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Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520645/oxidative-stress-and-breast-cancer-risk-in-premenopausal-women
#1
Hazel B Nichols, Chelsea Anderson, Alexandra J White, Ginger L Milne, Dale P Sandler
BACKGROUND: Detrimental effects of oxidative stress are widely recognized, but induction of apoptosis and senescence may also have benefits for cancer prevention. Recent studies suggest oxidative stress may be associated with lower breast cancer risk before menopause. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study (N=457 cases, 910 controls) within the NIEHS Sister Study cohort of 50,884 women. Premenopausal women ages 35-54 were eligible for selection. We matched controls 2:1 to cases on age and enrollment year and were breast cancer-free at the time of the corresponding case's diagnosis...
May 17, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520644/trade-offs-of-personal-vs-more-proxy-exposure-measures-in-environmental-epidemiology
#2
Marc G Weisskopf, Thomas F Webster
The technological ability to make personal measurements of toxicant exposures is growing rapidly. While this can decrease measurement error and therefore help reduce attenuation of effect estimates, we argue that as measures of exposure or dose become more personal, threats to validity of study findings can increase in ways that more proxy measures may avoid. We use Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) to describe conditions where confounding is introduced by use of more personal measures of exposure and avoided via more proxy measures of personal exposure or target tissue dose...
May 17, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520643/risk-of-lung-cancer-mortality-in-nuclear-workers-from-internal-exposure-to-alpha-particle-emitting-radionuclides
#3
James Grellier, Will Atkinson, Philippe Bérard, Derek Bingham, Alan Birchall, Eric Blanchardon, Richard Bull, Irina Canu Guseva, Cécile Challeton-de Vathaire, Rupert Cockerill, Minh T Do, Hilde Engels, Jordi Figuerola, Adrian Foster, Luc Holmstock, Christian Hurtgen, Dominique Laurier, Matthew Puncher, Anthony E Riddell, Eric Samson, Isabelle Thierry-Chef, Margot Tirmarche, Martine Vrijheid, Elisabeth Cardis
BACKGROUND: Carcinogenic risks of internal exposures to alpha-emitters (except radon) are poorly understood. Since exposure to alpha particles-particularly through inhalation-occurs in a range of settings, understanding consequent risks is a public health priority. We aimed to quantify dose-response relationships between lung dose from alpha-emitters and lung cancer in nuclear workers. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study, nested within Belgian, French, and UK cohorts of uranium and plutonium workers...
May 17, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489718/early-life-origins-of-hearing-impairment-in-older-people
#4
G David Batty, Paola Zaninotto, Andrew Steptoe, Camille Lassale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489717/coliphages-and-gastrointestinal-illness-in-recreational-waters-pooled-analysis-of-six-coastal-beach-cohorts
#5
Jade Benjamin-Chung, Benjamin F Arnold, Timothy J Wade, Kenneth Schiff, John F Griffith, Alfred P Dufour, Stephen B Weisberg, John M Colford
BACKGROUND: Coliphages have been proposed as indicators of fecal contamination in recreational waters because they better mimic the persistence of pathogenic viruses in the environment and wastewater treatment than fecal indicator bacteria. We estimated the association between coliphages and gastrointestinal illness and compared it to the association with culturable enterococci. METHODS: We pooled data from six prospective cohort studies that enrolled coastal beachgoers in California, Alabama, and Rhode Island...
May 9, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452827/re-integrating-complex-systems-thinking-into-epidemiologic-research
#6
Eric T Lofgren, Brandon D Marshall, Sandro Galea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452826/the-author-responds
#7
Ashley I Naimi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445248/declining-united-states-life-expectancy-a-first-look
#8
Sam Harper, Jay S Kaufman, Richard S Cooper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410350/education-socioeconomic-status-and-intelligence-in-childhood-and-stroke-risk-in-later-life-a-meta-analysis
#9
Caroline A McHutchison, Ellen V Backhouse, Vera Cvoro, Susan D Shenkin, Joanna M Wardlaw
BACKGROUND: Stroke is the second most common cause of death, and a common cause of dependency and dementia. Adult vascular risk factors and socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with increased risk, but less is known about early life risk factors, such as education, childhood SES, or intelligence (IQ). METHODS: We comprehensively searched Medline, PsycINFO and EMBASE from inception to November 2015. We included all studies reporting data on >50 strokes examining childhood/premorbid IQ, SES, and education...
April 7, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394875/graphical-tools-for-monitoring-inequality-the-beauty-can-lie-in-the-details
#10
Gustav Kjellsson, Dennis Petrie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394874/a-typology-for-charting-socioeconomic-mortality-gradients-go-south-west
#11
Tony Blakely, George Disney, June Atkinson, Andrea Teng, Johan P Mackenbach
BACKGROUND: Holistic depiction of time-trends in average mortality rates, and absolute and relative inequalities, is challenging. METHODS: We outline a typology for situations with falling average mortality rates (m↓; e.g. cardiovascular disease), rates stable over time (m-; e.g. some cancers), and increasing average mortality rates (m↑; e.g. suicide in some contexts). If we consider inequality trends on both the absolute (a) and relative (r) scales, there are 13 possible combination of m, a, and r trends over time...
