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Amy Matser, Maarten Schim van der Loeff, Ronald Geskus
BACKGROUND: The source of an infection is often unknown. To inform directed prevention measures, it is useful to know the location and partner type with the highest transmission risk. We developed a method to estimate infection risk of Neisseria gonorrhoeae per meeting location among men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: In 2008-2009, we collected information from 2438 MSM attending the Sexually Transmitted Infections clinic of Amsterdam. For up to four partners per participant (8028 in total), we asked for details on meeting location, partner, and partnership characteristics...
February 5, 2018: Epidemiology
Jessica R Marden, Linbo Wang, Eric J Tchetgen Tchetgen, Stefan Walter, M Maria Glymour, Kathleen E Wirth
Instrumental variables are routinely used to recover a consistent estimator of an exposure causal effect in the presence of unmeasured confounding. Instrumental variable approaches to account for non-ignorable missing data also exist, but are less familiar to epidemiologists. Like instrumental variables for exposure causal effects, instrumental variables for missing data rely on exclusion restriction and instrumental variable relevance assumptions. Yet these two conditions alone are insufficient for point identification...
February 1, 2018: Epidemiology
John Busby, Ken Mills, Shu-Dong Zhang, Fabio Giuseppe Liberante, Chris Cardwell
BACKGROUND: There have long been concerns that calcium channel blockers (CCBs), widely used to treat hypertension, may contribute to malignant growth through the evasion of apoptosis and proliferation of cancer cells. Worryingly, a recent cohort study found breast cancer patients who used CCBs had higher death rates, but interpreting these results was difficult as they were based on all-cause mortality and medication use before cancer diagnosis. We used UK population-based data to more robustly investigate the association between CCB use and cancer-specific mortality...
February 1, 2018: Epidemiology
Jobert Richie Nansseu, Jean Joel Bigna, Arnaud D Kaze, Jean Jacques Noubiap
OBJECTIVE: To summarize evidence on the rates and drivers of progression from normoglycemia to prediabetes and/or diabetes mellitus (hereafter 'diabetes') in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-exposed HIV-infected people. METHODS: We searched EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Global Index Medicus to identify articles published from 1 January 2000 to 30 April 2017. A random-effects model produced a summary estimate of the incidence across studies and heterogeneity was assessed using Cochrane's Q statistic...
February 1, 2018: Epidemiology
Cynthia Kleeberger, David Shore, Elaine Gunter, Dale P Sandler, Clarice R Weinberg
BACKGROUND: Cohort studies typically bank biospecimens for many years prior to assay and investigators do not know whether levels of analytes have degraded. METHODS: We collected control samples from 22 non-study participants using the same enrollment criteria and specimen collection, processing, and storage protocols as The Sister Study. Serum samples were assayed for 21 analytes at collection and 6 years later. For each sample, the difference between the result at baseline and at 6 years was calculated for each analyte...
January 30, 2018: Epidemiology
E E Hatch, A K Wesselink, K A Hahn, J J Michiel, E M Mikkelsen, H T Sorensen, K J Rothman, L A Wise
Dietary factors, including sugar-sweetened beverages, may have adverse effects on fertility. Sugar-sweetened beverages have been associated with poor semen quality in cross-sectional studies, and female soda intake has been associated with lower fecundability in some, but not all, studies. We evaluated the association of female and male sugar-sweetened beverage intake with fecundability among 3828 women planning pregnancy and 1045 of their male partners in a North American prospective cohort study. We followed participants enrolled between June 2013 and May 2017 until pregnancy or for up to twelve menstrual cycles...
January 30, 2018: Epidemiology
Mary B Rice, Wenyuan Li, Kirsten S Dorans, Elissa H Wilker, Petter Ljungman, Diane R Gold, Joel Schwartz, Petros Koutrakis, Itai Kloog, Tetsuro Araki, Hiroto Hatabu, Raul San Jose Estepar, George T O'Connor, Murray A Mittleman, George R Washko
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with lower lung function in adults, but few studies have investigated associations with radiographic lung and airway measures. METHODS: We ascertained lung volume, mass, density, visual emphysema, airway size, and airway wall area by computed tomography (CT) among 2,545 non-smoking Framingham CT sub-study participants. We examined associations of home distance to major road and PM2.5 (2008 average from a spatiotemporal model using satellite data) with these outcomes using linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, census tract median household value and population density, education, packyears of smoking, household tobacco exposure, cohort, and date...
January 30, 2018: Epidemiology
Alexander Breskin, Stephen R Cole, Daniel Westreich
Since being introduced to epidemiology in 2000, marginal structural models have become a commonly used method for causal inference in a wide range of epidemiologic settings. In this brief report, we aim to explore three subtleties of marginal structural models. First, we distinguish marginal structural models from the inverse probability weighting estimator, and we emphasize that marginal structural models are not only for longitudinal exposures. Second, we explore the meaning of the word 'marginal' in 'marginal structural model...
