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Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767519/is-a-person-s-place-in-the-home-neighborhood
#1
Michael R Kramer, Ilana Raskind
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767518/bayesian-model-averaging-with-change-points-to-assess-the-impact-of-vaccination-and-public-health-interventions
#2
Esra Kürüm, Joshua L Warren, Cynthia Schuck-Paim, Roger Lustig, Joseph A Lewnard, Rodrigo Fuentes, Christian A W Bruhn, Robert J Taylor, Lone Simonsen, Daniel M Weinberger
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) prevent invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia. However, some low- and middle-income countries have yet to introduce PCV into their immunization programs due, in part, to lack of certainty about the potential impact. Assessing PCV benefits is challenging because specific data on pneumococcal disease is often lacking, and it can be difficult to separate the effects of factors other than the vaccine that could also affect pneumococcal disease rates...
July 31, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767517/accuracy-of-self-reported-weight-in-hispanic-latino-adults-of-the-hispanic-community-health-study-study-of-latinos-hchs-sol
#3
Lindsay Fernández-Rhodes, Whitney R Robinson, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Nora Franceschini, Sheila F Castañeda, Christina Buelna, Ashley Moncrieft, Maria Llabre, Martha L Daviglus, Qibin Qi, Anita Agarwal, Carmen R Isasi, Paul Smokowski, Penny Gordon-Larsen, Kari E North
BACKGROUND: Previous United States (U.S.) population-based studies have found that body weight may be underestimated when self-reported. However, this research may not apply to all U.S. Hispanics/Latinos, many of whom are immigrants with distinct cultural orientations to ideal body size. We assessed the data quality and accuracy of self-reported weight in a diverse, community-based, U.S. sample of primarily foreign-born Hispanic/Latino adults. METHODS: Using baseline data (2008-2011) from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), we described the difference between contemporaneous self-reported and measured current body weight (n=16,119) and used multivariate adjusted models to establish whether the observed trends in misreporting in potential predictors of inaccuracy persisted after adjustment for other predictors...
July 31, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767516/the-residential-effect-fallacy-in-neighborhood-and-health-studies-formal-definition-empirical-identification-and-correction
#4
Basile Chaix, Dustin Duncan, Julie Vallée, Anne Vernez-Moudon, Tarik Benmarhnia, Yan Kestens
BACKGROUND: Because of confounding from the urban/rural and socioeconomic organizations of territories and resulting correlation between residential and nonresidential exposures, classically estimated residential neighborhood-outcome associations capture nonresidential environment effects, overestimating residential intervention effects. Our study diagnosed and corrected this "residential" effect fallacy bias applicable to a large fraction of neighborhood and health studies. METHODS: Our empirical application investigated the effect that hypothetical interventions raising the residential number of services would have on the probability that a trip is walked...
July 31, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767515/35-year-trends-in-first-time-hospitalization-for-hip-fracture-one-year-mortality-and-the-prognostic-impact-of-comorbidity-a-danish-nationwide-cohort-study-1980-2014
#5
Alma B Pedersen, Vera Ehrenstein, Szimonetta Szépligeti, Astrid Lunde, Ylva Trolle Lagerros, Anna Westerlund, Grethe S Tell, Henrik T Sørensen
BACKGROUND: We examined trends in hip fracture incidence in Denmark from 1980 to 2014, trends in subsequent one-year mortality, and the prognostic impact of sex, age, and comorbidity. METHODS: This nationwide cohort study prospectively collected data from population-based Danish registries. We included 262,437 patients with incident hip fracture and assessed comorbidity using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). RESULTS: Despite slight increases in incidence rates (IRs) of hip fracture up to the mid-1990s, the annual IR decreased by 29% from 1980 to 2014 in women, but remained stable in men...
July 31, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767514/interrelationships-between-walkability-air-pollution-greenness-and-body-mass-index
#6
Peter James, Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou, Jaime E Hart, Rachel F Banay, Itai Kloog, Francine Laden
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have linked urban environmental factors and body mass index (BMI); however, such factors are often examined in isolation, ignoring correlations across exposures. METHODS: Using data on Nurses' Health Study participants living in the Northeastern United States in 2006, we estimated associations between neighborhood walkability (a composite of population density, street connectivity, and business access), greenness (from satellite imagery), and ambient air pollution (from satellite-based spatiotemporally resolved PM2...
July 31, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731961/joint-effect-of-alcohol-consumption-and-educational-level-on-alcohol-related-medical-events-a-danish-register-based-cohort-study
#7
Helene Nordahl Christensen, Finn Diderichsen, Ulla Arthur Hvidtfeldt, Theis Lange, Per Kragh Andersen, Merete Osler, Eva Prescott, Anne Tjønneland, Naja Hulvej Rod, Ingelise Andersen
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related mortality is more pronounced in lower than higher socioeconomic groups in Western countries. Part of the explanation is differences in drinking patterns. However, differences in vulnerability to health consequences of alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups may also play a role. We investigated the joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on the rate of alcohol-related medical events. METHODS: We pooled seven prospective cohorts from Denmark that enrolled 74 278 men and women aged 30-70 years (study period 1981 to 2009)...
