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Psychological Science

Jessica E Salvatore, Sara Larsson Lönn, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler
We used classical and extended adoption designs in Swedish registries to disentangle genetic and rearing-environment influences on the intergenerational transmission of divorce. In classical adoption analyses, adoptees ( n = 19,715) resembled their biological parents, rather than their adoptive parents, in their history of divorce. In extended adoption analyses, offspring ( n = 82,698) resembled their not-lived-with fathers and their lived-with mothers. There was stronger resemblance to lived-with mothers, providing indirect evidence of rearing-environment influences on the intergenerational transmission of divorce...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Sietske van Viersen, Elise H de Bree, Marjolein Zee, Ben Maassen, Aryan van der Leij, Peter F de Jong
The present study investigated the role of early oral language and family risk for dyslexia in the two developmental pathways toward reading comprehension, through word reading and through oral language abilities. The sample contained 237 children (164 at family risk for dyslexia) from the Dutch Dyslexia Program. Longitudinal data were obtained on seven occasions when children were between 4 and 12 years old. The relationship between early oral language ability and reading comprehension at the age of 12 years was mediated by preliteracy skills and word-decoding ability for the first pathway and by later language abilities for the second pathway...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Zhimin Chen, Anna Kosovicheva, Benjamin Wolfe, Patrick Cavanagh, Andrei Gorea, David Whitney
Visual space is perceived as continuous and stable even though visual inputs from the left and right visual fields are initially processed separately within the two cortical hemispheres. In the research reported here, we examined whether the visual system utilizes a dynamic recalibration mechanism to integrate these representations and to maintain alignment across the visual fields. Subjects adapted to randomly oriented moving lines that straddled the vertical meridian; these lines were vertically offset between the left and right hemifields...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Kimberley A Wade, Maryanne Garry, Kathy Pezdek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Psychological Science
(no author information available yet)
Original article: Park, J., Lu, F.-C., & Hedgcock, W. M. (2017). Relative effects of forward and backward planning on goal pursuit. Psychological Science, 28, 1620-1630. doi:10.1177/0956797617715510.
January 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Eric M Russell, William Ickes, Vivian P Ta
Research suggests that the development of close, opposite-sex friendships is frequently impeded by men's often one-sided sexual attraction to women. But what if this element were removed? The current research tested the hypothesis that women engage in more comfortable and intimate interactions with a gay (but not a straight) man immediately after discovering his sexual orientation. In two studies, female participants engaged in imagined or actual initial interactions with either a straight man or a gay man...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Matthew D Hilchey, Jason Rajsic, Greg Huffman, Raymond M Klein, Jay Pratt
Despite decades of research, the conditions under which shifts of attention to prior target locations are facilitated or inhibited remain unknown. This ambiguity is a product of the popular feature discrimination task, in which attentional bias is commonly inferred from the efficiency by which a stimulus feature is discriminated after its location has been repeated or changed. Problematically, these tasks lead to integration effects; effects of target-location repetition appear to depend entirely on whether the target feature or response also repeats, allowing for several possible inferences about orienting bias...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Science
(no author information available yet)
Original article: Shariff, A. F., Greene, J. D., Karremans, J. C., Luguri, J. B., Clark, C. J., Schooler, J. W., . . . Vohs, K. D. (2014). Free will and punishment: A mechanistic view of human nature reduces retribution. Psychological Science, 25, 1563-1570. doi:10.1177/0956797614534693.
December 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Jordan Tong, Daniel Feiler, Anastasia Ivantsova
We examine a fundamental feature of choice under uncertainty: Overestimating an alternative makes one more likely to choose it. If people are naive to this structural feature, then they will tend to have erroneously inflated expectations for the alternatives they choose. In contrast to theories of motivated reasoning, this theory suggests that individuals will overestimate chosen alternatives even before they make their choice. In four studies, we found that students and managers exhibited behavior consistent with naïveté toward this relationship between estimation error and choice, leaving them overoptimistic about their chosen alternatives...
December 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Natalie Biderman, Liad Mudrik
Is consciousness necessary for integration? Findings of seemingly high-level object-scene integration in the absence of awareness have challenged major theories in the field and attracted considerable scientific interest. Lately, one of these findings has been questioned because of a failure to replicate, yet the other finding was still uncontested. Here, we show that this latter finding-slowed-down performance on a visible target following a masked prime scene that includes an incongruent object-is also not reproducible...
December 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Oakyoon Cha, Sang Chul Chong
The human ability to represent ensemble visual information, such as average orientation and size, has been suggested as the foundation of gist perception. To effectively summarize different groups of objects into the gist of a scene, observers should form ensembles separately for different groups, even when objects have similar visual features across groups. We hypothesized that the visual system utilizes perceptual groups characterized by spatial configuration and represents separate ensembles for different groups...
