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Rolina D van Gaalen, Jan van de Kassteele, Susan J M Hahné, Patricia Bruijning-Verhagen, Jacco Wallinga
Rotavirus is a common viral infection among young children. As in many countries, the infection dynamics of rotavirus in the Netherlands are characterized by an annual winter peak, which was notably low in 2014. Previous work suggested an association between weather factors and both rotavirus transmission and incidence. From epidemic theory, we know that the proportion of susceptible individuals can affect disease transmission. We investigated how these factors are associated with rotavirus transmission in the Netherlands, and their impact on rotavirus transmission in 2014...
March 22, 2017: Epidemiology
Zach Shahn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Epidemiology
Joanna Lewis, Peter J White
BACKGROUND: Understanding patterns of chlamydia prevalence is important for addressing inequalities and planning cost-effective control programs. Population-based surveys are costly; the best data for England come from the Natsal national surveys, which are only available once per decade, and are nationally representative but not powered to compare prevalence in different localities. Prevalence estimates at finer spatial and temporal scales are required. METHODS: We present a method for estimating local prevalence by modeling the infection, testing and treatment processes...
March 15, 2017: Epidemiology
Colin L Soskolne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Epidemiology
Yen-Tsung Huang, Hwai-I Yang
BACKGROUND: Mediation analyses have been a popular approach to investigate the effect of an exposure on an outcome through a mediator. Mediation models with multiple mediators have been proposed for continuous and dichotomous outcomes. However, development of multi-mediator models for survival outcomes is still limited. METHODS: We present methods for multi-mediator analyses using three survival models: Aalen additive hazard models, Cox proportional hazard models, and semiparametric probit models...
March 14, 2017: Epidemiology
Jacqueline L Hollada, Mary Zide, William Speier, Debra L Roter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: Epidemiology
Daniel Westreich
Interest in implementation science and recent calls for consequentialist epidemiology urge epidemiologists to produce work more immediately applicable to public health practice. A clear vocabulary for such approaches is lacking. Here, we present a potential taxonomy of causal effects, distinguishing between "exposure effects" more relevant to patients and individuals; and "population intervention effects" more relevant to public health policy. We discuss this range of effects using figures and a simple numerical example...
March 8, 2017: Epidemiology
Rena R Jones, Peter J Weyer, Curt T Dellavalle, Kim Robien, Kenneth P Cantor, Stuart Krasner, Laura E Beane Freeman, Mary H Ward
BACKGROUND: N-nitroso compounds formed endogenously after nitrate/nitrite ingestion are animal renal carcinogens. Previous epidemiologic studies of drinking water nitrate did not evaluate other potentially toxic water contaminants, including the suspected renal carcinogen chloroform. METHODS: In a cohort of postmenopausal women in Iowa (1986-2010), we used historical measurements to estimate long-term average concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and disinfection byproducts (DBP) in public water supplies...
March 1, 2017: Epidemiology
Scott A McDonald, Michiel van Boven, Jacco Wallinga
BACKGROUND: Estimation of the national-level incidence of seasonal influenza is notoriously challenging. Surveillance of influenza-like illness is carried out in many countries using a variety of data sources, and several methods have been developed to estimate influenza incidence. Our aim was to obtain maximally informed estimates of the proportion of influenza-like illness that is true influenza using all available data. METHODS: We combined data on weekly general practice sentinel surveillance consultation rates for influenza-like illness, virologic testing of sampled patients with influenza-like illness, and positive laboratory tests for influenza and other pathogens, applying Bayesian evidence synthesis to estimate the positive predictive value (PPV) of influenza-like illness as a test for influenza virus infection...
March 1, 2017: Epidemiology
Mats Julius Stensrud, Morten Valberg, Kjetil Røysland, Odd Olai Aalen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 24, 2017: Epidemiology
Charles Poole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Epidemiology
Katherine Keyes, Sandro Galea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Epidemiology
Scott Weichenthal, Ryan Kulka, Eric Lavigne, David van Rijswijk, Michael Brauer, Paul J Villeneuve, Dave Stieb, Lawrence Joseph, Rick T Burnett
BACKGROUND: Biomass burning is an important source of ambient fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) in many regions of the world. METHODS: We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study of ambient PM2.5 and hospital admissions for myocardial infarction (MI) in three regions of British Columbia, Canada. Daily hospital admission data were collected between 2008-2015 and PM2.5 data were collected from fixed-site monitors. We used conditional logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) describing the association between PM2...
February 3, 2017: Epidemiology
Chelsea Canan, Catherine Lesko, Bryan Lau
Instrumental variables (IV) are used to draw causal conclusions about the effect of exposure E on outcome Y in the presence of unmeasured confounders. IV assumptions have been well described: 1) IV affects E; 2) IV affects Y only through E; 3) IV shares no common cause with Y. Even when these assumptions are met, biased effect estimates can result if selection bias allows a non-causal path from E to Y. We demonstrate the presence of bias in IV analyses on a sample from a simulated dataset, where selection into the sample was a collider on a non-causal path from E to Y...
February 3, 2017: Epidemiology
Jin-Liern Hong, Michele Jonsson Funk, John Buse, Louise M Henderson, Jennifer L Lund, Virginia Pate, Til Stürmer
BACKGROUND: Several observational studies have reported that metformin may be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer; however, many of these studies were affected by time-related biases such as immortal time bias and time-window bias. This study aimed to examine the relative risk of breast cancer for older women initiating metformin versus sulfonylureas while avoiding such biases. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of women aged 65+ who initiated monotherapy with metformin (n=45,900) or sulfonylureas (n=13,904) and were free of cancer and renal disease within 6 months before treatment initiation using 2007-2012 US Medicare claims data...
February 3, 2017: Epidemiology
David B Richardson, Maria C Mirabell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Epidemiology
Xu Han, ChienWei Chiang, Charles E Leonard, Warren B Bilker, Colleen M Brensinger, Lang Li, Sean Hennessy
BACKGROUND: Drug-drug interactions with insulin secretagogues are associated with increased risk of serious hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to systematically screen for drugs that interact with the five most commonly used secretagogues-glipizide, glyburide, glimepiride, repaglinide, and nateglinide-to cause serious hypoglycemia. METHODS: We screened 400 drugs frequently co-prescribed with the secretagogues as candidate interacting precipitants...
February 1, 2017: Epidemiology
Samy Suissa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Epidemiology
Tyler J VanderWeele
The author proposes that epidemiologic studies should more often assess the associations of a single exposure with multiple outcomes simultaneously. Such "outcome-wide epidemiology" will be especially important for exposures that may be beneficial for some outcomes but harmful for others. Outcome-wide epidemiology may also be helpful in prioritizing public health recommendations. Methodologically, the conduct of outcome-wide epidemiology will generally be more straightforward than recent proposals for exposure-wide epidemiologic studies, in which the associations between a single outcome and many exposures are assessed simultaneously...
February 1, 2017: Epidemiology
Catherine M Bulka, Matthew A Davis, Margaret R Karagas, Habibul Ahsan, Maria Argos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Epidemiology
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