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Seminars in Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884543/immunometabolism-is-it-under-the-eye-of-the-clock
#1
REVIEW
James O Early, Anne M Curtis
Molecular clocks allow an organism to track time of day, providing the means to anticipate and respond to the daily changes within the environment. In mammals the molecular clock consists of a network of proteins that form auto-regulatory feedback loops that drive rhythms in physiology and behavior. In recent times the extent to which the molecular clock controls key metabolic and immune pathways has begun to emerge. For example, the main clock protein BMAL1 has been linked to mitochondrial metabolism, mitochondrial dynamics and various host defense pathways...
November 21, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881292/innate-immunity-hemostasis-and-matrix-remodeling-ptx3-as-a-link
#2
REVIEW
Andrea Doni, Cecilia Garlanda, Alberto Mantovani
Innate immunity is evolutionarily connected with hemostasis. PTX3 is an essential fluid-phase pattern recognition molecule of the innate immune system that acts as a functional ancestor of antibodies. PTX3 by interacting with defense collagens and fibrinogens amplifies effector functions of the innate immune system. At wound sites, PTX3 regulates the injury-induced thrombotic response and promotes wound healing by favoring timely fibrinolysis. Therefore, PTX3 interacts with ancestral domains conserved in innate immunity, hemostasis and extracellular matrix and exerts functions related to both antimicrobial resistance and tissue repair...
November 20, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876233/role-of-platelets-in-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-net-production-and-tissue-injury
#3
REVIEW
Seok-Joo Kim, Craig N Jenne
In addition to their well-known role as the cellular mediator of thrombosis, numerous studies have identified key roles for platelets during various disease processes. Importantly, platelets play a critical role in the host immune response, directly interacting with, and eliminating pathogens, from the blood stream. In addition to pathogen clearance, platelets also contribute to leukocyte recruitment at sites of infection and inflammation, and modulate leukocyte activity. Platelet interaction with activated neutrophils is a potent inducer of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET)...
November 18, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876232/hypercoagulation-and-complement-connected-players-in-tumor-development-and-metastases
#4
REVIEW
Silvia Guglietta, Maria Rescigno
Hypercoagulation is a common feature of several tumors to the extent that individuals with coagulation defects often present with occult visceral cancers. Recent evidence has shown that hypercoagulation is not just a mere secondary effect due to the presence of the tumor, rather it actively contributes to tumor development and dissemination. Among the numerous mechanisms that can contribute to cancer-associated hypercoagulation, the ones involving immune-mediated processes are gaining increasing attention. In particular, complement cascade and hypercoagulation are one inducing the other in a vicious circle that involves neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation...
November 18, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866916/blood-coagulation-in-immunothrombosis-at-the-frontline-of-intravascular-immunity
#5
REVIEW
Florian Gaertner, Steffen Massberg
While hemostasis is the physiological process that prevents blood loss after vessel injury, thrombosis is often portrayed as a pathologic event involving blood coagulation and platelet aggregation eventually leading to vascular occlusion and tissue damage. However, recent work suggests that thrombosis can also be a physiological process, termed immunothrombosis, initiated by the innate immune system providing a first line of defense to locally control infection. Fibrin forms the structural basis of immunothrombotic clots and its assembly involves the concerted action of coagulation factors, platelets and leukocytes...
November 17, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825556/metabolic-pathways-in-t-cell-activation-and-lineage-differentiation
#6
REVIEW
Luís Almeida, Matthias Lochner, Luciana Berod, Tim Sparwasser
Recent advances in the field of immunometabolism support the concept that fundamental processes in T cell biology, such as TCR-mediated activation and T helper lineage differentiation, are closely linked to changes in the cellular metabolic programs. Although the major task of the intermediate metabolism is to provide the cell with a constant supply of energy and molecular precursors for the production of biomolecules, the dynamic regulation of metabolic pathways also plays an active role in shaping T cell responses...
