journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Psychological Science

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719763/two-equals-one-two-human-actions-during-social-interaction-are-grouped-as-one-unit-in-working-memory
#1
Xiaowei Ding, Zaifeng Gao, Mowei Shen
Every day, people perceive other people performing interactive actions. Retaining these actions of human agents in working memory (WM) plays a pivotal role in a normal social life. However, whether the semantic knowledge embedded in the interactive actions has a pervasive impact on the storage of the actions in WM remains unknown. In the current study, we investigated two opposing hypotheses: (a) that WM stores the interactions individually (the individual-storage hypothesis) and (b) that WM stores the interactions as chunks (the chunk-storage hypothesis)...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719760/for-whom-the-mind-wanders-and-when-varies-across-laboratory-and-daily-life-settings
#2
Michael J Kane, Georgina M Gross, Charlotte A Chun, Bridget A Smeekens, Matt E Meier, Paul J Silvia, Thomas R Kwapil
Undergraduates ( N = 274) participated in a weeklong daily-life experience-sampling study of mind wandering after being assessed in the lab for executive-control abilities (working memory capacity; attention-restraint ability; attention-constraint ability; and propensity for task-unrelated thoughts, or TUTs) and personality traits. Eight times a day, electronic devices prompted subjects to report on their current thoughts and context. Working memory capacity and attention abilities predicted subjects' TUT rates in the lab, but predicted the frequency of daily-life mind wandering only as a function of subjects' momentary attempts to concentrate...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715641/genetic-influence-on-intergenerational-educational-attainment
#3
Ziada Ayorech, Eva Krapohl, Robert Plomin, Sophie von Stumm
Using twin (6,105 twin pairs) and genomic (5,825 unrelated individuals taken from the twin sample) analyses, we tested for genetic influences on the parent-offspring correspondence in educational attainment. Genetics accounted for nearly half of the variance in intergenerational educational attainment. A genomewide polygenic score (GPS) for years of education was also associated with intergenerational educational attainment: The highest and lowest GPS means were found for offspring in stably educated families (i...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714777/resisting-temptation-tracking-how-self-control-conflicts-are-successfully-resolved-in-real-time
#4
Paul E Stillman, Danila Medvedev, Melissa J Ferguson
Across four studies, we used mouse tracking to identify the dynamic, on-line cognitive processes that underlie successful self-control decisions. First, we showed that individuals display real-time conflict when choosing options consistent with their long-term goal over short-term temptations. Second, we found that individuals who are more successful at self-control-whether measured or manipulated-show significantly less real-time conflict in only self-control-relevant choices. Third, we demonstrated that successful individuals who choose a long-term goal over a short-term temptation display movements that are smooth rather than abrupt, which suggests dynamic rather than stage-based resolution of self-control conflicts...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708035/evidence-that-an-ebola-outbreak-influenced-voting-preferences-even-after-controlling-mindfully-for-autocorrelation-reply-to-tiokhin-and-hruschka-2017
#5
Mark Schaller, Marlise K Hofer, Alec T Beall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700267/the-mismeasurement-of-mind-life-span-changes-in-paired-associate-learning-scores-reflect-the-cost-of-learning-not-cognitive-decline
#6
Michael Ramscar, Ching Chu Sun, Peter Hendrix, Harald Baayen
The age-related declines observed in scores on paired-associate-learning (PAL) tests are widely taken as support for the idea that human cognitive capacities decline across the life span. In a computational simulation, we showed that the patterns of change in PAL scores are actually predicted by the models that formalize the associative learning process in other areas of behavioral and neuroscientific research. These models also predict that manipulating language exposure can reproduce the experience-related performance differences erroneously attributed to age-related decline in age-matched adults...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686533/associative-learning-of-social-value-in-dynamic-groups
#7
Oriel FeldmanHall, Joseph E Dunsmoor, Marijn C W Kroes, Sandra Lackovic, Elizabeth A Phelps
Although humans live in societies that regularly demand engaging with multiple people simultaneously, little is known about social learning in group settings. In two experiments, we combined a Pavlovian learning framework with dyadic economic games to test whether blocking mechanisms support value-based social learning in the gain (altruistic dictators) and loss (greedy robbers) domains. Subjects first learned about an altruistic dictator, who subsequently made altruistic splits collectively with a partner...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677992/illusory-increases-in-font-size-improve-letter-recognition
