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Psychological Science

Ashley M Groh, Katherine C Haydon
This research examined mothers' secure base script knowledge-reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-relevant problems are recognized, competent help is offered, and problems are resolved-and its significance for early-stage processing of infants' distress cues, using event-related potentials in an emotion oddball task. Mothers with lower secure base script knowledge exhibited (a) a heightened P3b response-reflective of greater allocation of cognitive resources-to their infants' distressed (but not happy) target facial expressions; (b) a larger P3b response to their infants' distressed (compared with happy) target facial expressions, which is indicative of allocating disproportional attentional resources to processing their infants' distress; and (c) poorer accuracy in identifying their infants' distressed target facial expressions...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Hao-Ting Wang, Giulia Poerio, Charlotte Murphy, Danilo Bzdok, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
The tendency for the mind to wander to concerns other than the task at hand is a fundamental feature of human cognition, yet the consequences of variations in its experiential content for psychological functioning are not well understood. Here, we adopted multivariate pattern analysis to simultaneously decompose experience-sampling data and neural functional-connectivity data, which revealed dimensions that simultaneously describe individual variation in self-reported experience and default-mode-network connectivity...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Michael Dufner, Martin Brümmer, Joanne M Chung, Pia M Drewke, Christophe Blaison, Stefan C Schmukle
Abel and Kruger (2010) found that the smile intensity of professional baseball players who were active in 1952, as coded from photographs, predicted these players' longevity. In the current investigation, we sought to replicate this result and to extend the initial analyses. We analyzed (a) a sample that was almost identical to the one from Abel and Kruger's study using the same database and inclusion criteria ( N = 224), (b) a considerably larger nonoverlapping sample consisting of other players from the same cohort ( N = 527), and (c) all players in the database ( N = 13,530 valid cases)...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Robert Waldinger, Marc Schulz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
James M Sherlock, Brendan P Zietsch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Anuya Patil, Katherine Duncan
Why are people sometimes able to recall associations in exquisite detail while at other times left frustrated by the deficiencies of memory? Although this apparent fickleness of memory has been extensively studied by investigating factors that build strong memory traces, researchers know less about whether memory success also depends on cognitive states that are in place when a cue is encountered. Motivating this possibility, neurocomputational models propose that the hippocampus's capacity to support associative recollection (pattern completion) is biased by persistent neurochemical states, which can be elicited by exposure to familiarity and novelty...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Elizabeth T Gershoff, Kierra M P Sattler, Arya Ansari
Establishing causal links when experiments are not feasible is an important challenge for psychology researchers. The question of whether parents' spanking causes children's externalizing behavior problems poses such a challenge because randomized experiments of spanking are unethical, and correlational studies cannot rule out potential selection factors. This study used propensity score matching based on the lifetime prevalence and recent incidence of spanking in a large and nationally representative sample ( N = 12,112) as well as lagged dependent variables to get as close to causal estimates outside an experiment as possible...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Tessa V West, Katrina Koslov, Elizabeth Page-Gould, Brenda Major, Wendy Berry Mendes
During interracial encounters, well-intentioned European Americans sometimes engage in subtle displays of anxiety, which can be interpreted as signs of racial bias by African American partners. In the present research, same-race and cross-race stranger dyads ( N = 123) engaged in getting-acquainted tasks, during which measures of sympathetic nervous system responses (preejection period, PEP) and heart rate variability were continuously collected. PEP scores showed that African American partners had stronger physiological linkage to European American partners who evidenced greater anxiety-greater cortisol reactivity, behavioral tension, and self-reported discomfort-which suggests greater physiological responsiveness to momentary changes in partners' affective states when those partners were anxious...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Dominic Michael Dwyer, Jaime Figueroa, Patricia Gasalla, Matías López
Formal theories of learning suggest that associations between events are determined by the internal representations of those events. Thus, learning should depend on perceived reward value-even when perceptions differ from objective values. We examined this prediction in flavor-preference learning in rats. In two experiments, simultaneous contrast either increased perceived reward value, which was paired with a distinctive flavor cue (the positive conditioned stimulus, CS+), or decreased the perceived value of the same reward, which was then paired with a second flavor (the negative conditioned stimulus, CS-)...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Jan M Engelmann, Esther Herrmann, Michael Tomasello
The motivation to build and maintain a positive personal reputation promotes prosocial behavior. But individuals also identify with their groups, and so it is possible that the desire to maintain or enhance group reputation may have similar effects. Here, we show that 5-year-old children actively invest in the reputation of their group by acting more generously when their group's reputation is at stake. Children shared significantly more resources with fictitious other children not only when their individual donations were public rather than private but also when their group's donations (effacing individual donations) were public rather than private...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Sara Gottlieb, Tania Lombrozo
Can science explain romantic love, morality, and religious belief? We documented intuitive beliefs about the limits of science in explaining the human mind. We considered both epistemic evaluations (concerning whether science could possibly fully explain a given psychological phenomenon) and nonepistemic judgments (concerning whether scientific explanations for a given phenomenon would generate discomfort), and we identified factors that characterize phenomena judged to fall beyond the scope of science. Across six studies, we found that participants were more likely to judge scientific explanations for psychological phenomena to be impossible and uncomfortable when, among other factors, they support first-person, introspective access (e...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Maike Salazar Kämpf, Helén Liebermann, Rudolf Kerschreiter, Sascha Krause, Steffen Nestler, Stefan C Schmukle
Mimicry is an important interpersonal behavior for initiating and maintaining relationships. By observing the same participants ( N = 139) in multiple dyadic interactions (618 data points) in a round-robin design, we disentangled the extent to which mimicry is due to (a) the mimicker's general tendency to mimic (imitativity), (b) the mimickee's general tendency to evoke mimicry (imitatability), and (c) the unique dyadic relationship between the mimicker and the mimickee. We explored how these mimicry components affected liking and metaperceptions of liking (i...
