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Psychological Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207350/shifting-attention-between-visual-dimensions-as-a-source-of-switch-costs
#1
Heike Elchlepp, Maisy Best, Aureliu Lavric, Stephen Monsell
Task-switching experiments have documented a puzzling phenomenon: Advance warning of the switch reduces but does not eliminate the switch cost. Theoretical accounts have posited that the residual switch cost arises when one selects the relevant stimulus-response mapping, leaving earlier perceptual processes unaffected. We put this assumption to the test by seeking electrophysiological markers of encoding a perceptual dimension. Participants categorized a colored letter as a vowel or consonant or its color as "warm" or "cold...
February 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192038/corrigendum
#2
(no author information available yet)
Original article: Cohen, A. O., Breiner, K., Steinberg, L., Bonnie, R. J., Scott, E. S., Taylor-Thompson, K. A., Rudolf, M. D., Chein, J., Richeson, J. A., Heller, A. S., Silverman, M. R., Dellarco, D. V., Fair, D. A., Galván, A., & Casey, B. J. (2016). When is an adolescent an adult? Assessing cognitive control in emotional and nonemotional contexts. Psychological Science, 27, 549-562. doi: 10.1177/0956797615627625.
February 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186861/stigma-by-prejudice-transfer
#3
Diana T Sanchez, Kimberly E Chaney, Sara K Manuel, Leigh S Wilton, Jessica D Remedios
In the current research, we posited the stigma-by-prejudice-transfer effect, which proposes that stigmatized group members (e.g., White women) are threatened by prejudice that is directed at other stigmatized group members (e.g., African Americans) because they believe that prejudice has monolithic qualities. While most stigma researchers assume that there is a direct correspondence between the attitude of prejudiced individuals and the targets (i.e., sexism affects women, racism affects racial minorities), the five studies reported here demonstrate that White women can be threatened by racism (Study 1, 3, 4, and 5) and men of color by sexism (Study 2)...
February 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177855/retraction-of-unlocking-past-emotion-verb-use-affects-mood-and-happiness
#4
(no author information available yet)
The following article has been retracted by the Editor and publishers of Psychological Science: Hart, W. (2013). Unlocking past emotion: Verb use affects mood and happiness. Psychological Science, 24, 19-26. doi: 10.1177/0956797612446351 The retraction follows an investigation by the University of Alabama's Office for Research Compliance. That investigation found that a former graduate student in William Hart's lab altered the data in strategic ways. The investigation found that William Hart was unaware when the article was published that the data had been manipulated...
February 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151701/corvids-outperform-pigeons-and-primates-in-learning-a-basic-concept
#5
Anthony A Wright, John F Magnotti, Jeffrey S Katz, Kevin Leonard, Alizée Vernouillet, Debbie M Kelly
Corvids (birds of the family Corvidae) display intelligent behavior previously ascribed only to primates, but such feats are not directly comparable across species. To make direct species comparisons, we used a same/different task in the laboratory to assess abstract-concept learning in black-billed magpies ( Pica hudsonia). Concept learning was tested with novel pictures after training. Concept learning improved with training-set size, and test accuracy eventually matched training accuracy-full concept learning-with a 128-picture set; this magpie performance was equivalent to that of Clark's nutcrackers (a species of corvid) and monkeys (rhesus, capuchin) and better than that of pigeons...