#8
Martin Lages, Stephanie C Boyle, Rob Jenkins
Visual performance of human observers depends not only on the optics of the eye and early sensory encoding but also on subsequent cortical processing and representations. In two experiments, we demonstrated that motion adaptation can enhance as well as impair visual acuity. Observers who experienced an expanding motion aftereffect exhibited improved letter recognition, whereas observers who experienced a contracting motion aftereffect showed impaired letter recognition. We conclude that illusory enlargement and shrinkage of a visual stimulus can modulate visual acuity...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677989/show-me-the-money-a-systematic-exploration-of-manipulations-moderators-and-mechanisms-of-priming-effects
#9
Eugene M Caruso, Oren Shapira, Justin F Landy
A major challenge for accumulating knowledge in psychology is the variation in methods and participant populations across studies in a single domain. We offer a systematic approach to addressing this challenge and implement it in the domain of money priming. In three preregistered experiments ( N = 4,649), participants were exposed to one of a number of money manipulations before completing self-report measures of money activation (Study 1); engaging in a behavioral-persistence task (Study 3); completing self-report measures of subjective wealth, self-sufficiency, and communion-agency (Studies 1-3); and completing demographic questions (Studies 1-3)...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665190/numerical-nudging-using-an-accelerating-score-to-enhance-performance
#10
Luxi Shen, Christopher K Hsee
People often encounter inherently meaningless numbers, such as scores in health apps or video games, that increase as they take actions. This research explored how the pattern of change in such numbers influences performance. We found that the key factor is acceleration-namely, whether the number increases at an increasing velocity. Six experiments in both the lab and the field showed that people performed better on an ongoing task if they were presented with a number that increased at an increasing velocity than if they were not presented with such a number or if they were presented with a number that increased at a decreasing or constant velocity...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661761/lack-of-free-choice-reveals-the-cost-of-having-to-search-for-more-than-one-object
#11
Eduard Ort, Johannes J Fahrenfort, Christian N L Olivers
It is debated whether people can actively search for more than one object or whether this results in switch costs. Using a gaze-contingent eye-tracking paradigm, we revealed a crucial role for cognitive control in multiple-target search. We instructed participants to simultaneously search for two target objects presented among distractors. In one condition, both targets were available, which gave the observer free choice of what to search for and allowed for proactive control. In the other condition, only one of the two targets was available, so that the choice was imposed, and a reactive mechanism would be required...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650721/photographic-memory-the-effects-of-volitional-photo-taking-on-memory-for-visual-and-auditory-aspects-of-an-experience
#12
Alixandra Barasch, Kristin Diehl, Jackie Silverman, Gal Zauberman
How does volitional photo taking affect unaided memory for visual and auditory aspects of experiences? Across one field and three lab studies, we found that, even without revisiting any photos, participants who could freely take photographs during an experience recognized more of what they saw and less of what they heard, compared with those who could not take any photographs. Further, merely taking mental photos had similar effects on memory. These results provide support for the idea that photo taking induces a shift in attention toward visual aspects and away from auditory aspects of an experience...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635378/people-with-autism-spectrum-conditions-make-more-consistent-decisions
#13
George D Farmer, Simon Baron-Cohen, William J Skylark
People with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) show reduced sensitivity to contextual stimuli in many perceptual and cognitive tasks. We investigated whether this also applies to decision making by examining adult participants' choices between pairs of consumer products that were presented with a third, less desirable "decoy" option. Participants' preferences between the items in a given pair frequently switched when the third item in the set was changed, but this tendency was reduced among individuals with ASC, which indicated that their choices were more consistent and conventionally rational than those of control participants...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622095/black-and-white-lies-race-based-biases-in-deception-judgments
#14
E Paige Lloyd, Kurt Hugenberg, Allen R McConnell, Jonathan W Kunstman, Jason C Deska
