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Endocrine Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770932/clinical-and-pathologic-characteristics-of-pulmonary-carcinoid-tumors-in-central-and-peripheral-locations
#1
George Papaxoinis, Angela Lamarca, Anne Marie Quinn, Wasat Mansoor, Daisuke Nonaka
Pulmonary carcinoid tumors occur in both central and peripheral locations, and some differences in clinico-pathological features have long been observed. We investigated a large number of resected carcinoid tumors with the aim to further define the characteristics of tumors from both locations. One hundred sixty-six resected carcinoid tumors of the lung were analyzed for a variety of clinical and pathologic features, including histology subtype, mitotic rate, Ki67 index, necrosis, invasive pattern, architectural pattern, cell morphology, sustentacular cells, neuroendocrine hyperplasia, and orthopedia homeobox protein (OTP) and TTF-1 immunohistochemical expressions...
May 16, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766416/igg4-associated-adrenalis-a-case-report
#2
Wolfgang Saeger, Bernd Lohe, Christina Luise Engels, Ulrike Werner
A 67-year-old man was adrenalectomized due to a tumor measuring 100 mm. Specimens revealed an inflammation with slight fibrosis and moderate infiltrates of lymphocytes and plasmacytes with immunoreactivity for IgG and IgG4 resulting in the diagnosis of an active IgG4-associated adrenalitis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported active adrenalitis of this type. It should be the precursor lesion of the adrenal calcifying fibrous tumor that was reported once before.
May 15, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744727/immunohistochemical-biomarkers-in-thyroid-pathology
#3
REVIEW
Zubair Baloch, Ozgur Mete, Sylvia L Asa
The application of immunohistochemistry to the diagnosis of thyroid lesions has increased as new biomarkers have emerged. In this review, we discuss the biomarkers that are critical for accurate diagnosis, prognosis, and management. Immunohistochemical markers are used to confirm that an unusual tumor in the thyroid is indeed of thyroid origin, either of follicular epithelial or C-cell differentiation; the various mimics include nonthyroidal lesions such as parathyroid tumors, paragangliomas, thymic neoplasms, and metastatic malignancies...
May 9, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696583/fit-for-purpose-immunohistochemical-biomarkers
#4
REVIEW
Emina Emilia Torlakovic
There are two aspects of immunohistochemistry (IHC) that are relevant to practicing pathologist: (1) understanding of IHC biomarker panels that are suitable for diagnostic, prognostic and predictive testing, and (2) understanding of IHC quality assurance (QA), which makes sure that the tests in these panels work as they should. The two aspects are closely linked together and call for collaborative approach between pathologists and IHC laboratory technologists as both need to be involved in developing and maintaining IHC biomarkers that are "fit-for-purpose"...
April 25, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675587/a-case-of-gastric-neuroendocrine-neoplasm-with-mixed-grade-a-distinct-type-of-high-grade-well-differentiated-neuroendocrine-neoplasm
#5
Elia Guadagno, Gaetano Luglio, Alessandro Iacobelli, Giorgio Borrelli, Antonio Castaldi, Gaetano De Rosa, Marialaura Del Basso De Caro
Grade 3 neuroendocrine tumor (NET G3) is a rare new entity that has recently been introduced in the classification of neuroendocrine neoplasms of the pancreas. It is a well-differentiated form, with a high proliferative activity (Ki67 > 20%), and it represents a category whose prognosis is intermediate between NET G2 and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC G3). In sites other than the pancreas, this new category is by far less coded. Herein is reported a case of NET G3 of the stomach, the 13th described in literature...
April 19, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626276/immunohistochemistry-in-diagnostic-parathyroid-pathology
#6
REVIEW
Lori A Erickson, Ozgur Mete
Pathologists are usually readily able to diagnose parathyroid tissues and diseases, particularly when they have knowledge of the clinical information, laboratory findings, and radiographic imaging studies. However, the identification of parathyroid tissue or lesions can be difficult in small biopsies, ectopic locations, supranumerary glands, and in some oxyphil/oncocytic lesions. Widely available immunohistochemical studies such as chromogranin-A, synaptophysin, keratin, parathyroid hormone, thyroglobulin, and thyroid transcription factor-1 can help in difficult cases...
April 7, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589297/clinical-impact-of-p27-kip1-and-casr-expression-on-primary-hyperparathyroidism
#7
Gozde Sengul Aycicek, Berna Imge Aydogan, Mustafa Sahin, Cevriye Cansız Ersoz, Serpil Dizbay Sak, Nilgun Baskal
We aimed to investigate the expressions of p27 kinase inhibitory protein 1 (p27Kip1 ) and calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in adenomas and normal parathyroid tissue and to evaluate the relationship of these molecules with clinical and biochemical parameters in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Fifty-one patients with histopathologically confirmed parathyroid adenomas and 20 patients with normal parathyroid glands (which were removed incidentally during thyroid resection) were included. Immunohistochemical stainings of CaSR and p27Kip1 were performed in surgical specimens...
