journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Psychological Science

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899472/autopedophilia-erotic-target-identity-inversions-in-men-sexually-attracted-to-children
#1
Kevin J Hsu, J Michael Bailey
The most salient dimension of men's sexual orientation is gender: attraction to males versus females. A second dimension is sexual maturity: attraction to children versus adults. A less appreciated dimension is location: attraction to other individuals versus the sexual fantasy of being one of those individuals. Men sexually aroused by the idea or fantasy of being the kinds of individuals to whom they are sexually attracted have an erotic-target identity inversion (ETII). We conducted an online survey to investigate the prevalence and phenomenology of ETIIs among 475 men sexually attracted to children...
November 29, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881710/the-role-of-hedonic-behavior-in-reducing-perceived-risk-evidence-from-postearthquake-mobile-app-data
#2
Jayson S Jia, Jianmin Jia, Christopher K Hsee, Baba Shiv
Understanding how human populations naturally respond to and cope with risk is important for fields ranging from psychology to public health. We used geophysical and individual-level mobile-phone data (mobile-apps, telecommunications, and Web usage) of 157,358 victims of the 2013 Ya'an earthquake to diagnose the effects of the disaster and investigate how experiencing real risk (at different levels of intensity) changes behavior. Rather than limiting human activity, higher earthquake intensity resulted in graded increases in usage of communications apps (e...
November 23, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879322/the-whole-warps-the-sum-of-its-parts-gestalt-defined-group-mean-size-biases-memory-for-individual-objects
#3
Jennifer E Corbett
The efficiency of averaging properties of sets without encoding redundant details is analogous to gestalt proposals that perception is parsimoniously organized as a function of recurrent order in the world. This similarity suggests that grouping and averaging are part of a broader set of strategies allowing the visual system to circumvent capacity limitations. To examine how gestalt grouping affects the manner in which information is averaged and remembered, I compared the error in observers' adjustments of remembered sizes of individual circles in two different mean-size sets defined by similarity, proximity, connectedness, or a common region...
November 22, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879321/when-misinformation-improves-memory-the-effects-of-recollecting-change
#4
Adam L Putnam, Victor W Sungkhasettee, Henry L Roediger
In two experiments, we explored the effects of noticing and remembering change in the misinformation paradigm. People watched slide shows, read narratives containing misinformation about the events depicted in the slide shows, and took a recognition test on which they reported whether any details had changed between the slides and the narratives. As expected, we found a strong misinformation effect overall. In some cases, however, misinformation led to improved recognition, which is opposite the usual finding...
November 22, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879320/the-relationship-between-mental-representations-of-welfare-recipients-and-attitudes-toward-welfare
#5
Jazmin L Brown-Iannuzzi, Ron Dotsch, Erin Cooley, B Keith Payne
Scholars have argued that opposition to welfare is, in part, driven by stereotypes of African Americans. This argument assumes that when individuals think about welfare, they spontaneously think about Black recipients. We investigated people's mental representations of welfare recipients. In Studies 1 and 2, we used a perceptual task to visually estimate participants' mental representations of welfare recipients. Compared with the average non-welfare-recipient image, the average welfare-recipient image was perceived (by a separate sample) as more African American and more representative of stereotypes associated with welfare recipients and African Americans...
November 22, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872181/action-experience-drives-visual-processing-biases-near-the-hands
#6
Laura E Thomas
Observers experience affordance-specific biases in visual processing for objects within the hands' grasping space, but the mechanism that tunes visual cognition to facilitate action remains unknown. I investigated the hypothesis that altered vision near the hands is a result of experience-driven plasticity. Participants performed motion-detection and form-perception tasks-while their hands were either near the display, in atypical grasping postures, or positioned in their laps-both before and after learning novel grasp affordances...
November 21, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872180/on-learning-natural-science-categories-that-violate-the-family-resemblance-principle
#7
Robert M Nosofsky, Craig A Sanders, Alex Gerdom, Bruce J Douglas, Mark A McDaniel
The general view in psychological science is that natural categories obey a coherent, family-resemblance principle. In this investigation, we documented an example of an important exception to this principle: Results of a multidimensional-scaling study of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks (Experiment 1) suggested that the structure of these categories is disorganized and dispersed. This finding motivated us to explore what might be the optimal procedures for teaching dispersed categories, a goal that is likely critical to science education in general...
November 21, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864372/when-far-becomes-near-perspective-taking-induces-social-remapping-of-spatial-relations
#8
Andrea Cavallo, Caterina Ansuini, Francesca Capozzi, Barbara Tversky, Cristina Becchio
On many occasions, people spontaneously or deliberately take the perspective of a person facing them rather than their own perspective. How is this done? Using a spatial perspective task in which participants were asked to identify objects at specific locations, we found that self-perspective judgments were faster for objects presented to the right, rather than the left, and for objects presented closer to the participants' own bodies. Strikingly, taking the opposing perspective of another person led to a reversal (i...
