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International Journal of STD & AIDS

S Borg, J Daniel, S Forsyth
National guidelines recommend that male patients presenting with symptoms of urethritis or epididymo-orchitis undergo a urethral swab for microscopy. However, this is resource intensive. The aim of this audit was to determine the proportion of symptomatic patients without urethral discharge who have positive findings on urethral swab microscopy and explore associations between presenting symptoms and microscopy findings. We conducted a retrospective audit of symptomatic male patients who underwent microscopy...
August 31, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
H A Pines, S A Strathdee, C W Hendrix, C C Bristow, A Harvey-Vera, C Magis-Rodríguez, G Martinez, S J Semple, T L Patterson
To assess the potential uptake of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) products among female sex workers (FSWs) vulnerable to HIV infection, we examined the influence of product attributes on willingness to use products among 271 HIV-negative FSWs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico (2016-2017). Via five-point Likert scale ratings, participants indicated their willingness to use hypothetical products with six attributes: formulation (pill, gel, liquid, or ring), frequency of use (daily, on-demand, or monthly), cost per use (10 or 200 pesos), effectiveness (40% or 80%), side effects (none or mild), and access point (healthcare clinic or non-governmental organization)...
August 31, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Sebastián Videla, Antoni Tarrats, Arelly Ornelas, Roger Badia, Eva Castella, Carme Alcalde, Anna Chamorro, José A Esté, Bonaventura Clotet, Guillem Sirera
Currently, Papanicolaou smears are proposed at three-year intervals for cervical screening to all women living with HIV. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to provide data on the incidence of cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in cervical smear confirmed by histology in HIV-1-infected women (two consecutive normal Papanicolaou smears at baseline) after a long-term follow-up. Sixty-seven women (recruited between March 1999 and January 2003) were analyzed. The median period of follow-up was 13...
August 31, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Ketan Kolekar, Swagata Tambe, Rashmi Aderao, Chitra Nayak
Candida, a commensal dimorphic fungus, is the most common microorganism that causes opportunistic fungal infections worldwide. It can cause diseases ranging from superficial mucosal infections to disseminated, systemic life-threatening infections. Among Candida species, Candida albicans is the most common infectious agent. Nowadays, non- albicans Candida species are also emerging as significant pathogens. Candida dubliniensis has been implicated as a causative agent of oral candidiasis in HIV-infected individuals but has also been recovered from HIV non-infected individuals with oral candidiasis and rarely from the genital tract of women with vaginitis...
August 31, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Giovanni Genovese, Gianluca Nazzaro, Antonella Coggi, Raffaele Gianotti, Stefano Ramoni, Marco Cusini
We report a case of secondary syphilis mimicking lupus vulgaris in an HIV-infected patient. A 21-year-old Brazilian man presented with a two-month history of asymptomatic cutaneous lesions accompanied by fever and fatigue. Dermatological evaluation revealed an erythematous, crusted, large plaque on the neck with the 'apple jelly' sign on diascopy and two smaller scaly elements on the trunk and left palm. Bacteriological examinations for bacteria and mycobacteria gave negative results. Histology revealed psoriasiform epidermal hyperplasia and dermal lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate...
August 31, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Violeta J Rodriguez, Stefani A Butts, Lissa N Mandell, Stephen M Weiss, Mahendra Kumar, Deborah L Jones
Childhood trauma (CT) - emotional, physical or sexual abuse, or emotional or physical neglect - has been associated with HIV infection and can lead to poor health outcomes and depression in adulthood. Though the impact of CT on depression may be decreased by social support, this may not be true of individuals living with HIV, due to the additive traumatic effects of both CT and acquisition of HIV. This study examined social support, depression, and CT among HIV-infected (n = 134) and HIV-uninfected (n = 306) men and women...
