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Gitte Vrelits Sørensen, Deirdre P Cronin-Fenton, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Per Damkier, Bent Ejlertsen, Peer M Christiansen, Timothy L Lash, Thomas P Ahern
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Epidemiology
Gonzalo Spera, Rodrigo Fresco, Helena Fung, John R Mackey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Epidemiology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: Epidemiology
Alyssa F Kahane, Alison L Park, Joel G Ray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: Epidemiology
Nadia Micali, Rhian M Daniel, George B Ploubidis, Bianca L De Stavola
BACKGROUND: Maternal characteristics and childhood growth have been identified as risk factors for eating disorders. Most studies to date have been unable to investigate these factors prospectively while accounting for their interdependencies. We address this by investigating whether the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (ppBMI) with adolescent eating disorder behaviors can be explained by childhood growth and/or a concurrent environmental pathway captured by maternal eating habits...
May 10, 2018: Epidemiology
R W Atkinson, B K Butland, H R Anderson, R L Maynard
BACKGROUND: Concentrations of outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have been associated with increased mortality. Hazard ratios (HRs) from cohort studies are used to assess population health impact and burden. We undertook meta-analyses to derive concentration-response functions suitable for such evaluations and assessed their sensitivity to study selection based upon cohort characteristics. METHODS: We searched online databases and existing reviews for cohort studies published to October 2016 reporting HRs for NO2 and mortality...
May 8, 2018: Epidemiology
Chanelle J Howe, Whitney R Robinson
The impact of survival-related selection bias has not always been discussed in relevant studies of racial health disparities. Moreover, the analytic approaches most frequently employed in the epidemiologic literature to minimize selection bias are difficult to implement appropriately in racial disparities research. This difficulty stems from the fact that frequently employed analytic techniques require that common causes of survival and the outcome are accurately measured. Unfortunately, such common causes are often unmeasured or poorly measured in racial health disparities studies...
May 8, 2018: Epidemiology
Monika A Izano, Daniel M Brown, Andreas M Neophytou, Erika Garcia, Ellen A Eisen
Occupational exposure guidelines are ideally based on estimated effects of static interventions that assign constant exposure over a working lifetime. Static effects are difficult to estimate when follow-up extends beyond employment because their identifiability requires additional assumptions. Effects of dynamic interventions that assign exposure while at work, allowing subjects to leave and become unexposed thereafter, are more easily identifiable but result in different estimates. Given the practical implications of exposure limits, we explored the drivers of the differences between static and dynamic interventions in a simulation study where workers could terminate employment due to an intermediate adverse health event that functions as a time-varying confounder...
May 8, 2018: Epidemiology
Stijn Vansteelandt, Stefan Walter, Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen
Mendelian randomization studies commonly focus on elderly populations. This makes the instrumental variables analysis of such studies sensitive to survivor bias, a type of selection bias. A particular concern is that the instrumental variable conditions, even when valid for the source population, may be violated for the selective population of individuals who survive the onset of the study. This is potentially very damaging because Mendelian randomization studies are known to be sensitive to bias due to even minor violations of the instrumental variable conditions...
April 11, 2018: Epidemiology
John W Jackson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2018: Epidemiology
Tony Blakely, George Disney, Linda Valeri, June Atkinson, Andrea Teng, Nick Wilson, Lyle Gurrin
BACKGROUND: Racial/ethnic inequalities in mortality may be reducible by addressing socio-economic factors and smoking. To our knowledge, this is the first study to estimate trends over multiple decades in: 1) mediation of racial/ethnic inequalities in mortality (between Māori and Europeans in New Zealand [NZ]) by socio-economic factors, 2) additional mediation through smoking; and 3) inequalities had there never been smoking. METHODS: We estimated natural (1 and 2 above) and controlled mediation effects (3 above) in census-mortality cohorts for 1981-84 (1...
April 10, 2018: Epidemiology
Tetsuya Ohira, Hideto Takahashi, Seiji Yasumura, Akira Ohtsuru, Sanae Midorikawa, Satoru Suzuki, Takashi Matsuzuka, Hiroki Shimura, Tetsuo Ishikawa, Akira Sakai, Shunichi Yamashita, Koichi Tanigawa, Hitoshi Ohto, Kenji Kamiya, Shinichi Suzuki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2018: Epidemiology
Stephen S Francis, Joseph L Wiemels, Wei Yang, Gary M Shaw
BACKGROUND: Gastroschisis is a congenital malformation that has been shown to be more common in younger mothers and appears to be increasing in prevalence in the United States and elsewhere. Epidemiologic data suggest a potential role of infection and recent studies report an association between maternal antibodies to human herpesviruses (HHV) and development of gastroschisis. METHODS: In this study we examined newborn bloodspots from 50 children with gastroschisis and 50 healthy controls using a highly sensitive digital droplet polymerase chain reaction assay covering eight human herpesviruses (Herpes Simplex Virus 1/2, Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4), cytomegalovirus (HHV-5), HHV-6A/B, HHV-7, and HHV-8), to examine the presence of herpesvirus DNA at birth, which would suggest in utero infection...
