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Psychological Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107103/why-do-we-hate-hypocrites-evidence-for-a-theory-of-false-signaling
#1
Jillian J Jordan, Roseanna Sommers, Paul Bloom, David G Rand
Why do people judge hypocrites, who condemn immoral behaviors that they in fact engage in, so negatively? We propose that hypocrites are disliked because their condemnation sends a false signal about their personal conduct, deceptively suggesting that they behave morally. We show that verbal condemnation signals moral goodness (Study 1) and does so even more convincingly than directly stating that one behaves morally (Study 2). We then demonstrate that people judge hypocrites negatively-even more negatively than people who directly make false statements about their morality (Study 3)...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103140/avoiding-accidents-at-the-champagne-reception
#2
Giovanni Pezzulo, Pierpaolo Iodice, Francesco Donnarumma, Haris Dindo, Günther Knoblich
Using a lifting and balancing task, we contrasted two alternative views of planning joint actions: one postulating that joint action involves distinct predictions for self and other, the other postulating that joint action involves coordinated plans between the coactors and reuse of bimanual models. We compared compensatory movements required to keep a tray balanced when 2 participants lifted glasses from each other's trays at the same time (simultaneous joint action) and when they took turns lifting (sequential joint action)...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099068/same-story-different-story
#3
Yaara Yeshurun, Stephen Swanson, Erez Simony, Janice Chen, Christina Lazaridi, Christopher J Honey, Uri Hasson
Differences in people's beliefs can substantially impact their interpretation of a series of events. In this functional MRI study, we manipulated subjects' beliefs, leading two groups of subjects to interpret the same narrative in different ways. We found that responses in higher-order brain areas-including the default-mode network, language areas, and subsets of the mirror neuron system-tended to be similar among people who shared the same interpretation, but different from those of people with an opposing interpretation...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095186/adaptable-categorization-of-hands-and-tools-in-prosthesis-users
#4
Fiona M Z van den Heiligenberg, Nick Yeung, Peter Brugger, Jody C Culham, Tamar R Makin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085574/a-large-scale-test-of-the-goldilocks-hypothesis
#5
Andrew K Przybylski, Netta Weinstein
Although the time adolescents spend with digital technologies has sparked widespread concerns that their use might be negatively associated with mental well-being, these potential deleterious influences have not been rigorously studied. Using a preregistered plan for analyzing data collected from a representative sample of English adolescents ( n = 120,115), we obtained evidence that the links between digital-screen time and mental well-being are described by quadratic functions. Further, our results showed that these links vary as a function of when digital technologies are used (i...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084895/parents-perceptions-of-their-children-as-overweight-and-children-s-weight-concerns-and-weight-gain
#6
Eric Robinson, Angelina R Sutin
The global prevalence of childhood obesity is alarmingly high. Parents' identification of their children as overweight is thought to be an important prerequisite to tackling childhood obesity, but recent findings suggest that such parental identification is counterintuitively associated with increased weight gain during childhood. One possibility is that parental identification of their child as being overweight results in that child viewing his or her body size negatively and attempting to lose weight, which eventually results in weight gain...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080315/we-know-who-likes-us-but-not-who-competes-against-us
#7
Noah Eisenkraft, Hillary Anger Elfenbein, Shirli Kopelman
Research on dyadic meta-accuracy suggests that people can accurately judge how their acquaintances feel toward them. However, existing studies have focused exclusively on positive feelings, such as liking. We present the first research on dyadic meta-accuracy for competition, a common dynamic among work colleagues. Data from the sales staff at a car dealership and students working on project teams suggest that the prevailing model of dyadic meta-accuracy breaks down for judgments of competition. For liking, projecting one's own feelings promotes dyadic meta-accuracy because colleagues tend to reciprocate each other's liking...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080303/the-development-of-a-cross-modal-sense-of-body-ownership
#8
Elena Nava, Nadia Bolognini, Chiara Turati
In this study, we investigated the contribution of tactile and proprioceptive cues to the development of the sense of body ownership by testing the susceptibility of 4- to 5-year-old children, 8- to 9-year-old children, and adults to the somatic rubber-hand illusion (SRHI). We found that feelings of owning a rubber hand in the SHRI paradigm, as assessed by explicit reports (i.e., questionnaire), are already present by age 4 and do not change throughout development. In contrast, the effect of the illusion on the sense of hand position, as assessed by a pointing task, was present only in 8- to 9-year-old children and adults; the magnitude of such capture increased with age...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080302/the-road-to-bribery-and-corruption
#9
Nils C Köbis, Jan-Willem van Prooijen, Francesca Righetti, Paul A M Van Lange
Major forms of corruption constitute a strong threat to the functioning of societies. The most frequent explanation of how severe corruption emerges is the slippery-slope metaphor-the notion that corruption occurs gradually. While having widespread theoretical and intuitive appeal, this notion has barely been tested empirically. We used a recently developed paradigm to test whether severely corrupt acts happen gradually or abruptly. The results of four experimental studies revealed a higher likelihood of severe corruption when participants were directly given the opportunity to engage in it (abrupt) compared with when they had previously engaged in minor forms of corruption (gradual)...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075234/different-outcomes-require-different-explanations
