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Seminars in Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950273/correlates-of-immune-exacerbations-in-leprosy
#1
REVIEW
Annemieke Geluk
Leprosy is still a considerable health threat in pockets of several low and middle income countries worldwide where intense transmission is witnessed, and often results in irreversible disabilities and deformities due to delayed- or misdiagnosis. Early detection of leprosy represents a substantial hurdle in present-day leprosy health care. The dearth of timely diagnosis has, however, particularly severe consequences in the case of inflammatory episodes, designated leprosy reactions, which represent the major cause of leprosy-associated irreversible neuropathy...
June 24, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914653/the-potential-of-imaging-tools-as-correlates-of-infection-and-disease-for-new-tb-vaccine-development
#2
REVIEW
Stephanus T Malherbe, Léanie Kleynhans, Gerhard Walzl
The development of an improved vaccine to stimulate an effective response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection and disease will be a major breakthrough in the fight against TB. A lack of tools to adequately track the progression or resolution of events in TB pathogenesis that occur at bacterial loads below the threshold for culture in human samples seriously hampers vaccine development and evaluation. In this review we discuss recent studies that use new imaging applications, modalities and analysis techniques to provide insight into the dynamic processes of MTB infection and disease that are challenging to monitor...
June 15, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903548/antibody-glycosylation-in-inflammation-disease-and-vaccination
#3
REVIEW
Galit Alter, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Simone A Joosten
Antibodies are antigen recognizing immunoglobulins with an amazingly diverse repertoire in the antigen specific domain. The diversity of the antibody response is further increased by modifications such as somatic recombination and hypermutation. Furthermore, variation in the isotype and post-translational modifications such as Fc glycosylation further increase diversity of the effector functions. In particular variations in the glycan structures contribute significantly to the functional capacities of the antibodies...
June 11, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801750/correlates-of-adjuvanticity-a-review-on-adjuvants-in-licensed-vaccines
#4
REVIEW
Giuseppe Del Giudice, Rino Rappuoli, Arnaud M Didierlaurent
After decades of slow progress, the last years have seen a rapid acceleration of the development of adjuvanted vaccines which have lately been approved for human use. These adjuvants consist of different components, e.g. aluminium salts, emulsions such as MF59 and AS03, Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists (CpG ormonophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) adsorbed on aluminium salts as in AS04) or combination of immunopotentiators (QS-21 and MPL in AS01). Despite their distinctive features, most of these adjuvants share some key characteristics...
May 22, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747940/insights-into-the-role-of-il-32-in-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Yvette J E Sloot, Johannes W Smit, Leo A B Joosten, Romana T Netea-Maier
Interleukin 32 (IL-32) is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in the development of several diseases, including cancer. IL-32 is a rather peculiar cytokine because its protein structure does not show resemblance with any of the known cytokines, and an IL-32 receptor to facilitate extracellular signaling has not yet been identified. Thus far, 9 isoforms of IL-32 have been described, all of which show differences in terms of effects and in potency to elicit a specific effect. Since the first report of IL-32 in 2005, there is increasing evidence that IL-32 plays an important role in the pathophysiology of both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors...
May 7, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709421/correlates-of-immune-and-clinical-activity-of-novel-cancer-vaccines
#6
REVIEW
Sjoerd H van der Burg
Cancer vaccines are solely meant to amplify the pool of type 1 cytokine oriented CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that recognize tumor antigen and ultimately foster control and destruction of a growing tumor. They are not designed to deal with all aspects of immune ignorance, exclusion, suppression and escape that are generally in place in patients with cancer and may prevent the T cells to enter the tumor or to exert their effector function. This simple fact prompted for a reappraisal of the many recent trials in which therapeutic cancer vaccines have been examined as monotherapy...
