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International Psychogeriatrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095946/electroconvulsive-therapy-ect-for-treating-agitation-in-dementia-major-neurocognitive-disorder-a-promising-option
#1
Oliver M Glass, Brent P Forester, Adriana P Hermida
BACKGROUND: Agitation in patients with dementia increases caretaker burden, increases healthcare costs, and worsens the patient's quality of life. Antipsychotic medications, commonly used for the treatment of agitation in patients with dementia have a box warning from the FDA for elevated mortality risk. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has made significant advances over the past several years, and is efficacious in treating a wide range of psychiatric conditions. We provide a systematic review of published literature regarding the efficacy of ECT for the treatment of agitation in patients with dementia (major neurocognitive disorder)...
January 18, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095944/applications-of-the-propensity-score-weighting-method-in-psychogeriatric-research-correcting-selection-bias-and-adjusting-for-confounders
#2
Chung-Chou H Chang
The propensity score (PS) weighting method is an analytic technique that has been applied in multiple fields for a number of purposes. Here, we discuss two common applications, which are (1) to correct for selection bias and (2) to adjust for confounding variables when estimating the effect of an exposure variable on the outcome of interest.
January 18, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095935/living-well-with-chronic-disease-for-those-older-adults-living-in-the-community
#3
Richard A Burns, Colette Browning, Hal L Kendig
BACKGROUND: Definitions of successful aging that incorporate dimensions of physical capacity and medical conditions are limited owing to the normative nature of experiencing medical conditions with age. We examine the capacity for older adults living in the community to live well with or without chronic disease as they age. METHOD: Participants (n = 1,001) were from the Melbourne Longitudinal Studies on Healthy Ageing (MELSHA) study who were aged 65+ years at baseline, were living in the community and followed for 16 years...
January 18, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091355/a-systematic-review-evaluating-the-impact-of-paid-home-carer-training-supervision-and-other-interventions-on-the-health-and-well-being-of-older-home-care-clients
#4
Claudia Cooper, Blerta Cenko, Briony Dow, Penny Rapaport
BACKGROUND: Interventions to support and skill paid home carers and managers could potentially improve health and well-being of older home care clients. This is the first systematic review of interventions to improve how home carers and home care agencies deliver care to older people, with regard to clients' health and well-being and paid carers' well-being, job satisfaction, and retention. METHODS: We reviewed 10/731 papers found in the electronic search (to January 2016) fitting predetermined criteria, assessed quality using a checklist, and synthesized data using quantitative and qualitative techniques...
January 16, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091352/elder-abuse-by-abandonment-in-india-a-novel-community-awareness-and-intervention-strategy
#5
Mangal S Kardile, Carmelle Peisah
India, along with the rest of the world, is aging rapidly, but more so. Of a total population of over 1.2 billion, the aging population over 60 years is 109 million, projected to rise above 300 million by the year 2050, exceeding the younger population. One important ramification of this highly populous and under-resourced setting is that it provides a ripe environment for elder abuse (Chokkanathan and Lee, 2005), a problem besetting vulnerable aging populations globally (Patterson and Ploeg, 2007).
January 16, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088928/multi-modal-mri-investigation-of-volumetric-and-microstructural-changes-in-the-hippocampus-and-its-subfields-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-alzheimer-s-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#6
Elijah Mak, Silvy Gabel, Li Su, Guy B Williams, Robert Arnold, Luca Passamonti, Patricia Vazquez Rodríguez, Ajenthan Surendranathan, W Richard Bevan-Jones, James B Rowe, John T O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Volumetric atrophy and microstructural alterations in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of the hippocampus have been reported in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, no study to date has jointly investigated concomitant microstructural and volumetric changes of the hippocampus in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS: A total of 84 subjects (23 MCI, 17 DLB, 14 AD, and 30 healthy controls) were recruited for a multi-modal imaging (3T MRI and DTI) study that included neuropsychological evaluation...
January 16, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088926/proxy-rated-quality-of-life-of-care-home-residents-with-dementia-a-systematic-review
#7
Sarah Robertson, Claudia Cooper, Juanita Hoe, Olivia Hamilton, Aisling Stringer, Gill Livingston
BACKGROUND: Quality of life (QoL) is an important outcome for people with dementia living in care homes but usually needs to be rated by a proxy. We do not know if relative or paid carer proxy reports differ. We conducted the first systematic review and meta-analysis of data investigating whether and how these proxy reports of QoL differ. METHODS: We searched four databases: Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, and CINAHL in October 2015 with the terms: dementia, QoL, proxy, and care home...
