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International Psychogeriatrics

Dimitrios Adamis, David Meagher, Siobhan Rooney, Owen Mulligan, Geraldine McCarthy
Studies indicate that DSM-5 criteria for delirium are relatively restrictive, and identify different cases of delirium compared with previous systems. We evaluate four outcomes of delirium (mortality, length of hospital stay, institutionalization, and cognitive improvement) in relation to delirium defined by different DSM classification systems. Prospective, longitudinal study of patients aged 70+ admitted to medical wards of a general hospital. Participants were assessed up to a maximum of four times during two weeks, using DSM-5 and DSM-IV criteria, DRS-R98 and CAM scales as proxies for DSM III-R and DSM III...
September 14, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
Kaarin J Anstey, Ruth Peters, Linda Clare, Nicola T Lautenschlager, Hiroko H Dodge, Deborah E Barnes, Suzana Shahar, Henry Brodaty, Glenn Rees
Dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder with global impact, with the largest proportion of cases occurring in low- and middle-income countries. It is estimated that there are 46.8 million cases globally with approximately 10 million new cases each year or a new case occurring every 3 sec (Prince et al., 2015). For comparison there are 36.7 million HIV cases with an estimated 2 million new cases each year (WHO, 2017). The rise in dementia prevalence is largely due to population ageing, with the oldest being at highest risk...
September 13, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
Zahinoor Ismail, Jennifer Gatchel, Daniel R Bateman, Ricardo Barcelos-Ferreira, Marc Chantillon, Judith Jaeger, Nancy J Donovan, Moyra E Mortby
BACKGROUND: Affective and emotional symptoms such as depression, anxiety, euphoria, and irritability are common neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in pre-dementia and cognitively normal older adults. They comprise a domain of Mild Behavioral Impairment (MBI), which describes their emergence in later life as an at-risk state for cognitive decline and dementia, and as a potential manifestation of prodromal dementia. This selective scoping review explores the epidemiology and neurobiological links between affective and emotional symptoms, and incident cognitive decline, focusing on recent literature in this expanding field of research...
September 13, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
Mara Smith, Ana Hategan, James A Bourgeois
To the Editor: The gaming industry is growing rapidly, as is the proportion of older adults aged 65 years or older who participate in gambling (Tse et al., 2012). With casinos tailoring their venues and providing incentives to attract older adults, and with the increasing popularity of "pleasure trips" to casinos organized by retirement homes, plus active promotion of government-operated lotteries in many countries, this trend is likely to continue. Gambling disorder (GD) or "pathological" or "problem" gambling presents a public health concern in the geriatric population...
September 13, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
Alice Laudisio, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi, Antonella Gemma, Silvia Giovannini, Maria Rita Lo Monaco, Davide L Vetrano, Luca Padua, Roberto Bernabei, Giuseppe Zuccalà
Treatment with proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) might be associated with neuropsychological side effects. We examined the association between use of PPIs and depressive symptoms in an elderly population. Mood was assessed by the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) in all 344 inhabitants of Tuscania (Italy) aged 75 years and over, without exclusion criteria; depression was defined by a GDS score ≥11. Use of PPIs was associated with a higher GDS score in linear regression analysis (B = 2.43; 95% CI = 0.49-4...
September 13, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
Lewis Killin, Sharon Abrahams, Mario A Parra, Sergio Della Sala
BACKGROUND: Cognitive markers of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) should be sensitive and specific to memory impairments that are not associated with healthy cognitive aging. In the present study, we investigated the effect of healthy cognitive aging on two proposed cognitive markers of AD: the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Task with Immediate Recall (FCSRT-IR) and a temporary visual memory binding (TMB) task. METHOD: Free recall and the cost of holding bound information in visual memory were compared between 24 younger and 24 older participants in a mixed, fully counterbalanced experiment...
September 12, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
Michael C Woodward
With now over 50 million people worldwide with dementia (Prince et al., 2013), there are almost certainly well over 100 million people with cognitive concerns and many of these will attend their health professional keen to know what is going on. We need those without intensive training in this field to be more confident and correct in their diagnosis when such a concerned person turns up. Many simple diagnostic tests have been proposed and some assessed - these include the walk and talk (divided attention) test (those who stop when asked a question while walking may be cognitively impaired) (Lamoth et al...
