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Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023242/the-authors-respond
#1
Catherine R Lesko, Ashley L Buchanan, Daniel Westreich, Jessie K Edwards, Michael G Hudgens, Stephen R Cole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023241/estimating-causal-effects-of-treatment-in-a-randomized-trials-when-some-participants-only-partially-adhere
#2
Ian Shrier, Robert W Platt, Russell J Steele, Mireille Schnitzer
The intention-to-treat analysis evaluates the causal effect of treatment assignment in a randomized controlled trial; however, participants do not always adhere to assigned treatment and the intention to treat effect may differ from the effect of treatment receipt. Although more recent adherence-based methods assess a well-defined causal effect of receiving treatment, adherence is assumed to be dichotomized as all or none. This approach can lack precision in the real world because adherence is a complex and heterogeneous phenomenon...
October 11, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023240/correspondence-between-results-and-aims-of-funding-support-in-epidemiology-papers
#3
Timothy L Lash, Jay S Kaufman, Miguel A Hernán
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023239/re-generalizing-study-results-a-potential-outcomes-perspective
#4
Anders Huitfeldt, Mats J Stensrud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991003/site-specific-solid-cancer-mortality-following-exposure-to-ionizing-radiation-a-cohort-study-of-workers-inworks
#5
David B Richardson, Elisabeth Cardis, Robert D Daniels, Michael Gillies, Richard Haylock, Klervi Leuraud, Dominique Laurier, Monika Moissonnier, Mary K Schubauer-Berigan, Isabelle Thierry-Chef, Ausrele Kesminiene
BACKGROUND: There is considerable scientific interest in associations between protracted low-dose exposure to ionizing radiation and the occurrence of specific types of cancer. METHODS: Associations between ionizing radiation and site-specific solid cancer mortality were examined among 308,297 nuclear workers employed in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Workers were monitored for external radiation exposure and follow-up encompassed 8.2 million person-years...
October 4, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991002/estimating-the-effect-of-preventable-treatment-discontinuation-on-health-outcomes
#6
M A Brookhart, D Reams, P J Dluzniewski, A Kshirsagar, L Walsh, B D Bradbury
BACKGROUND: There is increased interest in studying the effects of medication adherence on health outcomes. However, if patients appropriately stop treatment because of side effects and treatment failure, it is neither possible nor clinically meaningful to estimate the effect of full medication adherence. METHODS: We present an analysis designed to estimate the effect of non-medical (preventable) discontinuation of cinacalcet, an oral medication approved to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with end stage renal disease on dialysis on mortality and heart failure...
October 4, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991001/using-super-learner-prediction-modeling-to-improve-high-dimensional-propensity-score-estimation
#7
Richard Wyss, Sebastian Schneeweiss, Mark van der Laan, Sam D Lendle, Cheng Ju, Jessica M Franklin
The high-dimensional propensity score is a semi-automated variable selection algorithm that can supplement expert knowledge to improve confounding control in non-experimental medical studies utilizing electronic healthcare databases. While the algorithm can be used to generate hundreds of patient-level variables and rank them by their potential confounding impact, it remains unclear how to select the optimal number of variables for adjustment. Super Learner and collaborative targeted maximum likelihood estimation (collaborative targeted MLE) are tools for prediction modeling and causal inference that can be combined with the high-dimensional propensity score to improve propensity score estimation and confounding control in large healthcare databases...
October 4, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938236/the-authors-respond
#8
Charles E Leonard, Colleen M Brensinger, Warren B Bilker, Chienwei Chiang, Lang Li, Sean Hennessy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938235/re-biomedical-informatics-approaches-to-identifying-drug-drug-interactions-application-to-insulin-secretagogues
#9
Adrian Root, Ian Douglas, Stephen Evans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930786/the-relationship-between-2009-pandemic-h1n1-influenza-during-pregnancy-and-preterm-birth-a-population-based-cohort-study
#10
Deshayne B Fell, Robert W Platt, Olga Basso, Kumanan Wilson, Jay S Kaufman, David L Buckeridge, Jeffrey C Kwong
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of maternal influenza illness and preterm birth have yielded inconsistent results. Our objective was to assess the association between 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza during pregnancy and preterm birth in a large obstetrical population. METHODS: We linked a province-wide birth registry with health administrative databases to identify influenza-coded hospitalizations, emergency department visits, or physician visits among pregnant women during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (our proxy for clinical pH1N1 influenza illness)...
September 19, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926374/reducing-urban-violence-a-contrast-of-public-health-and-criminal-justice-approaches
#11
Magdalena Cerdá, Melissa Tracy, Katherine M Keyes
BACKGROUND: Cities are investing millions in Cure Violence, a public health approach to reduce urban violence by targeting at-risk youth and redirecting conflict to non-violent responses. The impact of such a program compared to criminal justice responses is unknown because experiments directly comparing criminal justice and public health approaches to violence prevention are infeasible with observational data. We simulated experiments to test the influence of two interventions on violence: a) Cure Violence; and b) directed police patrol in violence hot spots...
