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International Journal of STD & AIDS

Do Hyoung Lim, Ji-Young Rhee, Keon Woo Park
After the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), there has been a decrease in the incidence of lymphoma among the HIV-infected population and also significantly improved survival rates. We describe a remarkable case of an HIV-infected patient with advanced stage IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), completely regressed with the use of HAART alone. He remained disease-free for 6 years and he achieved cure without chemotherapy. Although several cases of low-grade lymphoma with complete regression were reported, we could not find any case of stage IV high-grade malignant lymphoma with HAART alone in complete remission for over 5 years from our review of the literature...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Stephan Lautenschlager, Michael Kemp, Jens Jørgen Christensen, Marti Vall Mayans, Harald Moi
Chancroid is a sexually acquired infection caused by Haemophilus ducreyi. The infection is characterized by one or more genital ulcers, which are soft and painful, and regional lymphadenitis, which may develop into buboes. The infection may easily be misidentified due to its rare occurrence in Europe and difficulties in detecting the causative pathogen. H. ducreyi is difficult to culture. Nucleic acid amplification tests can demonstrate the bacterium in suspected cases. Antibiotics are usually effective in curing chancroid...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Caroline de Lorenzi, Gayet-Ageron Angèle, Girard-Strohbach Martine, Toutous Trellu Laurence
Syphilis has been reinstated on the list of notifiable diseases in Switzerland since 2006 and the active management of sexual partners is encouraged to avoid reinfection. However, contact tracing has yielded unsatisfactory results and the incidence of syphilis remains important, especially in high-risk populations. The aim of this study was to compare the proportions of notified sexual partners of patients diagnosed with syphilis by the laboratories of Geneva University Hospitals (HUG) with those diagnosed in private laboratories (non-HUG) and to assess the risk factors for no notification to sexual partners...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Nisha Mody, Catherine Kirby, Patrice Grech, Hermione Thompson, Frances Turner, Lorette Runacres, Elizabeth Hamlyn
Adult safeguarding is the process of protecting vulnerable adults from harm or exploitation. In 2014, our sexual health clinic implemented a new adult safeguarding pathway, including an adult safeguarding proforma, an electronic database and a monthly adult safeguarding meeting. We conducted a retrospective case note review of patients entered onto the safeguarding database and found that greater numbers of adults were identified as vulnerable following the introduction of this pathway. Many required referral for onward support, highlighting the importance of robust safeguarding procedures in a sexual health setting...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Mwumvaneza Mutagoma, Malamba S Samuel, Catherine Kayitesi, Antoine R Gasasira, Bassirou Chitou, Kimberly Boer, Bethany Hedt-Gauthier, Neil Gupta, Joseph Ntaganira, Sabin Nsanzimana
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence is often high among female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the dynamics of HIV infection in this key population is critical to developing appropriate prevention strategies. We aimed to describe the prevalence and associated risk factors among a sample of FSWs in Rwanda from a survey conducted in 2010. A cross-sectional biological and behavioral survey was conducted among FSWs in Rwanda. Time-location sampling was used for participant recruitment from 4 to 18 February 2010...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Vishal Gupta, Somesh Gupta
Several factors such as genetic susceptibility, autoimmunity, hormones, infections, local trauma, urine, and occlusion have been speculated to play a role in the pathogenesis of lichen sclerosus. We report two male patients with lichen sclerosus around 'ectopic' urethral openings and the opposing surfaces of the penile shaft and scrotum, providing further evidence in support of urine and occlusion as contributing factors in the development of lichen sclerosus.
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Laura F Salazar, Richard A Crosby, Jamal Jones, Krishna Kota, Brandon Hill, Katherine E Masyn
This study assessed the prevalence of self-reported HIV infection among a community sample of transgender women and identified associated contextual, experiential, and behavioral factors. Ninety-two transgender women completed a self-administered interview. Recruitment occurred through an LGBT service organization, a transgender support group, transgender advocates, and informal communications. Eighty-two percent were African American/Black. Of 83 who knew their status, 60% reported being HIV infected. High rates of childhood sexual abuse (52%), rape (53%), intimate partner violence (56%), and incarceration (57%) were reported...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Olubanke Davies, Sinead Costelloe, Gemma Cross, Tracy Dew, Siobhan O'Shea, John White, Julie Fox
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of asymptomatic rectal bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on rectal HIV viral load (VL). A prospective cohort study of HIV-positive men who have sex with men attending a tertiary centre in London, UK, for their routine HIV care was performed. Forty-two HIV-positive men who have sex with men were recruited between January and August 2014. In participants on antiretroviral therapy (ART), there was no significant difference in rectal VL in those with and without STI ( p = 0...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Abi Manesh, Mahesh Moorthy, Rini Bandopadhyay, Priscilla Rupali
Earlier age of measles virus infection predisposes to development of sub-acute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and this risk is heightened in HIV-infected children. We describe a HIV-infected young adult on antiretroviral therapy, presenting with a non-classical, fulminant form of SSPE to highlight the unpredictable nature of measles presentation. The recent spate of measles outbreaks due to virus introduction in populations with sub-optimal vaccine coverage or waning immunity and co-existing paediatric HIV cohorts is a cause for concern...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Shira M Goldenberg, Kathleen Deering, Ofer Amram, Silvia Guillemi, Paul Nguyen, Julio Montaner, Kate Shannon
