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Endocrine Pathology

Ozgur Mete, Omalkhaire M Alshaikh, Amber Cintosun, Shereen Ezzat, Sylvia L Asa
We report clinicopathological features of a large series of synchronous multiple pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) of different cell lineages. Retrospective review of pathology records from 2001 to 2016 identified 13 synchronous multiple PitNETs from 1055 PitNETs classified using pituitary cell-lineage transcription factors, adenohypohyseal hormones, and other biomarkers. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of these tumors were reviewed. The series included seven females and six males...
September 13, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Xiaotun Zhang, Joshua M Howell, Yajue Huang
Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology coupled with needle-wash thyroglobulin (FNA-Tg) testing is recommended for cervical lymph node (LN) biopsies in patients with a history of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, the procedure has not been standardized with the assay for FNA-Tg testing. A standard operating procedure (SOP) has been generated at our facility for cervical LN FNAs with Tg reflex testing on patients with a history of PTC. The procedure requires FNA cytology to be reviewed first, and all cases not positive for PTC are reflexed for FNA-Tg testing with the Beckman Access thyroglobulin assay...
September 10, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Khurram Shafique, Virginia A LiVolsi, Kathleen Montone, Zubair W Baloch
Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) accounts for nearly 50% of newly diagnosed PTC cases. There is considerable debate in literature about the clinicopathologic features and prognostic significance of PTMC and whether it should be treated as a separate entity. Due to lack of agreement and supportive data, the consensus study group that established the criteria for non-invasive thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like features (NIFTP) kept its size above 1 cm i.e., excluding PTMC from this new group. As a result, to date, some patients diagnosed with PTMC get aggressive treatments such as partial or total thyroidectomy and even radioactive iodine ablation...
September 8, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Sachiko Konosu-Fukaya, Kei Omata, Yuta Tezuka, Yoshikiyo Ono, Yayoi Aoyama, Fumitoshi Satoh, Fumiyoshi Fujishima, Hironobu Sasano, Yasuhiro Nakamura
In chromaffin cells, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) are mainly involved in catecholamine synthesis. In this study, we evaluated the association between the status of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes and histopathological features of pheochromocytoma and extraadrenal paraganglioma with special emphasis upon their postoperative clinical behavior. Immunohistochemical evaluation of TH, DBH, AADC, PNMT, Ki 67, and S-100 was performed in 29 pheochromocytoma and 10 extraadrenal paraganglioma and one lymph node harboring metastatic pheochromocytoma...
August 28, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Daniel Lubin, Ezra Baraban, Amanda Lisby, Sahar Jalali-Farahani, Paul Zhang, Virginia Livolsi
There is evidence that programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is expressed by thyroid follicular epithelium in thyroiditis, but the role of PD-L1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is poorly understood. We aimed to determine whether (1) the presence of background chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) or Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) influenced the expression of PD-L1 in benign follicular epithelium or in PTC and (2) if PD-L1 expression in PTC persisted with lymph node metastasis. We performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) for PD-L1 on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues...
August 18, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Ya-Sian Chang, Chun-Chi Chang, Hsi-Yuan Huang, Chien-Yu Lin, Kun-Tu Yeh, Jan-Gowth Chang
Genetic and epigenetic alterations are associated with the progression and prognosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). We performed whole-exome sequencing of tumor tissue from seven patients with sporadic MTC using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing system. We conducted Sanger sequencing to confirm the somatic mutations in both tumor and matched normal tissues. We applied Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes functional enrichment analysis with the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery and STRING for pathway analysis...
August 17, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Francesca Capuano, Oneda Grami, Luigi Pugliese, Marco Paulli, Andrea Pietrabissa, Enrico Solcia, Alessandro Vanoli
Grade 3 well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (G3 NETs) have been characterized in the pancreas and stomach and distinguished from low-to-intermediate grade (G1-G2) NETs, as well as from highly malignant, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs). Up to now, no G3 NET has been thoroughly described in the distal small intestine. We herein report a case of a 61-year-old man presenting with carcinoid syndrome. The surgical specimen showed, in a background of small G1 ileal NETs, a larger, grade 3 NET, which retained the nesting pattern and the expression of serotonin, chromogranin-A, and type 2A somatostatin receptors, typical of well-differentiated jejuno-ileal NETs...
August 3, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
C Christofer Juhlin, Inga-Lena Nilsson, Anders Höög
The ultimobranchial body (UBB) denotes the cellular mass originating from the fourth branchial pouch, which migrates from the neural crest and infolds within the middle and upper poles of the thyroid lobes, thereby establishing the presence of calcitonin-secreting parafollicular C cells. In various numbers, UBB remnants (entitled "solid cell nests", or SCNs) are found in thyroid glands examined histologically. However, despite the close embryological relation between the UBB and the superior parathyroid glands, intraparathyroidal SCNs have to our knowledge not been previously reported...
July 12, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Bin Xu, Giovanni Tallini, Ronald A Ghossein
This article [1] has been retracted by the authors as it substantially overlaps with the following article [2]. All authors agree to the retraction.
September 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Kevin O'Hare, E O'Regan, A Khattak, M L Healy, M Toner
The aim of this study was to determine the number of cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) which could be reclassified as non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) in our institute over a 10-year period, document their clinical status and assess the number of slides that had to be reviewed per case to exclude NIFTP. The histopathology reports for thyroid resections for all papillary carcinoma over a 10-year period (2007-2016) were reviewed. Five hundred forty-five histopathology reports were reviewed, and 71 cases were identified as potential cases of NIFTP...
