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Psychological Science

D Stephen Lindsay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Edward Gibson, Caitlin Tan, Richard Futrell, Kyle Mahowald, Lars Konieczny, Barbara Hemforth, Evelina Fedorenko
Being a nonnative speaker of a language poses challenges. Individuals often feel embarrassed by the errors they make when talking in their second language. However, here we report an advantage of being a nonnative speaker: Native speakers give foreign-accented speakers the benefit of the doubt when interpreting their utterances; as a result, apparently implausible utterances are more likely to be interpreted in a plausible way when delivered in a foreign than in a native accent. Across three replicated experiments, we demonstrated that native English speakers are more likely to interpret implausible utterances, such as "the mother gave the candle the daughter," as similar plausible utterances ("the mother gave the candle to the daughter") when the speaker has a foreign accent...
April 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Mark J Brandt
A major shortcoming of current models of ideological prejudice is that although they can anticipate the direction of the association between participants' ideology and their prejudice against a range of target groups, they cannot predict the size of this association. I developed and tested models that can make specific size predictions for this association. A quantitative model that used the perceived ideology of the target group as the primary predictor of the ideology-prejudice relationship was developed with a representative sample of Americans ( N = 4,940) and tested against models using the perceived status of and choice to belong to the target group as predictors...
April 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Gökhan Aydogan, Andrea Jobst, Kimberlee D'Ardenne, Norbert Müller, Martin G Kocher
Justifications may promote unethical behavior because they constitute a convenient loophole through which people can gain from immoral behavior and preserve a positive self-image at the same time. A justification that is widely used is rooted in conformity: Unethical choices become more permissible because one's peers are expected to make the same unethical choices. In the current study, we tested whether an exogenous alteration of conformity led to a lower inclination to adhere to a widely accepted norm (i...
April 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Daniel J Plebanek, Vladimir M Sloutsky
One of the lawlike regularities of psychological science is that of developmental progression-an increase in sensorimotor, cognitive, and social functioning from childhood to adulthood. Here, we report a rare violation of this law, a developmental reversal in attention. In Experiment 1, 4- to 5-year-olds ( n = 34) and adults ( n = 35) performed a change-detection task that included externally cued and uncued shapes. Whereas the adults outperformed the children on the cued shapes, the children outperformed the adults on the uncued shapes...
April 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Michelle R Ellefson, Florrie Fei-Yin Ng, Qian Wang, Claire Hughes
Although Asian preschoolers acquire executive functions (EFs) earlier than their Western counterparts, little is known about whether this advantage persists into later childhood and adulthood. To address this gap, in the current study we gave four computerized EF tasks (providing measures of inhibition, working memory, cognitive flexibility, and planning) to a large sample ( n = 1,427) of 9- to 16-year-olds and their parents. All participants lived in either the United Kingdom or Hong Kong. Our findings highlight the importance of combining developmental and cultural perspectives and show both similarities and contrasts across sites...
April 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Patrick Nalepka, Rachel W Kallen, Anthony Chemero, Elliot Saltzman, Michael J Richardson
Effectively coordinating one's behaviors with those of others is essential for successful multiagent activity. In recent years, increased attention has been given to understanding the dynamical principles that underlie such coordination because of a growing interest in behavioral synchrony and complex-systems phenomena. Here, we examined the behavioral dynamics of a novel, multiagent shepherding task, in which pairs of individuals had to corral small herds of virtual sheep in the center of a virtual game field...
April 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Daniel M T Fessler, Anne C Pisor, Colin Holbrook
To benefit from information provided by other people, people must be somewhat credulous. However, credulity entails risks. The optimal level of credulity depends on the relative costs of believing misinformation and failing to attend to accurate information. When information concerns hazards, erroneous incredulity is often more costly than erroneous credulity, given that disregarding accurate warnings is more harmful than adopting unnecessary precautions. Because no equivalent asymmetry exists for information concerning benefits, people should generally be more credulous of hazard information than of benefit information...
March 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Leslie K John, Grant E Donnelly, Christina A Roberto
In 2012, the New York City Board of Health prohibited restaurants from selling sugary drinks in containers that would hold more than 16 oz. Although a state court ruled that the Board of Health did not have the authority to implement such a policy, it remains a legally viable option for governments and a voluntary option for restaurants. However, there is very limited empirical data on how such a policy might affect the purchasing and consumption of sugary drinks. We report four well-powered, incentive-compatible experiments in which we evaluated two possible ways that restaurants might comply with such a policy: bundling (i...
