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Psychological Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548899/no-evidence-that-an-ebola-outbreak-influenced-voting-preferences-in-the-2014-elections-after-controlling-for-time-series-autocorrelation-a-commentary-on-beall-hofer-and-schaller-2016
#1
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548880/modeling-choices-in-delay-discounting
#2
Dirk U Wulff, Wouter van den Bos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537480/alpha-band-oscillations-enable-spatially-and-temporally-resolved-tracking-of-covert-spatial-attention
#3
Joshua J Foster, David W Sutterer, John T Serences, Edward K Vogel, Edward Awh
Covert spatial attention is essential for humans' ability to direct limited processing resources to the relevant aspects of visual scenes. A growing body of evidence suggests that rhythmic neural activity in the alpha frequency band (8-12 Hz) tracks the spatial locus of covert attention, which suggests that alpha activity is integral to spatial attention. However, extant work has not provided a compelling test of another key prediction: that alpha activity tracks the temporal dynamics of covert spatial orienting...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520552/prestimulus-inhibition-of-saccades-in-adults-with-and-without-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-as-an-index-of-temporal-expectations
#4
Yarden Dankner, Lilach Shalev, Marisa Carrasco, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
Knowing when to expect important events to occur is critical for preparing context-appropriate behavior. However, anticipation is inherently complicated to assess because conventional measurements of behavior, such as accuracy and reaction time, are available only after the predicted event has occurred. Anticipatory processes, which occur prior to target onset, are typically measured only retrospectively by these methods. In this study, we utilized a novel approach for assessing temporal expectations through the dynamics of prestimulus saccades...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517967/cruel-to-be-kind-factors-underlying-altruistic-efforts-to-worsen-another-person-s-mood
#5
Belén López-Pérez, Laura Howells, Michaela Gummerum
When aiming to improve another person's long-term well-being, people may choose to induce a negative emotion in that person in the short term. We labeled this form of agent-target interpersonal emotion regulation altruistic affect worsening and hypothesized that it may happen when three conditions are met: (a) The agent experiences empathic concern for the target of the affect-worsening process, (b) the negative emotion to be induced helps the target achieve a goal (e.g., anger for confrontation or fear for avoidance), and (c) there is no benefit for the agent...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509625/direct-current-stimulation-does-little-to-improve-the-outcome-of-working-memory-training-in-older-adults
#6
Jonna Nilsson, Alexander V Lebedev, Anders Rydström, Martin Lövdén
The promise of transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) as a modulator of cognition has appealed to researchers, media, and the general public. Researchers have suggested that tDCS may increase effects of cognitive training. In this study of 123 older adults, we examined the interactive effects of 20 sessions of anodal tDCS over the left prefrontal cortex (vs. sham tDCS) and simultaneous working memory training (vs. control training) on change in cognitive abilities. Stimulation did not modulate gains from pre- to posttest on latent factors of either trained or untrained tasks in a statistically significant manner...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504919/does-knowing-hurt-perceiving-oneself-as-overweight-predicts-future-physical-health-and-well-being
#7
Michael Daly, Eric Robinson, Angelina R Sutin
Identifying oneself as being overweight may be associated with adverse health outcomes, yet prospective tests of this possibility are lacking. Over 7 years, we examined associations between perceptions of being overweight and subsequent health in a sample of 3,582 U.S. adults. Perceiving oneself as being overweight predicted longitudinal declines in subjective health ( d = -0.22, p < .001), increases in depressive symptoms ( d = 0.09, p < .05), and raised levels of physiological dysregulation ( d = 0...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504911/the-value-of-sharing-information-a-neural-account-of-information-transmission
#8
Elisa C Baek, Christin Scholz, Matthew Brook O'Donnell, Emily B Falk
Humans routinely share information with one another. What drives this behavior? We used neuroimaging to test an account of information selection and sharing that emphasizes inherent reward in self-reflection and connecting with other people. Participants underwent functional MRI while they considered personally reading and sharing New York Times articles. Activity in neural regions involved in positive valuation, self-related processing, and taking the perspective of others was significantly associated with decisions to select and share articles, and scaled with preferences to do so...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504900/corrigendum-costs-of-selective-attention-when-children-notice-what-adults-miss
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504898/dissociable-contributions-of-imagination-and-willpower-to-the-malleability-of-human-patience
#10
Adrianna C Jenkins, Ming Hsu
The ability to exercise patience is important for human functioning. Although it is known that patience can be promoted by using top-down control, or willpower, to override impatient impulses, patience is also malleable-in particular, susceptible to framing effects-in ways that are difficult to explain using willpower alone. So far, the mechanisms underlying framing effects on patience have been elusive. We investigated the role of imagination in these effects. In a behavioral experiment (Experiment 1), a classic framing manipulation (sequence framing) increased self-reported and independently coded imagination during intertemporal choice...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493810/rapid-statistical-learning-supporting-word-extraction-from-continuous-speech
#11
Laura J Batterink
The identification of words in continuous speech, known as speech segmentation, is a critical early step in language acquisition. This process is partially supported by statistical learning, the ability to extract patterns from the environment. Given that speech segmentation represents a potential bottleneck for language acquisition, patterns in speech may be extracted very rapidly, without extensive exposure. This hypothesis was examined by exposing participants to continuous speech streams composed of novel repeating nonsense words...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489500/does-one-year-of-schooling-improve-children-s-cognitive-control-and-alter-associated-brain-activation
#12
Garvin Brod, Silvia A Bunge, Yee Lee Shing