January 30, 2018: Epidemiology
Karin Magnusson, Katrina J Scurrah, Ragnhild Elise Ørstavik, Thomas Sevenius Nilsen, Ove Furnes, Kåre Birger Hagen
OBJECTIVE: Familial confounding is confounding due to genetics or environmental exposures shared by family members. We aimed to study whether familial confounding explains the association between body mass index (BMI) and severe hip osteoarthritis (OA). DESIGN: We linked data from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Registry with the Norwegian Twin Registry on the National ID-number in 2014, generating a population-based prospective cohort study of same-sex twins born 1915-60 (53...
January 29, 2018: Epidemiology
Kaitlyn B Gam, Richard K Kwok, Lawrence S Engel, Matthew D Curry, Patricia A Stewart, Mark R Stenzel, John A McGrath, W Braxton Jackson, Robert L Jensen, Alexander P Keil, Maureen Y Lichtveld, Aubrey K Miller, Dale P Sandler
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of inhalation exposures on lung function among workers involved in the mitigation of oil spills. Our objective was to determine the relationship between oil spill response work and lung function 1-3 years after the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster. METHODS: We evaluated spirometry for 7,775 adults living in the Gulf states who either participated in DWH response efforts (workers) or received safety training but were not hired (non-workers)...
January 29, 2018: Epidemiology
Anne Marie Z Jukic, Allen J Wilcox, D Robert McConnaughey, Clarice R Weinberg, Anne Z Steiner
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with subfertility and prolonged estrus cycles in animals, but humans have not been well studied. METHODS: A prospective time-to-pregnancy study, Time to Conceive (2010-2015), collected up to 4 months of daily diary data. Participants were healthy, late reproductive-aged women in North Carolina who were attempting pregnancy. We examined menstrual cycle length as a continuous variable, as well as in categories: long (35+ days) and short (≤25 days)...
January 15, 2018: Epidemiology
Ashkan Ertefaie, Dylan Small, Xinyao Ji, Charles Leonard, Sean Hennessy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2018: Epidemiology
Sidsel Arnspang Pedersen, Sigrun Alba Johannesdottir Schmidt, Siri Klausen, Anton Pottegård, Søren Friis, Lisbet Rosenkrantz Hölmich, David Gaist
BACKGROUND: The nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Melanoma Database both record data on melanoma for purposes of monitoring, quality assurance and research. However, the data quality of the Cancer Registry and the Melanoma Database has not been formally evaluated. METHODS: We estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of melanoma diagnosis for random samples of 200 patients from the Cancer Registry (n=200) and the Melanoma Database (n=200) during 2004-2014, using the Danish Pathology Registry as 'gold-standard' reference...
January 15, 2018: Epidemiology
Isabelle le Ray, Brian Lee, Agneta Wikman, Marie Reilly
BACKGROUND: Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to maternal red blood cell alloimmunization can have serious consequences. Since early detection enables careful monitoring of affected pregnancies, programs to routinely screen all pregnant women have been widely adopted. Due to the low prevalence of alloimmunization, these require large investments of resources to detect a small number of cases. METHODS: We conducted a validation study of a decision tree developed in the Netherlands for determining whether to screen for alloimmunization...
January 15, 2018: Epidemiology
Alexander Breskin, Stephen R Cole, Michael G Hudgens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2018: Epidemiology
Li Bai, Hong Chen, Marianne Hatzopoulou, Michael Jerrett, Jeffrey C Kwong, Richard T Burnett, Aaron van Donkelaar, Ray Copes, Randall V Martin, Keith van Ryswyk, Hong Lu, Alexander Kopp, Scott Weichenthal
BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported that long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution may increase the incidence of hypertension and diabetes. However, little is known about the associations of ultrafine particles (≤0.1 micrometers in diameter) with these two conditions. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study to investigate the associations between exposures to ultrafine particles and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and the incidence of diabetes and hypertension...
January 9, 2018: Epidemiology
J Siegrist, M Kivimäki, N Dragano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Epidemiology
Arturo Juárez García, BongKyoo Choi, Paul Landsbergis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Epidemiology
Tobias Niedermaier, Korbinian Weigl, Michael Hoffmeister, Hermann Brenner
BACKGROUND: Flexible sigmoidoscopy and fecal immunochemical tests are established diagnostic tests for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and less invasive, less expensive, and easier to conduct than colonoscopy. However, little is known about their joint diagnostic performance compared to colonoscopy. We aimed to assess the expected diagnostic performance of joint use of flexible sigmoidoscopy and fecal immunochemical test. METHODS: We assessed the overall and site-specific prevalences of colorectal neoplasms and the overall and site-specific sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of a quantitative fecal immunochemical test (FOB Gold) among 3,466 participants in screening colonoscopy in Germany...
December 28, 2017: Epidemiology
Kueiyu Joshua Lin, Robert J Glynn, Daniel E Singer, Shawn N Murphy, Joyce Lii, Sebastian Schneeweiss
BACKGROUND: It is unclear how out-of-system care or electronic health record (EHR) discontinuity (i.e., receiving care outside of an EHR system) may affect validity of comparative effectiveness research using these data. We aimed to compare the misclassification of key variables in patients with high vs. low EHR-continuity. METHODS: The study cohort comprised patients aged ≥65 identified in electronic health records from two US provider networks linked with Medicare insurance claims data from 2007-2014...
December 26, 2017: Epidemiology
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