December 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Sara Kim, Ke Zhang, Daeun Park
Numerous studies have shown that individuals' help-seeking behavior increases when a computerized helper is endowed with humanlike features in nonachievement contexts. In contrast, the current research suggests that anthropomorphic helpers are not universally conducive to help-seeking behavior in contexts of achievement, particularly among individuals who construe help seeking as a display of incompetence (i.e., entity theorists). Study 1 demonstrated that when entity theorists received help from an anthropomorphized (vs...
December 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Ayelet McKyton, Itay Ben-Zion, Ehud Zohary
Viewing a hand action performed by another person facilitates a response-compatible action and slows a response-incompatible one, even when the viewed action is irrelevant to the task. This automatic imitation effect is taken as the clearest evidence for a direct mapping between action viewing and motor performance. But there is an ongoing debate whether this effect is innate or experience dependent. We tackled this issue by studying a unique group of newly sighted children who suffered from dense bilateral cataracts from early infancy and were surgically treated only years later...
December 1, 2017: Psychological Science
R T Pramod, S P Arun
Symmetry is a salient visual property: It is easy to detect and influences perceptual phenomena from segmentation to recognition. Yet researchers know little about its neural basis. Using recordings from single neurons in monkey IT cortex, we asked whether symmetry-being an emergent property-induces nonlinear interactions between object parts. Remarkably, we found no such deviation: Whole-object responses were always the sum of responses to the object's parts, regardless of symmetry. The only defining characteristic of symmetric objects was that they were more distinctive compared with asymmetric objects...
December 1, 2017: Psychological Science
(no author information available yet)
Original article: Zilioli, S., Slatcher, R. B., Chi, P., Li, X., Zhao, J., & Zhao, G. (2016). Childhood adversity, self-esteem, and diurnal cortisol profiles across the life span. Psychological Science, 27, 1249-1265. doi:10.1177/0956797616658287.
December 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Michael A Gomez, Rafal M Skiba, Jacqueline C Snow
The opportunity an object presents for action is known as an affordance. A basic assumption in previous research was that images of objects, which do not afford physical action, elicit effects on attention and behavior comparable with those of real-world tangible objects. Using a flanker task, we compared interference effects between real graspable objects and matched 2-D or 3-D images of the items. Compared with both 2-D and 3-D images, real objects yielded slower response times overall and elicited greater flanker interference effects...
December 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Maryia Fedzechkina, Becky Chu, T Florian Jaeger
Human languages exhibit both striking diversity and abstract commonalities. Whether these commonalities are shaped by potentially universal principles of human information processing has been of central interest in the language and psychological sciences. Research has identified one such abstract property in the domain of word order: Although sentence word-order preferences vary across languages, the superficially different orders result in short grammatical dependencies between words. Because dependencies are easier to process when they are short rather than long, these findings raise the possibility that languages are shaped by biases of human information processing...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
David C Geary, Kristy vanMarle, Felicia W Chu, Jeffrey Rouder, Mary K Hoard, Lara Nugent
We demonstrate a link between preschoolers' quantitative competencies and their school-entry knowledge of the relations among numbers (number-system knowledge). The quantitative competencies of 141 children (69 boys) were assessed at the beginning of preschool and throughout the next 2 years of preschool, as was their mathematics and reading achievement at the end of kindergarten and their number-system knowledge at the beginning of first grade. A combination of Bayes analyses and standard regressions revealed that the age at which the children had the conceptual insight that number words represent specific quantities (cardinal value) was strongly related to their later number-system knowledge and was more consistently related to broader mathematics than to reading achievement, controlling for intelligence, executive function, and parental education levels...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Yanping Liu, Erik D Reichle
Is attention allocated to only one word or to multiple words at any given time during reading? The experiments reported here addressed this question using a novel paradigm inspired by classic findings on object-based attention. In Experiment 1, participants ( N = 18) made lexical decisions about one of two spatially colocated Chinese words or nonwords. Our main finding was that only the attended word's frequency influenced response times and accuracy. In Experiment 2, participants ( N = 30) read target words embedded in two spatially colocated Chinese sentences...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Joshua M Ackerman, Joshua M Tybur, Chad R Mortensen
Infectious disease is an ever-present threat in daily life. Recent literature indicates that people manage this threat with a suite of antipathogenic psychological and behavioral defense mechanisms, which motivate the avoidance of people and objects bearing cues to pathogen risk. Here, we demonstrate that self-image is also impacted by these mechanisms. In seven studies, pathogen cues led individuals chronically averse to germs to express greater concern about their own physical appearance. Correspondingly, these people exhibited behavioral intentions and decisions intended to conceal or improve their appearance, such as purchasing facial products, taking pharmaceuticals, and undergoing cosmetic surgery...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
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