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Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410350/education-socioeconomic-status-and-intelligence-in-childhood-and-stroke-risk-in-later-life-a-meta-analysis
#1
Caroline A McHutchison, Ellen V Backhouse, Vera Cvoro, Susan D Shenkin, Joanna M Wardlaw
BACKGROUND: Stroke is the second most common cause of death, and a common cause of dependency and dementia. Adult vascular risk factors and socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with increased risk, but less is known about early life risk factors, such as education, childhood SES, or intelligence (IQ). METHODS: We comprehensively searched Medline, PsycINFO and EMBASE from inception to November 2015. We included all studies reporting data on >50 strokes examining childhood/premorbid IQ, SES, and education...
April 7, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394875/graphical-tools-for-monitoring-inequality-the-beauty-can-lie-in-the-details
#2
Gustav Kjellsson, Dennis Petrie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394874/a-typology-for-charting-socioeconomic-mortality-gradients-go-south-west
#3
Tony Blakely, George Disney, June Atkinson, Andrea Teng, Johan P Mackenbach
BACKGROUND: Holistic depiction of time-trends in average mortality rates, and absolute and relative inequalities, is challenging. METHODS: We outline a typology for situations with falling average mortality rates (m↓; e.g. cardiovascular disease), rates stable over time (m-; e.g. some cancers), and increasing average mortality rates (m↑; e.g. suicide in some contexts). If we consider inequality trends on both the absolute (a) and relative (r) scales, there are 13 possible combination of m, a, and r trends over time...
April 5, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383301/re-readability-assessment-of-pcori-public-abstracts-in-relation-to-accessibility
#4
Joanna E Siegel, Christopher C Gayer, Jean R Slutsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383300/nevi-ambient-ultraviolet-radiation-and-thyroid-cancer-risk-a-french-prospective-study
#5
Sylvie Mesrine, Marina Kvaskoff, Thierno Bah, Lucien Wald, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault
BACKGROUND: Incidence rates have increased considerably worldwide for both differentiated thyroid cancer and cutaneous melanoma, and two-way associations between these neoplasms have been described. Whether melanoma risk factors are associated with thyroid cancer risk remains unknown. METHODS: Using Cox regression modeling, we prospectively analyzed the relationship between self-reported pigmentary traits, baseline residential ultraviolet (UV) exposure, and thyroid cancer risk in 86,960 women from the E3N cohort, followed-up over 1990-2008 through biennial questionnaires...
April 5, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362642/assessment-of-virus-interference-in-a-test-negative-study-of-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness
#6
Shuo Feng, Ashley L Fowlkes, Andrea Steffens, Lyn Finelli, Benjamin J Cowling
BACKGROUND: The observational test-negative study design is used to estimate vaccine effectiveness against influenza virus infection. An important assumption of the test-negative design is that vaccination does not affect the risk of infection with another virus. If such virus interference occurred, detection of other respiratory viruses would be more common among influenza vaccine recipients and vaccine effectiveness estimates could differ. We evaluated the potential for virus interference using data from the Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project...
March 30, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368944/estimating-the-effect-of-targeted-screening-strategies-an-application-to-colonoscopy-and-colorectal-cancer
#7
Duncan C Thomas
Screening behavior depends on previous screening history and family members' behaviors, which can act as both confounders and intermediate variables on a causal pathway from screening to disease risk. Conventional analyses that adjust for these variables can lead to incorrect inferences about the causal effect of screening if high risk individuals are more likely to be screened. Analyzing the data in a manner that treats screening as randomized conditional on covariates allows causal parameters to be estimated; inverse probability weighting based on propensity of exposure scores is one such method considered here...
March 29, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368943/the-impact-of-forced-migration-on-mortality-a-cohort-study-of-242-075-finns-from-1939-2010
#8
Jari Haukka, Jaana Suvisaari, Matti Sarvimäki, Pekka Martikainen
BACKGROUND: The stresses and life changes associated with migration may have harmful long-term health effects, especially for mental health. These effects are exceedingly difficult to establish, because migrants are typically a highly selected group. METHODS: We examined the impact of migration on health using 'naturally occurring' historical events. In this paper, we use the forced migration of 11% of the Finnish population after WWII as such a natural experiment...
March 29, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368942/what-does-precision-medicine-have-to-say-about-prevention
#9
Duncan C Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358789/effort-reward-imbalance-at-work-and-incident-coronary-heart-disease-a-multi-cohort-study-of-90-164-individuals
#10
Nico Dragano, Johannes Siegrist, Solja T Nyberg, Thorsten Lunau, Eleonor I Fransson, Lars Alfredsson, Jakob B Bjorner, Marianne Borritz, Hermann Burr, Raimund Erbel, Göran Fahlén, Marcel Goldberg, Mark Hamer, Katriina Heikkilä, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Anders Knutsson, Ida E H Madsen, Martin L Nielsen, Maria Nordin, Tuula Oksanen, Jan H Pejtersen, Jaana Pentti, Reiner Rugulies, Paula Salo, Jürgen Schupp, Archana Singh-Manoux, Andrew Steptoe, Töres Theorell, Jussi Vahtera, Peter J M Westerholm, Hugo Westerlund, Marianna Virtanen, Marie Zins, G David Batty, Mika Kivimäki
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence for work stress as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is mostly based on a single measure of stressful work known as job strain, a combination of high demands and low job control. We examined whether a complementary stress measure that assesses an imbalance between efforts spent at work and rewards received predicted coronary heart disease. METHODS: This multi-cohort study (the 'IPD-Work' consortium) was based on harmonized individual-level data from 11 European prospective cohort studies...
