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Endocrine Pathology

C Christofer Juhlin, Inga-Lena Nilsson, Anders Höög
The ultimobranchial body (UBB) denotes the cellular mass originating from the fourth branchial pouch, which migrates from the neural crest and infolds within the middle and upper poles of the thyroid lobes, thereby establishing the presence of calcitonin-secreting parafollicular C cells. In various numbers, UBB remnants (entitled "solid cell nests", or SCNs) are found in thyroid glands examined histologically. However, despite the close embryological relation between the UBB and the superior parathyroid glands, intraparathyroidal SCNs have to our knowledge not been previously reported...
July 12, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Kevin O'Hare, E O'Regan, A Khattak, M L Healy, M Toner
The aim of this study was to determine the number of cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) which could be reclassified as non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) in our institute over a 10-year period, document their clinical status and assess the number of slides that had to be reviewed per case to exclude NIFTP. The histopathology reports for thyroid resections for all papillary carcinoma over a 10-year period (2007-2016) were reviewed. Five hundred forty-five histopathology reports were reviewed, and 71 cases were identified as potential cases of NIFTP...
July 6, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Kimberly Point du Jour, Alessandra C Schmitt, Amy Y Chen, Christopher C Griffith
In the original publication, the author name Kimberly Point du Jour was incorrectly captured. The correct Given name should be Kimberly and the Family name should be Point du Jour. The correct author name is presented in this correction article.
June 19, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Rita Abi-Raad, Manju Prasad, Rebecca Baldassari, Kevin Schofield, Glenda G Callender, David Chhieng, Adebowale J Adeniran
The Bethesda System for reporting thyroid cytopathology (BSRTC) predicts an incidence of malignancy of less than 5% in thyroid nodules with a benign diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration (FNA). However, recent series have suggested that the true rate of malignancy might be significantly higher in this category of patients. We reviewed our experience by performing a retrospective analysis of patients with benign thyroid FNA results who underwent thyroidectomy between 2008 and 2013 at a large academic center. Information including demographics, ultrasound features, FNA diagnosis, and surgical follow-up information were recorded...
June 8, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
George Papaxoinis, Angela Lamarca, Anne Marie Quinn, Wasat Mansoor, Daisuke Nonaka
Pulmonary carcinoid tumors occur in both central and peripheral locations, and some differences in clinico-pathological features have long been observed. We investigated a large number of resected carcinoid tumors with the aim to further define the characteristics of tumors from both locations. One hundred sixty-six resected carcinoid tumors of the lung were analyzed for a variety of clinical and pathologic features, including histology subtype, mitotic rate, Ki67 index, necrosis, invasive pattern, architectural pattern, cell morphology, sustentacular cells, neuroendocrine hyperplasia, and orthopedia homeobox protein (OTP) and TTF-1 immunohistochemical expressions...
May 16, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Wolfgang Saeger, Bernd Lohe, Christina Luise Engels, Ulrike Werner
A 67-year-old man was adrenalectomized due to a tumor measuring 100 mm. Specimens revealed an inflammation with slight fibrosis and moderate infiltrates of lymphocytes and plasmacytes with immunoreactivity for IgG and IgG4 resulting in the diagnosis of an active IgG4-associated adrenalitis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported active adrenalitis of this type. It should be the precursor lesion of the adrenal calcifying fibrous tumor that was reported once before.
May 15, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Zubair Baloch, Ozgur Mete, Sylvia L Asa
The application of immunohistochemistry to the diagnosis of thyroid lesions has increased as new biomarkers have emerged. In this review, we discuss the biomarkers that are critical for accurate diagnosis, prognosis, and management. Immunohistochemical markers are used to confirm that an unusual tumor in the thyroid is indeed of thyroid origin, either of follicular epithelial or C-cell differentiation; the various mimics include nonthyroidal lesions such as parathyroid tumors, paragangliomas, thymic neoplasms, and metastatic malignancies...
May 9, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Elia Guadagno, Gaetano Luglio, Alessandro Iacobelli, Giorgio Borrelli, Antonio Castaldi, Gaetano De Rosa, Marialaura Del Basso De Caro
Grade 3 neuroendocrine tumor (NET G3) is a rare new entity that has recently been introduced in the classification of neuroendocrine neoplasms of the pancreas. It is a well-differentiated form, with a high proliferative activity (Ki67 > 20%), and it represents a category whose prognosis is intermediate between NET G2 and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC G3). In sites other than the pancreas, this new category is by far less coded. Herein is reported a case of NET G3 of the stomach, the 13th described in literature...
April 19, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Isinsu Kuzu, Ahmet Dogan
The hematolymphoid infiltrations are challenging lesions in endocrine organs and tissues. The fourth edition of WHO classification of tumors of endocrine organs and the fourth edition of WHO classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues are recently published. The updates in both fields include some new disease descriptions and prognostic markers. Our aim in this review article is to give practical diagnostic information about the most frequently seen hematolymphoid involvements of the pituitary gland, thyroid, and adrenal tissue...
June 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Lori A Erickson, Ozgur Mete
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Veronica K Y Cheung, Anthony J Gill, Angela Chou
The evolution of genetic research over the past two decades has greatly improved the understanding of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. It is now accepted that more than one third of pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas arise in the context of syndromic disease, usually hereditary. The genetic profile of these tumors also has important prognostic implications which may help guide treatment. Accompanying the changing molecular landscape is the development of new immunohistochemical markers. Initially used in assisting with diagnosis, immunohistochemical markers have now become an important adjunct to screening programs for inherited conditions and subsequently as prognostic markers...
