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Psychological Science

Hugh Riddell, Markus Lappe
The ability to navigate through crowds of moving people accurately, efficiently, and without causing collisions is essential for our day-to-day lives. Vision provides key information about one's own self-motion as well as the motions of other people in the crowd. These two types of information (optic flow and biological motion) have each been investigated extensively; however, surprisingly little research has been dedicated to investigating how they are processed when presented concurrently. Here, we showed that patterns of biological motion have a negative impact on visual-heading estimation when people within the crowd move their limbs but do not move through the scene...
July 1, 2018: Psychological Science
John R Anderson, Jelmer P Borst, Jon M Fincham, Avniel Singh Ghuman, Caitlin Tenison, Qiong Zhang
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to compare memory processes in two experiments, one involving recognition of word pairs and the other involving recall of newly learned arithmetic facts. A combination of hidden semi-Markov models and multivariate pattern analysis was used to locate brief "bumps" in the sensor data that marked the onset of different stages of cognitive processing. These bumps identified a separation between a retrieval stage that identified relevant information in memory and a decision stage that determined what response was implied by that information...
July 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Cassondra Batz-Barbarich, Louis Tay, Lauren Kuykendall, Ho Kwan Cheung
Despite global gender inequalities, findings on gender differences in subjective well-being have been inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis on gender differences in subjective well-being to account for the type of subjective-well-being measure, sampling variability, and levels of national gender inequality from which samples are gathered. Based on 281 effect sizes for life satisfaction ( N = 1,001,802) and 264 for job satisfaction ( N = 341,949), results showed no significant gender differences in both types of subjective well-being...
July 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Oscar T Giles, Katy A Shire, Liam J B Hill, Faisal Mushtaq, Amanda Waterman, Raymond J Holt, Peter R Culmer, Justin H G Williams, Richard M Wilkie, Mark Mon-Williams
Interceptive timing is a fundamental ability underpinning numerous actions (e.g., ball catching), but its development and relationship with other cognitive functions remain poorly understood. Piaget suggested that children need to learn the physical rules that govern their environment before they can represent abstract concepts such as number and time. Thus, learning how objects move in space and time may underpin the development of related abstract representations (i.e., mathematics). To test this hypothesis, we captured objective measures of interceptive timing in 309 primary school children (5-11 years old), alongside scores for general motor skill and national standardized academic attainment...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Anne Milek, Emily A Butler, Allison M Tackman, Deanna M Kaplan, Charles L Raison, David A Sbarra, Simine Vazire, Matthias R Mehl
In the present study, we aimed to replicate and extend findings by Mehl, Vazire, Holleran, and Clark (2010) that individuals with higher well-being tend to spend less time alone and more time interacting with others (e.g., greater conversation quantity) and engage in less small talk and more substantive conversations (e.g., greater conversation quality). To test the robustness of these effects in a larger and more diverse sample, we used Bayesian integrative data analysis to pool data on subjective life satisfaction and observed daily conversations from three heterogeneous adult samples, in addition to the original sample ( N = 486)...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Christopher L Zerr, Jeffrey J Berg, Steven M Nelson, Andrew K Fishell, Neil K Savalia, Kathleen B McDermott
People differ in how quickly they learn information and how long they remember it, yet individual differences in learning abilities within healthy adults have been relatively neglected. In two studies, we examined the relation between learning rate and subsequent retention using a new foreign-language paired-associates task (the learning-efficiency task), which was designed to eliminate ceiling effects that often accompany standardized tests of learning and memory in healthy adults. A key finding was that quicker learners were also more durable learners (i...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Amit Kumar, Nicholas Epley
Expressing gratitude improves well-being for both expressers and recipients, but we suggest that an egocentric bias may lead expressers to systematically undervalue its positive impact on recipients in a way that could keep people from expressing gratitude more often in everyday life. Participants in three experiments wrote gratitude letters and then predicted how surprised, happy, and awkward recipients would feel. Recipients then reported how receiving an expression of gratitude actually made them feel. Expressers significantly underestimated how surprised recipients would be about why expressers were grateful, overestimated how awkward recipients would feel, and underestimated how positive recipients would feel...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Katharina Block, Antonya Marie Gonzalez, Toni Schmader, Andrew Scott Baron
Communion and agency are often described as core human values. In adults, these values predict gendered role preferences. Yet little work has examined the extent to which young boys and girls explicitly endorse communal and agentic values and whether early gender differences in values predict boys' and girls' different role expectations. In a sample of 411 children between the ages of 6 and 14 years, we found consistent gender differences in endorsement of communal and agentic values. Across this age range, boys endorsed communal values less and agentic values more than did girls...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Robert A Reeve, Fiona Reynolds, Jacob Paul, Brian L Butterworth