September 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Rita Abi-Raad, Manju Prasad, Rebecca Baldassari, Kevin Schofield, Glenda G Callender, David Chhieng, Adebowale J Adeniran
The Bethesda System for reporting thyroid cytopathology (BSRTC) predicts an incidence of malignancy of less than 5% in thyroid nodules with a benign diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration (FNA). However, recent series have suggested that the true rate of malignancy might be significantly higher in this category of patients. We reviewed our experience by performing a retrospective analysis of patients with benign thyroid FNA results who underwent thyroidectomy between 2008 and 2013 at a large academic center. Information including demographics, ultrasound features, FNA diagnosis, and surgical follow-up information were recorded...
September 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Elia Guadagno, Gaetano Luglio, Alessandro Iacobelli, Giorgio Borrelli, Antonio Castaldi, Gaetano De Rosa, Marialaura Del Basso De Caro
Grade 3 neuroendocrine tumor (NET G3) is a rare new entity that has recently been introduced in the classification of neuroendocrine neoplasms of the pancreas. It is a well-differentiated form, with a high proliferative activity (Ki67 > 20%), and it represents a category whose prognosis is intermediate between NET G2 and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC G3). In sites other than the pancreas, this new category is by far less coded. Herein is reported a case of NET G3 of the stomach, the 13th described in literature...
September 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Gozde Sengul Aycicek, Berna Imge Aydogan, Mustafa Sahin, Cevriye Cansız Ersoz, Serpil Dizbay Sak, Nilgun Baskal
We aimed to investigate the expressions of p27 kinase inhibitory protein 1 (p27Kip1 ) and calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in adenomas and normal parathyroid tissue and to evaluate the relationship of these molecules with clinical and biochemical parameters in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Fifty-one patients with histopathologically confirmed parathyroid adenomas and 20 patients with normal parathyroid glands (which were removed incidentally during thyroid resection) were included. Immunohistochemical stainings of CaSR and p27Kip1 were performed in surgical specimens...
September 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Maria José Carregosa Pinheiro Dos Santos, André Uchimura Bastos, Vitor Rodrigues da Costa, Rosana Delcelo, Susan Chow Lindsey, Gabriel Avelar Colozza-Gama, Hongzhuang Peng, Frank J Rauscher, Gisele Oler, Janete Maria Cerutti
We previously described that LIM domain containing 2 (LIMD2) overexpression was closely correlated with metastatic process in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We here evaluated the expression of LIMD2 in a series of non-metastatic and metastatic PTC and their matched lymph node metastases via immunohistochemistry. LIMD2 was expressed in 74 (81%) of primary PTC and 35 (95%) of lymph node metastases. Sub-analysis performed in 37 matched samples demonstrated that in four cases, LIMD2 is expressed in lymph node metastases, while it is not expressed in primary tumors...
September 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Abraham Neelankal John, Ramesh Ram, Fang-Xu Jiang
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global health issue and dedifferentiation plays underlying causes in the pathophysiology of T2D; however, there is a lack of understanding in the mechanism. Dedifferentiation results from the loss of function of pancreatic β-cells alongside a reduction in essential transcription factors under various physiological stressors. Our study aimed to establish db/db as an animal model for dedifferentiation by using RNA sequencing to compare the gene expression profile in islets isolated from wild-type, db/+ and db/db mice, and qPCR was performed to validate those significant genes...
September 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Lester D R Thompson, David N Poller, Kennichi Kakudo, Raoul Burchette, Yuri E Nikiforov, Raja R Seethala
The aim of the study was to assess interobserver variation in reporting nuclear features of encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, newly reclassified as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP), based on a proposed standardized scoring system. An education module was individually reviewed as a pre-evaluation teaching guide of the specific features of classical papillary carcinoma, the specific inclusion and exclusion features for the diagnosis of NIFTP, and a catalog of the standardized scoring system of the nuclear features of papillary carcinoma used to reach this diagnosis...
September 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Andrey Bychkov, Chan Kwon Jung, Zhiyan Liu, Kennichi Kakudo
The introduction of noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) was initiated and promoted by pathologists. Recent Asian studies added new knowledge to the existing literature to aid a better understanding of NIFTP. Our original data and the results of a meta-analysis suggest that the initial rate of NIFTP has been overestimated, averaging 9.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.0-12.7%) of all papillary thyroid cancers worldwide. The incidence of NIFTP in the Asian population (1...
September 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Sounak Gupta, Divya Sahu, John S Bomalaski, Igor Frank, Stephen A Boorjian, Prabin Thapa, John C Cheville, Donna E Hansel
High-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas (HGNECs) of the urinary bladder encompass small cell (SCNEC) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNEC). Currently, recommended initial management is with systemic chemotherapy, followed by consolidative therapy with either radical cystectomy or radiotherapy in patients with localized disease. Nevertheless, survival in this setting remains poor. We therefore evaluated the potential to modify arginine metabolism as an alternative, targeted therapy approach in these carcinomas...
September 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Kimberly Point du Jour, Alessandra C Schmitt, Amy Y Chen, Christopher C Griffith
In the original publication, the author name Kimberly Point du Jour was incorrectly captured. The correct Given name should be Kimberly and the Family name should be Point du Jour. The correct author name is presented in this correction article.
June 19, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Isinsu Kuzu, Ahmet Dogan
The hematolymphoid infiltrations are challenging lesions in endocrine organs and tissues. The fourth edition of WHO classification of tumors of endocrine organs and the fourth edition of WHO classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues are recently published. The updates in both fields include some new disease descriptions and prognostic markers. Our aim in this review article is to give practical diagnostic information about the most frequently seen hematolymphoid involvements of the pituitary gland, thyroid, and adrenal tissue...
June 2018: Endocrine Pathology
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