August 31, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Moemi Okazaki, Masafumi Okazaki, Miho Nakamura, Tadashi Asagiri, Seisho Takeuchi
Both co-trimoxazole and pentamidine are used for the treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and are known to cause hypoglycemia as an adverse drug reaction. Here, we describe a rare case of a late-diagnosed female patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who developed the first hypoglycemic attack as an adverse effect of co-trimoxazole, followed by a second hypoglycemic attack as an adverse effect of pentamidine. Physicians caring for patients with AIDS and PCP should be aware of possible hypoglycemia in patients with many risk factors...
August 31, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Rachel E Bath, Lynsey Emmett, Neville Q Verlander, Mark Reacher
In 2014, 42% of all HIV diagnoses in the East of England were diagnosed late. Individuals unaware of their HIV status will not benefit from lifesaving and infectious-limiting antiretroviral therapy, and they remain at risk of decreased life expectancy and onward transmission of HIV. We sought to identify risk factors associated with late HIV diagnosis in the East of England to inform future HIV testing and prevention strategies relevant to the local population. Data on all HIV infected individuals aged ≥16 years and diagnosed between 2008 and 2014 in the East of England were obtained from the national HIV and AIDS Reporting System...
August 31, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
M A Carrasco, C Barrington, M Perez, Y Donastorg, D Kerrigan
This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between social cohesion with consistent condom use (CCU) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among the Abriendo Puertas (Opening Doors) cohort of female sex workers (FSWs) living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the Dominican Republic (n = 228). Using data from the follow-up survey of the cohort, we conducted multivariate logistic regression to explore these dynamics. Social cohesion was significantly associated with CCU between FSWs living with HIV and their clients in the last month (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1...
August 31, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Minh D Pham, Poe Poe Aung, Paul A Agius, Naanki Pasricha, Swai Mon Oo, Waimar Tun, Ashish Bajracharya, Stanley Luchters
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionally affected by the HIV epidemic. Self-efficacy is an important individual psychosocial factor associated with access to and use of health and HIV-related services. We estimated HIV testing prevalence and examined the relationship between HIV testing self-efficacy and self-reported HIV testing behavior among young MSM (YMSM) in Myanmar. We enrolled 585 MSM aged 18-24 years from six urban areas using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) technique. RDS analyses were performed to provide estimates for the key outcome of interest...
August 29, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Isdora Odero, Ken Ondeng'e, Victor Mudhune, Phoebe Okola, Jecinter Oruko, George Otieno, Victor Akelo, Deborah A Gust
We conducted an exploratory analysis of former HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 (HPTN 052) clinical trial participants in 2016 to assess their (1) satisfaction with the HPTN 052 clinical trial care and treatment, and reasons for joining the trial; and (2) perspectives about the post-trial transition to public HIV care centers. Quantitative data showed that, of the 70 survey participants, 94.3% (n = 66) reported being very satisfied with the care and treatment they received while participating in the clinical trial and 51...
August 29, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Zhi-Wei Zheng, Jia-Ling Qiu, Jing Gu, Hui-Fang Xu, Wei-Bin Cheng, Chun Hao
Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is not available in China and the willingness to use PrEP among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) is not clear. The aim of this study was to better understand the association between PrEP comprehension and the willingness to use PrEP under varying conditions among MSM. An online survey investigating personal characteristics, PrEP comprehension, and PrEP willingness among MSM was conducted. A third of respondents (36.2%, 196 out of 541) reported that they would like to use PrEP...
