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Katsiaryna Bykov, Murray A Mittleman, Robert J Glynn, Sebastian Schneeweiss, Joshua J Gagne
BACKGROUND: The case-crossover design may be useful for evaluating the clinical impact of drug-drug interactions in electronic healthcare data; however, experience with the design in this context is limited. METHODS: Using US healthcare claims data (1994-2013), we evaluated two examples of interacting drugs with prior evidence of harm: (1) cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4-metabolized statins + clarithromycin or erythromycin and rhabdomyolysis; and (2) clopidogrel + fluoxetine or fluvoxamine and ischemic events...
November 14, 2018: Epidemiology
Toshiko Kato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Epidemiology
Nan van Geloven, Olaf M Dekkers, Saskia le Cessie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Epidemiology
Mark Lubinsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2018: Epidemiology
Fay H Johnston, Farhad Salimi, Grant J Williamson, Sarah B Henderson, Jiayun Yao, Martine Dennekamp, Karen Smith, Michael J Abramson, Geoffrey G Morgan
BACKGROUND: Ambulance data provide a useful source of population-based and spatiotemporally resolved information for assessing health impacts of air pollution in non-hospital settings. We used the clinical records of paramedics to quantify associations between PM2.5 and diabetic, cardiovascular, and respiratory conditions commonly managed by those responding to calls for emergency ambulance services. METHODS: We evaluated 394,217 paramedic assessments from three states in Southeastern Australia (population 13...
October 16, 2018: Epidemiology
Kayoko Shioda, Cynthia Schuck-Paim, Robert J Taylor, Roger Lustig, Lone Simonsen, Joshua L Warren, Daniel M Weinberger
BACKGROUND: The synthetic control model is a powerful tool to quantify the population-level impact of vaccines because it can adjust for trends unrelated to vaccination using a composite of control diseases. Because vaccine impact studies are often conducted using smaller, subnational datasets, we evaluated the performance of synthetic control models with sparse time series data. To obtain more robust estimates of vaccine impacts from noisy time series, we proposed a possible alternative approach, "STL+PCA" method (seasonal-trend decomposition plus principal component analysis), which first extracts smoothed trends from the control time series and uses them to adjust the outcome...
October 16, 2018: Epidemiology
Samantha S M Drover, Gro D Villanger, Heidi Aase, Thea S Skogheim, Matthew P Longnecker, R Thomas Zoeller, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Gun P Knudsen, Pål Zeiner, Stephanie M Engel
BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder in children, yet its etiology is poorly understood. Early thyroid hormone disruption may contribute to the development of ADHD. Disrupted maternal thyroid hormone function has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Among newborns, early-treated congenital hypothyroidism has been consistently associated with later cognitive deficits. METHODS: We systematically reviewed literature on the association between maternal or neonatal thyroid hormones and ADHD diagnosis or symptoms...
October 5, 2018: Epidemiology
Martha M Werler, Samantha E Parker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: Epidemiology
Michelle C Turner, Esther Gracia-Lavedan, Franco Momoli, Chelsea E Langer, Gemma Castaño-Vinyals, Michael Kundi, Milena Maule, Franco Merletti, Siegal Sadetzki, Roel Vermeulen, Alex Albert, Juan Alguacil, Nuria Aragones, Francesc Badia, Revital Bruchim, Gema Carretero, Noriko Kojimahara, Brigitte Lacour, Maria Morales-Suarez-Varela, Katja Radon, Thomas Remen, Tobias Weinmann, Naohito Yamaguchi, Elisabeth Cardis
BACKGROUND: MOBI-Kids is a 14-country case-control study designed to investigate the potential effects of electromagnetic field exposure from mobile telecommunications devices on brain tumor risk in children and young adults conducted from 2010-2016. This work describes differences in cellular telephone use and personal characteristics among interviewed participants and refusers responding to a brief non-respondent questionnaire. It also assesses the potential impact of non-participation selection bias on study findings...
October 1, 2018: Epidemiology
Nicholas P Deputy, Andrea J Sharma, Jennifer M Bombard, Timothy L Lash, Laura A Schieve, Usha Ramakrishnan, Aryeh D Stein, Michael Nyland-Funke, Pricila Mullachery, Erica Lee
BACKGROUND: The 2003 revision of the US Standard Certificate of Live Birth (birth certificate) and Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) are important for maternal weight research and surveillance. We examined quality of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, and component variables from these sources. METHODS: Data are from a PRAMS data quality improvement study among a subset of New York City and Vermont respondents in 2009...
October 1, 2018: Epidemiology
Humberto Parada, Xuezheng Sun, Chiu-Kit Tse, Andrew F Olshan, Melissa A Troester
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the impact of lifestyle patterns on survival following breast cancer. We aimed to identify distinct lifestyle patterns based on five behavior/dietary exposures among a population-based sample of women diagnosed with breast cancer, and to examine their association with subsequent survival. METHODS: In the Carolina Breast Cancer Study Phases I/II, we interviewed 1,808 women aged 20-74 following diagnosis of invasive breast cancer...
