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Endocrine Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032398/analysis-of-mir-96-and-mir-133a-expression-in-gastrointestinal-neuroendocrine-neoplasms
#1
Rakesh Mandal, Heather Hardin, Rebecca Baus, William Rehrauer, Ricardo V Lloyd
Grading of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (GI-NENs) relies mainly on mitotic activity and Ki-67 proliferation index. It is often difficult to predict metastatic potential of these neoplasms. Recent studies have shown that GI-NENs express a wide spectrum of microRNAs. We examined two microRNAs (miR-96 and miR-133a) that were recently identified in GI-NENs to determine if they could assist in evaluating the biological behavior of these neoplasms. A tissue microarray (TMA) was constructed with 51 primary GI-NENs, mainly from the small intestine and metastatic tumors from the same cases, including liver metastases (N = 20) and lymph node metastases (N = 33)...
October 14, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019044/hobnail-variant-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-a-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
Francesca Ambrosi, Alberto Righi, Costantino Ricci, Lori A Erickson, Ricardo V Lloyd, Sofia Asioli
Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid malignancy and it is usually associated with a good prognosis. However, recurrence, metastases, and cancer death may occur in 10 to 15% of patients with more aggressive types of papillary thyroid carcinoma, such as tall cell, columnar cell, solid variant, or the more recently described hobnail variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Papillary thyroid carcinoma with a prominent hobnail pattern is a moderately differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma variant with aggressive clinical behavior and significant mortality...
October 10, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994039/utility-of-pit-1-immunostaining-in-distinguishing-pituitary-adenomas-of-primitive-differentiation-from-null-cell-adenomas
#3
Julieann C Lee, Melike Pekmezci, Jonathan L Lavezo, Hannes Vogel, Laurence Katznelson, Merav Fraenkel, Griffith Harsh, Mohanpal Dulai, Arie Perry, Tarik Tihan
Pit-1 immunostaining is not routinely used in the characterization of pituitary adenomas, and its utility in distinguishing adenomas dedicated towards the lactotroph, somatotroph, and thyrotroph lineage from null cell adenomas warrants further evaluation. Pituitary adenomas that were negative for expression of a basic panel of hormonal markers (ACTH, prolactin, and growth hormone) were further evaluated for TSH, SF-1, and Pit-1 expression using a tissue microarray. Among the 147 identified pituitary adenomas that were negative for ACTH, prolactin, growth hormone, and TSH, expression of SF-1 was present in 68 cases (46%)...
October 9, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965201/eif1ax-mutation-in-a-patient-with-h%C3%A3-rthle-cell-carcinoma
#4
Michael C Topf, Zi-Xuan Wang, Kevin Furlong, Jeffrey L Miller, Madalina Tuluc, Edmund A Pribitkin
The EIF1AX gene is a novel cancer gene that has been reported in the tumorigenesis of papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma, and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A 71-year-old woman presented with a right thyroid mass, which was follicular neoplasm on cytology. The fine needle aspirate of the nodule was examined by next-generation sequencing and found to harbor EIF1AX and TP53 mutations. Right thyroid lobectomy was performed with final pathology showing Hürthle cell carcinoma with capsular and vascular invasion...
September 30, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844117/well-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-neovasculature-expresses-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-a-possible-novel-therapeutic-target
#5
Maureen Moore, Suraj Panjwani, Rashmi Mathew, Michael Crowley, Yi-Fang Liu, Anna Aronova, Brendan Finnerty, Rasa Zarnegar, Thomas J Fahey, Theresa Scognamiglio
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a type II transmembrane glycoprotein receptor, is highly expressed in prostate cancer and in the tumor neovasculature of colon, breast, and adrenocortical tumors. Here, we analyzed PSMA expression in the neovasculature of various thyroid cancer subtypes and assessed whether PSMA expression is correlated with aggressive behavior. From a prospectively maintained database, we evaluated 91 samples from 68 patients, including 37 primary differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) [11 classic papillary (cPTC), 9 follicular-variant (FvPTC), 11 follicular (FTC), 6 radioactive iodine-refractory (RAIR)], 5 anaplastic (ATC) carcinomas, 9 distant and 12 lymph node metastases, 21 benign thyroid nodules, and 7 normal thyroid specimens...