#10
Ralf Wölfer, Miles Hewstone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075224/integrating-approaches-requires-more-than-a-division-of-labor
#11
Catharine P Cross, Anne Campbell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074675/the-emergence-of-an-abstract-grammatical-category-in-children-s-early-speech
#12
Stephan C Meylan, Michael C Frank, Brandon C Roy, Roger Levy
How do children begin to use language to say things they have never heard before? The origins of linguistic productivity have been a subject of heated debate: Whereas generativist accounts posit that children's early language reflects the presence of syntactic abstractions, constructivist approaches instead emphasize gradual generalization derived from frequently heard forms. In the present research, we developed a Bayesian statistical model that measures the degree of abstraction implicit in children's early use of the determiners "a" and "the...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059682/birds-of-a-feather-do-flock-together
#13
Wu Youyou, H Andrew Schwartz, David Stillwell, Michal Kosinski
Friends and spouses tend to be similar in a broad range of characteristics, such as age, educational level, race, religion, attitudes, and general intelligence. Surprisingly, little evidence has been found for similarity in personality-one of the most fundamental psychological constructs. We argue that the lack of evidence for personality similarity stems from the tendency of individuals to make personality judgments relative to a salient comparison group, rather than in absolute terms (i.e., the reference-group effect), when responding to the self-report and peer-report questionnaires commonly used in personality research...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056212/a-preregistered-study-of-competing-predictions-suggests-that-men-do-overestimate-women-s-sexual-intent
#14
Damian R Murray, Sean C Murphy, William von Hippel, Robert Trivers, Martie G Haselton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056211/reply-to-a-preregistered-study-of-competing-predictions-suggests-that-men-do-overestimate-women-s-sexual-intent
#15
Carin Perilloux, Robert Kurzban
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036236/ensemble-perception-of-dynamic-emotional-groups
#16
Elric Elias, Michael Dyer, Timothy D Sweeny
Crowds of emotional faces are ubiquitous, so much so that the visual system utilizes a specialized mechanism known as ensemble coding to see them. In addition to being proximally close, members of emotional crowds, such as a laughing audience or an angry mob, often behave together. The manner in which crowd members behave-in sync or out of sync-may be critical for understanding their collective affect. Are ensemble mechanisms sensitive to these dynamic properties of groups? Here, observers estimated the average emotion of a crowd of dynamic faces...
December 1, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899472/autopedophilia-erotic-target-identity-inversions-in-men-sexually-attracted-to-children
#17
Kevin J Hsu, J Michael Bailey
The most salient dimension of men's sexual orientation is gender: attraction to males versus females. A second dimension is sexual maturity: attraction to children versus adults. A less appreciated dimension is location: attraction to other individuals versus the sexual fantasy of being one of those individuals. Men sexually aroused by the idea or fantasy of being the kinds of individuals to whom they are sexually attracted have an erotic-target identity inversion (ETII). We conducted an online survey to investigate the prevalence and phenomenology of ETIIs among 475 men sexually attracted to children...
November 29, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881710/the-role-of-hedonic-behavior-in-reducing-perceived-risk-evidence-from-postearthquake-mobile-app-data
#18
Jayson S Jia, Jianmin Jia, Christopher K Hsee, Baba Shiv
Understanding how human populations naturally respond to and cope with risk is important for fields ranging from psychology to public health. We used geophysical and individual-level mobile-phone data (mobile-apps, telecommunications, and Web usage) of 157,358 victims of the 2013 Ya'an earthquake to diagnose the effects of the disaster and investigate how experiencing real risk (at different levels of intensity) changes behavior. Rather than limiting human activity, higher earthquake intensity resulted in graded increases in usage of communications apps (e...
November 23, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879322/the-whole-warps-the-sum-of-its-parts-gestalt-defined-group-mean-size-biases-memory-for-individual-objects
#19
Jennifer E Corbett
The efficiency of averaging properties of sets without encoding redundant details is analogous to gestalt proposals that perception is parsimoniously organized as a function of recurrent order in the world. This similarity suggests that grouping and averaging are part of a broader set of strategies allowing the visual system to circumvent capacity limitations. To examine how gestalt grouping affects the manner in which information is averaged and remembered, I compared the error in observers' adjustments of remembered sizes of individual circles in two different mean-size sets defined by similarity, proximity, connectedness, or a common region...
November 22, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879321/when-misinformation-improves-memory-the-effects-of-recollecting-change
#20
Adam L Putnam, Victor W Sungkhasettee, Henry L Roediger
In two experiments, we explored the effects of noticing and remembering change in the misinformation paradigm. People watched slide shows, read narratives containing misinformation about the events depicted in the slide shows, and took a recognition test on which they reported whether any details had changed between the slides and the narratives. As expected, we found a strong misinformation effect overall. In some cases, however, misinformation led to improved recognition, which is opposite the usual finding...
November 22, 2016: Psychological Science
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