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Neuropsychology Review

Judy Luigjes, Rebecca Segrave, Niels de Joode, Martijn Figee, Damiaan Denys
It is important to find new treatments for addiction due to high relapse rates despite current interventions and due to expansion of the field with non-substance related addictive behaviors. Neuromodulation may provide a new type of treatment for addiction since it can directly target abnormalities in neurocircuits. We review literature on five neuromodulation techniques investigated for efficacy in substance related and behavioral addictions: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), (repetitive) transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), EEG, fMRI neurofeedback and deep brain stimulation (DBS) and additionally report on effects of these interventions on addiction-related cognitive processes...
December 7, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
J K Kuring, J L Mathias, L Ward
There appears to be a link between depression/anxiety/PTSD and dementia, although the evidence is incomplete and the reason is unclear. Mental illness may cause dementia or may be prodromal or comorbid with dementia, or dementia may trigger a relapse of symptoms in individuals with a history of mental illness. This study examined the link between depression/anxiety/PTSD and dementia by evaluating the prevalence of these disorders in people with dementia, relative to their healthy peers. Existing meta-analyses have examined the prevalence of clinically-significant depression and anxiety in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and depression in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but have not considered vascular dementia (VaD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), PTSD, or anxiety in FTD...
December 7, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Trista E Friedrich, Paulette V Hunter, Lorin J Elias
Neurologically healthy adults tend to display a reliable leftward perceptual bias during visuospatial tasks, a phenomenon known as pseudoneglect. However, the phenomenon in older adults is not well understood, and a synthesis of research that examines pseudoneglect using the line bisection task, as well as other tasks, in the context of aging is lacking. The aim of the current systematic review is to integrate the available research on pseudoneglect in late adulthood, and to discuss the association between age and a bias to the left hemispace...
November 21, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Tom Burke, Stephanie Hughes, Alan Carr, Mohsen Javadpour, Niall Pender
Clinical outcomes, including performance on cognitive assessment, in patients with angiographically negative subarachnoid haemorrhage (anSAH) are often interpreted as benign with a good prognostic trajectory. However, diffuse cognitive deficits have been reported within this patient cohort resulting from anSAH, albeit to a lesser extent when compared to other neurovascular events. We consider cognitive outcomes in relation to anSAH to systematically review reported deficits, with a view to quantify and categorise cognitive impairment in this cohort...
October 23, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Julia M Sheffield, Nicole R Karcher, Deanna M Barch
Individuals with disorders that include psychotic symptoms (i.e. psychotic disorders) experience broad cognitive impairments in the chronic state, indicating a dimension of abnormality associated with the experience of psychosis. These impairments negatively impact functional outcome, contributing to the disabling nature of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression. The robust and reliable nature of cognitive deficits has led researchers to explore the timing and profile of impairments, as this may elucidate different neurodevelopmental patterns in individuals who experience psychosis...
October 20, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Lucien Rochat, Pierre Maurage, Alexandre Heeren, Joël Billieux
Decision-making impairments play a pivotal role in the emergence and maintenance of addictive disorders. However, a sound conceptualization of decision making as an umbrella construct, encompassing its cognitive, affective, motivational, and physiological subcomponents, is still lacking. This prevents an efficient evaluation of the heterogeneity of decision-making impairments and the development of tailored treatment. This paper thus unfolds the various processes involved in decision making by adopting a critical approach of prominent dual- or triadic-process models, which postulate that decision making is influenced by the interplay of impulsive-automatic, reflective-controlled, and interoceptive processes...
October 6, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Antonio Verdejo-García, Miguel A Alcázar-Córcoles, Natalia Albein-Urios
Decision-making deficits are strong predictors of poor clinical outcomes in addiction treatment. However, research on interventions that address decision-making deficits among people with addiction is scarce and has not been analyzed. We aimed to systematically review evidence on neuropsychological interventions for decision-making deficits in addiction to identify promising therapies. Eligibility criteria were (1) participants with a diagnosis of substance use or behavioral addictive disorders, (2) interventions consisting of (neuro) psychological treatments that address decision-making, (3) comparators comprising control (sham) interventions, treatment as usual or no-treatment, (4) outcomes including a decision-making task, and (5) studies including RCTs and non-randomized trials...
