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Neuropsychology Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536861/heterogeneity-of-neuropsychological-impairment-in-hiv-infection-contributions-from-mild-cognitive-impairment
#1
REVIEW
Kathryn N Devlin, Tania Giovannetti
Despite longstanding acknowledgement of the heterogeneity of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), existing HAND diagnostic methods classify according to the degree of impairment, without regard to the pattern of neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses. Research in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has demonstrated that classifying individuals into subtypes by both their level and pattern of impairment, using either conventional or statistical methods, has etiologic and prognostic utility. Methods for characterizing the heterogeneity of MCI provide a framework that can be applied to other disorders and may be useful in clarifying some of the current challenges in the study of HAND...
May 24, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497179/detectable-neuropsychological-differences-in-early-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease-a-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
S Duke Han, Caroline P Nguyen, Nikki H Stricker, Daniel A Nation
The development of methods for in vivo detection of cerebral beta amyloid retention and tau accumulation have been increasingly useful in characterizing preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). While the association between these biomarkers and eventual AD has been demonstrated among cognitively intact older adults, the link between biomarkers and neurocognitive ability remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that cognitively intact older adults would show statistically discernable differences in neuropsychological performance by amyloid status (amyloid negative = A-, amyloid positive = A+)...
May 11, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484905/historical-perspectives-on-ancient-greek-derived-a-prefixed-nomenclature-for-acquired-neurocognitive-impairment
#3
REVIEW
Philip Gerard Gasquoine
Distinct forms of acquired neurocognitive impairment are often described by "a" prefixed terms that derive from ancient Greek (and in one case Latin). Two modern English language neurological and neuropsychological reference books were searched to identify 17 such terms in contemporary usage: amnesia, akinesia, ataxia, aphasia, agraphia, anosmia, apraxia, athetosis, ageusia, achromatopsia, agnosia, alexia, amusia, anomia, anarthria, anosognosia, and acalculia. These were traced to their initial association with acquired neurocognitive impairment in German, English, and French language medical publications from the late 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries (1770 through 1920)...
May 8, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484904/is-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-related-to-neuropsychological-function-in-healthy-older-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Nathan Cross, Amit Lampit, Jonathon Pye, Ronald R Grunstein, Nathaniel Marshall, Sharon L Naismith
Previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses have identified cognitive deficits in adults with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). However, quantitative analysis of the association between OSA and neuropsychological performance has not been conducted specifically in older adults, for whom there is a greater risk of cognitive decline. We searched Medline, Embase and PsycINFO through August 2016 for studies describing associations between OSA and neuropsychological outcomes in people aged>50 years. Meta-analyses were performed on these studies for overall cognition and within cognitive domains...
May 8, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374287/the-differential-contributions-of-conceptual-representation-format-and-language-structure-to-levels-of-semantic-abstraction-capacity
#5
REVIEW
Gainotti Guido
This paper reviews some controversies concerning the original and revised versions of the 'hub-and-spoke' model of conceptual representations and their implication for abstraction capacity levels. The 'hub-and-spoke' model, which is based on data gathered in patients with semantic dementia (SD), is the most authoritative model of conceptual knowledge. Patterson et al.'s (Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8(12), 976-987, 2007) classical version of this model maintained that conceptual representations are stored in a unitary 'amodal' format in the right and left anterior temporal lobes (ATLs), because in SD the semantic disorder cuts across modalities and categories...
April 3, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364141/long-term-neuropsychological-outcomes-of-childhood-onset-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-adem-a-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Karen L O Burton, Tracey A Williams, Sarah E Catchpoole, Ruth K Brunsdon
The long-term neurocognitive prognosis of childhood onset acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is unclear. This review and quantitative synthesis of the available literature examined whether there are long-term impacts of childhood ADEM on neurocognitive functioning. A search of online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBSCO CINAHL, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) from their inception to October 2015 and reference lists identified 13 papers eligible for inclusion in the systematic review; seven of these were eligible for inclusion in meta-analyses...
March 31, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271346/non-pharmacologic-interventions-for-older-adults-with-subjective-cognitive-decline-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-preliminary-recommendations
#7
REVIEW
Colette M Smart, Justin E Karr, Corson N Areshenkoff, Laura A Rabin, Carol Hudon, Nicola Gates, Jordan I Ali, Eider M Arenaza-Urquijo, Rachel F Buckley, Gael Chetelat, Harald Hampel, Frank Jessen, Natalie L Marchant, Sietske A M Sikkes, Andrea Tales, Wiesje M van der Flier, Linda Wesselman
In subjective cognitive decline (SCD), older adults present with concerns about self-perceived cognitive decline but are found to have clinically normal function. However, a significant proportion of those adults are subsequently found to develop mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's dementia or other neurocognitive disorder. In other cases, SCD may be associated with mood, personality, and physical health concerns. Regardless of etiology, adults with SCD may benefit from interventions that could enhance current function or slow incipient cognitive decline...