January 16, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088925/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-kundalini-yoga-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#8
Harris A Eyre, Prabha Siddarth, Bianca Acevedo, Kathleen Van Dyk, Pattharee Paholpak, Linda Ercoli, Natalie St Cyr, Hongyu Yang, Dharma S Khalsa, Helen Lavretsky
BACKGROUND: Global population aging will result in increasing rates of cognitive decline and dementia. Thus, effective, low-cost, and low side-effect interventions for the treatment and prevention of cognitive decline are urgently needed. Our study is the first to investigate the effects of Kundalini yoga (KY) training on mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: Older participants (≥55 years of age) with MCI were randomized to either a 12-week KY intervention or memory enhancement training (MET; gold-standard, active control)...
January 16, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077179/scared-behind-the-wheel-what-impact-does-driving-anxiety-have-on-the-health-and-well-being-of-young-older-adults
#9
Megan E Hempel, Joanne E Taylor, Martin J Connolly, Fiona M Alpass, Christine V Stephens
BACKGROUND: Driving anxiety can range from driving reluctance to driving phobia, and 20% of young older adults experience mild driving anxiety, whereas 6% report moderate to severe driving anxiety. However, we do not know what impact driving anxiety has on health and well-being, especially among older drivers. This is problematic because there is a growing proportion of older adult drivers and a potential for driving anxiety to result in premature driving cessation that can impact on health and mortality...
January 12, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067190/leisure-activities-education-and-cognitive-impairment-in-chinese-older-adults-a-population-based-longitudinal-study
#10
Xinyi Zhu, Chengxuan Qiu, Yi Zeng, Juan Li
BACKGROUND: We examine the association between leisure-time activities and the risk of developing cognitive impairment among Chinese older people, and further investigate whether the association varies by educational level. METHODS: This follow-up study included 6,586 participants (aged 79.5 ± 9.8 years, range 65-105 years, 51.7% female) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey who were aged ≥65 years and were free of cognitive impairment in 2002...
January 9, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067188/does-the-geriatric-depression-scale-have-utility-for-measuring-depression-severity
#11
Hussain Syed, Gregory Swanwick
The prevalence of major depression ranges from 1% to 16% among elderly living in private households or in institutions, and in similar settings "patients" with clinically relevant depressive symptoms vary between 7.2% and 49% (Djernes, 2006). Community studies looking at point prevalence of depression in older people suggest rates between 10% and 20% depending on cultural situations (Rodda et al., 2011).
January 9, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067184/cognitive-reserve-and-self-efficacy-as-moderators-of-the-relationship-between-stress-exposure-and-executive-functioning-among-spousal-dementia-caregivers
#12
M M Pertl, C Hannigan, S Brennan, I H Robertson, B A Lawlor
BACKGROUND: A substantial literature has reported that stress negatively impacts on cognitive processes. As dementia caregiving can be stressful, it has been hypothesized that the challenges of dementia care may increase caregivers' own vulnerability to cognitive decline. Prefrontal processes are thought to be most vulnerable to stress; however, few studies have examined whether greater caregiver stress predicts poorer executive dysfunction, and no previous research has considered potential moderators of this relationship...
January 9, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067183/hippocampal-and-entorhinal-structures-in-subjective-memory-impairment-a-combined-mri-volumetric-and-dti-study
#13
Seon Young Ryu, Eun Ye Lim, Seunghee Na, Yong Soo Shim, Jung Hee Cho, Bora Yoon, Yun Jeong Hong, Dong Won Yang
BACKGROUND: Subjective memory impairment (SMI) is common among older adults. Increasing evidence suggests that SMI is a risk factor for future cognitive decline, as well as for mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Medial temporal lobe structures, including the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, are affected in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. The current study examined the gray matter (GM) volume and microstructural changes of hippocampal and entorhinal regions in individuals with SMI, compared with elderly control participants without memory complaints...
January 9, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998325/improving-the-care-of-people-with-dementia-in-general-hospitals-evaluation-of-a-whole-system-train-the-trainer-model
#14
Elizabeth L Sampson, Victoria Vickerstaff, Stephanie Lietz, Martin Orrell
BACKGROUND: There are concerns about the quality of care that people with dementia receive in the general hospital. Staff report a lack of confidence and inadequate training in dementia care. METHODS: A train-the-trainer model was implemented across eight acute hospital trusts in London via a large academic health and science network. Impact was evaluated using mixed methods. Data were collected at (a) individual level: "Sense of Competence in Dementia Care" (SCID), (b) ward level: Person Interaction and Environment (PIE) observations, (c) organization level: use of specific tools, i...
