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Seminars in Immunology

Ulf Andersson, Huan Yang, Helena Harris
Alarmins are preformed, endogenous molecules that can be promptly released to signal cell or tissue stress or damage. The ubiquitous nuclear molecule high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a prototypical alarmin activating innate immunity. HMGB1 serves a dual alarmin function. The protein can be emitted to alert adjacent cells about endangered homeostasis of the HMGB1-releasing cell. In addition to this expected path of an alarmin, extracellular HMGB1 can be internalized via RAGE-receptor mediated endocytosis to the endolysosomal compartment while attached to other extracellular proinflammatory molecules...
March 9, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Owen A Hawksworth, Liam G Coulthard, Susanna Mantovani, Trent M Woodruff
From its discovery in the late nineteenth century, as a 'complement' to the cellular immune response, the complement system has been widely affirmed as a powerful controller of innate and adaptive immune responses. In recent decades however, new roles for complement have been discovered, with multiple complement proteins now known to function in a broad array of non-immune systems. This includes during development, where complement exerts control over stem cell populations from fertilization and implantation throughout embryogenesis and beyond post-natal development...
March 7, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Mathilde J H Girard-Madoux, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg, Catherine Mooser, Gabrielle T Belz, Andrew J Macpherson, Eric Vivier
Biological redundancy ensures robustness in living organisms at several levels, from genes to organs. In this review, we explore the concept of redundancy and robustness through an analysis of the caecal appendix, an organ that is often considered to be a redundant remnant of evolution. However, phylogenic data show that the Appendix was selected during evolution and is unlikely to disappear once it appeared. In humans, it is highly conserved and malformations are extremely rare, suggesting a role for that structure...
March 1, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
De Yang, Zhen Han, Md Masud Alam, Joost J Oppenheim
High-mobility group (HMG) nucleosome binding domain 1 (HMGN1), which previously was thought to function only as a nucleosome-binding protein that regulates chromatin structure, histone modifications, and gene expression, was recently discovered to be an alarmin that contributes extracellularly to the generation of innate and adaptive immune responses. HMGN1 promotes DC recruitment through interacting with a Gαi protein-coupled receptor (GiPCR) and activates DCs predominantly through triggering TLR4. HMGN1 preferentially promotes Th1-type immunity, which makes it relevant for the fields of vaccinology, autoimmunity, and oncoimmunology...
March 1, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Francesco De Sanctis, Stefano Ugel, John Facciponte, Andrea Facciabene
Angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer and a requisite that tumors must achieve to fulfill their metabolic needs of nutrients and oxygen. As a critical step in cancer progression, the 'angiogenic switch' allows tumor cells to survive and grow, and provides them access to vasculature resulting in metastatic progression and dissemination. Tumor-dependent triggering of the angiogenic switch has critical consequences on tumor progression which extends from an increased nutrient supply and relies instead on the ability of the tumor to hijack the host immune response for the generation of a local immunoprivileged microenvironment...
February 26, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Christian Sina, Claudia Kemper, Stefanie Derer
The complement system is part of innate sensor and effector systems such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). It recognizes and quickly systemically and/or locally respond to microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) with a tailored defense reaction. MAMP recognition by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and appropriate immune responses are of major importance for the maintenance of intestinal barrier function. Enterocytes highly express various complement components that are suggested to be pivotal for proper IEC function...
February 24, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Manoj K Pandey, Gregory A Grabowski, Jörg Köhl
The complement system is well appreciated for its role as an important effector of innate immunity that is activated by the classical, lectin or alternative pathway. C5a is one important mediator of the system that is generated in response to canonical and non-canonical C5 cleavage by circulating or cell-derived proteases. In addition to its function as a chemoattractant for neutrophils and other myeloid effectors, C5a and its sister molecule C3a have concerted roles in cell homeostasis and surveillance. Through activation of their cognate G protein coupled receptors, C3a and C5a regulate multiple intracellular pathways within the mitochondria and the lysosomal compartments that harbor multiple enzymes critical for protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism...
February 22, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
R Halbgebauer, C Q Schmidt, C M Karsten, A Ignatius, M Huber-Lang
During local and systemic inflammation, the complement system and neutrophil granulocytes are activated not only by pathogens, but also by released endogenous danger signals. It is recognized increasingly that complement-mediated neutrophil activation plays an ambivalent role in sepsis pathophysiology. According to the current definition, the onset of organ dysfunction is a hallmark of sepsis. The preceding organ damage can be caused by excessive complement activation and neutrophil actions against the host, resulting in bystander injury of healthy tissue...
February 14, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Martin Kolev, Maciej M Markiewski
Complement was initially discovered as an assembly of plasma proteins "complementing" the cytolytic activity of antibodies. However, our current knowledge places this complex system of several plasma proteins, receptors, and regulators in the center of innate immunity as a bridge between the initial innate responses and adaptive immune reactions. Consequently, complement appears to be pivotal for elimination of pathogens, not only as an early response defense, but by directing the subsequent adaptive immune response...
February 14, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
A Rigoni, M P Colombo, C Pucillo
Basophils, eosinophils and mast cells were first recognized by Paul Ehrlich in the late 19th century. These cells have common, but non-redundant roles, in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and in the protection against parasites. Nevertheless, in virtue of their shared-adeptness to produce a huge variety of immunological mediators and express membrane-bound receptors, they are able to interact with immune and non-immune components of the tissue microenvironment, contributing to the regulation of tissue homeostasis and immune response while participating to further deregulation of tissues transforming into neoplasia...
