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Psychological Science

Jessie Sun, Simine Vazire
Knowing yourself requires knowing not only what you are like in general (trait self-knowledge) but also how your personality fluctuates from moment to moment (state self-knowledge). We examined this latter form of self-knowledge. Participants (248 people; 2,938 observations) wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR), an unobtrusive audio recorder, and completed experience-sampling self-reports of their personality states four times each day for 1 week. We estimated state self-knowledge by comparing self-reported personality states with consensual observer ratings of personality states coded from the EAR files, which formed the criterion for what participants were "actually" like in the moment...
January 17, 2019: Psychological Science
Shelly L Gable, Elizabeth A Hopper, Jonathan W Schooler
How often are creative ideas generated during episodes of mind wandering, and do they differ from those generated while on task? In two studies ( N = 98, N = 87), professional writers and physicists reported on their most creative idea of the day, what they were thinking about and doing when it occurred, whether the idea felt like an "aha" moment, and the quality of the idea. Participants reported that one fifth of their most significant ideas of the day were formed during spontaneous task-independent mind wandering-operationalized here as (a) engaging in an activity other than working and (b) thinking about something unrelated to the generated idea...
January 17, 2019: Psychological Science
Shouhang Yin, Jie Sui, Yu-Chin Chiu, Antao Chen, Tobias Egner
People preferentially attend to external stimuli that are related to themselves compared with others. Whether a similar self-reference bias applies to internal representations, such as those maintained in working memory (WM), is presently unknown. We tested this possibility in four experiments, in which participants were first trained to associate social labels (self, friend, stranger) with arbitrary colors and then performed a delayed match-to-sample spatial WM task on color locations. Participants consistently responded fastest to WM probes at locations of self-associated colors (Experiments 1-4)...
January 17, 2019: Psychological Science
Paul Connor, Vasilis Sarafidis, Michael J Zyphur, Dacher Keltner, Serena Chen
Several theories predict that income inequality may produce increased racial bias, but robust tests of this hypothesis are lacking. We examined this relationship at the U.S. state level from 2004 to 2015 using Internal Revenue Service-based income-inequality statistics and two large-scale racial-bias data sources: Project Implicit ( N = 1,554,109) and Google Trends. Using a multimethod approach, we found evidence of a significant positive within-state association between income inequality and Whites' explicit racial bias...
January 11, 2019: Psychological Science
Shilpa Madan, Shankha Basu, Aneeta Rattan, Krishna Savani
In six studies ( N = 2,340), we identified one source of people's differential support for resettling refugees in their country-their beliefs about whether the kind of person someone is can be changed (i.e., a growth mind-set) or is fixed (i.e., a fixed mind-set). U.S. and UK citizens who believed that the kind of person someone is can be changed were more likely to support resettling refugees in their country (Studies 1 and 2). Study 3 identified a causal relationship between the type of mind-set people hold and their support for resettling refugees...
January 11, 2019: Psychological Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2019: Psychological Science
Nicolette J Sullivan, Gavan J Fitzsimons, Michael L Platt, Scott A Huettel
As obesity rates continue to rise, interventions promoting healthful choices will become increasingly important. Here, participants ( N = 79) made binary choices between familiar foods; some trials contained a common consequence that had a constant probability of receipt regardless of the participant's choice. We theorized-on the basis of simulations using a value-normalization model-that indulgent common consequences potentiated disciplined choices by shaping other options' perceived healthfulness and tastiness...
January 9, 2019: Psychological Science
Tessa E S Charlesworth, Mahzarin R Banaji
Using 4.4 million tests of implicit and explicit attitudes measured continuously from an Internet population of U.S. respondents over 13 years, we conducted the first comparative analysis using time-series models to examine patterns of long-term change in six social-group attitudes: sexual orientation, race, skin tone, age, disability, and body weight. Even within just a decade, all explicit responses showed change toward attitude neutrality. Parallel implicit responses also showed change toward neutrality for sexual orientation, race, and skin-tone attitudes but revealed stability over time for age and disability attitudes and change away from neutrality for body-weight attitudes...
January 3, 2019: Psychological Science
Toby D Pilditch, Norman Fenton, David Lagnado
There are many instances, both in professional domains such as law, forensics, and medicine and in everyday life, in which an effect (e.g., a piece of evidence or event) has multiple possible causes. In three experiments, we demonstrated that individuals erroneously assume that evidence that is equally predicted by two competing hypotheses offers no support for either hypothesis. However, this assumption holds only in cases in which competing causes are mutually exclusive and exhaustive (i.e., exactly one cause is true)...