September 26, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Robin Paul Wilson, Marco Colizzi, Matthijs Geert Bossong, Paul Allen, Matthew Kempton, N Abe, A R Barros-Loscertales, J Bayer, A Beck, J Bjork, R Boecker, J C Bustamante, J S Choi, S Delmonte, D Dillon, M Figee, H Garavan, C Hagele, E J Hermans, Y Ikeda, V Kappel, C Kaufmann, C Lamm, S E Lammertz, Y Li, A Murphy, L Nestor, M Pecina, D Pfabigan, D Pizzagalli, L Rademacher, A Roee, T Sommer, R Stark, H Suzuki, T Van Amselvoort, E Van Hell, M Vink, M Votinov, D Wotruba, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
The monetary incentive delay task breaks down reward processing into discrete stages for fMRI analysis. Here we look at anticipation of monetary gain and loss contrasted with neutral anticipation. We meta-analysed data from 15 original whole-brain group maps (n = 346) and report extensive areas of relative activation and deactivation throughout the whole brain. For both anticipation of gain and loss we report robust activation of the striatum, activation of key nodes of the putative salience network, including anterior cingulate and anterior insula, and more complex patterns of activation and deactivation in the central executive and default networks...
September 25, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Kelly Luyck, Travis D Goode, Haemy Lee Masson, Laura Luyten
The amygdala and, more recently, also the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, have been widely implicated in fear and anxiety. Much of our current knowledge is derived from animal studies and suggests an intricate convergence and divergence in functions related to defensive responding. In a recent paper, Klumpers and colleagues set out to examine these functions in a human fear learning procedure using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Their main findings were a role for the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in threat anticipation, and for the amygdala in threat confrontation...
September 18, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
David C Osmon, Dmitriy Kazakov, Octavio Santos, Michelle T Kassel
This didactic aims of this review are to demonstrate the advantages of examining the entire reaction time (RT) distribution to better realize the efficacy of mental speed assessment in clinical neuropsychology. RT distributions are typically non-normal, requiring consideration of a host of statistical issues. Specifically, the appropriate model of the mental speed task's distribution (e.g., ex-Gaussian, Weibull, Normal-Gaussian, etc.) must be determined to know what parameters can be used to characterize test performance...
September 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Wilmar Pineda-Alhucema, Edith Aristizabal, Johana Escudero-Cabarcas, Johan E Acosta-López, Jorge I Vélez
In developmental research, the relationship between Executive Function (EF) and Theory of Mind (ToM) has been extensively assessed, and EF has been considered a condition for ToM. However, few researchers have studied the relationship between EF and ToM in clinical populations, especially that of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention and motor hyperactivity/impulsivity, in which EF is largely impaired. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) model, 201 English and Spanish articles evaluating EF and ToM in ADHD were chosen...
September 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Anita K Chisholm, Vicki A Anderson, Natalie A Pride, Stephanie Malarbi, Kathryn N North, Jonathan M Payne
In light of the proliferation of recent research into social function in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a systematic review and meta-analysis is required to synthesise data and place findings within the context of a theoretical framework. This paper reviews findings from research into social function and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children and adults with NF1 and integrates these findings with the Socio-Cognitive Integration Abilities Model (SOCIAL). It also critically appraises links between social outcomes, internal and external factors moderating social functioning, cognitive domains implicated in social functioning, and underlying neural pathology in NF1...