February 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140768/the-novelty-penalty
#6
Gus Cooney, Daniel T Gilbert, Timothy D Wilson
People often tell each other stories about their past experiences. But do they tell the right ones? Speakers and listeners predicted that listeners would enjoy hearing novel stories (i.e., stories about experiences the listeners had never had) more than familiar stories (i.e., stories about experiences the listeners had already had). In fact, listeners enjoyed hearing familiar stories much more than novel ones (Studies 1 and 2). This did not happen because the familiar and novel stories differed in their content or delivery (Study 3)...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140764/the-two-body-inversion-effect
#7
Liuba Papeo, Timo Stein, Salvador Soto-Faraco
How does one perceive groups of people? It is known that functionally interacting objects (e.g., a glass and a pitcher tilted as if pouring water into it) are perceptually grouped. Here, we showed that processing of multiple human bodies is also influenced by their relative positioning. In a series of categorization experiments, bodies facing each other (seemingly interacting) were recognized more accurately than bodies facing away from each other (noninteracting). Moreover, recognition of facing body dyads (but not nonfacing body dyads) was strongly impaired when those stimuli were inverted, similar to what has been found for individual bodies...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121515/when-perception-trumps-reality
#8
Anders Sand, Mats E Nilsson
Is semantic priming driven by the objective or perceived meaning of the priming stimulus? This question is relevant given that many studies suggest that the objective meaning of invisible stimuli can influence cognitive processes and behavior. In an experiment involving 66 participants, we tested how the perceived meaning of misperceived stimuli influenced response times. Stroop priming (i.e., longer response times for incongruent than for congruent prime-target pairs) was observed in trials in which the prime was correctly identified...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118103/attention-modifies-spatial-resolution-according-to-task-demands
#9
Antoine Barbot, Marisa Carrasco
How does visual attention affect spatial resolution? In texture-segmentation tasks, exogenous (involuntary) attention automatically increases resolution at the attended location, which improves performance where resolution is too low (at the periphery) but impairs performance where resolution is already too high (at central locations). Conversely, endogenous (voluntary) attention improves performance at all eccentricities, which suggests a more flexible mechanism. Here, using selective adaptation to spatial frequency, we investigated the mechanism by which endogenous attention benefits performance in resolution tasks...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112997/can-a-word-sound-like-a-shape-before-you-have-seen-it-sound-shape-mapping-prior-to-conscious-awareness
#10
Shao-Min Hung, Suzy J Styles, Po-Jang Hsieh
Nonarbitrary mappings between sound and shape (i.e., the bouba-kiki effect) have been shown across different cultures and early in development; however, the level of processing at which this effect arises remains unclear. Here we show that the mapping occurs prior to conscious awareness of the visual stimuli. Under continuous flash suppression, congruent stimuli (e.g., "kiki" inside an angular shape) broke through to conscious awareness faster than incongruent stimuli. This was true even when we trained people to pair unfamiliar letters with auditory word forms, a result showing that the effect was driven by the phonology, not the visual features, of the letters...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107103/why-do-we-hate-hypocrites-evidence-for-a-theory-of-false-signaling
#11
Jillian J Jordan, Roseanna Sommers, Paul Bloom, David G Rand
Why do people judge hypocrites, who condemn immoral behaviors that they in fact engage in, so negatively? We propose that hypocrites are disliked because their condemnation sends a false signal about their personal conduct, deceptively suggesting that they behave morally. We show that verbal condemnation signals moral goodness (Study 1) and does so even more convincingly than directly stating that one behaves morally (Study 2). We then demonstrate that people judge hypocrites negatively-even more negatively than people who directly make false statements about their morality (Study 3)...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103140/avoiding-accidents-at-the-champagne-reception
#12
Giovanni Pezzulo, Pierpaolo Iodice, Francesco Donnarumma, Haris Dindo, Günther Knoblich
Using a lifting and balancing task, we contrasted two alternative views of planning joint actions: one postulating that joint action involves distinct predictions for self and other, the other postulating that joint action involves coordinated plans between the coactors and reuse of bimanual models. We compared compensatory movements required to keep a tray balanced when 2 participants lifted glasses from each other's trays at the same time (simultaneous joint action) and when they took turns lifting (sequential joint action)...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099068/same-story-different-story
#13
Yaara Yeshurun, Stephen Swanson, Erez Simony, Janice Chen, Christina Lazaridi, Christopher J Honey, Uri Hasson