April 5, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383301/re-readability-assessment-of-pcori-public-abstracts-in-relation-to-accessibility
#12
Joanna E Siegel, Christopher C Gayer, Jean R Slutsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383300/nevi-ambient-ultraviolet-radiation-and-thyroid-cancer-risk-a-french-prospective-study
#13
Sylvie Mesrine, Marina Kvaskoff, Thierno Bah, Lucien Wald, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault
BACKGROUND: Incidence rates have increased considerably worldwide for both differentiated thyroid cancer and cutaneous melanoma, and two-way associations between these neoplasms have been described. Whether melanoma risk factors are associated with thyroid cancer risk remains unknown. METHODS: Using Cox regression modeling, we prospectively analyzed the relationship between self-reported pigmentary traits, baseline residential ultraviolet (UV) exposure, and thyroid cancer risk in 86,960 women from the E3N cohort, followed-up over 1990-2008 through biennial questionnaires...
April 5, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362642/assessment-of-virus-interference-in-a-test-negative-study-of-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness
#14
Shuo Feng, Ashley L Fowlkes, Andrea Steffens, Lyn Finelli, Benjamin J Cowling
BACKGROUND: The observational test-negative study design is used to estimate vaccine effectiveness against influenza virus infection. An important assumption of the test-negative design is that vaccination does not affect the risk of infection with another virus. If such virus interference occurred, detection of other respiratory viruses would be more common among influenza vaccine recipients and vaccine effectiveness estimates could differ. We evaluated the potential for virus interference using data from the Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project...
March 30, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368944/estimating-the-effect-of-targeted-screening-strategies-an-application-to-colonoscopy-and-colorectal-cancer
#15
Duncan C Thomas
Screening behavior depends on previous screening history and family members' behaviors, which can act as both confounders and intermediate variables on a causal pathway from screening to disease risk. Conventional analyses that adjust for these variables can lead to incorrect inferences about the causal effect of screening if high risk individuals are more likely to be screened. Analyzing the data in a manner that treats screening as randomized conditional on covariates allows causal parameters to be estimated; inverse probability weighting based on propensity of exposure scores is one such method considered here...
March 29, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368943/the-impact-of-forced-migration-on-mortality-a-cohort-study-of-242-075-finns-from-1939-2010
#16
Jari Haukka, Jaana Suvisaari, Matti Sarvimäki, Pekka Martikainen
BACKGROUND: The stresses and life changes associated with migration may have harmful long-term health effects, especially for mental health. These effects are exceedingly difficult to establish, because migrants are typically a highly selected group. METHODS: We examined the impact of migration on health using 'naturally occurring' historical events. In this paper, we use the forced migration of 11% of the Finnish population after WWII as such a natural experiment...
March 29, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368942/what-does-precision-medicine-have-to-say-about-prevention
#17
Duncan C Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358789/effort-reward-imbalance-at-work-and-incident-coronary-heart-disease-a-multi-cohort-study-of-90-164-individuals
#18
Nico Dragano, Johannes Siegrist, Solja T Nyberg, Thorsten Lunau, Eleonor I Fransson, Lars Alfredsson, Jakob B Bjorner, Marianne Borritz, Hermann Burr, Raimund Erbel, Göran Fahlén, Marcel Goldberg, Mark Hamer, Katriina Heikkilä, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Anders Knutsson, Ida E H Madsen, Martin L Nielsen, Maria Nordin, Tuula Oksanen, Jan H Pejtersen, Jaana Pentti, Reiner Rugulies, Paula Salo, Jürgen Schupp, Archana Singh-Manoux, Andrew Steptoe, Töres Theorell, Jussi Vahtera, Peter J M Westerholm, Hugo Westerlund, Marianna Virtanen, Marie Zins, G David Batty, Mika Kivimäki
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence for work stress as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is mostly based on a single measure of stressful work known as job strain, a combination of high demands and low job control. We examined whether a complementary stress measure that assesses an imbalance between efforts spent at work and rewards received predicted coronary heart disease. METHODS: This multi-cohort study (the 'IPD-Work' consortium) was based on harmonized individual-level data from 11 European prospective cohort studies...
March 27, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346267/generalizing-study-results-a-potential-outcomes-perspective
#19
Catherine R Lesko, Ashley L Buchanan, Daniel Westreich, Jessie K Edwards, Michael G Hudgens, Stephen R Cole
Great care is taken in epidemiologic studies to ensure the internal validity of causal effect estimates; however, external validity has received considerably less attention. When the study sample is not a random sample of the target population, the sample average treatment effect, even if internally valid, cannot usually be expected to equal the average treatment effect in the target population. The utility of an effect estimate for planning purposes and decision making will depend on the degree of departure from the true causal effect in the target population due to problems with both internal and external validity...
March 24, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346266/-all-generalizations-are-dangerous-even-this-one-alexandre-dumas
#20
Laura B Balzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2017: Epidemiology
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