June 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Emina Emilia Torlakovic
There are two aspects of immunohistochemistry (IHC) that are relevant to practicing pathologist: (1) understanding of IHC biomarker panels that are suitable for diagnostic, prognostic and predictive testing, and (2) understanding of IHC quality assurance (QA), which makes sure that the tests in these panels work as they should. The two aspects are closely linked together and call for collaborative approach between pathologists and IHC laboratory technologists as both need to be involved in developing and maintaining IHC biomarkers that are "fit-for-purpose"...
June 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Lori A Erickson, Ozgur Mete
Pathologists are usually readily able to diagnose parathyroid tissues and diseases, particularly when they have knowledge of the clinical information, laboratory findings, and radiographic imaging studies. However, the identification of parathyroid tissue or lesions can be difficult in small biopsies, ectopic locations, supranumerary glands, and in some oxyphil/oncocytic lesions. Widely available immunohistochemical studies such as chromogranin-A, synaptophysin, keratin, parathyroid hormone, thyroglobulin, and thyroid transcription factor-1 can help in difficult cases...
April 7, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Gozde Sengul Aycicek, Berna Imge Aydogan, Mustafa Sahin, Cevriye Cansız Ersoz, Serpil Dizbay Sak, Nilgun Baskal
We aimed to investigate the expressions of p27 kinase inhibitory protein 1 (p27 Kip1 ) and calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in adenomas and normal parathyroid tissue and to evaluate the relationship of these molecules with clinical and biochemical parameters in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Fifty-one patients with histopathologically confirmed parathyroid adenomas and 20 patients with normal parathyroid glands (which were removed incidentally during thyroid resection) were included. Immunohistochemical stainings of CaSR and p27 Kip1 were performed in surgical specimens...
March 27, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Maria José Carregosa Pinheiro Dos Santos, André Uchimura Bastos, Vitor Rodrigues da Costa, Rosana Delcelo, Susan Chow Lindsey, Gabriel Avelar Colozza-Gama, Hongzhuang Peng, Frank J Rauscher, Gisele Oler, Janete Maria Cerutti
We previously described that LIM domain containing 2 (LIMD2) overexpression was closely correlated with metastatic process in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We here evaluated the expression of LIMD2 in a series of non-metastatic and metastatic PTC and their matched lymph node metastases via immunohistochemistry. LIMD2 was expressed in 74 (81%) of primary PTC and 35 (95%) of lymph node metastases. Sub-analysis performed in 37 matched samples demonstrated that in four cases, LIMD2 is expressed in lymph node metastases, while it is not expressed in primary tumors...
March 20, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Ozgur Mete, Sylvia L Asa, Thomas J Giordano, Mauro Papotti, Hironobu Sasano, Marco Volante
Careful morphological evaluation forms the basis of the workup of an adrenal cortical neoplasm. However, the adoption of immunohistochemical biomarkers has added tremendous value to enhance diagnostic accuracy. The authors provide a brief review of immunohistochemical biomarkers that have been used in the confirmation of adrenal cortical origin and in the detection of the source of functional adrenal cortical proliferations, as well as diagnostic, predictive, and prognostic biomarkers of adrenal cortical carcinoma...
March 14, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Abraham Neelankal John, Ramesh Ram, Fang-Xu Jiang
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global health issue and dedifferentiation plays underlying causes in the pathophysiology of T2D; however, there is a lack of understanding in the mechanism. Dedifferentiation results from the loss of function of pancreatic β-cells alongside a reduction in essential transcription factors under various physiological stressors. Our study aimed to establish db/db as an animal model for dedifferentiation by using RNA sequencing to compare the gene expression profile in islets isolated from wild-type, db/+ and db/db mice, and qPCR was performed to validate those significant genes...
March 14, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Silvia Uccella, Stefano La Rosa, Marco Volante, Mauro Papotti
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogeneous group of epithelial neoplastic proliferations that irrespective of their primary site share features of neural and endocrine differentiation including the presence of secretory granules, synaptic-like vesicles, and the ability to produce amine and/or peptide hormones. NENs encompass a wide spectrum of neoplasms ranging from well-differentiated indolent tumors to highly aggressive poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. Most cases arise in the digestive system and in thoracic organs, i...
March 9, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Lester D R Thompson, David N Poller, Kennichi Kakudo, Raoul Burchette, Yuri E Nikiforov, Raja R Seethala
The aim of the study was to assess interobserver variation in reporting nuclear features of encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, newly reclassified as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP), based on a proposed standardized scoring system. An education module was individually reviewed as a pre-evaluation teaching guide of the specific features of classical papillary carcinoma, the specific inclusion and exclusion features for the diagnosis of NIFTP, and a catalog of the standardized scoring system of the nuclear features of papillary carcinoma used to reach this diagnosis...
March 6, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Meghan E Rowe, Umut Ozbek, Rosalie A Machado, Lauren E Yue, Juan C Hernandez-Prera, Alessandro Valentino, Muhammad Qazi, Margaret Brandwein-Weber, Xulei Liu, Bruce M Wenig, Mark L Urken
Extranodal extension (ENE) is a prognostic indicator of aggressiveness for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The association between the size of metastatic nodes and the prevalence of ENE has not been previously explored. However, there is a common belief that small lymph nodes with metastatic disease do not significantly impact patient outcome. This study investigates the relationship between the prevalence of ENE and the size of a positive lymph node. Linear dimensions and malignant histological characteristics of 979 metastatic lymph nodes from 152 thyroid cancer patients were retrospectively analyzed...
March 2018: Endocrine Pathology
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