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Seminars in Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939389/recombinant-allergen-and-peptide-based-approaches-for-allergy-prevention-by-oral-tolerance
#1
REVIEW
Raffaela Campana, Huey-Jy Huang, Raphaela Freidl, Birgit Linhart, Susanne Vrtala, Thomas Wekerle, Alexander Karaulov, Rudolf Valenta
Several studies conducted in animal models for immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity diseases have shown that oral administration of antigens early in life can prevent the development of specific humoral and cellular immune responses and thus hypersensitivity reactions to the respective antigens. Such data were also obtained in models for Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-associated allergy, the most common hypersensitivity disease affecting more than 25% of the population. Based on data obtained in animal models for allergy several clinical intervention studies have been conducted in children to study if oral administration of materials containing allergens or allergen-derived peptides early in life can prevent the subsequent development of allergy...
September 19, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935344/tailoring-natural-killer-cell-immunotherapy-to-the-tumour-microenvironment
#2
REVIEW
Alexander David Barrow, Marco Colonna
Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic and cytokine-secreting cells that can mediate potent anti-tumour activity. Accumulating evidence indicates that NK cell functions are severely compromised within the confines of the tumour microenvironment thus impairing the efficacy and development of NK cell-based therapies. Here we review the various cellular and molecular pathways that tumours have supplanted to evade NK cell surveillance. We highlight novel strategies designed to alleviate or circumvent the immunosuppressive conditions of the tumour microenvironment in order to emancipate NK cell function and stifle the inexorable growth and metastasis of malignant cells...
September 18, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890238/delivering-the-right-message-challenges-and-opportunities-in-lipid-nanoparticles-mediated-modified-mrna-therapeutics-an-innate-immune-system-standpoint
#3
REVIEW
Yasmin Granot, Dan Peer
mRNA molecules hold tremendous potential as a tool for gene therapy of a wide range of diseases. However, the main hurdle in implementation of mRNA for therapeutics, the systemic delivery of mRNA molecules to target cells, remains a challenge. A feasible solution for this challenge relies in the rapidly evolving field of nucleic acid-loaded nanocarriers and specifically in the established family of lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs). Herein, we will discuss the main factors, which determine the fate of modified mRNA (mmRNA)-loaded LNPs in-vivo, and will focus on their interactions with the innate immune system as a main consideration in the design of lipid-based mmRNA delivery platforms...
September 7, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888619/natural-killer-cell-mediated-immunosurveillance-of-human-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Karl-Johan Malmberg, Mattias Carlsten, Andreas Björklund, Ebba Sohlberg, Yenan T Bryceson, Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren
The contribution of natural killer (NK) cells to immunosurveillance of human cancer remains debatable. Here, we discuss advances in several areas of human NK cell research, many of which support the ability of NK cells to prevent cancer development and avoid relapse following adoptive immunotherapy. We describe the molecular basis for NK cell recognition of human tumor cells and provide evidence for NK cell-mediated killing of human primary tumor cells ex vivo. Subsequently, we highlight studies demonstrating the ability of NK cells to migrate to, and reside in, the human tumor microenvironment where selection of tumor escape variants from NK cells can occur...
September 6, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887001/major-findings-and-recent-advances-in-virus-like-particle-vlp-based-vaccines
#5
REVIEW
Mona O Mohsen, Lisha Zha, Gustavo Cabral-Miranda, Martin F Bachmann
Virus-like particles (VLPs) have made giant strides in the field of vaccinology over the last three decades. VLPs constitute versatile tools in vaccine development due to their favourable immunological characteristics such as their size, repetitive surface geometry, ability to induce both innate and adaptive immune responses as well as being safe templates with favourable economics. Several VLP-based vaccines are commercially available including vaccines against Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) such as Cervarix(®), Gardasil(®) & Gardasil9(®) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) including the 3rd generation Sci-B-Vac™...
September 5, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882429/natural-killer-cells-unleashed-checkpoint-receptor-blockade-and-bike-trike-utilization-in-nk-mediated-anti-tumor-immunotherapy
#6
REVIEW
Zachary B Davis, Daniel A Vallera, Jeffrey S Miller, Martin Felices
Natural killer (NK) cells have long been known to mediate anti-tumor responses without prior sensitization or recognition of specific tumor antigens. However, the tumor microenvironment can suppress NK cell function resulting in tumor escape and disease progression. Despite recent advances in cytokine therapy and NK cell adoptive transfer, tumor expression of ligands to NK - expressed checkpoint receptors can still suppress NK mediated tumor lysis. This review will explore many of the checkpoint receptors tumors utilize to manipulate the NK cell response as well as some of the current and upcoming pharmacological solutions to limit tumor suppression of NK cell function...
