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Current Opinion in Lipidology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092276/asialoglycoprotein-receptors-as-important-mediators-of-plasma-lipids-and-atherosclerosis
#1
Suleiman A Igdoura
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review seeks to describe the role of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGR) in modulating non-HDL lipoprotein levels, platelet numbers and atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Genetics studies have revealed that ASGR haplodeficiency provides protection from atherosclerosis. The potential interactions of ASGR with LDL receptor may regulate the rate of LDL uptake and as a result may lower plasma non-HDL cholesterol. ASGR clears senescent platelets and induces the expression of hepatic thrombopoietin...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092275/mechanistic-insights-from-combining-genomics-with-metabolomics
#2
Fotios Drenos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolomics directly measure substrates and products of biological processes and pathways. Based on instrumentation and throughput advances, the use of metabolomics has only recently become feasible at the population level. This has led to an intense interest in using the new information in combination with genomics, and other omics technologies, to give biological context to the rapidly accumulating associations between genes and diseases or their risk factors. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of metabolomics-genomic associations for the metabolic characterization of genes of interest has confirmed known pathways and permitted the identification of new ones...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059953/lipoprotein-a-new-insights-from-modern-genomics
#3
Mehdi Afshar, George Thanassoulis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is the strongest independent genetic risk factor for both myocardial infarction and aortic stenosis. It has also been associated with other forms of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) including ischemic stroke. Its levels are genetically determined and remain fairly stable throughout life. Elevated Lp(a), above 50 mg/dl, affects one in five individuals worldwide. RECENT FINDINGS: Herein, we review the recent epidemiologic and genetic evidence supporting the causal role of Lp(a) in CVD, highlight recommendations made by European and Canadian guidelines regarding Lp(a) and summarize the rapidly evolving field of Lp(a)-lowering therapies including antisense therapies and Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 inhibitors...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059952/atp-citrate-lyase-genetics-molecular-biology-and-therapeutic-target-for-dyslipidemia
#4
Amy C Burke, Murray W Huff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) has re-emerged as a drug target for LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering. We review ACLY as a therapeutic strategy, its genetics, its molecular and cellular biology, and also its inhibition. RECENT FINDINGS: ACLY is a critical enzyme linking glucose catabolism to lipogenesis by providing acetyl-CoA from mitochondrial citrate for fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Human genetic variants have been associated with enhanced growth and survival of several cancers, and with attenuated plasma triglyceride responses to dietary fish oil...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059951/human-genetic-insights-into-lipoproteins-and-risk-of-cardiometabolic-disease
#5
Nathan O Stitziel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human genetic studies have been successfully used to identify genes and pathways relevant to human biology. Using genetic instruments composed of loci associated with human lipid traits, recent studies have begun to clarify the causal role of major lipid fractions in risk of cardiometabolic disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The causal relationship between LDL cholesterol and coronary disease has been firmly established. Of the remaining two major fractions, recent studies have found that HDL cholesterol is not likely to be a causal particle in atherogenesis, and have instead shifted the causal focus to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059950/phenotype-vs-genotype-in-severe-familial-hypercholesterolemia-what-matters-most-for-the-clinician
#6
Raul D Santos
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Familial hypercholesterolemia is associated with a high lifetime risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, this risk is variable. This review evaluates recent evidence related to ASCVD risk stratification in familial hypercholesterolemia considering aspects of phenotype and genotype. RECENT FINDINGS: The heterogeneity in clinical, laboratory characteristics, and in ASCVD risk in both homozygous and heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia individuals in part can be attributed to the type of molecular defect...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030379/genotype-guided-diagnosis-in-familial-hypercholesterolemia-population-burden-and-cascade-screening
#7
Paul N Hopkins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, how genetic testing has provided major new insights regarding the population burden of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are reviewed. In addition, the role of genetic testing in cascade screening for FH and an updated Make Early Diagnoses to Prevent Early Death in MEDical PEDigrees algorithm for the clinical diagnosis of FH are presented. RECENT FINDINGS: For the first time, recent application of genetic testing for FH in large populations has provided firm estimates of the prevalence of FH (at least one in 220) in the USA...