July 19, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708757/increased-incidence-rate-of-trauma-and-stressor-related-disorders-in-denmark-following-the-breivik-attacks-in-norway
#8
Bertel T Hansen, Peter T Dinesen, Søren D Østergaard
BACKGROUND: On July 22, 2011, Anders Breivik killed 77 adults and children in Norway. Having recently documented increases in the incidence of trauma- and stressor-related disorders in Denmark after the 9/11 attacks, we hypothesized that the Breivik attacks-due to their geographical proximity-would be followed by even larger increases in Denmark. METHODS: Using population-based data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (1995-2012), we conducted an intervention analysis of the change in the incidence of trauma- and stressor-related disorders following the Breivik attacks...
July 13, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696997/number-of-offspring-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-men-and-women-the-role-of-shared-lifestyle-characteristics
#9
Maria C Magnus, Stamatina Iliodromiti, Debbie A Lawlor, Janet M Catov, Scott M Nelson, Abigail Fraser
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of the number of offspring and cardiovascular disease (CVD) report conflicting findings. We re-examined this association in both sexes to clarify the role of the cardiometabolic changes that women experience during pregnancy versus shared lifestyle characteristics. METHODS: We studied 180,626 women and 133,259 men participating in the UK Biobank cohort who were free of CVD at baseline. CVD events were obtained from hospital and death registers...
July 10, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692489/the-estimation-of-gestational-age-at-birth-in-database-studies
#10
Maria Eberg, Robert W Platt, Kristian B Filion
BACKGROUND: Studies on the safety of prenatal medication use require valid estimation of the pregnancy duration. However, gestational age is often incompletely recorded in administrative and clinical databases. Our objective was to compare different approaches to estimating the pregnancy duration. METHODS: Using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Hospital Episode Statistics, we examined four approaches to estimating missing gestational age: 1) generalized estimating equations for longitudinal data; 2) multiple imputation; 3) estimation based on fetal birth weight and sex; and 4) conventional approaches that assigned a fixed value (39 weeks for all or 39 weeks for full term and 35 weeks for preterm)...
July 7, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692487/the-authors-respond
#11
S R Cole, H Chu, M A Brookhart, J K Edwards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 7, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692488/re-dogmatists-cannot-learn
#12
Michael A McIsaac
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 6, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682851/sentinel-modular-program-for-propensity-score-matched-cohort-analyses-application-to-glyburide-glipizide-and-serious-hypoglycemia
#13
Meijia Zhou, Shirley V Wang, Charles E Leonard, Joshua J Gagne, Candace Fuller, Christian Hampp, Patrick Archdeacon, Sengwee Toh, Aarthi Iyer, Tiffany Siu Woodworth, Elizabeth Cavagnaro, Catherine A Panozzo, Sophia Axtman, Ryan M Carnahan, Elizabeth A Chrischilles, Sean Hennessy
Sentinel is a program sponsored by the US Food and Drug Administration to monitor the safety of medical products. We conducted a cohort assessment to evaluate the ability of the Sentinel Propensity Score Matching Tool to reproduce in an expedited fashion the known association between glyburide (versus glipizide) and serious hypoglycemia. Thirteen data partners that contribute to the Sentinel Distributed Database participated in this analysis. A pre-tested and customizable analytic program was run at each individual site...
July 4, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682850/big-data-and-population-health-focusing-on-the-health-impacts-of-the-social-physical-and-economic-environment
#14
Howard Hu, Sandro Galea, Laura Rosella, David Henry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 4, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682849/efficient-sampling-in-unmatched-case-control-studies-when-the-total-number-of-cases-and-controls-is-fixed
#15
Rolf H H Groenwold, Maarten van Smeden
In the case-control design, statistical efficiency is balanced with practical efficiency. In an unmatched case-control study of a binary exposure, in which the expected odds ratio deviates from the null (i.e. no effect) and the sum of the number of cases and controls is fixed, 1:1 sampling of cases and controls may yield suboptimal statistical efficiency. This holds especially for situations where the exposure is rare and for stronger relationships between the exposure and the outcome under study. The equations presented here may provide researchers with a simple and efficient strategy for sampling cases and controls when designing an unmatched case-control study for such a situation...
July 4, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678040/-current-limits-for-understanding-the-underlying-causal-structures-in-observational-epidemiology-reflections-on-refined-mediation-models-and-crude-data
#16
Naja Hulvej Rod, Theis Lange
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 30, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639976/re-occupational-diesel-exposure-duration-of-employment-and-lung-cancer-an-application-of-the-parametric-g-formula
#17
Matthias Möhner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639975/the-authors-respond
#18
Andreas M Neophytou, Sally Picciotto, Sadie Costello, Ellen A Eisen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574918/response-to-can-collider-bias-fully-explain-the-obesity-paradox
#19
Matthew Sperrin, Jane Candlish, Ellena Badrick, Andrew Renehan, Iain Buchan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768302/treatment-prediction-balance-and-propensity-score-adjustment
#20
Erica E M Moodie, David A Stephens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Epidemiology
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