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Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590373/nature-as-a-trialist-deconstructing-the-analogy-between-mendelian-randomization-and-randomized-trials
#1
Sonja A Swanson, Henning Tiemeier, M Arfan Ikram, Miguel A Hernán
Mendelian randomization (MR) studies are often described as naturally occurring randomized trials in which genetic factors are randomly assigned by nature. Conceptualizing MR studies as randomized trials has profound implications for their design, conduct, reporting, and interpretation. For example, analytic practices that are discouraged in randomized trials should also be discouraged in MR studies.Here, we deconstruct the oft-made analogy between MR and randomized trials. We describe four key threats to the analogy between MR studies and randomized trials: (1) exchangeability is not guaranteed; (2) time zero (and therefore the time for setting eligibility criteria) is unclear; (3) the treatment assignment is often measured with error; and (4) adherence is poorly defined...
June 5, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570385/validation-of-self-reported-diagnosis-of-gestational-diabetes-at-six-weeks-postpartum
#2
Stefanie N Hinkle, Shristi Rawal, Yeyi Zhu, Jagteshwar Grewal, Paul S Albert, Cuilin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Self-report is often used in identifying gestational diabetes events in epidemiologic studies; however, validity data are limited, with little to no data on self-reported severity or treatment. METHODS: We aimed to assess the validity of self-reported gestational diabetes diagnosis and evaluate the accuracy of glucose diagnosis results and gestational diabetes treatment self-reported at 6 weeks postpartum. Data were from 82 and 83 women with and without gestational diabetes, respectively, within the prospective National Institute Child Health and Human Development Fetal Growth Studies-Singletons (2009-2013)...
May 31, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570384/team-logo-predicts-concussion-risk-lessons-in-protecting-a-vulnerable-sports-community-from-misconceived-but-highly-publicized-epidemiologic-research
#3
James M Smoliga, Gerald S Zavorsky
BACKGROUND: Observational research has linked altitude to concussion risk, but the physiologic and epidemiologic bases for this association remain questionable. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study by analyzing four seasons of NFL data from a widely used database (Concussion Watch) to determine if previous claims that altitude ≥196m reduced concussion risk were replicable and whether an arbitrary predictor variable (animal vs. non-animal team logo) was related to concussion risk...
May 31, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570386/seasonal-variation-in-exposure-to-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals
#4
Megan E Romano, Geetika Kalloo, Taylor Etzel, Joseph M Braun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574921/mediation-analysis-for-censored-survival-data-under-an-accelerated-failure-time-model
#5
Isabel R Fulcher, Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen, Paige L Williams
Recent advances in causal mediation analysis have formalized conditions for estimating direct and indirect effects in various contexts. These approaches have been extended to a number of models for survival outcomes including accelerated failure time models, which are widely used in a broad range of health applications given their intuitive interpretation. In this setting, it has been suggested that under standard assumptions, the "difference' and "product' methods produce equivalent estimates of the indirect effect of exposure on the survival outcome...
May 26, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574920/asking-too-much-of-epidemiologic-studies-the-problem-of-collider-bias-and-the-obesity-paradox
#6
Stijn Vansteelandt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574919/re-collider-bias-is-only-a-partial-explanation-for-the-obesity-paradox
#7
Vivian Viallon, Marine Dufournet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574918/response-to-can-collider-bias-fully-explain-the-obesity-paradox
#8
Matthew Sperrin, Jane Candlish, Ellena Badrick, Andrew Renehan, Iain Buchan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570383/validity-of-cardiovascular-disease-event-ascertainment-using-linkage-to-uk-hospital-records
#9
Mika Kivimäki, G David Batty, Archana Singh-Manoux, Annie Britton, Eric J Brunner, Martin J Shipley
BACKGROUND: Use of electronic health records for ascertainment of disease outcomes in large population-based studies holds much promise due to low costs, diminished study participant burden, and reduced selection bias. However, the validity of cardiovascular disease endpoints derived from electronic records is unclear. METHODS: Participants were 7860 study members of the UK Whitehall II cohort study. We compared cardiovascular disease ascertainment using linkage to the National Health Service's Hospital Episode Statistics database records (hereafter, 'HES-ascertainment') against repeated biomedical examinations - our gold-standard ascertainment method ('Whitehall-ascertainment')...
May 25, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520645/oxidative-stress-and-breast-cancer-risk-in-premenopausal-women
#10
Hazel B Nichols, Chelsea Anderson, Alexandra J White, Ginger L Milne, Dale P Sandler
BACKGROUND: Detrimental effects of oxidative stress are widely recognized, but induction of apoptosis and senescence may also have benefits for cancer prevention. Recent studies suggest oxidative stress may be associated with lower breast cancer risk before menopause. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study (N=457 cases, 910 controls) within the NIEHS Sister Study cohort of 50,884 women. Premenopausal women ages 35-54 were eligible for selection. We matched controls 2:1 to cases on age and enrollment year and were breast cancer-free at the time of the corresponding case's diagnosis...
