim of the present manuscript is to present these so-called pleiotropic effects of PCSK9 inhibitors. RECENT FINDINGS: PCSK9 may affect the activity of other receptors beyond LDL receptors (LDLR), such as cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), very-low-density-lipoprotein (VLDL) receptors, apolipoprotein (Apo) E receptors, LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP-1) and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter (ABCA1)...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
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