March 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Thomas S Redick, Nash Unsworth, Michael J Kane, David Z Hambrick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Psychological Science
C Shawn Green, Florian Kattner, Adam Eichenbaum, Benoit Bediou, Deanne M Adams, Richard E Mayer, Daphne Bavelier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Heike Elchlepp, Maisy Best, Aureliu Lavric, Stephen Monsell
Task-switching experiments have documented a puzzling phenomenon: Advance warning of the switch reduces but does not eliminate the switch cost. Theoretical accounts have posited that the residual switch cost arises when one selects the relevant stimulus-response mapping, leaving earlier perceptual processes unaffected. We put this assumption to the test by seeking electrophysiological markers of encoding a perceptual dimension. Participants categorized a colored letter as a vowel or consonant or its color as "warm" or "cold...
February 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Diana T Sanchez, Kimberly E Chaney, Sara K Manuel, Leigh S Wilton, Jessica D Remedios
In the current research, we posited the stigma-by-prejudice-transfer effect, which proposes that stigmatized group members (e.g., White women) are threatened by prejudice that is directed at other stigmatized group members (e.g., African Americans) because they believe that prejudice has monolithic qualities. While most stigma researchers assume that there is a direct correspondence between the attitude of prejudiced individuals and the targets (i.e., sexism affects women, racism affects racial minorities), the five studies reported here demonstrate that White women can be threatened by racism (Study 1, 3, 4, and 5) and men of color by sexism (Study 2)...
February 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Anthony A Wright, John F Magnotti, Jeffrey S Katz, Kevin Leonard, Alizée Vernouillet, Debbie M Kelly
Corvids (birds of the family Corvidae) display intelligent behavior previously ascribed only to primates, but such feats are not directly comparable across species. To make direct species comparisons, we used a same/different task in the laboratory to assess abstract-concept learning in black-billed magpies ( Pica hudsonia). Concept learning was tested with novel pictures after training. Concept learning improved with training-set size, and test accuracy eventually matched training accuracy-full concept learning-with a 128-picture set; this magpie performance was equivalent to that of Clark's nutcrackers (a species of corvid) and monkeys (rhesus, capuchin) and better than that of pigeons...
February 1, 2017: Psychological Science
A-Sophie Dubarry, Anais Llorens, Agnès Trébuchon, Romain Carron, Catherine Liégeois-Chauvel, Christian-G Bénar, F-Xavier Alario
We provide a quantitative assessment of the parallel-processing hypothesis included in various language-processing models. First, we highlight the importance of reasoning about cognitive processing at the level of single trials rather than using averages. Then, we report the results of an experiment in which the hypothesis was tested at an unprecedented level of granularity with intracerebral data recorded during a picture-naming task. We extracted patterns of significant high-gamma activity from multiple patients and combined them into a single analysis framework that identified consistent patterns...
April 2017: Psychological Science
Daniel H Lee, Adam K Anderson
Human eyes convey a remarkable variety of complex social and emotional information. However, it is unknown which physical eye features convey mental states and how that came about. In the current experiments, we tested the hypothesis that the receiver's perception of mental states is grounded in expressive eye appearance that serves an optical function for the sender. Specifically, opposing features of eye widening versus eye narrowing that regulate sensitivity versus discrimination not only conveyed their associated basic emotions (e...
April 2017: Psychological Science
Štěpán Bahník, Marek A Vranka
Processing fluency is used as a basis for various types of judgment. For example, previous research has shown that people judge food additives with names that are more difficult to pronounce (i.e., that are disfluent) to be more harmful. We explored the possibility that the association between disfluency and perceived harmfulness might be in the opposite direction for some categories of stimuli. Although we found some support for this hypothesis, an improved analysis and further studies indicated that the effect was strongly dependent on the stimuli used...
April 2017: Psychological Science
Haotian Zhou, Elizabeth A Majka, Nicholas Epley
People use at least two strategies to solve the challenge of understanding another person's mind: inferring that person's perspective by reading his or her behavior (theorization) and getting that person's perspective by experiencing his or her situation (simulation). The five experiments reported here demonstrate a strong tendency for people to underestimate the value of simulation. Predictors estimated a stranger's emotional reactions toward 50 pictures. They could either infer the stranger's perspective by reading his or her facial expressions or simulate the stranger's perspective by watching the pictures he or she viewed...
April 2017: Psychological Science
Fei Wang, Kaiping Peng, Magdalena Chechlacz, Glyn W Humphreys, Jie Sui
Sociocultural research has established independence and interdependence as two fundamental ways of thinking about oneself and the social world. Recent neuroscience studies further demonstrate that these orientations modulate brain activity in various self- and socially related tasks. In the current study, we explored whether the traits of independence and interdependence are reflected in anatomical variations in brain structure. We carried out structural brain imaging on a large sample of healthy participants ( n = 265) who also completed self-report questionnaires of cultural orientations...
April 2017: Psychological Science
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Psychological Science
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