April 27, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857931/back-to-the-future-non-canonical-functions-of-complement
#7
EDITORIAL
Claudia Kemper, Jörg Köhl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573978/pathogen-clearance-and-immune-adherence-revisited-immuno-regulatory-roles-for-crig
#8
REVIEW
Menno van Lookeren Campagne, Admar Verschoor
Rapid elimination of microbes from the bloodstream, along with the ability to mount an adaptive immune response, are essential for optimal host-defense. Kupffer cells are strategically positioned in the liver sinusoids and efficiently capture circulating microbes from the hepatic artery and portal vein, thus preventing bacterial dissemination. In vivo and in vitro studies have probed how complement receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily (CRIg), also referred to as Z39Ig and V-set and Ig domain-containing 4 (VSIG4), acts as a critical player in pathogen recognition and clearance...
June 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525104/complement-in-stem-cells-and-development
#9
REVIEW
Owen A Hawksworth, Liam G Coulthard, Susanna Mantovani, Trent M Woodruff
From its discovery in the late nineteenth century, as a 'complement' to the cellular immune response, the complement system has been widely affirmed as a powerful controller of innate and adaptive immune responses. In recent decades however, new roles for complement have been discovered, with multiple complement proteins now known to function in a broad array of non-immune systems. This includes during development, where complement exerts control over stem cell populations from fertilization and implantation throughout embryogenesis and beyond post-natal development...
June 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486961/the-intestinal-complement-system-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-shaping-intestinal-barrier-function
#10
REVIEW
Christian Sina, Claudia Kemper, Stefanie Derer
The complement system is part of innate sensor and effector systems such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). It recognizes and quickly systemically and/or locally respond to microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) with a tailored defense reaction. MAMP recognition by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and appropriate immune responses are of major importance for the maintenance of intestinal barrier function. Enterocytes highly express various complement components that are suggested to be pivotal for proper IEC function...
June 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478824/an-unexpected-player-in-gaucher-disease-the-multiple-roles-of-complement-in-disease-development
#11
REVIEW
Manoj K Pandey, Gregory A Grabowski, Jörg Köhl
The complement system is well appreciated for its role as an important effector of innate immunity that is activated by the classical, lectin or alternative pathway. C5a is one important mediator of the system that is generated in response to canonical and non-canonical C5 cleavage by circulating or cell-derived proteases. In addition to its function as a chemoattractant for neutrophils and other myeloid effectors, C5a and its sister molecule C3a have concerted roles in cell homeostasis and surveillance. Through activation of their cognate G protein coupled receptors, C3a and C5a regulate multiple intracellular pathways within the mitochondria and the lysosomal compartments that harbor multiple enzymes critical for protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism...
June 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454576/janus-face-of-complement-driven-neutrophil-activation-during-sepsis
#12
REVIEW
R Halbgebauer, C Q Schmidt, C M Karsten, A Ignatius, M Huber-Lang
During local and systemic inflammation, the complement system and neutrophil granulocytes are activated not only by pathogens, but also by released endogenous danger signals. It is recognized increasingly that complement-mediated neutrophil activation plays an ambivalent role in sepsis pathophysiology. According to the current definition, the onset of organ dysfunction is a hallmark of sepsis. The preceding organ damage can be caused by excessive complement activation and neutrophil actions against the host, resulting in bystander injury of healthy tissue...
June 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454575/targeting-complement-mediated-immunoregulation-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#13
REVIEW
Martin Kolev, Maciej M Markiewski
Complement was initially discovered as an assembly of plasma proteins "complementing" the cytolytic activity of antibodies. However, our current knowledge places this complex system of several plasma proteins, receptors, and regulators in the center of innate immunity as a bridge between the initial innate responses and adaptive immune reactions. Consequently, complement appears to be pivotal for elimination of pathogens, not only as an early response defense, but by directing the subsequent adaptive immune response...
June 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426568/complement-links-platelets-to-innate-immunity
#14
REVIEW
Henry Nording, Harald F Langer
The complement system is a versatile part of our immune system. Various intersection points of complement with other cells and molecules of the immune response are well described. Platelets are classically conceived as cells of hemostasis. In recent years, however, several functions of platelets "beyond thrombosis" were discovered. This review depicts the crosstalk of platelets with components of the immune system in the context of thrombo-inflammation. In particular, the various ways, in which platelets interact with the complement system, are illustrated...
