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Neuropsychology Review

A Loughman, N A Bendrups, W J D'Souza
Psychiatric disorders and associated poor psychosocial outcomes are recognised to be a common sequelae of epilepsy. The extent to which this is true of genetic generalised epilepsies (GGE), particularly syndromes other than juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is unclear. This systematic review synthesises findings regarding psychiatric and associated comorbidities in adults and children with GGE. Systematic review yielded 34 peer-reviewed studies of psychiatric and psychosocial outcomes in adults and children with GGE...
October 10, 2016: Neuropsychology Review
Bridget Burmester, Janet Leathem, Paul Merrick
Research investigating how subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs) might reliably indicate impairments in objective cognitive functioning has produced highly varied findings, and despite attempts to synthesise this literature (e.g., Jonker et al. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 983-991, 2000; Reid and MacLullich Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 22(5-6), 471-485, 2006; Crumley et al. Psychology and Aging, 29(2), 250-263, 2014), recent work continues to offer little resolution. This review provides both quantitative and qualitative synthesis of research conducted since the last comprehensive review in 2006, with the aim of identifying reasons for these discrepancies that might provide fruitful avenues for future exploration...
October 6, 2016: Neuropsychology Review
David M Williams, Cynthia Peng, Gregory L Wallace
The extent to which cognition is verbally mediated in neurotypical individuals is the subject of debate in cognitive neuropsychology, as well as philosophy and psychology. Studying "verbal thinking" in developmental/neuropsychological disorders provides a valuable opportunity to inform theory building, as well as clinical practice. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive, critical review of such studies among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD involves severe social-communication deficits and limitations in cognitive/behavioural flexibility...
September 8, 2016: Neuropsychology Review
Breton M Asken, Molly J Sullan, Aliyah R Snyder, Zachary M Houck, Vaughn E Bryant, Loren P Hizel, Molly E McLaren, Duane E Dede, Michael S Jaffee, Steven T DeKosky, Russell M Bauer
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neuropathologically defined disease reportedly linked to a history of repetitive brain trauma. As such, retired collision sport athletes are likely at heightened risk for developing CTE. Researchers have described distinct pathological features of CTE as well a wide range of clinical symptom presentations, recently termed traumatic encephalopathy syndrome (TES). These clinical symptoms are highly variable, non-specific to individuals described as having CTE pathology in case reports, and are often associated with many other factors...
August 25, 2016: Neuropsychology Review
Justin B Miller, Nicola J Gates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Neuropsychology Review
Donel M Martin, Shawn M McClintock, Jane Forster, Colleen K Loo
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is increasingly used as a therapeutic intervention for neuropsychiatric illnesses and has demonstrated efficacy for treatment of major depression. However, an unresolved question is whether a course of rTMS treatment results in effects on cognitive functioning. In this systematic review and meta-analysis we aimed to quantitatively determine whether a course of rTMS has cognitive enhancing effects. We examined cognitive outcomes from randomised, sham-controlled studies conducted in patients with neuropsychiatric conditions where rTMS was administered to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) across repeated sessions, searched from PubMed/MEDLINE and other databases up until October 2015...
September 2016: Neuropsychology Review
M J Chandler, A C Parks, M Marsiske, L J Rotblatt, G E Smith
Cognitive interventions in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) seek to ameliorate cognitive symptoms in the condition. Cognitive interventions may or may not generalize beyond cognitive outcomes to everyday life. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to assess the effect of cognitive interventions compared to a control group in MCI on generalizability outcome measures [activities of daily living (ADLs), mood, quality of life (QOL), and metacognition] rather than cognitive outcomes alone. PRISMA guidelines were followed...
September 2016: Neuropsychology Review
L Mowszowski, A Lampit, C C Walton, S L Naismith
Given projected increases in dementia prevalence, emphasising earlier stages of cognitive impairment in older adults enables targeted early intervention strategies. Strategy-based cognitive training (SCT) is a remedial approach involving guidance and practice in compensatory techniques to improve cognition, including memory and attention. It may also be effective for improving executive functions (EF) integral to everyday tasks. This review systematically evaluates SCT effects on EF in older adults without dementia...
September 2016: Neuropsychology Review
Carlos Campos, Susana Santos, Emily Gagen, Sérgio Machado, Susana Rocha, Matthew M Kurtz, Nuno Barbosa Rocha
Social cognitive impairment is a key feature of schizophrenia and social cognition training (SCT) is a promising tool to address these deficits. Neurobiological dysfunction in schizophrenia has been widely researched, but neuronal changes induced by SCT have been scarcely explored. This review aims to assess the neuroplastic effects of SCT in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for clinical trials testing the effects of SCT in functional and structural brain measurements of adult patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders...