December 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030378/does-lifestyle-contribute-to-disease-severity-in-patients-with-inherited-lipid-disorders
#8
Benoit J Arsenault, Nicolas Perrot, Patrick Couture
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, familial combined hyperlipidemia and hyperlipoprotein(a) are at high cardiovascular risk. Increasing evidence suggest that lifestyle-related risk factors such as physical inactivity, and poor diet quality could influence cardiovascular risk in these patients. Our objective is to review the evidence that supports the role of lifestyle-related factors in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in patients with inherited lipid disorders...
December 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798488/challenges-in-the-health-economics-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#9
Richard Norman, Gerald F Watts, William Weintraub, Samuel S Gidding
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Implementation of effective interventions often requires evidence regarding value, that is, whether they are worth what we pay for them. This review explores recent evidence concerning cost-effectiveness in familial hypercholesterolemia, and discusses the cause of, and likelihood of solutions to, the paucity of such evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: Cost-effectiveness analysis in familial hypercholesterolemia has been limited almost exclusively to adult populations...
October 27, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030456/the-heart-outcomes-prevention-evaluation-hope-3-trial-where-do-we-stand
#10
Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Costas Tsioufis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030455/it-is-not-just-lipids-proatherogenic-vs-antiatherogenic-roles-for-amino-acids-in-macrophage-foam-cell-formation
#11
Oren Rom, Michael Aviram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030454/-examine-my-kidneys-and-my-heart-linking-renal-and-cardiovascular-disease
#12
Uwe J F Tietge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030453/lipid-metabolism-from-genetic-loci-to-functional-understanding
#13
Florian Buerger, Ralph Burkhardt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030452/dietary-patterns-alzheimer-s-disease-and-cognitive-decline-recent-insights
#14
Manja Koch, Majken K Jensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030451/editorial-introductions
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002079/unbiased-and-targeted-mass-spectrometry-for-the-hdl-proteome
#16
Sasha A Singh, Masanori Aikawa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mass spectrometry is an ever evolving technology that is equipped with a variety of tools for protein research. Some lipoprotein studies, especially those pertaining to HDL biology, have been exploiting the versatility of mass spectrometry to understand HDL function through its proteome. Despite the role of mass spectrometry in advancing research as a whole, however, the technology remains obscure to those without hands on experience, but still wishing to understand it...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922847/apolipoprotein-e-metabolism-and-functions-in-brain-and-its-role-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Fan Liao, Hyejin Yoon, Jungsu Kim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: APOE4 genotype is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Prevailing evidence suggests that amyloid β plays a critical role in Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this article is to review the recent findings about the metabolism of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and amyloid β and other possible mechanisms by which ApoE contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: ApoE isoforms have differential effects on amyloid β metabolism...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906714/central-nervous-system-regulation-of-hepatic-lipid-and-lipoprotein-metabolism
#18
Jennifer Taher, Sarah Farr, Khosrow Adeli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatic lipid and lipoprotein metabolism is an important determinant of fasting dyslipidemia and the development of fatty liver disease. Although endocrine factors like insulin have known effects on hepatic lipid homeostasis, emerging evidence also supports a regulatory role for the central nervous system (CNS) and neuronal networks. This review summarizes evidence implicating a bidirectional liver-brain axis in maintaining metabolic lipid homeostasis, and discusses clinical implications in insulin-resistant states...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906713/milk-fat-biomarkers-and-cardiometabolic-disease
#19
Ulf Risérus, Matti Marklund
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dairy is a major food group with potential impact on cardiometabolic health. Self-reported dairy intake has limitations that can partly be avoided by using biomarkers. This review aims to summarize the evidence of odd-chain saturated fatty acids (OCFAs), that is, pentadecanoic acid (C15 : 0) and heptadecanoic acid (17 : 0), as biomarkers of dairy fat intake. In addition, the associations of OCFA biomarkers with cardiometabolic disease will be overviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Adipose tissue 15 : 0 is the preferred biomarker but also circulating 15 : 0, and to a weaker extent 17 : 0, reflects both habitual and changes in dairy intake...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906712/inflammation-remodeling-and-other-factors-affecting-hdl-cholesterol-efflux
#20
Graziella E Ronsein, Tomáš Vaisar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The ability of HDL to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages is a predictor of cardiovascular risk independent of HDL cholesterol levels. However, the molecular determinants of HDL cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) are largely unknown. RECENT FINDINGS: The term HDL defines a heterogeneous population of particles with distinct size, shape, protein, and lipid composition. Cholesterol efflux is mediated by multiple pathways that may be differentially modulated by HDL composition...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
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