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Psychological Science

Jooyoung Park, Fang-Chi Lu, William M Hedgcock
Considerable research has shown that planning plays an important role in goal pursuit. But how does the way people plan affect goal pursuit? Research on this question is scarce. In the current research, we examined how planning the steps required for goal attainment in chronological order (i.e., forward planning) and reverse chronological order (i.e., backward planning) influences individuals' motivation for and perceptions of goal pursuit. Compared with forward planning, backward planning not only led to greater motivation, higher goal expectancy, and less time pressure but also resulted in better goal-relevant performance...
September 1, 2017: Psychological Science
René Mõttus, Anu Realo, Uku Vainik, Jüri Allik, Tõnu Esko
Heritable variance in psychological traits may reflect genetic and biological processes that are not necessarily specific to these particular traits but pertain to a broader range of phenotypes. We tested the possibility that the personality domains of the five-factor model and their 30 facets, as rated by people themselves and their knowledgeable informants, reflect polygenic influences that have been previously associated with educational attainment. In a sample of more than 3,000 adult Estonians, education polygenic scores (EPSs), which are interpretable as estimates of molecular-genetic propensity for education, were correlated with various personality traits, particularly from the neuroticism and openness domains...
September 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Rickard Carlsson, Ulrich Schimmack, Donald R Williams, Paul-Christian Bürkner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Benjamin Scheibehenne, Quentin F Gronau, Tahira Jamil, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Samantha F Anderson, Ken Kelley, Scott E Maxwell
The sample size necessary to obtain a desired level of statistical power depends in part on the population value of the effect size, which is, by definition, unknown. A common approach to sample-size planning uses the sample effect size from a prior study as an estimate of the population value of the effect to be detected in the future study. Although this strategy is intuitively appealing, effect-size estimates, taken at face value, are typically not accurate estimates of the population effect size because of publication bias and uncertainty...
September 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Li Zhao, Gail D Heyman, Lulu Chen, Kang Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Kim Peters, Jolanda Jetten, Dagmar Radova, Kacie Austin
We propose that the gossip that is triggered when people witness behaviors that deviate from social norms builds social bonds. To test this possibility, we showed dyads of unacquainted students a short video of everyday campus life that either did or did not include an incident of negative or positive deviance (dropping or cleaning up litter). Study 1 showed that participants in the deviance conditions reported having a greater understanding of campus social norms than those in the control condition; they also expressed a greater desire to gossip about the video...
September 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Man-Pui Sally Chan, Christopher R Jones, Kathleen Hall Jamieson, Dolores Albarracín
This meta-analysis investigated the factors underlying effective messages to counter attitudes and beliefs based on misinformation. Because misinformation can lead to poor decisions about consequential matters and is persistent and difficult to correct, debunking it is an important scientific and public-policy goal. This meta-analysis ( k = 52, N = 6,878) revealed large effects for presenting misinformation ( ds = 2.41-3.08), debunking ( ds = 1.14-1.33), and the persistence of misinformation in the face of debunking ( ds = 0...
September 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Stuart Brody, Rui M Costa, Kateřina Klapilová, Petr Weiss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Shannon M Pruden, Susan C Levine
Do boys produce more terms than girls to describe the spatial world-that is, dimensional adjectives (e.g., big, little, tall, short), shape terms (e.g., circle, square), and words describing spatial features and properties (e.g., bent, curvy, edge)? If a sex difference in children's spatial-language use exists, is it related to the spatial language that parents use when interacting with children? We longitudinally tracked the development of spatial-language production in children between the ages of 14 and 46 months in a diverse sample of 58 parent-child dyads interacting in their homes...
September 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Andrey Chetverikov, Gianluca Campana, Árni Kristjánsson
Colors are rarely uniform, yet little is known about how people represent color distributions. We introduce a new method for studying color ensembles based on intertrial learning in visual search. Participants looked for an oddly colored diamond among diamonds with colors taken from either uniform or Gaussian color distributions. On test trials, the targets had various distances in feature space from the mean of the preceding distractor color distribution. Targets on test trials therefore served as probes into probabilistic representations of distractor colors...
September 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Angelo Romano, Daniel Balliet
Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Ian C Ballard, Bokyung Kim, Anthony Liatsis, Gökhan Aydogan, Jonathan D Cohen, Samuel M McClure
Impulsivity is a variable behavioral trait that depends on numerous factors. For example, increasing the absolute magnitude of available choice options promotes farsighted decisions. We argue that this magnitude effect arises in part from differential exertion of self-control as the perceived importance of the choice increases. First, we demonstrated that frontal executive-control areas were more engaged for more difficult decisions and that this effect was enhanced for high-magnitude rewards. Second, we showed that increased hunger, which is associated with lower self-control, reduced the magnitude effect...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Samuel A Mehr, Jennifer Kotler, Rhea M Howard, David Haig, Max M Krasnow
Why do people sing to babies? Human infants are relatively altricial and need their parents' attention to survive. Infant-directed song may constitute a signal of that attention. In Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a rare disorder of genomic imprinting, genes from chromosome 15q11-q13 that are typically paternally expressed are unexpressed, which results in exaggeration of traits that reduce offspring's investment demands on the mother. PWS may thus be associated with a distinctive musical phenotype. We report unusual responses to music in people with PWS...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Samantha Joel, Paul W Eastwick, Eli J Finkel
Matchmaking companies and theoretical perspectives on close relationships suggest that initial attraction is, to some extent, a product of two people's self-reported traits and preferences. We used machine learning to test how well such measures predict people's overall tendencies to romantically desire other people (actor variance) and to be desired by other people (partner variance), as well as people's desire for specific partners above and beyond actor and partner variance (relationship variance). In two speed-dating studies, romantically unattached individuals completed more than 100 self-report measures about traits and preferences that past researchers have identified as being relevant to mate selection...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Mark R Hoffarth, John T Jost
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
David Pinsof, Martie Haselton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Blaine Landis, Joe J Gladstone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Niamh McLoughlin, Harriet Over
We investigated whether young children were more likely to spontaneously attribute mental states to members of their own social group than to members of an out-group. We asked 5- and 6-year-old children to describe the actions of interacting geometric shapes and manipulated whether the children believed these shapes represented their own group or another group. Children of both ages spontaneously used mental-state words more often in their description of in-group members compared with out-group members. Furthermore, 6-year-olds produced a greater diversity of mental-state terms when talking about their own social group...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Derek Powell, Jingqi Yu, Melissa DeWolf, Keith J Holyoak
Social learning-the ability to learn from observing the decisions of other people and the outcomes of those decisions-is fundamental to human evolutionary and cultural success. The Internet now provides social evidence on an unprecedented scale. However, properly utilizing this evidence requires a capacity for statistical inference. We examined how people's interpretation of online review scores is influenced by the numbers of reviews-a potential indicator both of an item's popularity and of the precision of the average review score...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
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