November 4, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802906/platelet-mediated-modulation-of-adaptive-immunity
#7
REVIEW
Matteo Iannacone
Besides being the main cellular effectors of hemostasis, platelets possess a plethora of intracellular mediators (e.g. cytokines, chemokines and antimicrobial molecules) as well as surface receptors (e.g. P-selectin, integrins, CD40L, intercellular adhesion molecule [ICAM]-2, junctional adhesion molecule [JAM]-A, CD44, Toll-like receptors, chemokine receptors) known for their involvement in inflammatory and immune responses. These aspects of platelet biology, which suggest an evolutionary link to a more primitive multifunctional innate defensive cell, position platelets at the interface between coagulation and immunity...
October 29, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789087/adipose-tissue-at-the-nexus-of-systemic-and-cellular-immunometabolism
#8
REVIEW
Ayano C Kohlgruber, Nelson M LaMarche, Lydia Lynch
At the simplest interpretation of the word, Immunometabolism describes the intersection of the fields of immunology and metabolism. With rapidly growing interest in this field, the term has expanded, and now encompasses a variety of concepts and definitions shaped by an individual's scientific area of expertise, cell-type and tissue of interest, and biological approach. One scientist may be interested in investigating the intrinsic metabolic checkpoints that drive a M1 versus M2 macrophage response, while another may be interested in how macrophages affect systemic metabolism during obesity...
October 24, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780657/metabolic-reprogramming-inflammation-fuelling-the-host-response-to-pathogens
#9
REVIEW
Laura E Gleeson, Frederick J Sheedy
Successful immune responses to pathogens rely on efficient host innate processes to contain and limit bacterial growth, induce inflammatory response and promote antigen presentation for the development of adaptive immunity. This energy intensive process is regulated through multiple mechanisms including receptor-mediated signaling, control of phago-lysomal fusion events and promotion of bactericidal activities. Inherent macrophage activities therefore are dynamic and are modulated by signals and changes in the environment during infection...
October 22, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771141/polarization-and-asymmetry-in-t-cell-metabolism
#10
Marcin M Kamiński, Swantje Liedmann, Sandra Milasta, Douglas R Green
T cell activation results in a rapidly proliferating T cell endowed with a metabolic phenotype necessary for growth and division. However, before the cell can proceed towards this burst of cell division a phase of quiescence occurs, during which the basic mechanisms governing regulation of metabolic reprograming are established. This review focuses on key cellular processes controlling early metabolic regulation and how these circuits of metabolic control dictate distinct cellular fates upon the first asymmetric division...
October 19, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771140/integrating-immunometabolism-and-macrophage-diversity
#11
Maxim N Artyomov, Alexey Sergushichev, Joel D Schilling
Macrophages are heterogeneous cells that play a key role in inflammatory and tissue reparative responses. Over the past decade it has become clear that shifts in cellular metabolism are important determinants of macrophage function and phenotype. At the same time, our appreciation of macrophage diversity in vivo has also been increasing. Factors such as cell origin and tissue localization are now recognized as important variables that influence macrophage biology. Whether different macrophage populations also have unique metabolic phenotypes has not been extensively explored...
October 19, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769639/platelets-and-infection
#12
Carsten Deppermann, Paul Kubes
The primary function of platelets is to patrol the vasculature and seal vessel breaches to limit blood loss. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that they also contribute to pathophysiological conditions like thrombosis, atherosclerosis, stroke and infection. Severe sepsis is a devastating disease that claims hundreds of thousands of lives every year in North America and is a major burden to the public health system. Platelet surface receptors like GPIb, αIIbβ3, TLR2 and TLR4 are involved in direct platelet-bacteria interactions...
October 18, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726910/the-modern-interleukin-1-superfamily-divergent-roles-in-obesity
#13
Man K S Lee, Laurent Yvan-Charvet, Seth L Masters, Andrew J Murphy
Obesity is now recognised as a chronic, low-grade inflammatory disease contributing to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Multiple mechanisms leading to the low grade inflammation in this setting have been suggested. Due to the complexity and interconnection of inflammatory and metabolic responses, there also remains a need to fully elucidate the inflammatory mechanisms that control obesity and associated metabolic disorders. One important avenue in the field that has gained great attention is the interleukin (IL)-1 superfamily of cytokines that consist of IL-1β, IL-18 and IL-33...