April 6, 2018: Epidemiology
Don Klinkenberg, Susan Jm Hahné, Tom Woudenberg, Jacco Wallinga
BACKGROUND: Historically, measles incidence has shown clear seasonal patterns driven by the school calendar, but since the start of mass vaccination in developed countries there are only occasional outbreaks, which may have changed the effect of school vacations on transmission. In 2013-2014 a large measles epidemic took place in a low vaccination coverage area in The Netherlands, allowing us to quantify current-day measles transmission and the effect of school vacations. METHODS: We fitted a dynamic transmission model to notification and hospitalization time series data of the Dutch 2013-2014 measles epidemic...
April 6, 2018: Epidemiology
Danielle M Crookes, Ryan T Demmer, Katherine M Keyes, Karestan C Koenen, Shakira F Suglia
BACKGROUND: Among adults, depressive symptoms are associated with higher rates of cardiovascular disease; however, the evidence is mixed regarding the association between depressive symptoms and hypertension, especially among young adults. The deleterious effects of some antidepressant medications on blood pressure may contribute to mixed findings. METHODS: Adolescents enrolled in Add Health (N=11,183) (1994-2008) completed an abbreviated Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale at three waves (mean ages 16, 22, and 29)...
April 6, 2018: Epidemiology
Elizabeth Rose Mayeda, Hailey R Banack, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Adina Zeki Al Hazzouri, Jessica R Marden, Rachel A Whitmer, M Maria Glymour
BACKGROUND: In middle age, stroke incidence is higher among black than white Americans. For unknown reasons, this inequality decreases and reverses with age. We conducted simulations to evaluate whether selective survival could account for observed age patterning of black-white stroke inequalities. METHODS: We simulated birth cohorts of 20,000 blacks and 20,000 whites with survival distributions based on U.S. life tables for the 1919-1921 birth cohort. We generated stroke incidence rates for ages 45-94 using Reasons for Geographic and Racial Disparities in Stroke (REGARDS) study rates for whites and setting the effect of black race on stroke to incidence rate difference (IRD)=20/10,000 person-years at all ages, the inequality observed at younger ages in REGARDS...
April 4, 2018: Epidemiology
Carmen C Cuthbertson, Anna Kucharska-Newton, Keturah R Faurot, Til Stürmer, Michele Jonsson Funk, Priya Palta, B Gwen Windham, Sydney Thai, Jennifer L Lund
BACKGROUND: Frailty is a geriatric syndrome characterized by weakness and weight loss, and is associated with adverse health outcomes. It is often an unmeasured confounder in pharmacoepidemiologic and comparative effectiveness studies using administrative claims data. METHODS: Among the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Visit 5 participants (2011-2013; n=3146), we conducted a validation study to compare a Medicare claims-based algorithm of dependency in activities of daily living (or dependency) developed as a proxy for frailty with a reference standard measure of phenotypic frailty...
April 4, 2018: Epidemiology
Renjie Chen, Peng Yin, Xia Meng, Lijun Wang, Cong Liu, Yue Niu, Zhijing Lin, Yunning Liu, Jiangmei Liu, Jinlei Qi, Jinling You, Haidong Kan, Maigeng Zhou
BACKGROUND: There has been a long history of debate regarding whether ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) directly affects human health. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide time-series analysis in 272 major Chinese cities (2013-2015) to evaluate the associations between short-term exposure to NO2 and cause-specific mortality. We used the overdispersed generalized linear model together with the Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate the associations between NO2 and mortality at the national and regional levels...
April 4, 2018: Epidemiology
Rose M C Kagawa, Alvaro Castillo-Carniglia, Jon S Vernick, Daniel Webster, Cassandra Crifasi, Kara E Rudolph, Magdalena Cerdá, Aaron Shev, Garen J Wintemute
BACKGROUND: In 2016, firearms killed 38,658 people in the United States. Federal law requires licensed gun dealers, but not private parties, to conduct background checks on prospective firearm purchasers with the goal of preventing prohibited persons from obtaining firearms. Our objective was to estimate the effect of the repeal of comprehensive background check laws - requiring a background check for all handgun sales, not just sales by licensed dealers - on firearm homicide and suicide rates in Indiana and Tennessee...
April 2, 2018: Epidemiology
David H Rehkopf, Sanjay Basu
With the publication of "Repeal of Comprehensive Background Check Policies and Firearm Homicide and Suicide," the synthetic control method joins a group of useful statistical methods for the analysis of observational data imported to the field of epidemiology from economics and political science. These approaches include fixed effects (2), difference in differences (2), regression discontinuity (3) and instrumental variables (4). This expansion of methodological tools has been critical for the development for epidemiology as the discipline has expanded to consider the analysis of exposures that are not easily subjected to true random assignment, and for which unmeasured confounders plausibly exist...
April 2, 2018: Epidemiology
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