September 18, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926373/exposure-to-mobile-source-air-pollution-in-early-life-and-childhood-asthma-incidence-the-kaiser-air-pollution-and-pediatric-asthma-study
#12
Audrey Flak Pennington, Matthew J Strickland, Mitchel Klein, Xinxin Zhai, Josephine T Bates, Carolyn Drews-Botsch, Craig Hansen, Armistead G Russell, Paige E Tolbert, Lyndsey A Darrow
BACKGROUND: Early-life exposure to traffic-related air pollution exacerbates childhood asthma, but it is unclear what role it plays in asthma development. METHODS: The association between exposure to primary mobile source pollutants during pregnancy and during infancy and asthma incidence by ages 2 through 6 was examined in the Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study, a racially diverse birth cohort of 24,608 children born between 2000 and 2010 and insured by Kaiser Permanente Georgia...
September 18, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926372/attrition-bias-related-to-missing-outcome-data-a-longitudinal-simulation-study
#13
Antoine Lewin, Ruben Brondeel, Tarik Benmarhnia, Frédérique Thomas, Basile Chaix
BACKGROUND: Most longitudinal studies do not address potential selection biases due to selective attrition. Using empirical data and simulating additional attrition, we investigated the effectiveness of common approaches to handle missing outcome data from attrition in the association between individual education level and change in body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Using data from the two waves of the French RECORD Cohort Study (N = 7,172), we first examined how inverse probability weighting (IPW) and multiple imputation handled missing outcome data from attrition in the observed data (stage 1)...
September 18, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926371/residential-agricultural-pesticide-exposures-and-risks-of-spontaneous-preterm-birth
#14
Gary M Shaw, Wei Yang, Eric M Roberts, Susan E Kegley, David K Stevenson, Suzan L Carmichael, Paul B English
BACKGROUND: Pesticides exposures are aspects of the human exposome that have not been sufficiently studied for their contribution to risk for preterm birth. We investigated risks of spontaneous preterm birth from potential residential exposures to 543 individual chemicals and 69 physicochemical groupings that were applied in the San Joaquin Valley of California during the study period, 1998-2011. METHODS: The study population was derived from birth certificate data linked with Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development maternal and infant hospital discharge data...
September 18, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901974/r-function-for-additive-interaction-measures
#15
Maya B Mathur, Tyler J VanderWeele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901976/determinants-of-short-term-movement-in-a-developing-region-and-implications-for-disease-transmission
#16
Alicia N M Kraay, James Trostle, Andrew F Brouwer, William C Trujillo, Joseph N S Eisenberg
BACKGROUND: Human mobility is important for infectious disease spread. However, little is known about how travel varies by demographic groups and how this heterogeneity influences infectious disease risk. METHODS: We analyzed ten years of survey data from 15 communities in a remote but rapidly changing region in rural Ecuador where road development in the past 15-20 years has dramatically changed travel. We identify determinants of travel and incorporate them into an infection transmission model...
September 7, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901975/dietary-fiber-intake-and-risk-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-men
#17
Joanna Kaluza, Holly Harris, Alice Wallin, Anders Linden, Alicja Wolk
BACKGROUND: The limited literature suggests that dietary fiber intake from whole grains, fruits, and vegetables is negatively associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) via fiber's anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, we investigated the association between total fiber and fiber sources and risk of COPD in the population-based prospective Cohort of Swedish Men (45,058 men, aged 45-79 years) with no history of COPD at baseline. METHODS: Dietary fiber intake was assessed with a self-administered questionnaire in 1997 and was energy-adjusted using the residual method...
September 7, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885449/pandemic-influenza-a-h1n1-vaccination-and-subsequent-risk-of-type-1-diabetes-in-norway
#18
Paz Ld Ruiz, Lars C Stene, Hanne L Gulseth, German Tapia, Lill Trogstad, Inger J Bakken, Siri E Håberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885448/scientists-must-shape-our-future-as-they-have-shaped-our-past-perspective-of-the-former-us-epa-administrator
#19
Gina McCarthy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863047/aspirin-use-and-mortality-in-two-contemporary-u-s-cohorts
#20
Wen-Yi Huang, Sarah E Daugherty, Meredith S Shiels, Mark P Purdue, Neal D Freedman, Christian C Abnet, Albert R Hollenbeck, Richard B Hayes, Debra T Silverman, Sonja I Berndt
BACKGROUND: Daily aspirin use has been recommended for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, but its use for primary prevention remains controversial. METHODS: We followed 440,277 men and women from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (ages 50-71) and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (ages 55-74) for mortality for 13 years on average. Frequency of aspirin use was ascertained through self-report, and cause of death by death certificates...
August 31, 2017: Epidemiology
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