December 21, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998324/investigating-the-current-methods-of-assessing-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-in-residential-aged-care-facilities-in-a-metropolitan-city
#15
Samantha M Loi, Nicola T Lautenschlager
Up to 90% of people with dementia living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) display behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), and these are associated with poorer quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality. In order to implement appropriate interventions, it is important to understand the symptoms in more detail. Despite the availability of BPSD assessment tools, it is unknown what the current practice of monitoring of BPSD in RACFs. We sought to investigate the current BPSD assessment tools being used in RACFs and explore different stakeholders' views on current practices...
December 21, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998320/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-attempted-suicide-in-the-elderly-a-cross-sectional-study-in-shanghai-china
#16
Wei Zhang, Hansheng Ding, Peng Su, Qin Xu, Lixia Du, Chunyan Xie, Rong Chen, Yitong Yang, Chunlin Jin, Guangfeng Duan, Yang Li, Lingling Gong, Wenhua Tian
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have thoroughly investigated the prevalence and risk factors for completed suicide. In marked contrast is the lack of a better understanding of attempted suicide in the elderly. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of attempted suicide in the elderly and examine the associated factors. METHODS: Using a multi-stage cluster sampling approach, a cross-sectional survey of 8,399 elderly house-dwelling residents was conducted in Shanghai, China...
December 21, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989250/a-subtest-analysis-of-the-montreal-cognitive-assessment-moca-which-subtests-can-best-discriminate-between-healthy-controls-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Juliana Francisco Cecato, José Eduardo Martinelli, Rafael Izbicki, Mônica Sanches Yassuda, Ivan Aprahamian
The authors would like to apologise for a typographical error in the discussion of the above mentioned article. In the discussion on page 830 of the article, paragraph 'In the present sample, when we tested the accuracy of the MoCA to discriminate between MCI and healthy participants using ROC curves, the best cut-off score was 24 points, with good sensitivity and specificity ( 92% and 82%, respectively).' Should read: In the present sample, when we tested the accuracy of the MoCA to discriminate between MCI and healthy participants using ROC curves, the best cut-off score was 24 points, with good sensitivity and specificity (83% and 89%, respectively)...
December 19, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974073/memory-for-emotional-images-differs-according-to-the-presence-of-depressive-symptoms-in-individuals-at-risk-for-dementia
#18
Brandy L Callahan, Robert Laforce, Michel Dugas, Carol Hudon
BACKGROUND: Studies of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and late-life depression (LLD) have examined the similarities and differences between these syndromes, but few have investigated how the cognitive profile of comorbid aMCI and subclinical depressive symptoms (aMCI/D+) may compare to that of aMCI or LLD. Memory biases for certain types of emotional information may distinguish these groups. METHODS: A total of 35 aMCI, 23 aMCI/D+, 13 LLD, and 17 elderly controls (CONT) rated the valence (positive, negative, or neutral) of 30 pictures from the International Affective Picture System...
December 15, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974056/a-pilot-study-using-apps-as-a-novel-strategy-for-the-management-of-challenging-behaviors-seen-in-people-living-in-residential-care
#19
Samantha M Loi, Angela Mazur, David Huppert, Bernadette Hoy, Jodie Swan, Nicola T Lautenschlager
BACKGROUND: Many adults living in residential care will demonstrate challenging behaviors. Non-pharmacological strategies are recommended as first-line treatment. Using applications (apps) is a novel approach to managing these behaviors, and has yet to be assessed in this group. This paper describes a pilot study to test apps as a novel non-pharmacological strategy to manage challenging behaviors in adults living in residential care. METHODS: A non-blinded, non-randomized crossover trial design was implemented which compared apps to a control situation and usual care to determine whether apps were able to decrease challenging behaviors...
December 15, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938445/sleep-disturbance-an-emerging-opportunity-for-alzheimer-s-disease-prevention
#20
Adam P Spira, Rebecca F Gottesman
As the older segment of our population grows, cognitive decline and dementia will increase in prevalence, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) as the cause in most cases. Until a cure exists, prevention through the identification and manipulation of modifiable risk factors for dementia, in general, or AD, in particular, will be our only means of reducing dementia prevalence or delaying its onset. Furthermore, it is likely that eventual treatments for AD, when available, will depend on the ability to identify individuals at greatest risk for developing AD...
December 12, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
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