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Neurosurgery Clinics of North America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886886/adult-and-pediatric-spine-trauma
#1
EDITORIAL
Douglas L Brockmeyer, Andrew T Dailey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886885/classification-and-management-of-pediatric-subaxial-cervical-spine-injuries
#2
REVIEW
Casey J Madura, James M Johnston
Appropriate management of subaxial spine injury in children requires an appreciation for the differences in anatomy, biomechanics, injury patterns, and treatment options compared with adult patients. Increased flexibility, weak neck muscles, and cranial disproportion predispose younger children to upper cervical injuries and spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality. A majority of subaxial cervical spine injuries can be treated nonoperatively. Surgical instrumentation options for children have significantly increased in recent years...
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886884/classification-and-management-of-pediatric-craniocervical-injuries
#3
REVIEW
Hannah E Goldstein, Richard C E Anderson
This article addresses the key features, clinical presentation, patterns of injury, indicated workup, and radiographic findings associated with craniocervical injuries in the pediatric population. It discusses nonsurgical and surgical management of pediatric cervical spine trauma, addressing when each is indicated, and the various techniques available to the pediatric neurosurgeon.
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886883/restorative-treatments-for-spinal-cord-injury
#4
REVIEW
Stephanie Chen, Allan D Levi
Spinal cord injury remains an incurable disease with an enormous impact functionally, financially, and emotionally on affected individuals and their families. Current treatment modalities are focused on minimizing secondary injury and maximizing residual function via rehabilitation. In this article, the authors discuss ambitious advancements under investigation aimed at restoring function. These promising experimental treatments focus on neuroprotection with hypothermia and pharmacologic therapies, regeneration via cell transplantation, and rewiring with electrical stimulation...
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886882/pharmacologic-management-of-acute-spinal-cord-injury
#5
REVIEW
Michael Karsy, Gregory Hawryluk
Spinal cord injury is a serious global public health problem that often leaves patients with devastating permanent disabilities. Although advances in supportive care have improved outcome in recent decades, there remains great need for a safe and efficacious medical treatment that improves neurologic outcome. This article reviews pharmacologic treatments evaluated or in the process of development in humans. Cellular transplantation strategies are briefly reviewed especially where they have been evaluated with pharmacologic treatments...
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886881/central-cord-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Nathaniel P Brooks
Central cord syndrome is a common spinal cord injury. The purpose of this review article is to provide an overview of the anatomy, pathophysiology, prognosis, and management of this disorder.
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886880/timing-of-surgery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#7
REVIEW
Matthew Piazza, James Schuster
Although timing for surgical intervention after spinal cord injury remains controversial, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that early surgery may improve neurologic outcomes, particularly with incomplete spinal cord injury, and may reduce non-neurologic complications and health care resource utilization. Moreover, even in patients with complete spinal cord injury, minor improvement in neurologic function can lead to significant changes in quality of life. This article reviews the experimental and clinical data examining surgical timing after spinal cord injury...
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886879/thoracolumbar-trauma-classification
#8
REVIEW
Gregory D Schroeder, James S Harrop, Alexander R Vaccaro
Useful thoracolumbar injury classifications allow for meaningful and concise communication between surgeons, trainees, and researchers. Although many have been proposed, none have been able to obtain universal acceptance. Historically, classifications focused only on the osseous injuries; more recent classifications focused on the injury morphology and other critical determinants of treatment, including the posterior ligamentous complex integrity and the patient's neurologic status. This review details the important historic classifications and reviews more contemporary thoracolumbar injury classifications, such as the Thoracolumbar Injury Classification System and the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Injury Classification System...
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886878/return-to-play-for-athletes
#9
REVIEW
Brett D Rosenthal, Barrett S Boody, Wellington K Hsu
Sports-related activities are associated with a variety of spinal injuries. Spine surgeons must be able to determine an athlete's readiness to return to play. Most spine surgeons agree that an athlete should be neurologically intact, be pain free, be at full strength, and have full range of motion before returning to full, unrestricted athletic activity. Certain spine injuries such as stingers may allow for return to play nearly immediately; whereas, other clinical entities such as spear tackler's spine are considered absolute contraindications to return to play...
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886877/minimally-invasive-treatment-of-spine-trauma
#10
REVIEW
Jason E McGowan, Christian B Ricks, Adam S Kanter
The role for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) continues to expand in the management of spinal pathology. In the setting of trauma, operative techniques that can minimize morbidity without compromising clinical efficacy have significant value. MIS techniques are associated with decreased intraoperative blood loss, operative time, and morbidity, while providing patients with comparable outcomes when compared with conventional open procedures. MIS interventions further enable earlier mobilization, decreased hospital stay, decreased pain, and an earlier return to baseline function when compared with traditional techniques...