December 31, 2018: Psychological Science
Ed O'Brien, Samantha Kassirer
People adapt to repeated getting. The happiness we feel from eating the same food, from earning the same income, and from many other experiences quickly decreases as repeated exposure to an identical source of happiness increases. In two preregistered experiments ( N = 615), we examined whether people also adapt to repeated giving-the happiness we feel from helping other people rather than ourselves. In Experiment 1, participants spent a windfall for 5 days ($5.00 per day on the same item) on themselves or another person (the same one each day)...
December 27, 2018: Psychological Science
Natalie Biderman, Roy Luria, Andrei R Teodorescu, Ron Hajaj, Yonatan Goshen-Gottstein
How detailed are long-term-memory representations compared with working memory representations? Recent research has found an equal fidelity bound for both memory systems, suggesting a novel general constraint on memory. Here, we assessed the replicability of this discovery. Participants (total N = 72) were presented with colored real-life objects and were asked to recall the colors using a continuous color wheel. Deviations from study colors were modeled to generate two estimates of color memory: the variability of remembered colors-fidelity-and the probability of forgetting the color...
December 27, 2018: Psychological Science
Barbara Pomiechowska, Teodora Gliga
Although it is widely recognized that human infants build a sizeable conceptual repertoire before mastering language, it remains a matter of debate whether and to what extent early conceptual and category knowledge contributes to language development. We addressed this question by investigating whether 12-month-olds used preverbal categories to discover the meanings of new words. We showed that one group of infants ( n = 18) readily extended novel labels to previously unseen exemplars of preverbal visual categories after only a single labeling episode, but two other groups struggled to do so when taught labels for unfamiliar categories (those who had been previously exposed, n = 18, or not exposed, n = 18, to category tokens)...
December 21, 2018: Psychological Science
Joshua Lewis, Celia Gaertig, Joseph P Simmons
When estimating unknown quantities, people insufficiently adjust from values they have previously considered, a phenomenon known as anchoring. We suggest that anchoring is at least partially caused by a desire to avoid making extreme adjustments. In seven studies ( N = 5,279), we found that transparently irrelevant cues of extremeness influenced people's adjustments from anchors. In Studies 1-6, participants were less likely to adjust beyond a particular amount when that amount was closer to the maximum allowable adjustment...
December 18, 2018: Psychological Science
Holger Wiese, Simone C T├╝ttenberg, Brandon T Ingram, Chelsea Y X Chan, Zehra Gurbuz, A Mike Burton, Andrew W Young
Humans are remarkably accurate at recognizing familiar faces, whereas their ability to recognize, or even match, unfamiliar faces is much poorer. However, previous research has failed to identify neural correlates of this striking behavioral difference. Here, we found a clear difference in brain potentials elicited by highly familiar faces versus unfamiliar faces. This effect starts 200 ms after stimulus onset and reaches its maximum at 400 to 600 ms. This sustained-familiarity effect was substantially larger than previous candidates for a neural familiarity marker and was detected in almost all participants, representing a reliable index of high familiarity...
December 17, 2018: Psychological Science
Hannah Perfecto, Kristin Donnelly, Clayton R Critcher
Although mental simulation underlies many day-to-day judgments, we identified a new domain influenced by simulation: volume estimation. Previous research has identified various ways in which volume estimates are biased but typically has not presented a psychological process by which such judgments are made. Our simulation-informs-perception account proposes that people often estimate a container's size by simulating filling it. First, this produces an orientation effect: The same container is judged larger when right side up than when upside down because of the greater ease of imagining filling an upright container...
December 7, 2018: Psychological Science
Stephanie M Smith, Ian Krajbich
When making decisions, people tend to choose the option they have looked at more. An unanswered question is how attention influences the choice process: whether it amplifies the subjective value of the looked-at option or instead adds a constant, value-independent bias. To address this, we examined choice data from six eye-tracking studies ( Ns = 39, 44, 44, 36, 20, and 45, respectively) to characterize the interaction between value and gaze in the choice process. We found that the summed values of the options influenced response times in every data set and the gaze-choice correlation in most data sets, in line with an amplifying role of attention in the choice process...
December 7, 2018: Psychological Science
DongWon Oh, Elinor A Buck, Alexander Todorov
Competence impressions from faces affect important decisions, such as hiring and voting. Here, using data-driven computational models, we identified the components of the competence stereotype. Faces manipulated by a competence model varied in attractiveness (Experiment 1a). However, faces could be manipulated on perceived competence controlling for attractiveness (Experiment 1b); moreover, faces perceived as more competent but not attractive were also perceived as more confident and masculine, suggesting a bias to perceive male faces as more competent than female faces (Experiment 2)...
December 7, 2018: Psychological Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2018: Psychological Science
D Stephen Lindsay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2018: Psychological Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2018: Psychological Science
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