October 1, 2018: Epidemiology
Stephen S Francis, Gary M Shaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: Epidemiology
Joseph A Delaney, Robin M Nance, Bridget M Whitney, Heidi M Crane, Jessica Williams-Nguyen, Mathew J Feinstein, Robert C Kaplan, David B Hanna, Matthew J Budoff, Daniel R Drozd, Greer Burkholder, Michael J Mugavero, William C Mathews, Richard D Moore, Joseph J Eron, Peter W Hunt, Elvin Geng, Michael S Saag, Mari M Kitahata, Susan R Heckbert
BACKGROUND: People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at risk of increased myocardial infarction (MI). Cumulative HIV viral load (VL) has been proposed as a better measure of HIV inflammation than other measures of VL, like baseline VL, but its associations with MI are not known. METHODS: The multi-site Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) cohort includes clinical data and centrally adjudicated MI with distinction between atheroembolic MI (type 1) and MI related to supply-demand mismatch (type 2)...
September 28, 2018: Epidemiology
Paul Bryde Axelsson, Tine Dalsgaard Clausen, Anne Helby Petersen, Ida Hageman, Anja Pinborg, Lars Vedel Kessing, Thomas Bergholt, Steen Christian Rasmussen, Niels Keiding, Ellen Christine Leth Løkkegaard
BACKGROUND: Hypotheses concerning adverse effects of changes in microbiota have received much recent attention, but unobserved confounding makes them difficult to test. We investigated whether surrogate markers for potential adverse microbiota changes in infancy affected autism risk, addressing unobserved confounding using a sibling study design. METHODS: This is a population-based, prospective cohort study including all singleton live births in Denmark from 1997 to 2010...
September 28, 2018: Epidemiology
Katie M O'Brien, Alexandra J White, Dale P Sandler, Brian P Jackson, Margaret R Karagas, Clarice R Weinberg
BACKGROUND: Exposure to trace elements may affect health, including breast cancer risk. Trace element levels in toenails are potentially useful biomarkers of exposure, but their reliability is not established. We assessed the reproducibility of toenail element concentrations over time and whether concentrations change following a breast cancer diagnosis. METHODS: We assessed trace element levels in toenails collected at two time points from 221 women (111 with and 110 without an intervening breast cancer diagnosis)...
September 25, 2018: Epidemiology
Michael A Webster-Clark, Hanna K Sanoff, Til Stürmer, Sharon Peacock Hinton, Jennifer L Lund
BACKGROUND: Methods developed to estimate intervention effects in external target populations assume that all important effect measure modifiers have been identified and appropriately modeled. Propensity score-based diagnostics can be used to assess the plausibility of these assumptions for weighting methods. METHODS: We demonstrate the use of these diagnostics when assessing the transportability of treatment effects from the standard of care for metastatic colorectal cancer control arm in a phase III trial (HORIZON III) to a target population of 1,942 Medicare beneficiaries aged 65+ years...
September 24, 2018: Epidemiology
Wael K Al-Delaimy, Michal Krzyzanowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 24, 2018: Epidemiology
Carlos de Mestral, Steven Bell, Emmanuel Stamatakis, G David Batty
BACKGROUND: For the same quantity of cigarettes smoked, relative to more affluent people, socioeconomically disadvantaged people have higher levels of smoking biomarkers. This may be ascribed to inhaling cigarette smoke more deeply and more frequently and/or choosing higher tar-containing brands. We investigated whether this increased tobacco load, as captured using cotinine measurements, is associated with a greater risk of mortality in lower social groups. METHODS: We used Cox proportional hazards models stratified by socioeconomic position to calculate hazard ratios in a pooled sample of 15 English and Scottish prospective cohort studies (N=81476)...
September 21, 2018: Epidemiology
Laurie Berrie, George Th Ellison, Paul D Norman, Paul D Baxter, Richard G Feltbower, Peter Wg Tennant, Mark S Gilthorpe
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the population-mixing hypothesis in childhood leukemia principally use two analytical approaches: (i) non-random selection of areas according to specific characteristics, followed by comparisons of their incidence of childhood leukemia with that expected based on the national average; and (ii) regression analyses of region-wide data to identify characteristics associated with the incidence of childhood leukemia. These approaches have generated contradictory results...
September 21, 2018: Epidemiology
Ruth H Keogh, Shaun R Seaman, Jessica K Barrett, David Taylor-Robinson, Rhonda Szczesniak
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited, chronic, progressive condition affecting around 10,000 individuals in the UK and over 70,000 worldwide. Survival in CF has improved considerably over recent decades and it is important to provide up-to-date information on patient prognosis. METHODS: The UK Cystic Fibrosis Registry is a secure centralized database, which collects annual data on almost all CF patients in the UK. Data from 43,592 annual records from 2005-2015 on 6181 individuals were used to develop a dynamic survival prediction model that provides personalized estimates of survival probabilities given a patient's current health status using 16 predictors...
September 17, 2018: Epidemiology
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