October 7, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720234/metabolic-control-of-immune-tolerance-in-health-and-autoimmunity
#14
Fortunata Carbone, Claudia La Rocca, Paola De Candia, Claudio Procaccini, Alessandra Colamatteo, Teresa Micillo, Veronica De Rosa, Giuseppe Matarese
The filed that links immunity and metabolism is rapidly expanding. The adipose tissue, by secreting a series of immune regulators called adipokines, represents the common mediator linking metabolic processes and immune system functions. The dysregulation of adipokine secretion, occurring in obese individuals or in conditions of malnutrition or dietary restriction, affects the activity of immune cells resulting in inflammatory autoimmune responses or increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. Alterations of cell metabolism that characterize several autoimmune diseases strongly support the idea that the immune tolerance is also regulated by metabolic pathways...
October 5, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717536/the-hypoxia-inducible-factor-hif-couples-immunity-with-metabolism
#15
Doug N Halligan, Stephen J E Murphy, Cormac T Taylor
Crosstalk between metabolic and immune pathways has recently become appreciated to be key to the regulation of host defence. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a transcription factor which was initially described as a ubiquitous master regulator of the transcriptional response to hypoxia. In this role, HIF regulates genes promoting adaptation to hypoxia including a number which influence the cellular metabolic strategy of a cell. It has more recently been appreciated that the regulation of HIF is not restricted to oxygen-dependent pathways, and is now known to be mediated by a number of additional metabolic and immune cues including metabolites and cytokines respectively...
October 4, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712958/nutrients-and-the-microenvironment-to-feed-a-t-cell-army
#16
Marc O Johnson, Peter J Siska, Diana C Contreras, Jeffrey C Rathmell
T cells have dramatic functional and proliferative shifts in the course of maintaining immune protection from pathogens and cancer. To support these changes, T cells undergo metabolic reprogramming upon stimulation and again after antigen clearance. Depending on the extrinsic cell signals, T cells can differentiate into functionally distinct subsets that utilize and require diverse metabolic programs. Effector T cells (Teff) enhance glucose and glutamine uptake, whereas regulatory T cells (Treg) do not rely on significant rates of glycolysis...
October 3, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686054/immunometabolic-circuits-in-trained-immunity
#17
Rob J W Arts, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea
The classical view that only adaptive immunity can build immunological memory has recently been challenged. Both in organisms lacking adaptive immunity as well as in mammals, the innate immune system can adapt to mount an increased resistance to reinfection, a de facto innate immune memory termed trained immunity. Recent studies have revealed that rewiring of cellular metabolism induced by different immunological signals is a crucial step for determining the epigenetic changes underlying trained immunity. Processes such as a shift of glucose metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, increased glutamine metabolism and cholesterol synthesis, play a crucial role in these processes...
September 26, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681670/nutrient-sensing-signal-transduction-and-immune-responses
#18
Jessica Walls, Linda Sinclair, David Finlay
Most cells in the body have a constant supply of nutrients, which are required to sustain cellular metabolism and functions. In contrast, cells of the immune system can encounter conditions with a limited nutrient supply during the course of an immune response. Cells of the immune system frequently operate in complex nutrient restricted microenvironments such as tumour or inflammatory sites. The concentrations of key nutrients such as glucose and certain amino acids, can be low at these sites, and this can have an impact upon immune cell function...
September 24, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502012/adaptation-and-memory-in-innate-immunity
#19
EDITORIAL
Mihai G Netea, Leo A B Joosten, Jos W M van der Meer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424188/epigenetic-memory-a-macrophage-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Colin Logie, Hendrik G Stunnenberg
The molecular basis of cellular memory is a fascinating topic that progressed with great strides during the last few decades. In the case of cells of the immune system, cellular memory likely extends beyond cell fate determination mechanisms, since immunity can tailor its responses to a potentially hostile environment that is a priori variable if not unpredictable. One particularly versatile innate immune system cell type is the macrophage. These phagocytes occur in all organs and tissues as resident cells or as differentiation products of recruited circulating blood monocytes...
August 2016: Seminars in Immunology
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