March 7, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289920/the-early-presentation-of-dementia-in-people-with-down-syndrome-a-systematic-review-of-longitudinal-studies
#8
REVIEW
Bianca Alexandra Lautarescu, Anthony John Holland, Shahid H Zaman
Adults with Down syndrome (DS) are at a very high risk of developing early onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to trisomy of chromosome 21. AD is preceded by a prolonged prodromal "pre-clinical" phase presenting with clinical features that do not fulfil the diagnostic criteria for AD. It is important to clinically characterise this prodromal stage to help early detection of the disease as neuropathology of AD is almost universal by the fifth decade in DS. There is a lack of knowledge of the trajectory of decline associated with the onset of dementia in this population and early signs may be overlooked or misdiagnosed, negatively affecting the quality of life of those affected and the use of early pharmacological or psychosocial interventions...
March 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116580/disrupted-face-processing-in-frontotemporal-dementia-a-review-of-the-clinical-and-neuroanatomical-evidence
#9
REVIEW
Rosalind Hutchings, Romina Palermo, Olivier Piguet, Fiona Kumfor
Faces play an integral role in day-to-day functioning, particularly for social interactions where dynamic and rapid processing of information is vital. Analysis of faces allows an individual to ascertain a wide range of information including deciphering mood and identity, with these assessments directing an individual's subsequent response and behaviours. The prominent social and emotional deficits observed in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a younger-onset dementia syndrome, may in part reflect a breakdown of the face processing network...
March 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092015/enhancing-cognitive-functioning-in-healthly-older-adults-a-systematic-review-of-the-clinical-significance-of-commercially-available-computerized-cognitive-training-in-preventing-cognitive-decline
#10
REVIEW
Tejal M Shah, Michael Weinborn, Giuseppe Verdile, Hamid R Sohrabi, Ralph N Martins
Successfully assisting older adults to maintain or improve cognitive function, particularly when they are dealing with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), remains a major challenge. Cognitive training may stimulate neuroplasticity thereby increasing cognitive and brain reserve. Commercial brain training programs are computerized, readily-available, easy-to-administer and adaptive but often lack supportive data and their clinical validation literature has not been previously reviewed...
March 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070792/wearable-cameras-are-useful-tools-to-investigate-and-remediate-autobiographical-memory-impairment-a-systematic-prisma-review
#11
REVIEW
Mélissa C Allé, Liliann Manning, Jevita Potheegadoo, Romain Coutelle, Jean-Marie Danion, Fabrice Berna
Autobiographical memory, central in human cognition and every day functioning, enables past experienced events to be remembered. A variety of disorders affecting autobiographical memory are characterized by the difficulty of retrieving specific detailed memories of past personal events. Owing to the impact of autobiographical memory impairment on patients' daily life, it is necessary to better understand these deficits and develop relevant methods to improve autobiographical memory. The primary objective of the present systematic PRISMA review was to give an overview of the first empirical evidence of the potential of wearable cameras in autobiographical memory investigation in remediating autobiographical memory impairments...
March 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878426/the-differential-effects-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-lewy-body-pathology-on-cognitive-performance-a-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Ashita S Gurnani, Brandon E Gavett
Differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from normal aging and other dementia etiologies is imperative for disease specific treatment options and long-term care planning. Neuropathological confirmation is the gold standard for neurodegenerative disease diagnosis, yet most published studies examining the use of neuropsychological tests in the differential diagnosis of dementia rely upon clinical diagnostic outcomes. The present study undertook a meta-analytic review of the literature to identify cognitive tests and domains that allow for the differentiation of individuals with AD pathology from individuals with dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) pathology and pathology-free individuals...
March 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102493/a-meta-analysis-of-working-memory-impairments-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Ya Wang, Yi-Bing Zhang, Lu-Lu Liu, Ji-Fang Cui, Jing Wang, David H K Shum, Therese van Amelsvoort, Raymond C K Chan
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by executive dysfunction, and working memory (WM) comprises one core component of executive function. Many studies have investigated WM impairments in individuals with ASD, however, a conclusive agreement has not been reached. The present study provided a meta-analytic review of WM impairments in individuals with ASD and evaluated potential moderating variables of this problem. Twenty-eight studies were included in this study, and the participants comprised 819 individuals with ASD and 875 healthy controls...
