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Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893489/military-service-and-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-in-a-population-based-cohort-extended-follow-up-1979-2011
#1
Jacquelyn J Cragg, Norman J Johnson, Marc G Weisskopf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893488/pregnancy-and-hiv-disease-progression-in-an-early-infection-cohort-from-five-african-countries
#2
Kristin M Wall, Wasima Rida, Lisa Haddad, Anatoli Kamali, Etienne Karita, Shabir Lakhi, William Kilembe, Susan Allen, Mubiana Inambao, Annie H Yang, Mary H Latka, Omu Anzala, Eduard J Sanders, Linda-Gail Bekker, Vinodh A Edward, Matt A Price
BACKGROUND: Understanding associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression is critical to providing appropriate counseling and care to HIV-positive women. METHODS: From 2006-2011, women under age 40 with incident HIV infection were enrolled in an early HIV infection cohort in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Time-dependent Cox models evaluated associations between pregnancy and HIV disease progression. Clinical progression was defined as a single CD4 measurement <200 cells/μL, percent CD4 <14%, or category C event, with censoring at antiretroviral (ART) initiation for reasons other than prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT)...
November 22, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820716/research-letter-an-r-package-for-g-estimation-of-structural-nested-mean-models
#3
Michael P Wallace, Erica E M Moodie, David A Stephens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787291/dogmatists-cannot-learn
#4
Stephen R Cole, Haitao Chu, M Alan Brookhart, Jess K Edwards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787290/economic-mobility-and-the-mortality-crisis-among-u-s-middle-aged-whites
#5
Rourke L O'Brien, Atheendar S Venkataramani, Alexander C Tsai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787289/using-the-lorenz-curve-to-assess-the-feasibility-of-targeted-screening-for-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#6
Shao-Hua Xie, Jesper Lagergren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779498/bayesian-approaches-to-racial-disparities-in-hiv-risk-estimation-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#7
Neal D Goldstein, Igor Burstyn, Seth L Welles
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be overrepresented for new HIV infections compared to non-MSM. This disparity becomes even more alarming when considering racial groups. We describe the race-specific effects in HIV prevalence among MSM relative to non-MSM and explore the causes of disagreement among estimates. METHODS: We used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative longitudinal survey conducted in the U...
October 21, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779497/variable-selection-for-confounding-adjustment-in-high-dimensional-covariate-spaces-when-analyzing-healthcare-databases
#8
Sebastian Schneeweiss, Wesley Eddings, Robert J Glynn, Elisabetta Patorno, Jeremy Rassen, Jessica M Franklin
BACKGROUND: Data-adaptive approaches to confounding adjustment may improve performance beyond expert knowledge when analyzing electronic healthcare databases and have additional practical advantages for analyzing multiple databases in rapid cycles. Improvements seemed possible if outcome predictors were reliably identified empirically and adjusted. METHODS: In five cohort studies from diverse healthcare databases, we implemented a base-case high-dimensional propensity score algorithm with propensity score decile-adjusted outcome models to estimate treatment effects among prescription drug initiators...
October 21, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779496/reducing-hiv-racial-ethnic-disparities-what-s-good-data-got-to-do-with-it
#9
Chanelle J Howe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775954/the-trend-in-trend-research-design-for-causal-inference
#10
Xinyao Ji, Dylan S Small, Charles E Leonard, Sean Hennessy
Cohort studies can be biased by unmeasured confounding. We propose a hybrid ecologic-epidemiologic design called the trend-in-trend design, which requires a strong time-trend in exposure, but is unbiased unless there are unmeasured factors affecting outcome for which there are time-trends in prevalence that are correlated with time-trends in exposure across strata with different exposure trends. Thus, the conditions under which the trend-in-trend study is biased are a subset of those under which a cohort study is biased...
October 20, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775953/daylight-savings-time-transitions-and-the-incidence-rate-of-unipolar-depressive-episodes
#11
Bertel T Hansen, Kim M Sønderskov, Ida Hageman, Peter T Dinesen, Søren D Østergaard
BACKGROUND: Daylight savings time transitions affect approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide. Prior studies have documented associations between daylight savings time transitions and adverse health outcomes, but it remains unknown whether they also cause an increase in the incidence rate of depressive episodes. This seems likely because daylight savings time transitions affect circadian rhythms, which are implicated in the etiology of depressive disorder. Therefore, we investigated the effects of daylight savings time transitions on the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes...