June 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395681/complement-involvement-in-bone-homeostasis-and-bone-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Yvonne Mödinger, Bettina Löffler, Markus Huber-Lang, Anita Ignatius
An integral part of innate immunity is the complement system, a defence system, consisting of fluid-phase and cell surface-bound proteins. Its role to ensure adequate responses to danger factors and thus promoting host defence against pathogens has been well described already for decades. Recently, numerous further reaching functions of complement have been discovered, among these are tissue homeostasis and regeneration, also with respect to the skeletal system. The influence of complement activation on bone was recognised first in pathological conditions of inflamed bone tissue and surrounding areas, observed, for example, in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis...
June 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631809/intracellular-complement-activation-an-alarm-raising-mechanism
#16
REVIEW
M P Reichhardt, S Meri
It has become increasingly apparent that the complement system, being an ancient defense mechanism, is not operative only in the extracellular milieu but also intracellularly. In addition to the known synthetic machinery in the liver and by macrophages, many other cell types, including lymphocytes, adipocytes and epithelial cells produce selected complement components. Activation of e.g. C3 and C5 inside cells may have multiple effects ranging from direct antimicrobial defense to cell differentiation and possible influence on metabolism...
April 7, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550156/re-thinking-our-understanding-of-immunity-robustness-in-the-tissue-reconstruction-system
#17
REVIEW
Marie-Elise Truchetet, Thomas Pradeu
Robustness, understood as the maintenance of specific functionalities of a given system against internal and external perturbations, is pervasive in today's biology. Yet precise applications of this notion to the immune system have been scarce. Here we show that the concept of robustness sheds light on tissue repair, and particularly on the crucial role the immune system plays in this process. We describe the specific mechanisms, including plasticity and redundancy, by which robustness is achieved in the tissue reconstruction system (TRS)...
April 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503124/the-immunological-functions-of-the-appendix-an-example-of-redundancy
#18
REVIEW
Mathilde J H Girard-Madoux, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg, Catherine Mooser, Gabrielle T Belz, Andrew J Macpherson, Eric Vivier
Biological redundancy ensures robustness in living organisms at several levels, from genes to organs. In this review, we explore the concept of redundancy and robustness through an analysis of the caecal appendix, an organ that is often considered to be a redundant remnant of evolution. However, phylogenic data show that the Appendix was selected during evolution and is unlikely to disappear once it appeared. In humans, it is highly conserved and malformations are extremely rare, suggesting a role for that structure...
April 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290544/robust-control-of-the-adaptive-immune-system
#19
REVIEW
Harikesh S Wong, Ronald N Germain
The adaptive immune system continually faces unpredictable circumstances yet reproducibly counteracts invading pathogens while limiting damage to self. However, the system is dynamic in nature: many of its internal components are not fixed, but rather, fluctuate over time. This concept is exemplified by αβ T lymphocytes, which vary significantly from cell-to-cell in their spatiotemporal dynamics, antigen-binding receptors, and subcellular protein concentrations. How are reproducible immune functions achieved in the face of such variability? This design principle is known as robustness and requires the system to employ layered control schemes that both buffer and exploit different facets of cellular variation...
April 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273304/redundancy-and-robustness-versus-division-of-labour-and-specialization-in-innate-immunity
#20
REVIEW
Alberto Mantovani
Apparent redundancy is a recurrent theme in innate immunity in various domains including inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and pattern recognition receptors. While sharing core function, different mediators may subserve distinct functions related for instance to production and release (e.g. IL-1α versus IL-1β), predominantly local versus systemic function (e.g. PTX3 versus C-reactive protein) or fine tuning of innate and adaptive responses (chemokines). Based on hard-wired phagocyte recruitment and regulation by a wide spectrum of chemokines and conventional or atypical receptors, I argue that trafficking of phagocytic cells is a robust output of the chemokine system, resistant to genetic or environmental variation...
April 2018: Seminars in Immunology
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