September 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Nicola Warren, Cullen O'Gorman, Zena Hume, Steve Kisely, Dan Siskind
Delusions in Parkinson's disease (PD) are thought to be associated with disease progression and cognitive impairment. However, this symptom description is not consistent in the literature and there is a suggestion that different subgroups of psychotic patients occur in PD, which we aimed to clarify. Case reports were identified through a systematic search of databases (PUBMED, EMBASE, PsychInfo). Cases with isolated delusions were compared to those with both delusions and hallucinations. We identified 184 cases of delusions in PD...
September 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Cheng-Chang Yang, Birgit Völlm, Najat Khalifa
Impulsivity is a multi-dimensional construct that is regarded as a symptom of many psychiatric disorders. Harm resulting from impulsive behaviour can be substantial for the individuals concerned, for their social network, and for wider society. Therefore, the importance of developing therapeutic interventions to target impulsivity is paramount. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature from AMED, Embase, Medline, and PsycINFO databases on the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in healthy adults to modulate different subdomains (motor, temporal and reflection) of impulsivity...
September 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Jeffrey M Rogers, Rachael Foord, Renerus J Stolwyk, Dana Wong, Peter H Wilson
Cognitive remediation (CR) has been shown to improve cognitive abilities following a stroke. However, an updated quantitative literature review is needed to synthesize recent research and build understanding of factors that may optimize training parameters and treatment effects. Randomized controlled trials of CR were retrieved from seven electronic databases. Studies specific to adult stroke populations were included. Treatment effects were estimated using a random effects model, with immediate and longer-term follow-up outcomes, and moderator effects, examined for both overall and domain-specific functioning...
July 13, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Shannon L Webb, Vanessa Loh, Amit Lampit, Joel E Bateman, Damian P Birney
The growing prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders associated with aging and cognitive decline has generated increasing cross-disciplinary interest in non-pharmacological interventions, such as computerized cognitive training (CCT), which may prevent or slow cognitive decline. However, inconsistent findings across meta-analytic reviews in the field suggest a lack of cross-disciplinary consensus and on-going debate regarding the benefits of CCT. We posit that a contributing factor is the lack of a theoretically-based taxonomy of constructs and representative tasks typically used...
June 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Marta Pinto-Grau, Orla Hardiman, Niall Pender
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized primarily by motor network disruption. Extra-motor manifestations including executive functions, social cognition, and behavioral changes are now well recognized as important features of ALS, and are associated with frontotemporal and frontostriatal network disruption. However, the presence and characterization of language changes has received less attention. This systematic review characterizes the profile of reported language dysfunction in ALS...
June 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Claire Mauger, Céline Lancelot, Arnaud Roy, Régis Coutant, Nicole Cantisano, Didier Le Gall
Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic disorder, affecting 1/2500 to 1/3000 live female births, induced by partial or total deletion of one X chromosome. The neurocognitive profile of girls with TS is characterized by a normal Verbal IQ and weaknesses in visual-spatial, mathematics, and social cognitive domains. Executive functions (EFs) impairments have also been reported in these young patients. However, methodological differences across studies do not allow determination of which EFs are impaired and what is the magnitude of these impairments...
June 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Joanne Goodall, Caroline Fisher, Sarah Hetrick, Lisa Phillips, Emma M Parrish, Kelly Allott
BACKGROUND: Depression is among the most common mental health problems for young people. In adults, depression is associated with neurocognitive deficits that reduce the effectiveness of treatment and impair educational and vocational functioning. Compared to adults, less is known about the neurocognitive functioning of young people with depression, and existing research has reported inconsistent findings. METHOD: This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesized the literature on neurocognitive functioning in currently depressed youth aged 12-25 years in comparison to healthy controls...
June 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Jeffrey M Rogers, Greg Savage, Marcus A Stoodley
Displacement of the cerebellar tonsils in Chiari type I malformation (CMI) can affect functions controlled by the cerebellum and brainstem. While playing an integral role in the control of movement, the cerebellum also has widespread cortical connections, influencing a range of cognitive process. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the relationship between cognition and CMI, assessing evidence for general or domain-specific cognitive change. The search protocol examined the AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases...
June 2018: Neuropsychology Review
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