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886876/complications-in-the-management-of-patients-with-spine-trauma
#11
REVIEW
Geoffrey Stricsek, George Ghobrial, Jefferson Wilson, Thana Theofanis, James S Harrop
More than 50% of patients diagnosed with acute, traumatic spinal cord injury will experience at least 1 complication during their hospitalization. Age, severity of neurological injury, concurrent traumatic brain injury, comorbid illness, and mechanism of injury are all associated with increasing risk of complication. More than 75% of complications will occur within 2 weeks of injury. The complications associated with SCI carry a significant risk of morbidity and mortality; their early identification and management is critical in the care of the SCI patient...
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886875/the-role-of-a-miniopen-thoracoscopic-assisted-approach-in-the-management-of-burst-fractures-involving-the-thoracolumbar-junction
#12
REVIEW
Ricky Raj S Kalra, Meic H Schmidt
Thoracoscopic spinal surgery is a minimally invasive open endoscopic approach to the anterior thoracolumbar spine for decompression and stabilization. It offers an alternative to open thoracotomy for thoracolumbar burst fractures, anterior spinal cord decompression, and spinal reconstruction with interbody and anterolateral plate instrumentation for restoration of biomechanical stability and alignment. Posterior instrumentation may not sufficiently stabilize a significantly disrupted anterior load-bearing spinal column, and the high access morbidity of open procedures is of significant concern...
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886874/treatment-of-facet-injuries-in-the-cervical-spine
#13
REVIEW
Navid Khezri, Tamir Ailon, Brian K Kwon
Facet injuries are common in the cervical spine. Many classification systems over the years have characterized the heterogeneity of these injuries. For unilateral facet fractures with minimal displacement and no neurological deficit, there is mounting evidence that better radiographic and clinical outcomes may be achieved with surgical treatment. Anterior and posterior approaches can both be utilized successfully for the surgical management of facet injuries. The anterior approach is well tolerated, allows one to address a disc herniation, and provides a high union rate with good sagittal alignment...
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886873/treatment-of-odontoid-fractures-in-the-aging-population
#14
REVIEW
Jian Guan, Erica F Bisson
Odontoid fractures are the most common cervical fracture type among the elderly population. Several treatment options exist for these patients, ranging from immobilization with a semirigid orthosis to surgical arthrodesis. This report reviews the key points in the management of odontoid fractures in the aged patient, including diagnosis, the various forms of conservative therapies, and the options for surgical intervention.
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886872/pediatric-thoracolumbar-spine-trauma
#15
REVIEW
Visish Srinivasan, Andrew Jea
This article reviews thoracolumbar injury patterns that may be seen in children. Although much of the management of these injuries has been extrapolated from the adult literature, unique surgical and nonsurgical considerations in treating children with thoracolumbar spine fractures are discussed. In conclusion, most children achieve satisfactory outcomes in long-term follow-up after healing.
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886871/update-on-new-imaging-techniques-for-trauma
#16
REVIEW
Lubdha M Shah, Adam E Flanders
Computed tomography (CT) and MRI are complementary imaging modalities for the evaluation of the traumatic spine. Osseous delineation is best assessed with CT, whereas MRI gives superb soft tissue description. Awareness of the strengths and pitfalls of each modality is critical in the accurate interpretation of images. Advances in MR imaging of the spine, particularly of the spinal cord, provide glimpses into to the pathobiological mechanism of spinal cord injury. Innovative techniques relay microstructural information about the integrity of the axons and myelin sheaths...
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637404/advances-in-neurotrauma-research
#17
EDITORIAL
Paul M Vespa, Daniel Hirt, Geoffrey T Manley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637403/erratum
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637402/repetitive-head-impacts-and-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#19
REVIEW
Ann C McKee, Michael L Alosco, Bertrand R Huber
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a distinctive neurodegenerative disease that occurs as a result of repetitive head impacts. CTE can only be diagnosed by postmortem neuropathologic examination of brain tissue. CTE is a unique disorder with a pathognomonic lesion that can be reliably distinguished from other neurodegenerative diseases. CTE is associated with violent behaviors, explosivity, loss of control, depression, suicide, memory loss and cognitive changes. There is increasing evidence that CTE affects amateur athletes as well as professional athletes and military veterans...
October 2016: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637401/the-role-of-surgical-intervention-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
REVIEW
Hadie Adams, Angelos G Kolias, Peter J Hutchinson
The general consensus to optimize the care for severe TBI patients is management at specialized neurotrauma centers with neurosurgical and neurocritical care support and the use of guidelines-based standardized protocols. Over the last decade, significant efforts have been made to define neurotrauma treatment guidelines. However, it is important to recognize the heterogeneity of TBI and that the "one-size-fits-all approach" may not always be appropriate for these patients. Knowledge synthesis activities in neurotrauma are important to define future research agendas...
October 2016: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
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