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Current Opinion in Lipidology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441156/interpreting-lipoproteins-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
Katriina Nemes, Fredrik Åberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The pathophysiologies of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease are closely interlinked and associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia. Liver and cardiovascular disease may silently progress to advanced stages if alarming signs, such as abdominal obesity, elevated fasting and postprandial triglycerides, and low HDL cholesterol are overlooked. We review the metabolic mechanisms in NAFLD at the cellular level in the context of standard clinical lipid measurements...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441155/do-triglyceride-lowering-drugs-decrease-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease
#2
Kevin C Maki, Mary R Dicklin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the evidence supporting a relationship between lowering triglycerides (TGs) and TG-rich lipoprotein cholesterol (TGRL-C) levels and reduced atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) event risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Data from observational investigations, including studies of genetic variants, provide evidence consistent with a causal relationship between elevations in TG and TGRL-C and greater risk for ASCVD. Randomized controlled trial evidence of ASCVD risk reduction with therapies that substantially lower TG and TGRL-C is limited by the fact that no large-scale trial results have been published from a study that enrolled subjects selected specifically on the basis of TG or TGRL-C elevation, although three such trials are underway or in the planning stages...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441154/clarifying-complex-inheritance-apolipoprotein-c3-and-atherosclerosis
#3
David J Galton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe some steps in the progress in the molecular biology of a peptide, apolipoprotein C3; its gene mutations that render individuals susceptible or resistant to developing hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Data that lead to the development of a new therapeutic agent volanesorsen. SUMMARY: The agent blocks the function of the mRNA of apolipoprotein C3 and successfully treats severe hypertriglyceridaemia in phase 3 trials (Ionis Pharmaceuticals)...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426524/beyond-cascade-screening-detection-of-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-at-childhood-immunization-and-other-strategies
#4
Andrew C Martin, Damon A Bell, Tom Brett, Gerald F Watts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Familial hypercholesterolaemia is a common genetic disorder that accelerates premature coronary heart disease. Although effective treatments are available, the majority of individuals remain undiagnosed. We review new evidence for improving the detection of familial hypercholesterolaemia. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have demonstrated that universal screening of children for familial hypercholesterolaemia may be highly effective at the time of immunization if combined with reverse cascade testing of adult family members, who have a more immediate risk of a coronary event...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426523/increasing-hdl-c-levels-with-medication-current-perspectives
#5
Roelof Aj Smit, J Wouter Jukema, Stella Trompet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To date, observational studies have repeatedly demonstrated an inverse association between HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and cardiovascular outcomes. Although the efficacy of established HDL-modifying treatment strategies have been examined in multiple large-scale phase III trials, findings from these experimental studies conflict with the hypothesis that HDL-C levels are atheroprotective. In this review, we describe the trial evidence to date, and attempt to place these results in the broader context of recent hypotheses for the association between HDL-C levels and clinical outcomes...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338522/developments-in-intestinal-cholesterol-transport-and-triglyceride-absorption
#6
Yared Paalvast, Jan Freark de Boer, Albert K Groen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent advances in research focused on intestinal lipid handling. RECENT FINDINGS: An important strategy in reducing atherosclerosis and risk of cardiovascular events is to increase the rate of reverse cholesterol transport, including its final step; cholesterol excretion from the body. The rate of removal is determined by a complex interplay between the factors involved in regulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption. One of these factors is a process known as transintestinal cholesterol excretion...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338521/ethnicity-lipids-and-cardiovascular-disease
#7
Katia Gazzola, Rens Reeskamp, Bert-Jan van den Born
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of cardiovascular disease differs among ethnic groups and along geographic boundaries. At present, most of the projected increase in mortality from cardiovascular disease occurs in sub-Saharan African, Chinese and Southeast Asian populations. Ethnic disparities in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease coincide with quantitative and qualitative differences in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. High plasma cholesterol is one of the most important preventable causes of ischemic heart disease...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333714/novel-regulators-of-plasma-lipid-levels
#8
Natalia Loaiza, Federico Oldoni, Jan A Kuivenhoven
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight very recent studies identifying novel regulatory molecules and mechanisms in plasma lipid metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: Two novel regulatory mechanisms of LDL receptor (LDLR) intracellular trafficking have been described. The "COMMD/CCDC22/CCDC93" and "Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue" complexes were found to be involved in LDLR endosomal sorting and recycling, whereas the GRP94 was shown to protect LDLR from early degradation within the hepatocyte secretory pathway...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333713/micrornas-and-lipid-metabolism
#9
Binod Aryal, Abhishek K Singh, Noemi Rotllan, Nathan Price, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Work over the past decade has identified the important role of microRNAs (miRNAS) in regulating lipoprotein metabolism and associated disorders including metabolic syndrome, obesity, and atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the most recent findings in the field, highlighting the contribution of miRNAs in controlling LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of miRNAs have emerged as important regulators of lipid metabolism, including miR-122 and miR-33...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323660/impact-of-rare-variants-in-autosomal-dominant-hypercholesterolemia-causing-genes
#10
Sebastiano Calandra, Patrizia Tarugi, Stefano Bertolini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The systematic analysis of the major candidate genes in autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH) and the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology have made possible the discovery of several rare gene variants whose pathogenic effect in most cases remains poorly defined. RECENT FINDINGS: One major advance in the field has been the adoption of a set of international guidelines for the assignment of pathogenicity to low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene variants based on the use of softwares, complemented with data available from literature and public databases...