March 27, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560564/limd2-is-overexpressed-in-braf-v600e-positive-papillary-thyroid-carcinomas-and-matched-lymph-node-metastases
#8
Maria José Carregosa Pinheiro Dos Santos, André Uchimura Bastos, Vitor Rodrigues da Costa, Rosana Delcelo, Susan Chow Lindsey, Gabriel Avelar Colozza-Gama, Hongzhuang Peng, Frank J Rauscher, Gisele Oler, Janete Maria Cerutti
We previously described that LIM domain containing 2 (LIMD2) overexpression was closely correlated with metastatic process in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We here evaluated the expression of LIMD2 in a series of non-metastatic and metastatic PTC and their matched lymph node metastases via immunohistochemistry. LIMD2 was expressed in 74 (81%) of primary PTC and 35 (95%) of lymph node metastases. Sub-analysis performed in 37 matched samples demonstrated that in four cases, LIMD2 is expressed in lymph node metastases, while it is not expressed in primary tumors...
March 20, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542002/immunohistochemical-biomarkers-of-adrenal-cortical-neoplasms
#9
REVIEW
Ozgur Mete, Sylvia L Asa, Thomas J Giordano, Mauro Papotti, Hironobu Sasano, Marco Volante
Careful morphological evaluation forms the basis of the workup of an adrenal cortical neoplasm. However, the adoption of immunohistochemical biomarkers has added tremendous value to enhance diagnostic accuracy. The authors provide a brief review of immunohistochemical biomarkers that have been used in the confirmation of adrenal cortical origin and in the detection of the source of functional adrenal cortical proliferations, as well as diagnostic, predictive, and prognostic biomarkers of adrenal cortical carcinoma...
March 14, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542001/rna-seq-analysis-of-islets-to-characterise-the-dedifferentiation-in-type-2-diabetes-model-mice-db-db
#10
Abraham Neelankal John, Ramesh Ram, Fang-Xu Jiang
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global health issue and dedifferentiation plays underlying causes in the pathophysiology of T2D; however, there is a lack of understanding in the mechanism. Dedifferentiation results from the loss of function of pancreatic β-cells alongside a reduction in essential transcription factors under various physiological stressors. Our study aimed to establish db/db as an animal model for dedifferentiation by using RNA sequencing to compare the gene expression profile in islets isolated from wild-type, db/+ and db/db mice, and qPCR was performed to validate those significant genes...
March 14, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520563/immunohistochemical-biomarkers-of-gastrointestinal-pancreatic-pulmonary-and-thymic-neuroendocrine-neoplasms
#11
REVIEW
Silvia Uccella, Stefano La Rosa, Marco Volante, Mauro Papotti
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogeneous group of epithelial neoplastic proliferations that irrespective of their primary site share features of neural and endocrine differentiation including the presence of secretory granules, synaptic-like vesicles, and the ability to produce amine and/or peptide hormones. NENs encompass a wide spectrum of neoplasms ranging from well-differentiated indolent tumors to highly aggressive poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. Most cases arise in the digestive system and in thoracic organs, i...
March 9, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508145/an-international-interobserver-variability-reporting-of-the-nuclear-scoring-criteria-to-diagnose-noninvasive-follicular-thyroid-neoplasm-with-papillary-like-nuclear-features-a-validation-study
#12
Lester D R Thompson, David N Poller, Kennichi Kakudo, Raoul Burchette, Yuri E Nikiforov, Raja R Seethala
The aim of the study was to assess interobserver variation in reporting nuclear features of encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, newly reclassified as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP), based on a proposed standardized scoring system. An education module was individually reviewed as a pre-evaluation teaching guide of the specific features of classical papillary carcinoma, the specific inclusion and exclusion features for the diagnosis of NIFTP, and a catalog of the standardized scoring system of the nuclear features of papillary carcinoma used to reach this diagnosis...
March 6, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476382/noninvasive-follicular-thyroid-neoplasm-with-papillary-like-nuclear-features-in-asian-practice-perspectives-for-surgical-pathology-and-cytopathology
#13
REVIEW
Andrey Bychkov, Chan Kwon Jung, Zhiyan Liu, Kennichi Kakudo
The introduction of noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) was initiated and promoted by pathologists. Recent Asian studies added new knowledge to the existing literature to aid a better understanding of NIFTP. Our original data and the results of a meta-analysis suggest that the initial rate of NIFTP has been overestimated, averaging 9.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.0-12.7%) of all papillary thyroid cancers worldwide. The incidence of NIFTP in the Asian population (1...