September 11, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
Emma Broome, Tom Dening, Justine Schneider, Dawn Brooker
BACKGROUND: Arts-based interventions play an important role in the care of people with dementia. Yet, creative arts are seldom implemented as a tool to enhance the care and wellbeing of people with dementia. METHODS: We examined the involvement of care staff in creative arts activities in residential care. Aspects of involvement that appear to influence outcomes in people with dementia were identified and analyzed. A broad systematic literature search of MedLine, EMBASE, PsychInfo, CINAHL, ASSIA, SCOPUS, and Web of Science led to the identification of 14 papers...
September 7, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
Faisal Sheikh, Zahinoor Ismail, Moyra E Mortby, Philip Barber, Alicja Cieslak, Karyn Fischer, Robert Granger, David B Hogan, Aaron Mackie, Colleen J Maxwell, Bijoy Menon, Patricia Mueller, David Patry, Dawn Pearson, Jeremy Quickfall, Tolulope Sajobi, Eric Tse, Meng Wang, Eric E Smith
BACKGROUND: Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) describes later life acquired, sustained neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in cognitively normal individuals or those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), as an at-risk state for incident cognitive decline and dementia. We developed an operational definition of MBI and tested whether the presence of MBI was related to caregiver burden in patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) or MCI assessed at a memory clinic. METHODS: MBI was assessed in 282 consecutive memory clinic patients with SCD (n = 119) or MCI (n = 163) in accordance with the International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment - Alzheimer's Association (ISTAART-AA) research diagnostic criteria...
September 7, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
Wendy Moyle, Urska Arnautovska, Tamara Ownsworth, Cindy Jones
BACKGROUND: Socially assistive robots are increasingly used as a therapeutic tool for people with dementia, as a means to improve quality of life through social connection. This paper presents a mixed-method integrative review of telepresence robots used to improve social connection of people with dementia by enabling real-time communication with their carers. METHODS: A systematic search of Medline, ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library was conducted to gather available evidence on the use of telepresence robots, specifically videoconferencing, to improve social connectedness, in people with dementia...
September 7, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
John Guinane, Boon Lung Ng
BACKGROUND: Despite of their limited availability and potential for significant variation between and within each modality, this is the first study to prospectively measure the clinical utility of MRI and/or SPECT brain scanning in addition to the routine diagnostic workup of patients presenting to memory clinic. METHODS: A single center study was conducted over a convenience of 12-month sampling period. For each patient referred for MRI and/or SPECT scanning, the primary geriatrician or psychogeriatrician was asked to assign an initial diagnosis...
September 7, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
Martina Sinta Kristanti, Yvonne Engels, Christantie Effendy, Astuti, Adi Utarini, Myrra Vernooij-Dassen
BACKGROUND: Dementia, even more than cancer, demands long-term care. While in Indonesia cancer is accepted as a disease requiring caregiving, dementia is still considered "a normal condition." These differences might affect the experiences of caregivers, especially those relating to social health, the subject of our study. We aim to describe and compare the lived experiences of family caregivers of patients with cancer (PWC) with those of patients with dementia (PWD) in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, and to explore the role of their social health in these experiences...
September 5, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
Alexander M M Arons, Roland B Wetzels, Sandra Zwijsen, Hilde Verbeek, Geertje van de Ven, Teake P Ettema, Raymond T C M Koopmans, Debby L Gerritsen
BACKGROUND: Since its development, the Qualidem has had items that were considered unsuited for people with very severe dementia. This study attempted to investigate the applicability of all Qualidem items in people with all stages of dementia severity. METHODS: Four data sets that contained Qualidem observations on people with dementia were combined. Dementia severity was categorized based on the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), with a dichotomization of very severe dementia (GDS 7) and others (GDS 1-6)...
