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Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212140/rejoinder-re-some-thoughts-on-consequential-epidemiology-and-causal-architecture
#1
Charles Poole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212139/rejoinder-re-some-thoughts-on-consequential-epidemiology-and-causal-architecture
#2
Katherine Keyes, Sandro Galea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177951/biomass-burning-as-a-source-of-ambient-fine-particulate-air-pollution-and-acute-myocardial-infarction
#3
Scott Weichenthal, Ryan Kulka, Eric Lavigne, David van Rijswijk, Michael Brauer, Paul J Villeneuve, Dave Stieb, Lawrence Joseph, Rick T Burnett
BACKGROUND: Biomass burning is an important source of ambient fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) in many regions of the world. METHODS: We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study of ambient PM2.5 and hospital admissions for myocardial infarction (MI) in three regions of British Columbia, Canada. Daily hospital admission data were collected between 2008-2015 and PM2.5 data were collected from fixed-site monitors. We used conditional logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) describing the association between PM2...
February 3, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169934/instrumental-variable-analyses-and-selection-bias
#4
Chelsea Canan, Catherine Lesko, Bryan Lau
Instrumental variables (IV) are used to draw causal conclusions about the effect of exposure E on outcome Y in the presence of unmeasured confounders. IV assumptions have been well described: 1) IV affects E; 2) IV affects Y only through E; 3) IV shares no common cause with Y. Even when these assumptions are met, biased effect estimates can result if selection bias allows a non-causal path from E to Y. We demonstrate the presence of bias in IV analyses on a sample from a simulated dataset, where selection into the sample was a collider on a non-causal path from E to Y...
February 3, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166101/comparative-effect-of-initiating-metformin-versus-sulfonylureas-on-breast-cancer-risk-in-older-women
#5
Jin-Liern Hong, Michele Jonsson Funk, John Buse, Louise M Henderson, Jennifer L Lund, Virginia Pate, Til Stürmer
BACKGROUND: Several observational studies have reported that metformin may be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer; however, many of these studies were affected by time-related biases such as immortal time bias and time-window bias. This study aimed to examine the relative risk of breast cancer for older women initiating metformin versus sulfonylureas while avoiding such biases. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of women aged 65+ who initiated monotherapy with metformin (n=45,900) or sulfonylureas (n=13,904) and were free of cancer and renal disease within 6 months before treatment initiation using 2007-2012 US Medicare claims data...
February 3, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169936/steve-wing
#6
David B Richardson, Maria C Mirabell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169935/biomedical-informatics-approaches-to-identifying-drug-drug-interactions-application-to-insulin-secretagogues
#7
Xu Han, ChienWei Chiang, Charles E Leonard, Warren B Bilker, Colleen M Brensinger, Lang Li, Sean Hennessy
BACKGROUND: Drug-drug interactions with insulin secretagogues are associated with increased risk of serious hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to systematically screen for drugs that interact with the five most commonly used secretagogues-glipizide, glyburide, glimepiride, repaglinide, and nateglinide-to cause serious hypoglycemia. METHODS: We screened 400 drugs frequently co-prescribed with the secretagogues as candidate interacting precipitants...
February 1, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166103/metformin-to-treat-cancer-misstep-in-translational-research-from-observational-studies
#8
Samy Suissa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166102/outcome-wide-epidemiology
#9
Tyler J VanderWeele
The author proposes that epidemiologic studies should more often assess the associations of a single exposure with multiple outcomes simultaneously. Such "outcome-wide epidemiology" will be especially important for exposures that may be beneficial for some outcomes but harmful for others. Outcome-wide epidemiology may also be helpful in prioritizing public health recommendations. Methodologically, the conduct of outcome-wide epidemiology will generally be more straightforward than recent proposals for exposure-wide epidemiologic studies, in which the associations between a single outcome and many exposures are assessed simultaneously...
February 1, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166100/the-unintended-consequences-of-a-gluten-free-diet
#10
Catherine M Bulka, Matthew A Davis, Margaret R Karagas, Habibul Ahsan, Maria Argos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145985/left-truncation-bias-to-explain-the-protective-effect-of-smoking-on-preeclampsia-potential-but-how-plausible
#11
Alan C Kinlaw, Jessie P Buckley, Stephanie M Engel, Charles Poole, M Alan Brookhart, Alexander P Keil
BACKGROUND: An inverse association between maternal smoking and preeclampsia has been frequently observed in epidemiologic studies for several decades. In the May 2015 issue of this journal, Lisonkova and Joseph described a simulation study suggesting that bias from left truncation might explain the inverse association. The simulations were based on strong assumptions regarding the underlying mechanisms through which bias might occur. METHODS: To examine the sensitivity of the previous authors' conclusions to these assumptions, we constructed a new Monte Carlo simulation using published estimates to frame our data generating parameters...