February 7, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Henry Nording, Harald F Langer
The complement system is a versatile part of our immune system. Various intersection points of complement with other cells and molecules of the immune response are well described. Platelets are classically conceived as cells of hemostasis. In recent years, however, several functions of platelets "beyond thrombosis" were discovered. This review depicts the crosstalk of platelets with components of the immune system in the context of thrombo-inflammation. In particular, the various ways, in which platelets interact with the complement system, are illustrated...
February 6, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Tik Shing Cheung, Francesco Dazzi
Several studies have demonstrated how different cell types of mesenchymal and myeloid origin can independently exhibit immunoregulatory activities. In response to inflammatory cues, they transcribe a molecular repertoire that restores the tissue microenvironment to what it was before the injury. There is accumulating evidence that stromal and myeloid-derived cells do not act independently but that the establishment of a cross-talk between them is a fundamental requirement. Stromal cells, prompted by inflammatory molecules, orchestrate and initiate myeloid cell recruitment and their functional reprogramming...
January 30, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Yvonne Mödinger, Bettina Löffler, Markus Huber-Lang, Anita Ignatius
An integral part of innate immunity is the complement system, a defence system, consisting of fluid-phase and cell surface-bound proteins. Its role to ensure adequate responses to danger factors and thus promoting host defence against pathogens has been well described already for decades. Recently, numerous further reaching functions of complement have been discovered, among these are tissue homeostasis and regeneration, also with respect to the skeletal system. The influence of complement activation on bone was recognised first in pathological conditions of inflamed bone tissue and surrounding areas, observed, for example, in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis...
January 29, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Harikesh S Wong, Ronald N Germain
The adaptive immune system continually faces unpredictable circumstances yet reproducibly counteracts invading pathogens while limiting damage to self. However, the system is dynamic in nature: many of its internal components are not fixed, but rather, fluctuate over time. This concept is exemplified by αβ T lymphocytes, which vary significantly from cell-to-cell in their spatiotemporal dynamics, antigen-binding receptors, and subcellular protein concentrations. How are reproducible immune functions achieved in the face of such variability? This design principle is known as robustness and requires the system to employ layered control schemes that both buffer and exploit different facets of cellular variation...
December 29, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
Peter J Murray
Monocytes emerging from the bone marrow are the progenitors of monocyte-derived macrophages. An essential function of monocytes is to seed tissues with sufficient macrophages to replace loss from infection and tissue damage. Recent work from diverse inflammatory and homeostatic settings has shown monocytes also possess direct protective and pathogenic activities. Thus, monocytes are not simply needed to generate macrophages, but instead contribute to the overall orchestration of immunity. Some recently described properties of monocytes are both surprising and mechanistically specific; for example, inflammatory monocytes are required for the efficacy of transferred activated cytotoxic T cells, but can have potent tissue damaging effects while patrolling monocytes are required for anti-tumor immunity in some cases, but in another example provokes resistance to chemotherapy and thereby aid tumor growth...
December 28, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
Theresa L Whiteside
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a major component of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and play a key role in promoting tumor progression. The tumor uses exosomes to co-opt MSCs and re-program their functional profile from normally trophic to pro-tumorigenic. These tumor-derived small vesicles called "TEX" carry and deliver a cargo rich in proteins and nucleic acids to MSCs. Upon interactions with surface receptors on MSCs and uptake of the exosome cargo by MSCs, molecular, transcriptional and translational changes occur that convert MSCs into producers of factors that are necessary for tumor growth and that also alter functions of non-tumor cells in the TME...
December 27, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
Alberto Mantovani
Apparent redundancy is a recurrent theme in innate immunity in various domains including inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and pattern recognition receptors. While sharing core function, different mediators may subserve distinct functions related for instance to production and release (e.g. IL-1α versus IL-1β), predominantly local versus systemic function (e.g. PTX3 versus C-reactive protein) or fine tuning of innate and adaptive responses (chemokines). Based on hard-wired phagocyte recruitment and regulation by a wide spectrum of chemokines and conventional or atypical receptors, I argue that trafficking of phagocytic cells is a robust output of the chemokine system, resistant to genetic or environmental variation...
December 19, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
Gérard Eberl
In order to survive and reproduce, living organisms must be robust, tolerate injuries and undergo repair. Robustness in living organisms compares to robustness in human inventions, such as buildings and machines, which have to withstand occasional damage to avoid critical dysfunctions. However, the nature of robustness is fundamentally different in biology and in engineering. In living organisms, robustness is provided by homeostatic mechanisms, whereas in buildings and machines, it is provided by the redundancy of key elements...
December 16, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
Jie Zhou, Yulia Nefedova, Aihua Lei, Dmitry Gabrilovich
Neutrophils and polymorphonucler myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSC) share origin and many morphological and phenotypic features. However, they have different biological role. Neutrophils are one of the major mechanisms of protection against invading pathogens, whereas PMN-MDSC have immune suppressive activity and restrict immune responses in cancer, chronic infectious disease, trauma, sepsis, and many other pathological conditions. Although in healthy adult individuals, PMN-MDSC are not or barely detectable, in patients with cancer and many other diseases they accumulate at various degree and co-exist with neutrophils...
December 15, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
Jean-Laurent Casanova, Laurent Abel
For almost any given human-tropic virus, bacterium, fungus, or parasite, the clinical outcome of primary infection is enormously variable, ranging from asymptomatic to lethal infection. This variability has long been thought to be largely determined by the germline genetics of the human host, and this is increasingly being demonstrated to be the case. The number and diversity of known inborn errors of immunity is continually increasing, and we focus here on autosomal and X-linked recessive traits underlying complete deficiencies of the encoded protein...
December 15, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
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