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Psychological Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817363/linking-positive-affect-to-blood-lipids-a-cultural-perspective
#1
Jiah Yoo, Yuri Miyamoto, Attilio Rigotti, Carol D Ryff
Higher levels of positive affect have been associated with better physical health. While positive affect is seen as highly desirable among Westerners, East Asians tend to deemphasize positive affect. Using large probability samples of Japanese and U.S. adult populations, the present study examined the relations of positive affect with serum lipid profiles, known to be strongly predictive of risk for cardiovascular disease, and tested whether their associations depend on cultural contexts. As predicted, positive affect was associated with healthier lipid profiles for Americans but not for Japanese...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806137/thinking-more-or-feeling-less-explaining-the-foreign-language-effect-on-moral-judgment
#2
Sayuri Hayakawa, David Tannenbaum, Albert Costa, Joanna D Corey, Boaz Keysar
Would you kill one person to save five? People are more willing to accept such utilitarian action when using a foreign language than when using their native language. In six experiments, we investigated why foreign-language use affects moral choice in this way. On the one hand, the difficulty of using a foreign language might slow people down and increase deliberation, amplifying utilitarian considerations of maximizing welfare. On the other hand, use of a foreign language might stunt emotional processing, attenuating considerations of deontological rules, such as the prohibition against killing...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800281/attentional-lapses-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-blank-rather-than-wandering-thoughts
#3
Charlotte Van den Driessche, Mikaël Bastian, Hugo Peyre, Coline Stordeur, Éric Acquaviva, Sara Bahadori, Richard Delorme, Jérôme Sackur
People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulties sustaining their attention on external tasks. Such attentional lapses have often been characterized as the simple opposite of external sustained attention, but the different types of attentional lapses, and the subjective experiences to which they correspond, remain unspecified. In this study, we showed that unmedicated children (ages 6-12) with ADHD, when probed during a standard go/no-go task, reported more mind blanking (a mental state characterized by the absence of reportable content) than did control participants...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793201/preregistered-direct-replications-in-psychological-science
#4
D Stephen Lindsay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793198/preregistered-replication-of-affective-flexibility-evaluative-processing-goals-shape-amygdala-activity
#5
Daniel S Lumian, Kateri McRae
The human amygdala is sensitive to stimulus characteristics, and growing evidence suggests that it is also responsive to cognitive framing in the form of evaluative goals. To examine whether different evaluations of stimulus characteristics shape amygdala activation, we conducted a preregistered replication of Cunningham, Van Bavel, and Johnsen's (2008) study demonstrating flexible mapping of amygdala activation to stimulus characteristics, depending on evaluative goals. Participants underwent functional MRI scanning while viewing famous names under three conditions: They were asked to report their overall attitude toward each name, their positive associations only, or their negative associations only...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787239/mutualistic-coupling-between-vocabulary-and-reasoning-supports-cognitive-development-during-late-adolescence-and-early-adulthood
#6
Rogier A Kievit, Ulman Lindenberger, Ian M Goodyer, Peter B Jones, Peter Fonagy, Edward T Bullmore, Raymond J Dolan
One of the most replicable findings in psychology is the positive manifold: the observation that individual differences in cognitive abilities are universally positively correlated. Investigating the developmental origin of the positive manifold is crucial to understanding it. In a large longitudinal cohort of adolescents and young adults ( N = 785; n = 566 across two waves, mean interval between waves = 1.48 years; age range = 14-25 years), we examined developmental changes in two core cognitive domains, fluid reasoning and vocabulary...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783447/topological-relations-between-objects-are-categorically-coded
#7
Andrew Lovett, Steven L Franconeri
How do individuals compare images-for example, two graphs or diagrams-to identify differences between them? We argue that categorical relations between objects play a critical role. These relations divide continuous space into discrete categories, such as "above" and "below," or "containing" and "overlapping," which are remembered and compared more easily than precise metric values. These relations should lead to categorical perception, such that viewers find it easier to notice a change that crosses a category boundary (one object is now above, rather than below, another, or now contains, rather than overlaps with, another) than a change of equal magnitude that does not cross a boundary...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771396/the-belief-in-a-favorable-future
