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Psychological Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635378/people-with-autism-spectrum-conditions-make-more-consistent-decisions
#1
George D Farmer, Simon Baron-Cohen, William J Skylark
People with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) show reduced sensitivity to contextual stimuli in many perceptual and cognitive tasks. We investigated whether this also applies to decision making by examining adult participants' choices between pairs of consumer products that were presented with a third, less desirable "decoy" option. Participants' preferences between the items in a given pair frequently switched when the third item in the set was changed, but this tendency was reduced among individuals with ASC, which indicated that their choices were more consistent and conventionally rational than those of control participants...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622095/black-and-white-lies-race-based-biases-in-deception-judgments
#2
E Paige Lloyd, Kurt Hugenberg, Allen R McConnell, Jonathan W Kunstman, Jason C Deska
In six studies ( N = 605), participants made deception judgments about videos of Black and White targets who told truths and lies about interpersonal relationships. In Studies 1a, 1b, 1c, and 2, White participants judged that Black targets were telling the truth more often than they judged that White targets were telling the truth. This truth bias was predicted by Whites' motivation to respond without prejudice. For Black participants, however, motives to respond without prejudice did not moderate responses (Study 2)...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613974/inhibition-of-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-produces-emotionally-biased-first-impressions-a-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-and-electroencephalography-study
#3
Regina C Lapate, Jason Samaha, Bas Rokers, Hamdi Hamzah, Bradley R Postle, Richard J Davidson
Optimal functioning in everyday life requires the ability to override reflexive emotional responses and prevent affective spillover to situations or people unrelated to the source of emotion. In the current study, we investigated whether the lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) causally regulates the influence of emotional information on subsequent judgments. We disrupted left lPFC function using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and recorded electroencephalography (EEG) before and after. Subjects evaluated the likeability of novel neutral faces after a brief exposure to a happy or fearful face...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613135/pupillary-responses-to-words-that-convey-a-sense-of-brightness-or-darkness
#4
Sebastiaan Mathôt, Jonathan Grainger, Kristof Strijkers
Theories about embodiment of language hold that when you process a word's meaning, you automatically simulate associated sensory input (e.g., perception of brightness when you process lamp) and prepare associated actions (e.g., finger movements when you process typing). To test this latter prediction, we measured pupillary responses to single words that conveyed a sense of brightness (e.g., day) or darkness (e.g., night) or were neutral (e.g., house). We found that pupils were largest for words conveying darkness, of intermediate size for neutral words, and smallest for words conveying brightness...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604267/selectively-distracted-divided-attention-and-memory-for-important-information
#5
Catherine D Middlebrooks, Tyson Kerr, Alan D Castel
Distractions and multitasking are generally detrimental to learning and memory. Nevertheless, people often study while listening to music, sitting in noisy coffee shops, or intermittently checking their e-mail. The current experiments examined how distractions and divided attention influence one's ability to selectively remember valuable information. Participants studied lists of words that ranged in value from 1 to 10 points while completing a digit-detection task, while listening to music, or without distractions...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598257/what-s-worth-talking-about-information-theory-reveals-how-children-balance-informativeness-and-ease-of-production
#6
Colin Bannard, Marla Rosner, Danielle Matthews
Of all the things a person could say in a given situation, what determines what is worth saying? Greenfield's principle of informativeness states that right from the onset of language, humans selectively comment on whatever they find unexpected. In this article, we quantify this tendency using information-theoretic measures and report on a study in which we tested the counterintuitive prediction that children will produce words that have a low frequency given the context, because these will be most informative...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594281/are-you-smiling-or-have-i-seen-you-before-familiarity-makes-faces-look-happier
#7
Evan W Carr, Timothy F Brady, Piotr Winkielman