September 4, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870704/the-intricate-connection-between-diet-microbiota-and-cancer-a-jigsaw-puzzle
#7
REVIEW
Melek Canan Arkan
The microbial community has a decisive role in determining our health and disease susceptibility. Presumably, this is closely associated with the complex community network of bacteria, fungi, archaea and viruses that reside our guts. This dynamic ecosystem exists in a symbiotic relationship with its host and plays a fundamental role in the hosts' physiological functions. The microbial community is highly personalized and therefore exhibits a high degree of inter-individual variability, which is dependent on host specifics such as genetic background, physiology and lifestyle...
September 1, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865877/oral-immunotherapy-for-food-allergy
#8
REVIEW
Deborah M Hussey Freeland, Monali Manohar, Sandra Andorf, Benjamin D Hobson, Wenming Zhang, Kari C Nadeau
Food allergy is a pathological, potentially deadly cascade of immune responses to molecules or molecular fragments that are normally innocuous when encountered in foods, such as milk, egg, or peanut. As the incidence and prevalence of food allergy rise, the standard of care is poised to advance beyond food allergen avoidance coupled with injectable epinephrine treatment of allergen-induced systemic reactions. Recent studies provide evidence that oral immunotherapy may effectively redirect the atopic immune responses of food allergy patients as they ingest small but gradually increasing allergen doses over many months, eliciting safer immune responses to these antigens...
August 30, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865876/resistance-and-tolerance-defenses-in-cancer-lessons-from-infectious-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Sheila Rao, Janelle S Ayres
Infectious disease and cancer are two maladies with multiple similarities. Both types of disease induce activation of the host immune response and induce pathologies that compromise host heath and survival. In infection biology, defense against pathogens can be broken down into two distinct components called resistance and tolerance. Resistance protects the host by killing pathogens. Tolerance protects the host by alleviating the pathology caused by the infection. The conceptual framework of resistance and tolerance, concepts explored during infectious disease, is applicable to cancer, a condition for which patient survival is dependent on tumor eradication (resistance) and the mitigation of pathologies that occur during disease (tolerance)...
August 30, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863960/memory-responses-of-natural-killer-cells
#10
REVIEW
Clair D Geary, Joseph C Sun
Natural killer (NK) cells have traditionally been classified as a cellular component of the innate immune system, given their ability to rapidly produce effector cytokines and kill infected or transformed cells without prior exposure. More recently, NK cells have been shown to possess features of adaptive immunity such as clonal expansion, longevity, and robust recall responses. NK cell memory can be broadly divided into two categories: antigen-specific and antigen-independent. In the first case, exposure to certain viral or hapten stimuli endows NK cells with antigen-specific immunological memory, similar to T and B cells...
August 29, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869063/nanoparticles-and-innate-immunity-new-perspectives-on-host-defence
#11
REVIEW
Diana Boraschi, Paola Italiani, Roberto Palomba, Paolo Decuzzi, Albert Duschl, Bengt Fadeel, S Moein Moghimi
The innate immune system provides the first line of defence against foreign microbes and particulate materials. Engineered nanoparticles can interact with the immune system in many different ways. Nanoparticles may thus elicit inflammation with engagement of neutrophils, macrophages and other effector cells; however, it is important to distinguish between acute and chronic inflammation in order to identify the potential hazards of nanoparticles for human health. Nanoparticles may also interact with and become internalised by dendritic cells, key antigen-presenting cells of the immune system, where a better understanding of these processes could pave the way for improved vaccination strategies...
August 28, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855088/drug-nanocarriers-to-treat-autoimmunity-and-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Davide Prosperi, Miriam Colombo, Ivan Zanoni, Francesca Granucci
Nanoparticles represent a new generation of drug delivery systems that can be engineered to harness optimal target selectivity for specific cells and tissues and high drug loading capacity, allowing for improved pharmacokinetics and enhanced bioavailability of therapeutics. The spontaneous propensity of both organic and colloidal nanoparticles to be captured by the cells of the reticuloendothelial system encouraged their utilization as passive targeting systems that can be preferentially directed to innate immune cells, such as macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils...
August 28, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838796/nk-cell-based-immunotherapy-for-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Fang Fang, Weihua Xiao, Zhigang Tian
Natural killer (NK) cells can induce an antigen-independent immune response against malignant cells. A growing number of scientific reports and clinical studies have shown promising anti-tumor effects when using NK cell-based immunotherapy. Currently, various approaches are being used to enhance the number and function of NK cells. One approach uses cytokines to selectively boost both the number as well as the efficacy of anti-tumor functions of NK cells. Another emerging approach focuses on checkpoint inhibitors targeting the NK cell receptor...