The "5-to-7-year shift" refers to the remarkable improvements observed in children's cognitive abilities during this age range, particularly in their ability to exert control over their attention and behavior-that is, their executive functioning. As this shift coincides with school entry, the extent to which it is driven by brain maturation or by exposure to formal schooling is unclear. In this longitudinal study, we followed 5-year-olds born close to the official cutoff date for entry into first grade and compared those who subsequently entered first grade that year with those who remained in kindergarten, which is more play oriented...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488927/distinct-motivational-effects-of-contingent-and-noncontingent-rewards
#13
Sanjay G Manohar, Rebecca Dawn Finzi, Daniel Drew, Masud Husain
When rewards are available, people expend more energy, increasing their motivational vigor. In theory, incentives might drive behavior for two distinct reasons: First, they increase expected reward; second, they increase the difference in subjective value between successful and unsuccessful performance, which increases contingency-the degree to which action determines outcome. Previous studies of motivational vigor have never compared these directly. Here, we indexed motivational vigor by measuring the speed of eye movements toward a target after participants heard a cue indicating how outcomes would be determined...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488908/choosing-doing-and-controlling-implicit-sense-of-agency-over-somatosensory-events
#14
Khatereh Borhani, Brianna Beck, Patrick Haggard
Sense of agency-a feeling of control over one's actions and their outcomes-might include at least two components: free choice over which outcome to pursue and motoric control over the action causing the outcome. We orthogonally manipulated locus of outcome choice (free or instructed choice) and motoric control (active or passive movement), while measuring the perceived temporal attraction between actions and outcomes ( temporal binding) as an implicit marker of agency. Participants also rated stimulus intensity so that we could measure sensory attenuation, another possible implicit marker of agency...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481714/causal-action-a-fundamental-constraint-on-perception-and-inference-about-body-movements
#15
Yujia Peng, Steven Thurman, Hongjing Lu
The human body navigates the environment via locomotory movements that leverage gravity and limb biomechanics to propel the body in a particular direction. This process creates a causal link between limb movements and whole-body translation. However, it is unknown whether humans use this causal relation as a constraint in perception and inference with body movements. In the present study, participants rated actions of other individuals as more natural when limb movements (as a cause) occurred before body displacements (as an effect) than when limb movements temporally lagged behind body displacements...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467156/the-role-of-intrinsic-motivation-and-the-satisfaction-of-basic-psychological-needs-under-conditions-of-severe-resource-scarcity
#16
Marieke Christina van Egmond, Andrés Navarrete Berges, Tariq Omarshah, Jennifer Benton
An emerging field of research is beginning to examine the ways in which socioeconomic disparities affect emotional, cognitive, and social processes. In this study, we took a two-step approach to examining the role that resource scarcity plays in the predictive power of intrinsic motivation on school attendance, as well as its influence on the precursors of intrinsic motivation: the psychological needs of relatedness, autonomy, and competence. Results revealed that intrinsic motivation predicts school attendance even under conditions of extreme adversity...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459650/daily-spousal-responsiveness-predicts-longer-term-trajectories-of-patients-physical-function
#17
Stephanie J Wilson, Lynn M Martire, Martin J Sliwinski
Everyday interpersonal experiences may underlie the well-established link between close relationships and physical health, but multiple-timescale designs necessary for strong conclusions about temporal sequence are rarely used. The current study of 145 patients with knee osteoarthritis and their spouses focused on a novel pattern in everyday interactions, daily spousal responsiveness-the degree to which spouses' responses are calibrated to changes in patients' everyday verbal expression of pain. Using couple-level slopes, multilevel latent-variable growth models tested associations between three types of daily spousal responsiveness (empathic, solicitous, and punishing responsiveness), as measured during a 3-week experience-sampling study, and change in patients' physical function across 18 months...
April 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459648/research-microcultures-as-socialization-contexts-for-underrepresented-science-students
#18
Dustin B Thoman, Gregg A Muragishi, Jessi L Smith
How much does scientific research potentially help people? We tested whether prosocial-affordance beliefs (PABs) about science spread among group members and contribute to individual students' motivation for science. We tested this question within the context of research experience for undergraduates working in faculty-led laboratories, focusing on students who belong to underrepresented minority (URM) groups. Longitudinal survey data were collected from 522 research assistants in 41 labs at six institutions...
April 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452573/bullying-and-being-bullied-in-childhood-are-associated-with-different-psychosocial-risk-factors-for-poor-physical-health-in-men
#19
Karen A Matthews, J Richard Jennings, Laisze Lee, Dustin A Pardini
Bullying and being bullied in childhood are both linked with later adjustment problems. The impact of childhood bullying on risk for poor physical health in adulthood is understudied. Black and White men ( n = 305; mean age = 32.3 years) enrolled in the Pittsburgh Youth Study since the first grade underwent a comprehensive assessment of psychosocial, behavioral, and biological risk factors for poor health. Indices of bullying and being bullied were created by averaging annual ratings collected from participants and their caregivers when the participants were 10 to 12 years old...
April 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447894/strategic-resource-use-for-learning-a-self-administered-intervention-that-guides-self-reflection-on-effective-resource-use-enhances-academic-performance
#20
Patricia Chen, Omar Chavez, Desmond C Ong, Brenda Gunderson
Many educational policies provide learners with more resources (e.g., new learning activities, study materials, or technologies), but less often do they address whether students are using these resources effectively. We hypothesized that making students more self-reflective about how they should approach their learning with the resources available to them would improve their class performance. We designed a novel Strategic Resource Use intervention that students could self-administer online and tested its effects in two cohorts of a college-level introductory statistics class...
April 1, 2017: Psychological Science
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