August 26, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770422/depletion-of-beta-cell-intranuclear-rodlets-in-human-type-ii-diabetes
#6
Yi Yuan Zhou, Soufiane El Hallani, Fady Balaa, Waleed Mohammad, Douglas A Gray, John Woulfe
Intranuclear rodlets (INRs) are rod-shaped intranuclear bodies of unknown function present in the nuclei of pancreatic beta cells. Previous studies have demonstrated a significant depletion of INRs from beta cells in mouse models of type II diabetes, suggesting that they may have pathological significance. The objective of the present study was to determine whether beta cell INRs show quantitative alterations in human type II diabetes. In sections of non-neoplastic pancreas from 23 diabetic patients and 23 controls who had undergone complete or partial pancreatectomy, we detected a significant reduction in the proportion of INRs in insulin-immunoreactive beta cells...
August 2, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766057/overview-of-the-2017-who-classification-of-pituitary-tumors
#7
REVIEW
Ozgur Mete, M Beatriz Lopes
This review focuses on discussing the main changes on the upcoming fourth edition of the WHO Classification of Tumors of the Pituitary Gland emphasizing histopathological and molecular genetics aspects of pituitary neuroendocrine (i.e., pituitary adenomas) and some of the non-neuroendocrine tumors involving the pituitary gland. Instead of a formal review, we introduced the highlights of the new WHO classification by answering select questions relevant to practising pathologists. The revised classification of pituitary adenomas, in addition to hormone immunohistochemistry, recognizes the role of other immunohistochemical markers including but not limited to pituitary transcription factors...
August 1, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752484/composite-pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma-ganglioneuroma-a-clinicopathologic-study-of-eight-cases-with-analysis-of-succinate-dehydrogenase
#8
Sounak Gupta, Jun Zhang, Lori A Erickson
Ganglioneuromas represent the most well-differentiated spectrum of neoplasia arising from the sympathetic nervous system, while neuroblastomas represent the most poorly differentiated counterpart, and ganglioneuroblastomas represent intermediate stages of differentiation. Small series of cases have documented the co-occurrence of ganglioneuroma with a pheochromocytoma (Pheo)/paraganglioma (PGL) component. We report the clinicopathologic features of eight such cases, diagnosed between 2003 and 2015 with a mean follow-up of 22 months (1-47), which were evaluated for syndrome associations, SDHB expression, and clinical outcome...
July 27, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748505/comparison-of-consecutive-results-from-fine-needle-aspiration-and-core-needle-biopsy-in-thyroid-nodules
#9
Soon-Hyun Ahn, So-Yeon Park, Sang Il Choi
There are papers suggesting the complementary role of core needle biopsy (CNB) in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules. By comparing the result of CNB and fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology performed in consecutive cases of thyroid nodules, the role of CNB was evaluated. Retrospective reviews of 2131 FNA and 275 CNB which were performed as first-line biopsy for 2406 thyroid nodules in 2187 patients were performed. The ultrasound (US) feature of thyroid nodule was classified following the risk of malignancy suggested by American Thyroid Association (ATA) guideline...
July 26, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733877/expanding-the-spectrum-of-colonic-manifestations-in-tuberous-sclerosis-l-cell-neuroendocrine-tumor-arising-in-the-background-of-rectal-pecoma
#10
David L Kolin, Kai Duan, Bo Ngan, J Ted Gerstle, Monika K Krzyzanowska, Gino R Somers, Ozgur Mete
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous condition that predisposes to numerous proliferative lesions, including perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas), such as lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and angiomyolipomas, and rare neuroendocrine neoplasms. We describe herein a TSC2-harboring tuberous sclerosis patient manifesting with a synchronous well-differentiated L-cell rectal neuroendocrine tumor and leiomyomatosis-like LAM of the rectum. The background large bowel wall was thickened by confluent nodular areas comprising vessels and spindle-to-epithelioid cells, which are immunoreactive for myoid (smooth muscle actin, muscle specific actin, and desmin) and melanocytic markers (HMB45, Melan-A, microphthalmia transcription factor, and CD117)...