May 17, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520644/trade-offs-of-personal-vs-more-proxy-exposure-measures-in-environmental-epidemiology
#11
Marc G Weisskopf, Thomas F Webster
The technological ability to make personal measurements of toxicant exposures is growing rapidly. While this can decrease measurement error and therefore help reduce attenuation of effect estimates, we argue that as measures of exposure or dose become more personal, threats to validity of study findings can increase in ways that more proxy measures may avoid. We use Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) to describe conditions where confounding is introduced by use of more personal measures of exposure and avoided via more proxy measures of personal exposure or target tissue dose...
May 17, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520643/risk-of-lung-cancer-mortality-in-nuclear-workers-from-internal-exposure-to-alpha-particle-emitting-radionuclides
#12
James Grellier, Will Atkinson, Philippe Bérard, Derek Bingham, Alan Birchall, Eric Blanchardon, Richard Bull, Irina Canu Guseva, Cécile Challeton-de Vathaire, Rupert Cockerill, Minh T Do, Hilde Engels, Jordi Figuerola, Adrian Foster, Luc Holmstock, Christian Hurtgen, Dominique Laurier, Matthew Puncher, Anthony E Riddell, Eric Samson, Isabelle Thierry-Chef, Margot Tirmarche, Martine Vrijheid, Elisabeth Cardis
BACKGROUND: Carcinogenic risks of internal exposures to alpha-emitters (except radon) are poorly understood. Since exposure to alpha particles-particularly through inhalation-occurs in a range of settings, understanding consequent risks is a public health priority. We aimed to quantify dose-response relationships between lung dose from alpha-emitters and lung cancer in nuclear workers. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study, nested within Belgian, French, and UK cohorts of uranium and plutonium workers...
May 17, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489717/coliphages-and-gastrointestinal-illness-in-recreational-waters-pooled-analysis-of-six-coastal-beach-cohorts
#13
Jade Benjamin-Chung, Benjamin F Arnold, Timothy J Wade, Kenneth Schiff, John F Griffith, Alfred P Dufour, Stephen B Weisberg, John M Colford
BACKGROUND: Coliphages have been proposed as indicators of fecal contamination in recreational waters because they better mimic the persistence of pathogenic viruses in the environment and wastewater treatment than fecal indicator bacteria. We estimated the association between coliphages and gastrointestinal illness and compared it to the association with culturable enterococci. METHODS: We pooled data from six prospective cohort studies that enrolled coastal beachgoers in California, Alabama, and Rhode Island...
May 9, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452827/re-integrating-complex-systems-thinking-into-epidemiologic-research
#14
Eric T Lofgren, Brandon D Marshall, Sandro Galea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452826/the-author-responds
#15
Ashley I Naimi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445248/declining-united-states-life-expectancy-a-first-look
#16
Sam Harper, Jay S Kaufman, Richard S Cooper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383301/re-readability-assessment-of-pcori-public-abstracts-in-relation-to-accessibility
#17
Joanna E Siegel, Christopher C Gayer, Jean R Slutsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383300/nevi-ambient-ultraviolet-radiation-and-thyroid-cancer-risk-a-french-prospective-study
#18
Sylvie Mesrine, Marina Kvaskoff, Thierno Bah, Lucien Wald, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault
BACKGROUND: Incidence rates have increased considerably worldwide for both differentiated thyroid cancer and cutaneous melanoma, and two-way associations between these neoplasms have been described. Whether melanoma risk factors are associated with thyroid cancer risk remains unknown. METHODS: Using Cox regression modeling, we prospectively analyzed the relationship between self-reported pigmentary traits, baseline residential ultraviolet (UV) exposure, and thyroid cancer risk in 86,960 women from the E3N cohort, followed-up over 1990-2008 through biennial questionnaires...
April 5, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358789/effort-reward-imbalance-at-work-and-incident-coronary-heart-disease-a-multi-cohort-study-of-90-164-individuals
#19
Nico Dragano, Johannes Siegrist, Solja T Nyberg, Thorsten Lunau, Eleonor I Fransson, Lars Alfredsson, Jakob B Bjorner, Marianne Borritz, Hermann Burr, Raimund Erbel, Göran Fahlén, Marcel Goldberg, Mark Hamer, Katriina Heikkilä, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Anders Knutsson, Ida E H Madsen, Martin L Nielsen, Maria Nordin, Tuula Oksanen, Jan H Pejtersen, Jaana Pentti, Reiner Rugulies, Paula Salo, Jürgen Schupp, Archana Singh-Manoux, Andrew Steptoe, Töres Theorell, Jussi Vahtera, Peter J M Westerholm, Hugo Westerlund, Marianna Virtanen, Marie Zins, G David Batty, Mika Kivimäki
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence for work stress as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is mostly based on a single measure of stressful work known as job strain, a combination of high demands and low job control. We examined whether a complementary stress measure that assesses an imbalance between efforts spent at work and rewards received predicted coronary heart disease. METHODS: This multi-cohort study (the 'IPD-Work' consortium) was based on harmonized individual-level data from 11 European prospective cohort studies...
March 27, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575895/can-collider-bias-explain-paradoxical-associations
#20
Mats Julius Stensrud, Morten Valberg, Odd O Aalen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Epidemiology
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