September 2016: Neuropsychology Review
Brian M Sandroff, Robert W Motl, Mark R Scudder, John DeLuca
Cognitive dysfunction is highly prevalent, disabling, and poorly-managed in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent evidence suggests that exercise might have beneficial effects on cognition in this population. The current systematic, evidence-based review examined the existing literature on exercise, physical activity, and physical fitness effects on cognition in MS to accurately describe the current status of the field, offer recommendations for clinicians, and identify study-specific and participant-specific characteristics for providing future direction for ongoing MS research...
September 2016: Neuropsychology Review
Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Edith V Sullivan
In addiction, notably Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD), patients often have a tendency to fail to acknowledge the reality of the disease and to minimize the physical, psychological, and social difficulties attendant to chronic alcohol consumption. This lack of awareness can reduce the chances of initiating and maintaining sobriety. Presented here is a model focusing on compromised awareness in individuals with AUD of mild to moderate cognitive deficits, in particular, for episodic memory impairment-the ability to learn new information, such as recent personal experiences...
July 22, 2016: Neuropsychology Review
Cutter A Lindbergh, Rodney K Dishman, L Stephen Miller
Accumulating evidence suggests that the pre-dementia syndrome mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is characterized by decrements in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). The current review was a quantitative synthesis of the available literature to objectively characterize IADL disability in MCI while clarifying inconsistencies in findings across studies. It was hypothesized that individuals with MCI would display significantly greater functional impairment relative to cognitively intact controls. Candidate moderators specified a priori included functional assessment approach, MCI subtype, depressive symptoms, and language conducted...
June 2016: Neuropsychology Review
Emre Bora, Serkan Özakbaş, Dennis Velakoulis, Mark Walterfang
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with cognitive decline and impairment in social functioning. Accumulating evidence suggests that patients with MS are impaired in social cognition, including theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition. In this meta-analysis of 24 studies, facial emotion recognition and ToM performances of 989 patients with MS and 836 healthy controls were compared. MS was associated with significant impairments with medium effect sizes in ToM (d = 0.57) and facial emotion recognition (d = 0...
June 2016: Neuropsychology Review
Stephen C Bowden, David W Loring
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Neuropsychology Review
Mike W-L Cheung, Ranjith Vijayakumar
Meta-analysis is widely accepted as the preferred method to synthesize research findings in various disciplines. This paper provides an introduction to when and how to conduct a meta-analysis. Several practical questions, such as advantages of meta-analysis over conventional narrative review and the number of studies required for a meta-analysis, are addressed. Common meta-analytic models are then introduced. An artificial dataset is used to illustrate how a meta-analysis is conducted in several software packages...
June 2016: Neuropsychology Review
Nicola J Gates, Evrim G March
There is increasing impetus to improve the quality of research and scientific writing. Systematic reviews provide Class 1 research evidence, are based upon an established rigor and communicate results in a comprehensive manner, and are therefore particularly relevant to clinicians and researchers. Clinician requirements for quality systematic reviews are twofold: to keep up to date with research and to make informed decisions including those required for diagnoses, disease or risk assessment, and treatment...
June 2016: Neuropsychology Review
Karen A Sullivan, Chloe B Kempe, Shannon L Edmed, George A Bonanno
The relation between resilience and mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcome has been theorized but empirical studies have been scarce. This systematic review aimed to describe the research in this area. Electronic databases (Medline, CINAHL, PsychINFO, SPORTdiscus, and PILOTS) were searched from inception to August 2015 for studies in which resilience was measured following TBI. The search terms included 'TBI' 'concussion' 'postconcussion' 'resilience' and 'hardiness'. Inclusion criteria were peer reviewed original research reports published in English, human participants aged 18 years and over with brain injury, and an accepted definition of mild TBI...
June 2016: Neuropsychology Review
Florian Ganzer, Sonja Bröning, Stefanie Kraft, Peter-Michael Sack, Rainer Thomasius
Findings on neurocognitive effects of sustained cannabis use are heterogeneous. Previous work has rarely taken time of abstinence into account. In this review, we focus on understanding sustained effects of cannabis, which begin when clinical symptoms of the drug have worn off after at least 14 days. We conducted a search between 2004 and 2015 and found 38 studies with such a prolonged abstinence phase. Study-design quality in terms of evidence-based medicine is similar among studies. Studies found some attention or concentration deficits in cannabis users (CU)...
June 2016: Neuropsychology Review
Siri D S Noordermeer, Marjolein Luman, Jaap Oosterlaan
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) are common behavioural disorders in childhood and adolescence and are associated with brain abnormalities. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates structural (sMRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) findings in individuals with ODD/CD with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Online databases were searched for controlled studies, resulting in 12 sMRI and 17 fMRI studies. In line with current models on ODD/CD, studies were classified in hot and cool executive functioning (EF)...
March 2016: Neuropsychology Review
David W Loring, Stephen C Bowden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Neuropsychology Review
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