March 27, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346267/generalizing-study-results-a-potential-outcomes-perspective
#11
Catherine R Lesko, Ashley L Buchanan, Daniel Westreich, Jessie K Edwards, Michael G Hudgens, Stephen R Cole
Great care is taken in epidemiologic studies to ensure the internal validity of causal effect estimates; however, external validity has received considerably less attention. When the study sample is not a random sample of the target population, the sample average treatment effect, even if internally valid, cannot usually be expected to equal the average treatment effect in the target population. The utility of an effect estimate for planning purposes and decision making will depend on the degree of departure from the true causal effect in the target population due to problems with both internal and external validity...
March 24, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346266/-all-generalizations-are-dangerous-even-this-one-alexandre-dumas
#12
Laura B Balzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346271/primary-and-repeat-cesarean-deliveries-a-population-based-study-in-the-united-states-1979-2010
#13
Cande V Ananth, Alexander M Friedman, Katherine M Keyes, Jessica A Lavery, Ava Hamilton, Jason D Wright
BACKGROUND: Despite the temporal increase in cesarean deliveries, the extent to which maternal age, period, and maternal birth cohorts may have contributed to these trends remains unknown. METHODS: We performed an analysis of 123 million singleton deliveries in the US (1979-2010). We estimated rate ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for primary and repeat cesarean deliveries. We examined changes in cesarean rates with weighted Poisson regression models across three time-scales: maternal age, year of delivery, and birth cohort (mother's birth year)...
March 23, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346270/repair-of-partly-misspecified-causal-diagrams
#14
Chris J Oates, Jessica Kasza, Julie A Simpson, Andrew B Forbes
Errors in causal diagrams elicited from experts can lead to the omission of important confounding variables from adjustment sets and render causal inferences invalid. In this report a novel method is presented that repairs a misspecified causal diagram through the addition of edges. These edges are determined using a data-driven approach designed to provide improved statistical efficiency relative to de novo structure learning methods. Our main assumption is that the expert is "directionally informed", meaning that "false" edges provided by the expert would not create cycles if added to the "true" causal diagram...
March 23, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346269/cohort-variation-in-selection-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-selected-birth-defects-among-males
#15
Tim A Bruckner, Deborah Karasek, Wei Yang, Gary M Shaw, Ralph A Catalano
BACKGROUND: The literature theorizes, but does not test, that variation over time in selective loss in utero affects the observed count of live-born birth defects cases. We test the hypothesis that the risk of birth defects among live-born males varies inversely with the strength of selection against males in utero. METHODS: We identified a subset of six birth defect phenotypes among males from the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, an active surveillance system for over 490,000 male singletons born in eight California counties from 1986 through 2004...
March 23, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346268/long-term-recall-of-pregnancy-related-events
#16
Helen B Chin, Donna D Baird, D Robert McConnaughey, Clarice R Weinberg, Allen J Wilcox, Anne Marie Jukic
BACKGROUND: Early-life factors can be associated with future health outcomes and are often measured by maternal recall. METHODS: We used data from the North Carolina Early Pregnancy Study and Follow-up to characterize long-term maternal recall. We used data from the Early Pregnancy Study as the gold standard to evaluate the accuracy of pre-pregnancy weight, early pregnancy behaviors, symptoms and duration of pregnancy, and child's birthweight reported at follow-up, for 109 women whose study pregnancies had resulted in a live birth...
March 23, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346265/the-authors-respond
#17
Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Miguel A Hernán
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346264/re-biases-in-randomized-trials-a-conversation-between-trialists-and-epidemiologists
#18
Tomohiro Shinozaki, Yasuhiro Hagiwara, Yutaka Matsuyama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333764/determinants-of-rotavirus-transmission-a-lag-non-linear-time-series-analysis
#19
Rolina D van Gaalen, Jan van de Kassteele, Susan J M Hahné, Patricia Bruijning-Verhagen, Jacco Wallinga
Rotavirus is a common viral infection among young children. As in many countries, the infection dynamics of rotavirus in the Netherlands are characterized by an annual winter peak, which was notably low in 2014. Previous work suggested an association between weather factors and both rotavirus transmission and incidence. From epidemic theory, we know that the proportion of susceptible individuals can affect disease transmission. We investigated how these factors are associated with rotavirus transmission in the Netherlands, and their impact on rotavirus transmission in 2014...
March 22, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306614/trends-in-control-of-unobserved-confounding
#20
Zach Shahn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Epidemiology
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