March 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301373/rediscovering-scavenger-receptor-type-bi-surprising-new-roles-for-the-hdl-receptor
#11
Menno Hoekstra, Mary Sorci-Thomas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is classically known for its role in antiatherogenic reverse cholesterol transport as it selectively takes up cholesterol esters from HDL. Here, we have highlighted recent literature that describes novel functions for SR-BI in physiology and disease. RECENT FINDINGS: A large population-based study has revealed that patients heterozygous for the P376L mutant form of SR-BI showed significantly increased levels of plasma HDL-cholesterol and had increased risk of cardiovascular disease, demonstrating that SR-BI in humans is a significant determinant of cardiovascular disease...
March 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301372/news-on-the-molecular-regulation-and-function-of-hepatic-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-and-ldlr-related-protein-1
#12
Bart van de Sluis, Melinde Wijers, Joachim Herz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clearing of atherogenic lipoprotein particles by the liver requires hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP1). This review highlights recent studies that have expanded our understanding of the molecular regulation and metabolic functions of LDLR and LRP1 in the liver. RECENT FINDINGS: Various proteins orchestrate the intracellular trafficking of LDLR and LRP1. After internalization, the receptors are redirected via recycling endosomes to the cell surface...
March 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169871/dietary-adherence-and-cardiovascular-risk
#13
Deepak Bhatnagar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169870/the-role-of-registries-and-genetic-databases-in-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#14
Iris Kindt, Pedro Mata, Joshua W Knowles
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review how leveraging familial hypercholesterolemia registries can impact molecular genetic research and precision medicine. RECENT FINDINGS: Familial hypercholesterolemia is both much more common and more phenotypically heterogeneous than previously thought with some evidence for significant genotype to phenotype correlations. Genetic testing for familial hypercholesterolemia is becoming both more widely available and cheaper, spurring conversations about its clinical utility...
February 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169869/low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-mutational-analysis-in-diagnosis-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#15
Mafalda Bourbon, Ana C Alves, Eric J Sijbrands
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present up to date evidence on the pathogenicity of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) variants and to propose a strategy that is suitable for implementation in the clinical work-up of familial hypercholesterolaemia. RECENT FINDINGS: More than 1800 variants have been described in the LDLR gene of patients with a clinical diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia; however, less than 15% have functional evidence of pathogenicity. SUMMARY: The spectrum of variants in the LDLR identified in patients with clinical familial hypercholesterolaemia is increasing as novel variants are still being reported...
February 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157722/genotype-guided-diagnosis-in-familial-hypercholesterolemia-clinical-management-and-concerns
#16
Paul N Hopkins, Stacey R Lane
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we examine benefits and concerns associated with genetic testing in the clinical management of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). RECENT FINDINGS: Application of next-generation sequencing and other advances provide improved yield of causal mutations compared with older methods and help disclose underlying pathophysiology in many instances. Concerns regarding clinical application of genetic testing remain. SUMMARY: More widespread application of genetic testing for FH in the USA may be forthcoming...
February 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157721/complexity-of-mechanisms-among-human-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-variants
#17
Jacqueline S Dron, Robert A Hegele
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are many reports of human variants in proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) that are either gain-of-function (GOF) or loss-of-function (LOF), with downstream effects on LDL cholesterol and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, data on particular mechanisms have only been minimally curated. RECENT FINDINGS: GOF variants are individually ultrarare, affect all domains of the protein, act to reduce LDL receptor expression through several mechanisms, are a minor cause of familial hypercholesterolemia, have been reported mainly within families, have variable LDL cholesterol-raising effects, and are associated with increased CVD risk mainly through observational studies in families and small cohorts...
February 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272158/the-onward-march-of-pcsk9-inhibition
#18
Catrin A Higgins, Alan Rees
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272157/atherosclerosis-cell-biology-and-lipoproteins-focus-on-epigenetic-modification-and-macrophage-biology
#19
Elena Ferrari, Esther Lutgens, Christian Weber, Norbert Gerdes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272156/emerging-role-of-notch-1-signaling-in-brown-adipogenesis
#20
Dominic S Ng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
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