It is clear that unreinforced repetition (familiarization) influences affective responses to social stimuli, but its effects on the perception of facial emotion are unknown. Reporting the results of two experiments, we show for the first time that repeated exposure enhances the perceived happiness of facial expressions. In Experiment 1, using a paradigm in which subjects' responses were orthogonal to happiness in order to avoid response biases, we found that faces of individuals who had previously been shown were deemed happier than novel faces...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590810/worth-the-wait-leisure-can-be-just-as-enjoyable-with-work-left-undone
#8
Ed O'Brien, Ellen Roney
Four studies reveal that (a) people hold a robust intuition about the order of work and leisure and that (b) this intuition is sometimes mistaken. People prefer saving leisure for last, believing they would otherwise be distracted by looming work (Study 1). In controlled experiments, however, although subjects thought their enjoyment would be spoiled when they played a game before rather than after a laborious problem-solving task, got a massage before rather than after midterms, and consumed snacks and watched videos before rather than after a stressful performance, in reality these experiences were similarly enjoyable regardless of order (Studies 2 through 4)...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581899/should-governments-invest-more-in-nudging
#9
Shlomo Benartzi, John Beshears, Katherine L Milkman, Cass R Sunstein, Richard H Thaler, Maya Shankar, Will Tucker-Ray, William J Congdon, Steven Galing
Governments are increasingly adopting behavioral science techniques for changing individual behavior in pursuit of policy objectives. The types of "nudge" interventions that governments are now adopting alter people's decisions without coercion or significant changes to economic incentives. We calculated ratios of impact to cost for nudge interventions and for traditional policy tools, such as tax incentives and other financial inducements, and we found that nudge interventions often compare favorably with traditional interventions...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569605/dying-is-unexpectedly-positive
#10
Amelia Goranson, Ryan S Ritter, Adam Waytz, Michael I Norton, Kurt Gray
In people's imagination, dying seems dreadful; however, these perceptions may not reflect reality. In two studies, we compared the affective experience of people facing imminent death with that of people imagining imminent death. Study 1 revealed that blog posts of near-death patients with cancer and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were more positive and less negative than the simulated blog posts of nonpatients-and also that the patients' blog posts became more positive as death neared. Study 2 revealed that the last words of death-row inmates were more positive and less negative than the simulated last words of noninmates-and also that these last words were less negative than poetry written by death-row inmates...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562159/automatic-associations-between-one-s-partner-and-one-s-affect-as-the-proximal-mechanism-of-change-in-relationship-satisfaction-evidence-from-evaluative-conditioning
#11
James K McNulty, Michael A Olson, Rachael E Jones, Laura M Acosta
The current study examined whether directly altering affective associations involving a relationship partner through evaluative conditioning can lead to changes in relationship satisfaction. Married couples ( N = 144) were asked to view a brief stream of images once every 3 days for 6 weeks. Embedded in this stream were pictures of the partner, which, according to random assignment of couples to experimental group, were paired with either positive or neutral stimuli. Couples also completed measures of automatic partner attitudes and explicit marital satisfaction at baseline and once every 2 weeks for 8 weeks...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557672/the-road-to-language-learning-is-not-entirely-iconic-iconicity-neighborhood-density-and-frequency-facilitate-acquisition-of-sign-language
#12
Naomi K Caselli, Jennie E Pyers
Iconic mappings between words and their meanings are far more prevalent than once estimated and seem to support children's acquisition of new words, spoken or signed. We asked whether iconicity's prevalence in sign language overshadows two other factors known to support the acquisition of spoken vocabulary: neighborhood density (the number of lexical items phonologically similar to the target) and lexical frequency. Using mixed-effects logistic regressions, we reanalyzed 58 parental reports of native-signing deaf children's productive acquisition of 332 signs in American Sign Language (ASL; Anderson & Reilly, 2002) and found that iconicity, neighborhood density, and lexical frequency independently facilitated vocabulary acquisition...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548899/no-evidence-that-an-ebola-outbreak-influenced-voting-preferences-in-the-2014-elections-after-controlling-for-time-series-autocorrelation-a-commentary-on-beall-hofer-and-schaller-2016