Despite the high HIV burden faced by sex workers, data on access and retention in antiretroviral therapy (ART) are limited. Using an innovative spatial epidemiological approach, we explored how the social geography of sex work criminalization and violence impacts HIV treatment interruptions among sex workers living with HIV in Vancouver over a 3.5-year period. Drawing upon data from a community-based cohort (AESHA, 2010-2013) and linked external administrative data on ART dispensation, GIS mapping and multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to prospectively examine the effects of spatial criminalization and violence near women's places of residence on 2-day ART interruptions...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Rebecca Metcalfe, Joe Schofield, Catriona Milosevic, Seija Peters
It is recognised that those diagnosed with HIV infection over the age of 50 have higher rates of morbidity and mortality. Little is known about how clinical presentation at diagnosis of HIV varies within this group. We sought to compare clinical presentation and markers of outcome among those diagnosed with HIV aged 60 and over vs. those diagnosed aged 50-59, over a ten-year period. The results showed that 84/111 were diagnosed with HIV aged 50-59 and 27/111 aged ≥60. Ethnicity and HIV risk factors were similar between groups, and most infections were sexually acquired with 7...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Grace M Wandell, Yamile Molina, Hugo Sánchez, Anna C Greer, Jessica Ríos, Carolyn Bain, Patricia Segura, Javier R Lama, Jorge Sánchez, Ann Duerr
Immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART) for acute HIV infection (AHI) may decrease HIV transmission in high-risk populations. This study evaluated knowledge of AHI and AHI testing program preferences in Lima, Peru through four semi-structured focus groups with high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) ( n = 20) and transgender women (TW) ( n = 16). Using content analysis, emergent themes included knowledge of AHI symptoms, AHI transmission potential, and the HIV testing window period, and preferences concerning point of care results...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Alan R Katz, Alan Y Komeya, Juval E Tomas
We present a case report of a false-negative syphilis treponemal enzyme immunoassay test result in an HIV-infected male. While treponemal tests are widely considered to be more sensitive and specific than non-treponemal tests, our findings point to potential challenges using the reverse sequence syphilis screening algorithm.
December 12, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Carmen H Logie, Victoria L Kennedy, Wangari Tharao, Uzma Ahmed, Mona R Loutfy
Engagement in care is a key component of the HIV care cascade, yet there are knowledge gaps regarding how to assess HIV care engagement. This study aimed to develop a tool to assess HIV care engagement and to assess associations between HIV care engagement and quality of life (QOL) among African, Caribbean and Black (ACB) women living with HIV (WLWH). We conducted a cross-sectional survey with ACB WLWH across Ontario, Canada. We developed the 'HIV Engagement in and Continuity of Care Scale' (HECCS). We conducted exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the scale's factor structure...
December 12, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Michael W Ross, Markus Larsson, Joyce E Nyoni, Anette Agardh
Symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), whether they are presented for treatment or diagnosis, and how they are received by the clinician where they are presented, may be concomitants of stigma associated with homosexuality in homophobic climates. We analyzed respondent-driven sampling data from a study on 200 young men who have sex with men (MSM) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to examine sample prevalence, treatment and clinician response to 10 symptoms potentially associated with STIs. Survey measures included 10 self-reported STI symptoms, further specified according to location (genital, anal, oral), further specified according to place of diagnosis, place of, treatment whether there was pharmacy treatment or self-medication, healthcare worker (HCW) inquiries about source of infection and whether the HCW was polite...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Christian T Bautista, Eyako K Wurapa, Warren B Sateren, Sara M Morris, Bruce P Hollingsworth, Jose L Sanchez
Little information is known on the rate of repeat gonorrhea infection among U.S. military personnel. We analyzed all gonorrhea cases reported to the Defense Medical Surveillance System during 2006-2012 to determine the rate of repeat infection. During the seven-year study period, 17,602 active duty U.S. Army personnel with a first incident gonorrhea infection were reported. Among the 4987 women with a first gonorrhea infection, 14.4% had at least one repeat infection. Among the 12,615 men with a first gonorrhea infection, 13...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Roger Rovira-López, Marta Bertolín-Colilla, Gemma Martín-Ezquerra, Ramon M Pujol
The typical finding in secondary syphilis stage is a generalized non-pruritic maculopapular eruption. We report a case of secondary syphilis in an HIV-infected patient presenting with pruritic crusted nodules showing numerous eosinophils on the histopathological examination.
November 23, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Caroline Kingori, Zelalem T Haile, Peter Ngatia, Ruth Nderitu
BACKGROUND: In Kenya, HIV incidence and prevalence have declined. HIV rates are lower in rural areas than in urban areas. However, HIV infection is reported higher in men in rural areas (4.5%) compared to those in urban areas (3.7%). OBJECTIVES: This study examined HIV knowledge, feelings, and interactions towards HIV-infected from 302 participants in rural Central Kenya. METHODS: Chi square tests and multivariable logistic regression analyzed variables of interest...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Alasdair MacRae, Emily Lord, Annabel Forsythe, Jackie Sherrard
A case note audit was undertaken of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) to ascertain whether national guidelines for taking sexual histories, including recreational drug use and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening were being met. The notes of 142 HIV-positive men seen in 2015 were available, of whom 85 were MSM. Information was collected regarding sexual history, recreational drug use documentation, sexually transmitted infection screen offer and test results. Seventy-seven (91%) of the MSM had a sexual history documented, of whom 60 (78%) were sexually active...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Andrew Mitsch, Aruna Surendera Babu, Dean Seneca, Y Omar Whiteside, Donald Warne
The objective of this study was to measure linkage to care, retention in care, and suppressed viral load (VL) among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) aged ≥13 years with diagnosed HIV infection. We used national HIV case surveillance data to measure linkage to care, defined as ≥1 CD4 or VL test ≤1 month after HIV diagnosis during 2013; retention in care, defined as ≥2 CD4 or VL tests ≥3 months apart during 2012; and suppressed VL, defined as <200 copies/mL at the most recent VL test during 2012...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
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