In numerate societies, early arithmetic development is associated with visuospatial working memory, executive functions, nonverbal intelligence, and magnitude-comparison abilities. To what extent do these associations arise from cultural practices or general cognitive prerequisites? Here, we administered tests of these cognitive abilities (Corsi Blocks, Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices, Porteus Maze) to indigenous children in remote northern Australia, whose culture contains few counting words or counting practices, and to nonindigenous children from an Australian city...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Stephen Whyte, Ho Fai Chan, Benno Torgler
Using a unique cross-sectional data set of dating website members' educational preferences for potential mates ( N = 41,936), we showed that women were more likely than men to stipulate educational preferences at all ages. When members indifferent to educational level were excluded, however, the specificity of men's and women's preferences did differ for different age groups. That is, whereas women expressed more refined educational preferences during their years of maximum fertility, their demand specificity decreased with age...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Jochen E Gebauer, Andreas D Nehrlich, Dagmar Stahlberg, Constantine Sedikides, Anke Hackenschmidt, Doreen Schick, Clara A Stegmaier, Cara C Windfelder, Anna Bruk, Johannes Mander
Mind-body practices enjoy immense public and scientific interest. Yoga and meditation are highly popular. Purportedly, they foster well-being by curtailing self-enhancement bias. However, this "ego-quieting" effect contradicts an apparent psychological universal, the self-centrality principle. According to this principle, practicing any skill renders that skill self-central, and self-centrality breeds self-enhancement bias. We examined those opposing predictions in the first tests of mind-body practices' self-enhancement effects...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Adelle X Yang, Oleg Urminsky
People making decisions for others often do not choose what their recipients most want. Prior research has generally explained such preference mismatches as decision makers mispredicting recipients' satisfaction. We proposed that a "smile-seeking" motive is a distinct cause for these mismatches in the context of gift giving. After examining common gift options for which gift givers expect a difference between the recipients' affective reaction (e.g., a smile when receiving the gift) and overall satisfaction, we found that givers often chose to forgo satisfaction-maximizing gifts and instead favor reaction-maximizing gifts...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Grant E Donnelly, Laura Y Zatz, Dan Svirsky, Leslie K John
Governments have proposed text warning labels to decrease consumption of sugary drinks-a contributor to chronic diseases such as diabetes. However, they may be less effective than more evocative, graphic warning labels. We field-tested the effectiveness of graphic warning labels (vs. text warning labels, calorie labels, and no labels), provided insight into psychological mechanisms driving effectiveness, and assessed consumer sentiment. Study 1 indicated that graphic warning labels reduced the share of sugary drinks purchased in a cafeteria from 21...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Adam L Putnam, Morgan Q Ross, Laura K Soter, Henry L Roediger
Collective narcissism-a phenomenon in which individuals show excessively high regard for their own group-is ubiquitous in studies of small groups. We examined how Americans from the 50 U.S. states ( N = 2,898) remembered U.S. history by asking them, "In terms of percentage, what do you think was your home state's contribution to the history of the United States?" The mean state estimates ranged from 9% (Iowa) to 41% (Virginia), with the total contribution for all states equaling 907%, indicating strong collective narcissism...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Stuart J Ritchie, Elliot M Tucker-Drob
Intelligence test scores and educational duration are positively correlated. This correlation could be interpreted in two ways: Students with greater propensity for intelligence go on to complete more education, or a longer education increases intelligence. We meta-analyzed three categories of quasiexperimental studies of educational effects on intelligence: those estimating education-intelligence associations after controlling for earlier intelligence, those using compulsory schooling policy changes as instrumental variables, and those using regression-discontinuity designs on school-entry age cutoffs...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Christine M Johnson, Jessica Sullivan, Jane Jensen, Cara Buck, Julie Trexel, Judy St Leger
In this study, paradigms that test whether human infants make social attributions to simple moving shapes were adapted for use with bottlenose dolphins. The dolphins observed animated displays in which a target oval would falter while moving upward, and then either a "prosocial" oval would enter and help or caress it or an "antisocial" oval would enter and hinder or hit it. In subsequent displays involving all three shapes, when the pro- and antisocial ovals moved offscreen in opposite directions, the dolphins reliably predicted-based on anticipatory head turns when the target briefly moved behind an occluder-that the target oval would follow the prosocial one...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Matthew J Hornsey, Paul G Bain, Emily A Harris, Nadezhda Lebedeva, Emiko S Kashima, Yanjun Guan, Roberto González, Sylvia Xiaohua Chen, Sheyla Blumen
The maximization principle-that people aspire to the highest possible level of something good if all practical constraints are removed-is a common yet untested assumption about human nature. We predict that in holistic cultures-where contradiction, change, and context are emphasized-ideal states of being for the self will be more moderate than in other cultures. In two studies ( Ns = 2,392 and 6,239), we asked this question: If participants could choose their ideal level of happiness, pleasure, freedom, health, self-esteem, longevity, and intelligence, what level would they choose? Consistent with predictions, results showed that maximization was less pronounced in holistic cultures; members of holistic cultures aspired to less happiness, pleasure, freedom, health, self-esteem, longevity, and IQ than did members of other cultures...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
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