#13
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548880/modeling-choices-in-delay-discounting
#14
Dirk U Wulff, Wouter van den Bos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537480/alpha-band-oscillations-enable-spatially-and-temporally-resolved-tracking-of-covert-spatial-attention
#15
Joshua J Foster, David W Sutterer, John T Serences, Edward K Vogel, Edward Awh
Covert spatial attention is essential for humans' ability to direct limited processing resources to the relevant aspects of visual scenes. A growing body of evidence suggests that rhythmic neural activity in the alpha frequency band (8-12 Hz) tracks the spatial locus of covert attention, which suggests that alpha activity is integral to spatial attention. However, extant work has not provided a compelling test of another key prediction: that alpha activity tracks the temporal dynamics of covert spatial orienting...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520552/prestimulus-inhibition-of-saccades-in-adults-with-and-without-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-as-an-index-of-temporal-expectations
#16
Yarden Dankner, Lilach Shalev, Marisa Carrasco, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
Knowing when to expect important events to occur is critical for preparing context-appropriate behavior. However, anticipation is inherently complicated to assess because conventional measurements of behavior, such as accuracy and reaction time, are available only after the predicted event has occurred. Anticipatory processes, which occur prior to target onset, are typically measured only retrospectively by these methods. In this study, we utilized a novel approach for assessing temporal expectations through the dynamics of prestimulus saccades...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517967/cruel-to-be-kind-factors-underlying-altruistic-efforts-to-worsen-another-person-s-mood
#17
Belén López-Pérez, Laura Howells, Michaela Gummerum
When aiming to improve another person's long-term well-being, people may choose to induce a negative emotion in that person in the short term. We labeled this form of agent-target interpersonal emotion regulation altruistic affect worsening and hypothesized that it may happen when three conditions are met: (a) The agent experiences empathic concern for the target of the affect-worsening process, (b) the negative emotion to be induced helps the target achieve a goal (e.g., anger for confrontation or fear for avoidance), and (c) there is no benefit for the agent...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509625/direct-current-stimulation-does-little-to-improve-the-outcome-of-working-memory-training-in-older-adults
#18
Jonna Nilsson, Alexander V Lebedev, Anders Rydström, Martin Lövdén
The promise of transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) as a modulator of cognition has appealed to researchers, media, and the general public. Researchers have suggested that tDCS may increase effects of cognitive training. In this study of 123 older adults, we examined the interactive effects of 20 sessions of anodal tDCS over the left prefrontal cortex (vs. sham tDCS) and simultaneous working memory training (vs. control training) on change in cognitive abilities. Stimulation did not modulate gains from pre- to posttest on latent factors of either trained or untrained tasks in a statistically significant manner...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504919/does-knowing-hurt-perceiving-oneself-as-overweight-predicts-future-physical-health-and-well-being
#19
Michael Daly, Eric Robinson, Angelina R Sutin
Identifying oneself as being overweight may be associated with adverse health outcomes, yet prospective tests of this possibility are lacking. Over 7 years, we examined associations between perceptions of being overweight and subsequent health in a sample of 3,582 U.S. adults. Perceiving oneself as being overweight predicted longitudinal declines in subjective health ( d = -0.22, p < .001), increases in depressive symptoms ( d = 0.09, p < .05), and raised levels of physiological dysregulation ( d = 0...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504911/the-value-of-sharing-information-a-neural-account-of-information-transmission
#20
Elisa C Baek, Christin Scholz, Matthew Brook O'Donnell, Emily B Falk
Humans routinely share information with one another. What drives this behavior? We used neuroimaging to test an account of information selection and sharing that emphasizes inherent reward in self-reflection and connecting with other people. Participants underwent functional MRI while they considered personally reading and sharing New York Times articles. Activity in neural regions involved in positive valuation, self-related processing, and taking the perspective of others was significantly associated with decisions to select and share articles, and scaled with preferences to do so...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
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