Differences in people's beliefs can substantially impact their interpretation of a series of events. In this functional MRI study, we manipulated subjects' beliefs, leading two groups of subjects to interpret the same narrative in different ways. We found that responses in higher-order brain areas-including the default-mode network, language areas, and subsets of the mirror neuron system-tended to be similar among people who shared the same interpretation, but different from those of people with an opposing interpretation...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095186/adaptable-categorization-of-hands-and-tools-in-prosthesis-users
#14
Fiona M Z van den Heiligenberg, Nick Yeung, Peter Brugger, Jody C Culham, Tamar R Makin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084895/parents-perceptions-of-their-children-as-overweight-and-children-s-weight-concerns-and-weight-gain
#15
Eric Robinson, Angelina R Sutin
The global prevalence of childhood obesity is alarmingly high. Parents' identification of their children as overweight is thought to be an important prerequisite to tackling childhood obesity, but recent findings suggest that such parental identification is counterintuitively associated with increased weight gain during childhood. One possibility is that parental identification of their child as being overweight results in that child viewing his or her body size negatively and attempting to lose weight, which eventually results in weight gain...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080303/the-development-of-a-cross-modal-sense-of-body-ownership
#16
Elena Nava, Nadia Bolognini, Chiara Turati
In this study, we investigated the contribution of tactile and proprioceptive cues to the development of the sense of body ownership by testing the susceptibility of 4- to 5-year-old children, 8- to 9-year-old children, and adults to the somatic rubber-hand illusion (SRHI). We found that feelings of owning a rubber hand in the SHRI paradigm, as assessed by explicit reports (i.e., questionnaire), are already present by age 4 and do not change throughout development. In contrast, the effect of the illusion on the sense of hand position, as assessed by a pointing task, was present only in 8- to 9-year-old children and adults; the magnitude of such capture increased with age...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080302/the-road-to-bribery-and-corruption
#17
Nils C Köbis, Jan-Willem van Prooijen, Francesca Righetti, Paul A M Van Lange
Major forms of corruption constitute a strong threat to the functioning of societies. The most frequent explanation of how severe corruption emerges is the slippery-slope metaphor-the notion that corruption occurs gradually. While having widespread theoretical and intuitive appeal, this notion has barely been tested empirically. We used a recently developed paradigm to test whether severely corrupt acts happen gradually or abruptly. The results of four experimental studies revealed a higher likelihood of severe corruption when participants were directly given the opportunity to engage in it (abrupt) compared with when they had previously engaged in minor forms of corruption (gradual)...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059682/birds-of-a-feather-do-flock-together
#18
Wu Youyou, H Andrew Schwartz, David Stillwell, Michal Kosinski
Friends and spouses tend to be similar in a broad range of characteristics, such as age, educational level, race, religion, attitudes, and general intelligence. Surprisingly, little evidence has been found for similarity in personality-one of the most fundamental psychological constructs. We argue that the lack of evidence for personality similarity stems from the tendency of individuals to make personality judgments relative to a salient comparison group, rather than in absolute terms (i.e., the reference-group effect), when responding to the self-report and peer-report questionnaires commonly used in personality research...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899472/autopedophilia-erotic-target-identity-inversions-in-men-sexually-attracted-to-children
#19
Kevin J Hsu, J Michael Bailey
The most salient dimension of men's sexual orientation is gender: attraction to males versus females. A second dimension is sexual maturity: attraction to children versus adults. A less appreciated dimension is location: attraction to other individuals versus the sexual fantasy of being one of those individuals. Men sexually aroused by the idea or fantasy of being the kinds of individuals to whom they are sexually attracted have an erotic-target identity inversion (ETII). We conducted an online survey to investigate the prevalence and phenomenology of ETIIs among 475 men sexually attracted to children...
November 29, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182529/sleepy-punishers-are-harsh-punishers
#20
Kyoungmin Cho, Christopher M Barnes, Cristiano L Guanara
The degree of punishment assigned to criminals is of pivotal importance for the maintenance of social order and cooperation. Nonetheless, the amount of punishment assigned to transgressors can be affected by factors other than the content of the transgressions. We propose that sleep deprivation in judges increases the severity of their sentences. We took advantage of the natural quasi-manipulation of sleep deprivation during the shift to daylight saving time in the spring and analyzed archival data from judicial punishment handed out in the U...
February 2017: Psychological Science
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