#8
Todd Rogers, Don A Moore, Michael I Norton
People believe that future others' preferences and beliefs will change to align with their own. People holding a particular view (e.g., support of President Trump) are more likely to believe that future others will share their view than to believe that future others will have an opposing view (e.g., opposition to President Trump). Six studies demonstrated this belief in a favorable future (BFF) for political views, scientific beliefs, and entertainment and product preferences. BFF is greater in magnitude than the tendency to believe that current others share one's views (false-consensus effect), arises across cultures, is distinct from general optimism, is strongest when people perceive their views as being objective rather than subjective, and can affect (but is distinct from) beliefs about favorable future policy changes...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771393/single-dose-testosterone-administration-impairs-cognitive-reflection-in-men
#9
Gideon Nave, Amos Nadler, David Zava, Colin Camerer
In nonhumans, the sex steroid testosterone regulates reproductive behaviors such as fighting between males and mating. In humans, correlational studies have linked testosterone with aggression and disorders associated with poor impulse control, but the neuropsychological processes at work are poorly understood. Building on a dual-process framework, we propose a mechanism underlying testosterone's behavioral effects in humans: reduction in cognitive reflection. In the largest study of behavioral effects of testosterone administration to date, 243 men received either testosterone or placebo and took the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT), which estimates the capacity to override incorrect intuitive judgments with deliberate correct responses...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758838/the-effect-of-a-supreme-court-decision-regarding-gay-marriage-on-social-norms-and-personal-attitudes
#10
Margaret E Tankard, Elizabeth Levy Paluck
We propose that institutions such as the U.S. Supreme Court can lead individuals to update their perceptions of social norms, in contrast to the mixed evidence on whether institutions shape individuals' personal opinions. We studied reactions to the June 2015 U.S. Supreme Court ruling in favor of same-sex marriage. In a controlled experimental setting, we found that a favorable ruling, when presented as likely, shifted perceived norms and personal attitudes toward increased support for gay marriage and gay people...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746011/unexpected-gains-being-overweight-buffers-asian-americans-from-prejudice-against-foreigners
#11
Caitlin Handron, Teri A Kirby, Jennifer Wang, Helena E Matskewich, Sapna Cheryan
Can being overweight, a factor that commonly leads to stigmatization, ironically buffer some people from race-based assumptions about who is American? In 10 studies, participants were shown portraits that were edited to make the photographed person appear either overweight (body mass index, or BMI > 25) or normal weight (BMI < 25). A meta-analysis of these studies revealed that overweight Asian individuals were perceived as significantly more American than normal-weight versions of the same people, whereas this was not true for White, Black, or Latino individuals...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741981/functional-smiles-tools-for-love-sympathy-and-war
#12
Magdalena Rychlowska, Rachael E Jack, Oliver G B Garrod, Philippe G Schyns, Jared D Martin, Paula M Niedenthal
A smile is the most frequent facial expression, but not all smiles are equal. A social-functional account holds that smiles of reward, affiliation, and dominance serve basic social functions, including rewarding behavior, bonding socially, and negotiating hierarchy. Here, we characterize the facial-expression patterns associated with these three types of smiles. Specifically, we modeled the facial expressions using a data-driven approach and showed that reward smiles are symmetrical and accompanied by eyebrow raising, affiliative smiles involve lip pressing, and dominance smiles are asymmetrical and contain nose wrinkling and upper-lip raising...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737096/as-you-sow-so-shall-you-reap-gender-role-attitudes-and-late-life-cognition
#13
Eric Bonsang, Vegard Skirbekk, Ursula M Staudinger