August 21, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822617/microbiota-dysbiosis-in-select-human-cancers-evidence-of-association-and-causality
#14
REVIEW
Jie Chen, Jada C Domingue, Cynthia L Sears
The human microbiota is a complex ecosystem of diverse microorganisms consisting of bacteria, viruses, and fungi residing predominantly in epidermal and mucosal habitats across the body, such as skin, oral cavity, lung, intestine and vagina. These symbiotic communities in health, or dysbiotic communities in disease, display tremendous interaction with the local environment and systemic responses, playing a critical role in the host's nutrition, immunity, metabolism and diseases including cancers. While the profiling of normal microbiota in healthy populations is useful and necessary, more recent studies have focused on the microbiota associated with disease, particularly cancers...
August 16, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807539/murine-models-for-mucosal-tolerance-in-allergy
#15
REVIEW
Ursula Smole, Irma Schabussova, Winfried F Pickl, Ursula Wiedermann
Immunity is established by a fine balance to discriminate between self and non-self. In addition, mucosal surfaces have the unique ability to establish and maintain a state of tolerance also against non-self constituents such as those represented by the large numbers of commensals populating mucosal surfaces and food-derived or air-borne antigens. Recent years have seen a dramatic expansion in our understanding of the basic mechanisms and the involved cellular and molecular players orchestrating mucosal tolerance...
August 11, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802693/diversity-of-tissue-resident-nk-cells
#16
REVIEW
Hui Peng, Zhigang Tian
Although natural killer (NK) cells were initially named for their spontaneous tumor-killing capacity, their concept has been greatly expanded with more than 40 years of extensive investigation. Currently, NK cells are known as a heterogeneous population of innate lymphoid cell (ILC) family, consisting of different subsets with unique phenotypic and functional features. Recent studies have shown that tissue-resident NK (trNK) cells, which are distinct from conventional NK (cNK) cells, preferentially distribute in non-lymphoid tissues, such as the liver, uterus, salivary gland, and adipose...
August 9, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789818/windows-of-opportunity-for-tolerance-induction-for-allergy-by-studying-the-evolution-of-allergic-sensitization-in-birth-cohorts
#17
REVIEW
Marit Westman, Anna Asarnoj, Carl Hamsten, Magnus Wickman, Marianne van Hage
Allergic sensitization is a risk factor for developing IgE-mediated allergic diseases, which are a major cause of chronic illness world-wide. The introduction of allergen molecules to the field of allergy diagnostics has allowed dissecting the IgE response on a molecular level to pinpoint the specific disease-causing allergens. Studying birth cohorts is an essential tool for understanding the development and life course of allergy, enabling the possibility to design preventive strategies. Here we review the evolution of sensitization using data from some of the large European birth cohort studies...
August 5, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780220/clinical-aspects-of-oral-immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-allergies
#18
REVIEW
Noriyuki Yanagida, Sakura Sato, Motohiro Ebisawa
Studies on oral immunotherapy (OIT) have been increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, some concerns exist with this treatment. The rate of long-term sustained unresponsiveness is quite low; moreover, the desensitization or sustained unresponsiveness does not equate to tolerance. Furthermore, adverse reactions are frequent. Therefore, safe and feasible methods for long-term therapies are needed. Novel therapies such as low-dose OIT, hypoallergenic products, and OIT in combination with omalizumab are reported as effective for inducing sustained unresponsiveness and may lead to fewer adverse reactions than standard OIT...
August 2, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774470/history-and-mechanisms-of-oral-tolerance
#19
REVIEW
Rafael M Rezende, Howard L Weiner
Since its first description by Wells and Osbourne in 1911, oral tolerance has intrigued researchers due to its potential for therapeutic applications. Oral tolerance can be defined as an inhibition of specific immune responsiveness to subsequent parenteral injections of proteins to which an individual or animal has been previously exposed via the oral route. Tolerance induction to commensal bacteria and dietary proteins represents the major immunological event taking place in the gut in physiological conditions...
July 31, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760498/differences-and-similarities-between-sublingual-immunotherapy-of-allergy-and-oral-tolerance
#20
REVIEW
Philippe Moingeon, Laurent Mascarell
Allergen immunotherapy is the only treatment altering the natural course of IgE-mediated allergies. Whereas the subcutaneous route for immunotherapy (SCIT) has been historically considered as a reference, we discuss herein the relative advantages of the sublingual and oral routes as alternatives to SCIT in order to elicit allergen-specific tolerance. The buccal and gut immune systems are similarly organized to favor immune tolerance to antigens/allergens, due to the presence of tolerogenic dendritic cells and macrophages promoting the differentiation of CD4(+) regulatory T cells...
July 28, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
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