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Helene Nordahl Christensen, Finn Diderichsen, Ulla Arthur Hvidtfeldt, Theis Lange, Per Kragh Andersen, Merete Osler, Eva Prescott, Anne Tjønneland, Naja Hulvej Rod, Ingelise Andersen
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related mortality is more pronounced in lower than higher socioeconomic groups in Western countries. Part of the explanation is differences in drinking patterns. However, differences in vulnerability to health consequences of alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups may also play a role. We investigated the joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on the rate of alcohol-related medical events. METHODS: We pooled seven prospective cohorts from Denmark that enrolled 74 278 men and women aged 30-70 years (study period 1981 to 2009)...
July 19, 2017: Epidemiology
Bertel T Hansen, Peter T Dinesen, Søren D Østergaard
BACKGROUND: On July 22, 2011, Anders Breivik killed 77 adults and children in Norway. Having recently documented increases in the incidence of trauma- and stressor-related disorders in Denmark after the 9/11 attacks, we hypothesized that the Breivik attacks-due to their geographical proximity-would be followed by even larger increases in Denmark. METHODS: Using population-based data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (1995-2012), we conducted an intervention analysis of the change in the incidence of trauma- and stressor-related disorders following the Breivik attacks...
July 13, 2017: Epidemiology
Maria C Magnus, Stamatina Iliodromiti, Debbie A Lawlor, Janet M Catov, Scott M Nelson, Abigail Fraser
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of the number of offspring and cardiovascular disease (CVD) report conflicting findings. We re-examined this association in both sexes to clarify the role of the cardiometabolic changes that women experience during pregnancy versus shared lifestyle characteristics. METHODS: We studied 180,626 women and 133,259 men participating in the UK Biobank cohort who were free of CVD at baseline. CVD events were obtained from hospital and death registers...
July 10, 2017: Epidemiology
Maria Eberg, Robert W Platt, Kristian B Filion
BACKGROUND: Studies on the safety of prenatal medication use require valid estimation of the pregnancy duration. However, gestational age is often incompletely recorded in administrative and clinical databases. Our objective was to compare different approaches to estimating the pregnancy duration. METHODS: Using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Hospital Episode Statistics, we examined four approaches to estimating missing gestational age: 1) generalized estimating equations for longitudinal data; 2) multiple imputation; 3) estimation based on fetal birth weight and sex; and 4) conventional approaches that assigned a fixed value (39 weeks for all or 39 weeks for full term and 35 weeks for preterm)...
July 7, 2017: Epidemiology
S R Cole, H Chu, M A Brookhart, J K Edwards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 7, 2017: Epidemiology
Michael A McIsaac
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 6, 2017: Epidemiology
Meijia Zhou, Shirley V Wang, Charles E Leonard, Joshua J Gagne, Candace Fuller, Christian Hampp, Patrick Archdeacon, Sengwee Toh, Aarthi Iyer, Tiffany Siu Woodworth, Elizabeth Cavagnaro, Catherine A Panozzo, Sophia Axtman, Ryan M Carnahan, Elizabeth A Chrischilles, Sean Hennessy
Sentinel is a program sponsored by the US Food and Drug Administration to monitor the safety of medical products. We conducted a cohort assessment to evaluate the ability of the Sentinel Propensity Score Matching Tool to reproduce in an expedited fashion the known association between glyburide (versus glipizide) and serious hypoglycemia. Thirteen data partners that contribute to the Sentinel Distributed Database participated in this analysis. A pre-tested and customizable analytic program was run at each individual site...
July 4, 2017: Epidemiology
Howard Hu, Sandro Galea, Laura Rosella, David Henry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 4, 2017: Epidemiology
Rolf H H Groenwold, Maarten van Smeden
In the case-control design, statistical efficiency is balanced with practical efficiency. In an unmatched case-control study of a binary exposure, in which the expected odds ratio deviates from the null (i.e. no effect) and the sum of the number of cases and controls is fixed, 1:1 sampling of cases and controls may yield suboptimal statistical efficiency. This holds especially for situations where the exposure is rare and for stronger relationships between the exposure and the outcome under study. The equations presented here may provide researchers with a simple and efficient strategy for sampling cases and controls when designing an unmatched case-control study for such a situation...