Some studies have found that women outperform men in episodic memory after midlife. But is this finding universal, and what are the reasons? Gender differences in cognition are the result of biopsychosocial interactions throughout the life course. Social-cognitive theory of gender development posits that gender roles may play an important mediating role in these interactions. We analyzed country differences in the gender differential in cognition after midlife using data from individuals age 50 and above ( N = 226,661) from 27 countries...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731839/cost-benefit-arbitration-between-multiple-reinforcement-learning-systems
#14
Wouter Kool, Samuel J Gershman, Fiery A Cushman
Human behavior is sometimes determined by habit and other times by goal-directed planning. Modern reinforcement-learning theories formalize this distinction as a competition between a computationally cheap but inaccurate model-free system that gives rise to habits and a computationally expensive but accurate model-based system that implements planning. It is unclear, however, how people choose to allocate control between these systems. Here, we propose that arbitration occurs by comparing each system's task-specific costs and benefits...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719763/two-equals-one-two-human-actions-during-social-interaction-are-grouped-as-one-unit-in-working-memory
#15
Xiaowei Ding, Zaifeng Gao, Mowei Shen
Every day, people perceive other people performing interactive actions. Retaining these actions of human agents in working memory (WM) plays a pivotal role in a normal social life. However, whether the semantic knowledge embedded in the interactive actions has a pervasive impact on the storage of the actions in WM remains unknown. In the current study, we investigated two opposing hypotheses: (a) that WM stores the interactions individually (the individual-storage hypothesis) and (b) that WM stores the interactions as chunks (the chunk-storage hypothesis)...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719760/for-whom-the-mind-wanders-and-when-varies-across-laboratory-and-daily-life-settings
#16
Michael J Kane, Georgina M Gross, Charlotte A Chun, Bridget A Smeekens, Matt E Meier, Paul J Silvia, Thomas R Kwapil
Undergraduates ( N = 274) participated in a weeklong daily-life experience-sampling study of mind wandering after being assessed in the lab for executive-control abilities (working memory capacity; attention-restraint ability; attention-constraint ability; and propensity for task-unrelated thoughts, or TUTs) and personality traits. Eight times a day, electronic devices prompted subjects to report on their current thoughts and context. Working memory capacity and attention abilities predicted subjects' TUT rates in the lab, but predicted the frequency of daily-life mind wandering only as a function of subjects' momentary attempts to concentrate...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715641/genetic-influence-on-intergenerational-educational-attainment
#17
Ziada Ayorech, Eva Krapohl, Robert Plomin, Sophie von Stumm
Using twin (6,105 twin pairs) and genomic (5,825 unrelated individuals taken from the twin sample) analyses, we tested for genetic influences on the parent-offspring correspondence in educational attainment. Genetics accounted for nearly half of the variance in intergenerational educational attainment. A genomewide polygenic score (GPS) for years of education was also associated with intergenerational educational attainment: The highest and lowest GPS means were found for offspring in stably educated families (i...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714777/resisting-temptation-tracking-how-self-control-conflicts-are-successfully-resolved-in-real-time
#18
Paul E Stillman, Danila Medvedev, Melissa J Ferguson
Across four studies, we used mouse tracking to identify the dynamic, on-line cognitive processes that underlie successful self-control decisions. First, we showed that individuals display real-time conflict when choosing options consistent with their long-term goal over short-term temptations. Second, we found that individuals who are more successful at self-control-whether measured or manipulated-show significantly less real-time conflict in only self-control-relevant choices. Third, we demonstrated that successful individuals who choose a long-term goal over a short-term temptation display movements that are smooth rather than abrupt, which suggests dynamic rather than stage-based resolution of self-control conflicts...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708035/evidence-that-an-ebola-outbreak-influenced-voting-preferences-even-after-controlling-mindfully-for-autocorrelation-reply-to-tiokhin-and-hruschka-2017
#19
Mark Schaller, Marlise K Hofer, Alec T Beall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759339/corrigendum-information-search-in-decisions-from-experience-do-our-patterns-of-sampling-foreshadow-our-decisions
#20
(no author information available yet)
Original article: Hills, T. T., & Hertwig, R. (2010). Information search in decisions from experience: Do our patterns of sampling foreshadow our decisions? Psychological Science, 21, 1787-1792. doi:10.1177/0956797610387443.
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
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