October 20, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906776/the-authors-respond
#12
Matthew Cefalu, Francesca Dominici
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902535/urinary-cadmium-and-mammographic-density
#13
Scott V Adams, John M Hampton, Amy Trentham-Dietz, Ronald E Gangnon, Martin M Shafer, Polly A Newcomb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902534/the-authors-respond
#14
Hideto Takahashi, Tetsuya Ohira, Akira Ohtsuru, Hiroki Shimura, Kumiko Tsuboi, Seiji Yasumura, Koichi Tanigawa, Sanae Midorikawa, Satoru Suzuki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768623/spatial-prediction-of-coxiella-burnetii-outbreak-exposure-via-notified-case-counts-in-a-dose-response-model
#15
Russell J Brooke, Mirjam E E Kretzschmar, Volker Hackert, Christian J P A Hoebe, Peter F M Teunis, Lance A Waller
We develop a novel approach to study an outbreak of Q fever in 2009 in the Netherlands by combining a human dose-response model with geostatistics prediction to relate probability of infection and associated probability of illness to an effective dose of Coxiella burnetii. The spatial distribution of the 220 notified cases in the at-risk population are translated into a smooth spatial field of dose. Based on these symptomatic cases, the dose-response model predicts a median of 611 asymptomatic infections (95% range: 410, 1,084) for the 220 reported symptomatic cases in the at-risk population; 2...
January 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755278/brief-report-low-level-mercury-exposure-and-risk-of-asthma-in-school-age-children
#16
Joachim Heinrich, Feng Guo, Mary Jo Trepka
BACKGROUND: Although mercury exposure has been associated with several adverse health effects, the association with childhood asthma is under investigated. Therefore, we explore the association between mercury and childhood asthma in a population with low mercury levels. METHODS: Mercury levels were measured in blood and urine in 1,056 children ages 5-14 years. In addition to including questions about asthma diagnosis and wheezing, the study measured bronchial hyperresponsiveness and allergic sensitization to common aeroallergens...
January 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755277/commentary-some-thoughts-on-consequential-epidemiology-and-causal-architecture
#17
Charles Poole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755276/commentary-the-limits-of-risk-factors-revisited-is-it-time-for-a-causal-architecture-approach
#18
Katherine M Keyes, Sandro Galea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749700/sensitivity-analyses-for-robust-causal-inference-from-mendelian-randomization-analyses-with-multiple-genetic-variants
#19
Stephen Burgess, Jack Bowden, Tove Fall, Erik Ingelsson, Simon G Thompson
Mendelian randomization investigations are becoming more powerful and simpler to perform, due to the increasing size and coverage of genome-wide association studies and the increasing availability of summarized data on genetic associations with risk factors and disease outcomes. However, when using multiple genetic variants from different gene regions in a Mendelian randomization analysis, it is highly implausible that all the genetic variants satisfy the instrumental variable assumptions. This means that a simple instrumental variable analysis alone should not be relied on to give a causal conclusion...
January 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748685/temporally-varying-relative-risks-for-infectious-diseases-implications-for-infectious-disease-control
#20
Edward Goldstein, Virginia E Pitzer, Justin J O'Hagan, Marc Lipsitch
Risks for disease in some population groups relative to others (relative risks) are usually considered to be consistent over time, although they are often modified by other, nontemporal factors. For infectious diseases, in which overall incidence often varies substantially over time, the patterns of temporal changes in relative risks can inform our understanding of basic epidemiologic questions. For example, recent studies suggest that temporal changes in relative risks of infection over the course of an epidemic cycle can both be used to identify population groups that drive infectious disease outbreaks, and help elucidate differences in the effect of vaccination against infection (that is relevant to transmission control) compared with its effect against disease episodes (that reflects individual protection)...
January 2017: Epidemiology
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