August 23, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Wipas Wimonsate, Sarika Pattanasin, Chaiwat Ungsedhapand, Kanokpan Pancharoen, Pikunchai Luechai, Kesinee Satumay, Santi Winaitham, Wichuda Sukwicha, Pachara Sirivongrangsan, Eileen F Dunne, Timothy H Holtz
Since 2010, the Thailand Ministry of Public Health has recommended that men who have sex with men (MSM) have an HIV test at least two times a year. We calculated the proportion of, and factors associated with, testing adherence among the HIV-uninfected MSM clients attending Silom Community Clinic @TropMed. We defined testing adherence as repeating at least one HIV test within six months of an initial HIV-negative test, and used log-binomial regression to test for associated factors. We included 1927 clients during 2011-2014; 362 (19%) were adherent with an increased trend ( p < 0...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Rekha P Mangalore, Michael A Moso, Katie Cronin, Katrina Young, James H McMahon
Disseminated histoplasmosis (DH), an endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised hosts. A patient with newly-diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection presented with a violaceous, raised, indurated, pruritic rash over the face, arms and trunk on a background of significant weight loss, fevers with sweats, diarrhoea and worsening shortness of breath. His CD4+ T cell count was 14 cells/µl (12%). Histoplasmosis was diagnosed from histology, fungal stain and culture of skin biopsy...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Luis G Tulloch, Ramee Younes, Arthur Jeng
We report a case of reactive hemophagocytic syndrome (RHS) in the setting of acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection (AHI). In addition, we review 11 previously reported cases of RHS precipitated by AHI and discuss strategies in the diagnosis and management of these overlapping clinical entities.
August 16, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Jason B Reed, Rupa R Patel, Rachel Baggaley
Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has the ability to curb HIV incidence worldwide and bring us closer to ending the HIV epidemic. Scale up of PrEP service delivery has many similar challenges to those faced by voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services roll-out. This article outlines ten important lessons learned during the scale up of VMMC services in sub-Saharan Africa and their application to current oral PrEP implementation efforts to promote faster expansion for public health impact.
August 16, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Shinichi Hikasa, Shota Shimabukuro, Kyoko Hideta, Satoshi Higasa, Akihiro Sawada, Tazuko Tokugawa, Kuniyoshi Tanaka, Mina Yanai, Takeshi Kimura
Renal dysfunction is recognized with increasing frequency among the non-infectious co-morbidities associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Recently, urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) was suggested to be a predictor of the progression of renal dysfunction in patients without HIV. However, little is known regarding the utility of urinary L-FABP as a predictor of renal dysfunction in patients with HIV. A retrospective, observational, single-centre study was conducted between July 2014 and December 2016...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
S Desai, F Burns, G Schembri, D Williams, A Sullivan, A McOwan, S Antonucci, D Mercey, G Hughes, G Hart, O N Gill, Anthony Nardone
Men who have sex with men (MSM) attending sexual health (SH) clinics are at high risk for HIV acquisition and are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We collected standardised behavioural data from MSM attending clinics to characterise sexual behaviours and identify predictors for HIV and STIs. In 2012-2013, HIV-negative MSM attending five SH clinics in England reported sexual behaviours in the previous three months via a self-administered questionnaire. Behaviours were linked to the individual's clinical records using national surveillance...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Heather Deall, Saul N Faust, Emanuela Pelosi, Joanna Fairhurst, Kirsten Elliott, Sanjay Patel
Congenital syphilis is a prevalent infection in much of the world but rare in contexts where antenatal screening and treatment are available. In the UK in 2016, three cases of congenital syphilis were reported in babies born to women who were seronegative at the time of booking and hence a high degree of clinical vigilance is required in the unwell infant. We present the case of a seven-week-old baby girl with congenital syphilis with the unusual finding of discrete liver lesions. This baby was successfully treated with intravenous ceftriaxone...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Charlotte M Hoffman, Lise Fritz, Oscar Radebe, Jan Henk Dubbink, James A McIntyre, Marleen M Kock, Remco Ph Peters
This study from South Africa highlights the importance of rectal Trichomonas vaginalis infection as a sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men (MSM). We report seven MSM presenting with rectal T. vaginalis infection. Two men presented with symptoms of proctitis; 5/7 had urethral coinfection with T. vaginalis. Rectal T. vaginalis infection should be considered in MSM in areas where genital infection is endemic.
August 16, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
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