July 4, 2017: Epidemiology
Naja Hulvej Rod, Theis Lange
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 30, 2017: Epidemiology
Gayle C Windham, Raymond Lum, Robert Voss, Mary Wolff, Susan M Pinney, Susan L Teteilbaum, Connie S Sosnoff, Dina Dobraca, Frank Biro, Robert A Hiatt, Louise C Greenspan, Maida Galvez, Lawrence H Kushi
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke contains known hormonally active chemicals and reproductive toxicants. Several studies have examined prenatal maternal smoking and offspring age at menarche, but few examined earlier pubertal markers, nor accounted for exposure during childhood. Our objective was to examine pre- and post-natal smoke exposure in relation to timing of early pubertal events. METHODS: An ethnically diverse cohort of 1239 girls was enrolled at age 6-8 years for a longitudinal study of puberty at three U...
June 28, 2017: Epidemiology
Iny Jhun, Douglas A Mata, Francesco Nordio, Mihye Lee, Joel Schwartz, Antonella Zanobetti
BACKGROUND: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. While thermal stress is implicated in many risk factors for SIDS, the association between ambient temperature and SIDS remains unclear. METHODS: We obtained daily individual-level infant mortality data and outdoor temperature data from 1972 to 2006 for 210 United States cities. We applied a time-stratified case-crossover analysis to determine the effect of ambient temperature on the risk of SIDS by season...
June 28, 2017: Epidemiology
Matthias Möhner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Epidemiology
Andreas M Neophytou, Sally Picciotto, Sadie Costello, Ellen A Eisen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Epidemiology
Sonja A Swanson, Henning Tiemeier, M Arfan Ikram, Miguel A Hernán
Mendelian randomization (MR) studies are often described as naturally occurring randomized trials in which genetic factors are randomly assigned by nature. Conceptualizing MR studies as randomized trials has profound implications for their design, conduct, reporting, and interpretation. For example, analytic practices that are discouraged in randomized trials should also be discouraged in MR studies.Here, we deconstruct the oft-made analogy between MR and randomized trials. We describe four key threats to the analogy between MR studies and randomized trials: (1) exchangeability is not guaranteed; (2) time zero (and therefore the time for setting eligibility criteria) is unclear; (3) the treatment assignment is often measured with error; and (4) adherence is poorly defined...
June 5, 2017: Epidemiology
Stefanie N Hinkle, Shristi Rawal, Yeyi Zhu, Jagteshwar Grewal, Paul S Albert, Cuilin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Self-report is often used in identifying gestational diabetes events in epidemiologic studies; however, validity data are limited, with little to no data on self-reported severity or treatment. METHODS: We aimed to assess the validity of self-reported gestational diabetes diagnosis and evaluate the accuracy of glucose diagnosis results and gestational diabetes treatment self-reported at 6 weeks postpartum. Data were from 82 and 83 women with and without gestational diabetes, respectively, within the prospective National Institute Child Health and Human Development Fetal Growth Studies-Singletons (2009-2013)...
May 31, 2017: Epidemiology
James M Smoliga, Gerald S Zavorsky
BACKGROUND: Observational research has linked altitude to concussion risk, but the physiologic and epidemiologic bases for this association remain questionable. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study by analyzing four seasons of NFL data from a widely used database (Concussion Watch) to determine if previous claims that altitude ≥196m reduced concussion risk were replicable and whether an arbitrary predictor variable (animal vs. non-animal team logo) was related to concussion risk...
May 31, 2017: Epidemiology
Megan E Romano, Geetika Kalloo, Taylor Etzel, Joseph M Braun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2017: Epidemiology
Isabel R Fulcher, Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen, Paige L Williams
Recent advances in causal mediation analysis have formalized conditions for estimating direct and indirect effects in various contexts. These approaches have been extended to a number of models for survival outcomes including accelerated failure time models, which are widely used in a broad range of health applications given their intuitive interpretation. In this setting, it has been suggested that under standard assumptions, the "difference' and "product' methods produce equivalent estimates of the indirect effect of exposure on the survival outcome...
May 26, 2017: Epidemiology
Stijn Vansteelandt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Epidemiology
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