October 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Jessica K Witt, Nathan L Tenhundfeld, Michael J Tymoski
Can one's ability to perform an action, such as hitting a softball, influence one's perception? According to the action-specific account, perception of spatial layout is influenced by the perceiver's abilities to perform an intended action. Alternative accounts posit that purported effects are instead due to nonperceptual processes, such as response bias. Despite much confirmatory research on both sides of the debate, researchers who promote a response-bias account have never used the Pong task, which has yielded one of the most robust action-specific effects...
October 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Juliana Schroeder, Michael Kardas, Nicholas Epley
A person's speech communicates his or her thoughts and feelings. We predicted that beyond conveying the contents of a person's mind, a person's speech also conveys mental capacity, such that hearing a person explain his or her beliefs makes the person seem more mentally capable-and therefore seem to possess more uniquely human mental traits-than reading the same content. We expected this effect to emerge when people are perceived as relatively mindless, such as when they disagree with the evaluator's own beliefs...
October 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Sonja Perkovic, Jacob Lund Orquin
Ecological rationality results from matching decision strategies to appropriate environmental structures, but how does the matching happen? We propose that people learn the statistical structure of the environment through observation and use this learned structure to guide ecologically rational behavior. We tested this hypothesis in the context of organic foods. In Study 1, we found that products from healthful food categories are more likely to be organic than products from nonhealthful food categories. In Study 2, we found that consumers' perceptions of the healthfulness and prevalence of organic products in many food categories are accurate...
October 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Tyler R Sasser, Karen L Bierman, Brenda Heinrichs, Robert L Nix
This study examined the effects of the Head Start Research-Based, Developmentally Informed (REDI) preschool intervention on growth in children's executive-function (EF) skills from preschool through third grade. Across 25 Head Start centers, each of 44 classrooms was randomly assigned either to an intervention group, which received enhanced social-emotional and language-literacy components, or to a "usual-practice" control group. Four-year-old children ( N = 356; 25% African American, 17% Latino, 58% European American; 54% girls) were followed for 5 years, and EF skills were assessed annually...
October 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Eunike Wetzel, Anna Brown, Patrick L Hill, Joanne M Chung, Richard W Robins, Brent W Roberts
Are recent cohorts of college students more narcissistic than their predecessors? To address debates about the so-called "narcissism epidemic," we used data from three cohorts of students (1990s: N = 1,166; 2000s: N = 33,647; 2010s: N = 25,412) to test whether narcissism levels (overall and specific facets) have increased across generations. We also tested whether our measure, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), showed measurement equivalence across the three cohorts, a critical analysis that had been overlooked in prior research...
October 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Michael Bang Petersen
A range of studies have demonstrated that people implicitly treat out-groups as the carriers of pathogens and that considerable prejudice against out-groups is driven by concerns about pathogens. Yet the psychological categories that are involved and the selection pressures that underlie these categories remain unclear. A common view is that human pathogen-avoidance psychology is specifically adapted to avoid out-groups because of their potentially different pathogens. However, the series of studies reported here shows that there is no dedicated category for reasoning about out-groups in terms of pathogens...
October 1, 2017: Psychological Science
(no author information available yet)
Original article: Giner-Sorolla, R., & Chapman, H. A. (2017). Beyond purity: Moral disgust toward bad character. Psychological Science, 28, 80-91. doi:10.1177/0956797616673193 In this article, some effect sizes in the Results section for Study 1 were reported incorrectly and are now being corrected. In the section titled Manipulation Checks: Act and Character Ratings, we reported a d value of 0.32 for the one-sample t test comparing participants' act ratings with the midpoint of the scale; the correct value is 0...
October 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Daniel K Walco, Jane L Risen
Will people follow their intuition even when they explicitly recognize that it is irrational to do so? Dual-process models of judgment and decision making are often based on the assumption that the correction of errors necessarily follows the detection of errors. But this assumption does not always hold. People can explicitly recognize that their intuitive judgment is wrong but nevertheless maintain it, a phenomenon known as acquiescence. Although anecdotes and experimental studies suggest that acquiescence occurs, the empirical case for acquiescence has not been definitively established...
October 1, 2017: Psychological Science
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