February 23, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396810/the-prevalence-of-extranodal-extension-in-papillary-thyroid-cancer-based-on-the-size-of-the-metastatic-node-adverse-histologic-features-are-not-limited-to-larger-lymph-nodes
#14
Meghan E Rowe, Umut Ozbek, Rosalie A Machado, Lauren E Yue, Juan C Hernandez-Prera, Alessandro Valentino, Muhammad Qazi, Margaret Brandwein-Weber, Xulei Liu, Bruce M Wenig, Mark L Urken
Extranodal extension (ENE) is a prognostic indicator of aggressiveness for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The association between the size of metastatic nodes and the prevalence of ENE has not been previously explored. However, there is a common belief that small lymph nodes with metastatic disease do not significantly impact patient outcome. This study investigates the relationship between the prevalence of ENE and the size of a positive lymph node. Linear dimensions and malignant histological characteristics of 979 metastatic lymph nodes from 152 thyroid cancer patients were retrospectively analyzed...
March 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396809/molecular-testing-of-nodules-with-a-suspicious-or-malignant-cytologic-diagnosis-in-the-setting-of-non-invasive-follicular-thyroid-neoplasm-with-papillary-like-nuclear-features-niftp
#15
Kyle C Strickland, Markus Eszlinger, Ralf Paschke, Trevor E Angell, Erik K Alexander, Ellen Marqusee, Matthew A Nehs, Vickie Y Jo, Alarice Lowe, Marina Vivero, Monica Hollowell, Xiaohua Qian, Tad Wieczorek, Christopher A French, Lisa A Teot, Edmund S Cibas, Neal I Lindeman, Jeffrey F Krane, Justine A Barletta
Non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is an indolent thyroid tumor characterized by frequent RAS mutations and an absence of the BRAF V600E mutation commonly seen in classical papillary thyroid carcinoma (cPTC). The ability to differentiate potential NIFTP/follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) from cPTC at the time of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) can facilitate conservative management of NIFTP. The aim of the current study was to investigate how molecular testing may add to cytologic assessment in the pre-operative differentiation of potential NIFTP/FVPTC and cPTC...
March 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396808/histologic-outcome-of-indeterminate-thyroid-nodules-classified-at-low-or-high-risk
#16
Pierpaolo Trimboli, Franco Fulciniti, Elisabetta Merlo, Jessica Barizzi, Luca Mazzucchelli, Luca Giovanella
The revised Italian consensus for the classification and reporting of thyroid cytology (ICCRTC) was published in 2014. Very recently, a high reliability of ICCRTC in classifying low and high risk indeterminate nodules (Tir 3A and Tir 3B, respectively) was demonstrated. This finding prompted us to review our case series of thyroid indeterminate lesions to verify these data. Only lesions undergone FNAC from December 2014 to October 2017 with subsequent histology at our institutions were eligible for the study...
March 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372535/pd-l1-and-ido1-are-expressed-in-poorly-differentiated-thyroid-carcinoma
#17
Matthew W Rosenbaum, Benjamin J Gigliotti, Sara I Pai, Sareh Parangi, Heather Wachtel, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Viswanath Gunda, William C Faquin
Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) is an aggressive form of thyroid cancer that currently has limited effective treatment options. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown to be an effective treatment for a variety of carcinomas. In this study, we explore whether immune checkpoint pathways, such as programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), are activated in a cohort of patients with PDTC to determine whether ICIs may be an effective therapy for these patients...
March 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349725/ki67-proliferative-index-in-carcinoid-tumors-involving-ovary
#18
Xiaotun Zhang, Andrea Jones, Sarah M Jenkins, Yajue Huang
Primary ovarian carcinoid tumors are rare neoplasms that constitute less than 0.1% of all ovarian carcinomas. However, carcinoid tumors metastatic to ovaries are more common. Cell proliferative rate is an important factor in the determination of neuroendocrine tumor prognosis. Limited data are available as regards Ki67 proliferation index in predicting the physiological features of carcinoid tumors involving the ovary. Pathology files of Mayo Clinic Rochester (1995-2014) were searched, and clinical information was collected from medical records...
March 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327319/antidepressant-related-black-thyroid
#19
Jean-Luc Barras, Rossella Sarro, Massimo Bongiovanni, Stefano La Rosa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313264/positivity-for-gata3-and-ttf-1-spt24-and-negativity-for-monoclonal-pax8-expand-the-biomarker-profile-of-the-solid-cell-nests-of-the-thyroid-gland
#20
Hasan Gucer, Ozgur Mete
Solid cell nests (SCNs) are usually distinguished on conventional H&E-stained sections; however, the morphological heterogeneity in SCNs and hyperplasia of these ultimobranchial body remnants can mimic other diagnostic entities including but not limited to papillary microcarcinoma. In order to confirm the thyroid follicular epithelial origin and exclude the possibility of SCNs, most diagnosticians use immunohistochemical biomarkers of thyroid follicular epithelial cells and/or those of SCNs. While the expression profile of monoclonal PAX8 has not been reported previously in SCNs, the status of TTF-1 expression using the 8G7G3/1 clone has been inconsistent among several studies...
March 2018: Endocrine Pathology
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