In six studies ( N = 605), participants made deception judgments about videos of Black and White targets who told truths and lies about interpersonal relationships. In Studies 1a, 1b, 1c, and 2, White participants judged that Black targets were telling the truth more often than they judged that White targets were telling the truth. This truth bias was predicted by Whites' motivation to respond without prejudice. For Black participants, however, motives to respond without prejudice did not moderate responses (Study 2)...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613135/pupillary-responses-to-words-that-convey-a-sense-of-brightness-or-darkness
#15
Sebastiaan Mathôt, Jonathan Grainger, Kristof Strijkers
Theories about embodiment of language hold that when you process a word's meaning, you automatically simulate associated sensory input (e.g., perception of brightness when you process lamp) and prepare associated actions (e.g., finger movements when you process typing). To test this latter prediction, we measured pupillary responses to single words that conveyed a sense of brightness (e.g., day) or darkness (e.g., night) or were neutral (e.g., house). We found that pupils were largest for words conveying darkness, of intermediate size for neutral words, and smallest for words conveying brightness...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604267/selectively-distracted-divided-attention-and-memory-for-important-information
#16
Catherine D Middlebrooks, Tyson Kerr, Alan D Castel
Distractions and multitasking are generally detrimental to learning and memory. Nevertheless, people often study while listening to music, sitting in noisy coffee shops, or intermittently checking their e-mail. The current experiments examined how distractions and divided attention influence one's ability to selectively remember valuable information. Participants studied lists of words that ranged in value from 1 to 10 points while completing a digit-detection task, while listening to music, or without distractions...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598257/what-s-worth-talking-about-information-theory-reveals-how-children-balance-informativeness-and-ease-of-production
#17
Colin Bannard, Marla Rosner, Danielle Matthews
Of all the things a person could say in a given situation, what determines what is worth saying? Greenfield's principle of informativeness states that right from the onset of language, humans selectively comment on whatever they find unexpected. In this article, we quantify this tendency using information-theoretic measures and report on a study in which we tested the counterintuitive prediction that children will produce words that have a low frequency given the context, because these will be most informative...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594281/are-you-smiling-or-have-i-seen-you-before-familiarity-makes-faces-look-happier
#18
Evan W Carr, Timothy F Brady, Piotr Winkielman
It is clear that unreinforced repetition (familiarization) influences affective responses to social stimuli, but its effects on the perception of facial emotion are unknown. Reporting the results of two experiments, we show for the first time that repeated exposure enhances the perceived happiness of facial expressions. In Experiment 1, using a paradigm in which subjects' responses were orthogonal to happiness in order to avoid response biases, we found that faces of individuals who had previously been shown were deemed happier than novel faces...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590810/worth-the-wait-leisure-can-be-just-as-enjoyable-with-work-left-undone
#19
Ed O'Brien, Ellen Roney
Four studies reveal that (a) people hold a robust intuition about the order of work and leisure and that (b) this intuition is sometimes mistaken. People prefer saving leisure for last, believing they would otherwise be distracted by looming work (Study 1). In controlled experiments, however, although subjects thought their enjoyment would be spoiled when they played a game before rather than after a laborious problem-solving task, got a massage before rather than after midterms, and consumed snacks and watched videos before rather than after a stressful performance, in reality these experiences were similarly enjoyable regardless of order (Studies 2 through 4)...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581899/should-governments-invest-more-in-nudging
#20
Shlomo Benartzi, John Beshears, Katherine L Milkman, Cass R Sunstein, Richard H Thaler, Maya Shankar, Will Tucker-Ray, William J Congdon, Steven Galing
Governments are increasingly adopting behavioral science techniques for changing individual behavior in pursuit of policy objectives. The types of "nudge" interventions that governments are now adopting alter people's decisions without coercion or significant changes to economic incentives. We calculated ratios of impact to cost for nudge interventions and for traditional policy tools, such as tax incentives and other financial inducements, and we found that nudge interventions often compare favorably with traditional interventions...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
journal
journal
30445
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"