September 4, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
Trentham Furness, George Mnatzaganian, Robyn Garlick, Susan Ireland, Brian McKenna, Keith D Hill
BACKGROUND: Despite the high risk of falling for people with severe mental illness, there is limited falls research in mental health settings. Therefore, the objective of this observational cohort study was to conduct a focused post-fall review of fall episodes within aged acute inpatient mental health units at one of Australia's largest publicly funded mental health organizations. METHODS: A post-fall reporting tool was developed to collect intrinsic and extrinsic fall risk factors among three aged acute mental health inpatient units over an 18-month period...
September 4, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
Martin Nikolaus Dichter, Diana Trutschel, Christian Günter Georg Schwab, Burkhard Haastert, Tina Quasdorf, Margareta Halek
BACKGROUND: The Dementia Care Mapping (DCM) method is an internationally recognized complex intervention in dementia research and care for implementing person-centered care. The Leben-QD II trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of DCM with regard to caregivers. METHODS: The nine participating nursing home units were allocated to three groups: (1) DCM method experienced ≥ 1 year, (2) DCM newly introduced during this trial, and (3) regular rating of residents' quality of life (control group)...
August 30, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
Myrella Paschali, Daniel Kamp, Claudia Reichmann, Michaela Jaenner, Christian Lange-Asschenfeldt, Tillmann Supprian
BACKGROUND: Impulsive-aggressive behavior is a significant challenge in geriatric psychiatry and requires professional evaluation and management. METHODS: SOAS-R scales (Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revision) completed by medical staff on three secure psychiatric wards were analyzed during a period of 12 months. Patients were subdivided into the following two diagnostic subgroups: dementia and other diagnoses. RESULTS: A total of 146 aggressive incidents involving 66 patients were reported (8...
August 30, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
Hsiu-Li Huang, Yea-Ing Lotus Shyu, Li-Chueh Weng, Kang-Hua Chen, Wen-Chuin Hsu
BACKGROUND: Advance directives are important for nursing home residents with dementia; for those with advanced dementia, surrogates determine medical decisions. However, in Taiwan, little is known about what influences the completion of these advance directives. The purpose of this study was to identify factors, which influence the presence of advance directives for nursing home residents with dementia in Taiwan. METHOD: Our cross-sectional study analyzed a convenience sample of 143 nursing home dyads comprised of residents with dementia and family surrogates...
August 29, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
Ravi Bhat, Nicola T Lautenschlager, Rosie Watson
Consciousness consists of two components: arousal and awareness of the environment and self. Arousal refers to the behavioral continuum that occurs between sleep and wakefulness, while awareness to the content of consciousness (Laureys, 2014). In normal physiological states, with the exception of REM sleep, the level of arousal is positively correlated with awareness (Laureys, 2014) such that arousal is graded and measured by the degree to which it is diminished. This conceptualization appears to have led experts, including the DSM-5, to consider delirium as a condition to not associated with impairments in arousal (Schiff and Plum, 2000, American Psychiatric Association, 2013)...
August 29, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
P Boersma, R M Dröes, B I Lissenberg-Witte, B van Meijel, J C M van Weert
BACKGROUND: Person-centered care interventions can improve the quality of life and decrease behavioral problems of people with dementia. Although not convincingly proven, person-centered care interventions may benefit the caregivers as well. This study aims to gain insight into how working with the Veder Contact Method (VCM) - a new person-centered care method - influences the job satisfaction of caregivers. METHODS: Within a quasi-experimental study, the job satisfaction of caregivers of six experimental wards (n = 75) was compared with caregivers of six control wards (n = 36) that applied Care-As-Usual...
August 22, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
Nikki L Hill, Caroline McDermott, Jacqueline Mogle, Elizabeth Munoz, Nicole DePasquale, Rachel Wion, Emily Whitaker
BACKGROUND: Older adults with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) experience increased affective symptoms, reduced engagement in a range of activities, as well as more functional problems when compared to those without SCI. These associations suggest that SCI may be detrimental to older adults' quality of life (QoL). The purpose of this paper is to advance understanding of the SCI-QoL relationship through a comprehensive review of the empirical literature relating SCI and QoL. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted in CINAHL, PsycINFO, and PubMed per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses criteria...
August 22, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
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