July 21, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730569/immune-escape-mechanism-is-impaired-in-the-microenvironment-of-thyroid-lymph-node-metastasis
#11
LETTER
Lucas Leite Cunha, Suely Nonogaki, Fernando Augusto Soares, José Vassallo, Laura Sterian Ward
We previously identified the infiltration of CD8+ lymphocytes and COX2 expression as an independent factor of risk for recurrence in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients. However, the presence of lymph node (LN) metastasis at diagnosis lost its significance in a multivariate model analysis. These results encouraged us to compare the immune cells arrangement in the microenvironment of the LN metastasis and the primary tumor. We studied 104 consecutive PTC patients. Tissue specimens of both primary tumor and LN metastasis at the time of diagnosis were available in 19 out of them...
July 20, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718084/pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumor-producing-insulin-and-vasopressin
#12
Omalkhaire M Alshaikh, Ju-Yoon Yoon, Bryan A Chan, Monika K Krzyzanowska, Jagdish Butany, Sylvia L Asa, Shereen Ezzat
The objective of the study is to report a rare case of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET) producing insulin and vasopressin. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a metastatic pNET with refractory hypoglycemia and progressive severe hyponatremia. A 52-year-old patient had abdominal pain leading to the diagnosis of a tumor that was initially presumed to be splenic in origin. Investigations ultimately identified a pancreatic mass that on biopsy proved to be a pNET. Eventually, he developed extensive liver metastases, and with tumor progression, he manifested hypoglycemia and severe hyponatremia...
July 17, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710706/synchronous-and-metastatic-papillary-and-follicular-thyroid-carcinomas-with-unique-molecular-signatures
#13
Vincent Cracolici, Ibro Mujacic, Sabah Kadri, Mir Alikhan, Nifang Niu, Jeremy P Segal, Lauren E Rosen, David H Sarne, Adam Morgan, Samy Desouky, Nicole A Cipriani
Despite the relatively high prevalence of thyroid cancer, the occurrence of multiple synchronous, distinct subtypes of primary thyroid carcinoma is uncommon. The incidental finding of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a gland with a biologically relevant follicular or medullary carcinoma is more frequent than the synchronous occurrence of multiple clinically significant carcinomas. We report a case of synchronous papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas metastatic to lymph node and bone, respectively. Next generation sequencing showed BRAF V600E mutation in the primary papillary carcinoma and NRAS Q61R mutation in the primary follicular carcinoma and bony metastasis...
July 14, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710705/long-term-outcomes-of-patients-with-noninvasive-follicular-thyroid-neoplasm-with-papillary-like-nuclear-features-niftp-%C3%A2-4%C3%A2-cm-treated-without-radioactive-iodine
#14
LETTER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660408/phosphorylated-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-p-mtor-and-noncoding-rna-expression-in-follicular-and-h%C3%A3-rthle-cell-thyroid-neoplasm
#15
Adam Covach, Sanjay Patel, Heather Hardin, Ricardo V Lloyd
Oncocytic (Hürthle cell) and follicular neoplasms are related thyroid tumors with distinct molecular profiles. Diagnostic criteria separating adenomas and carcinomas for these two types of neoplasms are similar, but there may be some differences in the biological behavior of Hürthle cell and follicular carcinomas. Recent studies have shown that noncoding RNAs may have diagnostic and prognostic utility in separating benign and malignant Hürthle cell and follicular neoplasms. In this study, we examined expression of various noncoding RNAs including metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) and miR-RNA-885-5p (miR-885) in distinguishing between benign and malignant neoplasms...