January 19, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815765/are-shunt-revisions-associated-with-iq-in-congenital-hydrocephalus-a-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
C Nikki Arrington, Ashley L Ware, Yusra Ahmed, Paulina A Kulesz, Maureen Dennis, Jack M Fletcher
Although it is generally acknowledged that shunt revisions are associated with reductions in cognitive functions in individuals with congenital hydrocephalus, the literature yields mixed results and is inconclusive. The current study used meta-analytic methods to empirically synthesize studies addressing the association of shunt revisions and IQ in individuals with congenital hydrocephalus. Six studies and three in-house datasets yielded 11 independent samples for meta-analysis. Groups representing lower and higher numbers of shunt revisions were coded to generate effect sizes for differences in IQ scores...
December 2016: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726043/a-systematic-review-of-psychiatric-and-psychosocial-comorbidities-of-genetic-generalised-epilepsies-gge
#15
REVIEW
A Loughman, N A Bendrups, W J D'Souza
Psychiatric disorders and associated poor psychosocial outcomes are recognised to be a common sequelae of epilepsy. The extent to which this is true of genetic generalised epilepsies (GGE), particularly syndromes other than juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is unclear. This systematic review synthesises findings regarding psychiatric and associated comorbidities in adults and children with GGE. Systematic review yielded 34 peer-reviewed studies of psychiatric and psychosocial outcomes in adults and children with GGE...
December 2016: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714573/subjective-cognitive-complaints-and-objective-cognitive-function-in-aging-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-recent-cross-sectional-findings
#16
REVIEW
Bridget Burmester, Janet Leathem, Paul Merrick
Research investigating how subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs) might reliably indicate impairments in objective cognitive functioning has produced highly varied findings, and despite attempts to synthesise this literature (e.g., Jonker et al. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 983-991, 2000; Reid and MacLullich Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 22(5-6), 471-485, 2006; Crumley et al. Psychology and Aging, 29(2), 250-263, 2014), recent work continues to offer little resolution. This review provides both quantitative and qualitative synthesis of research conducted since the last comprehensive review in 2006, with the aim of identifying reasons for these discrepancies that might provide fruitful avenues for future exploration...
December 2016: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632384/verbal-thinking-and-inner-speech-use-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
REVIEW
David M Williams, Cynthia Peng, Gregory L Wallace
The extent to which cognition is verbally mediated in neurotypical individuals is the subject of debate in cognitive neuropsychology, as well as philosophy and psychology. Studying "verbal thinking" in developmental/neuropsychological disorders provides a valuable opportunity to inform theory building, as well as clinical practice. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive, critical review of such studies among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD involves severe social-communication deficits and limitations in cognitive/behavioural flexibility...
December 2016: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561662/factors-influencing-clinical-correlates-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-cte-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Breton M Asken, Molly J Sullan, Aliyah R Snyder, Zachary M Houck, Vaughn E Bryant, Loren P Hizel, Molly E McLaren, Duane E Dede, Michael S Jaffee, Steven T DeKosky, Russell M Bauer
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neuropathologically defined disease reportedly linked to a history of repetitive brain trauma. As such, retired collision sport athletes are likely at heightened risk for developing CTE. Researchers have described distinct pathological features of CTE as well a wide range of clinical symptom presentations, recently termed traumatic encephalopathy syndrome (TES). These clinical symptoms are highly variable, non-specific to individuals described as having CTE pathology in case reports, and are often associated with many other factors...
December 2016: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447979/anosognosia-for-memory-impairment-in-addiction-insights-from-neuroimaging-and-neuropsychological-assessment-of-metamemory
#19
REVIEW
Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Edith V Sullivan
In addiction, notably Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD), patients often have a tendency to fail to acknowledge the reality of the disease and to minimize the physical, psychological, and social difficulties attendant to chronic alcohol consumption. This lack of awareness can reduce the chances of initiating and maintaining sobriety. Presented here is a model focusing on compromised awareness in individuals with AUD of mild to moderate cognitive deficits, in particular, for episodic memory impairment-the ability to learn new information, such as recent personal experiences...
December 2016: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663255/editorial-introduction-to-the-special-issue-on-neuropsychological-interventions
#20
Justin B Miller, Nicola J Gates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Neuropsychology Review
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