January 31, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145984/methods-and-biology-in-an-epidemiology-of-consequence
#12
Brian W Whitcomb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145983/statistical-methods-to-study-variation-in-associations-between-food-store-availability-and-body-mass-in-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#13
Jonggyu Baek, Jana A Hirsch, Kari Moore, Loni Philip Tabb, Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutierrez, Lynda D Lisabeth, Ana V Diez-Roux, Brisa N Sánchez
Research linking characteristics of the neighborhood environment to health has relied on traditional regression methods where pre-specified distances from participant's locations or areas are used to operationalize neighborhood-level measures. Since the relevant spatial scale of neighborhood environment measures may differ across places or individuals, using pre-specified distances could result in biased association estimates or efficiency losses. We use novel hierarchical distributed lag models and data from the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) to: 1) examine whether and how the association between the availability of favorable food stores and body mass index (BMI) depends on continuous distance from participant locations (instead of traditional buffers), thus allowing us to indirectly infer the spatial scale at which this association operates; 2) examine if the spatial scale and magnitude of the association differs across six MESA sites and 3) across individuals...
January 31, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151746/matching-weights-to-simultaneously-compare-three-treatment-groups-comparison-to-three-way-matching
#14
Kazuki Yoshida, Sonia Hernández-Díaz, Daniel H Solomon, John W Jackson, Joshua J Gagne, Robert J Glynn, Jessica M Franklin
BACKGROUND: Propensity score matching is a commonly used tool. However, its use in settings with more than two treatment groups has been less frequent. We examined the performance of a recently developed propensity score weighting method in the three treatment group setting. METHODS: The matching weight method is an extension of inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) that reweights both exposed and unexposed groups to emulate a propensity score matched population...
January 30, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151745/trends-in-relative-inequalities-in-measures-of-favorable-and-adverse-population-health-outcomes
#15
Ramal Moonesinghe, Ana Penman-Aguilar, Gloria L A Beckles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151744/childhood-cognitive-ability-and-incident-dementia-the-1932-scottish-mental-survey-cohort-into-their-tenth-decade
#16
Tom C Russ, Jean Hannah, G David Batty, Christopher C Booth, Ian J Deary, John M Starr
BACKGROUND: The prevention of dementia is a global priority but its etiology is poorly understood. Early life cognitive ability has been linked to subsequent dementia risk but studies to date have been small and none has examined sex differences. METHODS: In the 1932 Scottish Mental Survey cohort, we related intelligence test scores at age 11 years in 16,370 boys and 16,097 girls (born in 1921) to incident dementia aged ≥65 years as ascertained using probabilistic linkage to electronic health records up to the age of 92 years (1231 cases in men, 2163 in women; median follow up 15 years)...
January 30, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151743/the-authors-respond
#17
D B Richardson, A Keil, Tchetgen E Tchetgen, G S Cooper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151742/patterns-of-gestational-weight-gain-in-early-pregnancy-and-risk-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Sarah C MacDonald, Lisa M Bodnar, Katherine P Himes, Jennifer A Hutcheon
BACKGROUND: Despite a call to study the effect of weight gain pattern on development of gestational diabetes mellitus, few studies have correctly adjusted for independent effects of gain after the first trimester. We used a conditional percentile approach to model the independent association between first and second trimester weight-gain trajectories and development of gestational diabetes. METHODS: We sampled women delivering singleton infants from 1998-2010 at Magee-Womens Hospital in Pittsburgh, PA (n=124,590) using a case-cohort design...
January 30, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151741/associations-between-genome-wide-gene-expression-and-ambient-nitrogen-oxides-nox
#19
Nahid Mostafavi, Jelle Vlaanderen, Lutzen Portengen, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Lars Modig, Domenico Palli, Ingvar A Bergdahl, Bert Brunekreef, Paolo Vineis, Dennie G A J Hebels, Jos C S Kleinjans, Vittorio Krogh, Gerard Hoek, Panagiotis Georgiadis, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos, Roel Vermeulen
BACKGROUND: We hypothesize that biological perturbations due to exposure to ambient air pollution are reflected in gene-expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. METHODS: We assessed the association between exposure to ambient air pollution and genome-wide gene-expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from 550 healthy subjects participating in cohorts from Italy and Sweden. Annual air pollution estimates of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at time of blood collection (1990 to 2006) were available from the ESCAPE study...
January 30, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121637/science-politics-and-health-epa-at-the-threshold
#20
Joel Schwartz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2017: Epidemiology
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