June 28, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647780/analysis-of-newly-identified-and-rare-synonymous-genetic-variants-in-the-ret-gene-in-patients-with-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma-in-polish-population
#16
Maria Sromek, Małgorzata Czetwertyńska, Magdalena Tarasińska, Aneta Janiec-Jankowska, Renata Zub, Maria Ćwikła, Dorota Nowakowska, Magdalena Chechlińska
Gain-of-function germline mutations of the RET proto-oncogene are responsible for initiation of carcinogenesis within the thyroid gland and development of hereditary form of medullary thyroid carcinoma and MEN2 syndrome. Genotype-phenotype correlations are established for most RET mutations, but the importance of the synonymous changes in this gene remains debatable. We aimed to analyze RET gene variants in Polish population. Genetic testing for the RET gene variants was performed with standard methods in 585 people aged 1-85, including 448 patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma and 131 of their first- and second-degree relatives, as well as six patients suspected of MTC/MEN2...
June 24, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646318/primary-renal-paragangliomas-and-renal-neoplasia-associated-with-pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma-analysis-of-von-hippel-lindau-vhl-succinate-dehydrogenase-sdhx-and-transmembrane-protein-127-tmem127
#17
Sounak Gupta, Jun Zhang, Dragana Milosevic, John R Mills, Stefan K Grebe, Steven C Smith, Lori A Erickson
Alterations of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), succinate dehydrogenase (SDHX), and TMEM127 have been associated with the development of pheochromocytomas (PCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) and are also associated with the development of renal neoplasms. This study involved 2 primary renal PGL and 12 cases of PC/PGL with associated renal neoplasia with a mean follow up of 74 months. Germline VHL and SDHX mutation status was obtained from the medical record. Immunohistochemistry for SDHB and mutation analysis for TMEM127 was performed, in addition to analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas datasets for SDHX and TMEM127 mutated renal cell carcinomas (RCCs)...
June 23, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639242/accuracy-of-fine-needle-cytology-in-histological-prediction-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-variants-a-prospective-study
#18
Anna Cipolletta Campanile, Maria Gabriella Malzone, Nunzia Simona Losito, Gerardo Botti, Maria Grazia Chiofalo, Antongiulio Faggiano, Roberta Siciliano, Annamaria Colao, Luciano Pezzullo, Franco Fulciniti
Fine needle cytology (FNC) is a crucial procedure in the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid tumors. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), in its classic variant (cPTC), is the most common malignant neoplasm of the thyroid. Several histological variants of PTC have been described, each one with its own characteristics and prognosis. The ability of FNC to identify the variants represents a challenge even for a skilled pathologist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic cytological accuracy of FNC in PTC and to look for specific features that could predict the different variants...
June 21, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444500/metastatic-follicular-thyroid-carcinoma-and-the-primary-thyroid-gross-examination-institutional-review-of-cases-from-1990-to-2015
#19
Krzysztof Glomski, Vania Nosé, William C Faquin, Peter M Sadow
The diagnosis of follicular-patterned carcinomas, including follicular thyroid carcinoma, oncocytic (Hürthle cell) carcinoma, and the encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, requires evidence of capsular and/or vascular invasion. With minimally invasive carcinomas classified often within less than a millimeter of tissue segregating them from adenomas and non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasms with papillary-like nuclear features, opinions vary internationally over how much of the capsule to submit in order to deem it well enough represented, considering that even if grossly entirely submitted in microcassettes, without leveling through each tissue block, the capsule is truly never entirely examined microscopically...
June 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389994/neuroendocrine-tumors-of-the-breast
#20
REVIEW
Daniel W Visscher, Saba Yasir
A small but increasingly recognized and studied subset of breast carcinomas are characterized by neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation. As with nearly all forms of breast neoplasia, NE tumors are characterized by considerable heterogeneity in microscopic appearance and clinical aggressiveness. About half of NE breast carcinomas recapitulate the histological spectrum typical of their counterparts in other organ systems, varying from "carcinoid-like" to small cell carcinoma, with most representing intermediate grade tumors...
June 2017: Endocrine Pathology
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