November 18, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837182/the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-oxtr-and-face-recognition
#9
Roeland J Verhallen, Jenny M Bosten, Patrick T Goodbourn, Adam J Lawrance-Owen, Gary Bargary, J D Mollon
A recent study has linked individual differences in face recognition to rs237887, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR; Skuse et al., 2014). In that study, participants were assessed using the Warrington Recognition Memory Test for Faces, but performance on Warrington's test has been shown not to rely purely on face recognition processes. We administered the widely used Cambridge Face Memory Test-a purer test of face recognition-to 370 participants. Performance was not significantly associated with rs237887, with 16 other SNPs of OXTR that we genotyped, or with a further 75 imputed SNPs...
November 11, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815519/a-window-of-opportunity-for-cognitive-training-in-adolescence
#10
Lisa J Knoll, Delia Fuhrmann, Ashok L Sakhardande, Fabian Stamp, Maarten Speekenbrink, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
In the current study, we investigated windows for enhanced learning of cognitive skills during adolescence. Six hundred thirty-three participants (11-33 years old) were divided into four age groups, and each participant was randomly allocated to one of three training groups. Each training group completed up to 20 days of online training in numerosity discrimination (i.e., discriminating small from large numbers of objects), relational reasoning (i.e., detecting abstract relationships between groups of items), or face perception (i...
November 4, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815518/incomparable-methods-vitiate-cross-species-comparisons-a-comment-on-haun-rekers-and-tomasello-2014
#11
Matthew H Scheel, Heidi L Shaw, R Allen Gardner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815517/how-to-compare-across-species
#12
Daniel B M Haun, Michael Tomasello
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811317/corrigendum-does-seeing-faces-of-young-black-boys-facilitate-the-identification-of-threatening-stimuli
#13
(no author information available yet)
Original article: Todd, A. R., Thiem, K. C., & Neel, R. (2016). Does seeing faces of young Black boys facilitate the identification of threatening stimuli? Psychological Science, 27, 384-393. doi:10.1177/0956797615624492.
November 3, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793986/instantaneous-conventions-the-emergence-of-flexible-communicative-signals
#14
Jennifer Misyak, Takao Noguchi, Nick Chater
Humans can communicate even with few existing conventions in common (e.g., when they lack a shared language). We explored what makes this phenomenon possible with a nonlinguistic experimental task requiring participants to coordinate toward a common goal. We observed participants creating new communicative conventions using the most minimal possible signals. These conventions, furthermore, changed on a trial-by-trial basis in response to shared environmental and task constraints. Strikingly, as a result, signals of the same form successfully conveyed contradictory messages from trial to trial...
October 28, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789792/the-too-much-precision-effect-when-and-why-precise-anchors-backfire-with-experts
#15
David D Loschelder, Malte Friese, Michael Schaerer, Adam D Galinsky
Past research has suggested a fundamental principle of price precision: The more precise an opening price, the more it anchors counteroffers. The present research challenges this principle by demonstrating a too-much-precision effect. Five experiments (involving 1,320 experts and amateurs in real-estate, jewelry, car, and human-resources negotiations) showed that increasing the precision of an opening offer had positive linear effects for amateurs but inverted-U-shaped effects for experts. Anchor precision backfired because experts saw too much precision as reflecting a lack of competence...
October 27, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777375/reminders-of-social-connection-can-attenuate-anthropomorphism-a-replication-and-extension-of-epley-akalis-waytz-and-cacioppo-2008
#16
Jennifer A Bartz, Kristina Tchalova, Can Fenerci
It is a fundamental human need to secure and sustain a sense of social belonging. Previous research has shown that individuals who are lonely are more likely than people who are not lonely to attribute humanlike traits (e.g., free will) to nonhuman agents (e.g., an alarm clock that makes people get up by moving away from the sleeper), presumably in an attempt to fulfill unmet needs for belongingness. We directly replicated the association between loneliness and anthropomorphism in a larger sample (N = 178); furthermore, we showed that reminding people of a close, supportive relationship reduces their tendency to anthropomorphize...
October 24, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770059/bayesian-models-of-individual-differences-combining-autistic-traits-and-sensory-thresholds-to-predict-motion-perception
#17
Georgie Powell, Zoe Meredith, Rebecca McMillin, Tom C A Freeman
According to Bayesian models, perception and cognition depend on the optimal combination of noisy incoming evidence with prior knowledge of the world. Individual differences in perception should therefore be jointly determined by a person's sensitivity to incoming evidence and his or her prior expectations. It has been proposed that individuals with autism have flatter prior distributions than do nonautistic individuals, which suggests that prior variance is linked to the degree of autistic traits in the general population...
October 21, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770058/from-power-to-inaction-ambivalence-gives-pause-to-the-powerful
#18
Geoffrey R O Durso, Pablo BriƱol, Richard E Petty
Research has shown that people who feel powerful are more likely to act than those who feel powerless, whereas people who feel ambivalent are less likely to act than those whose reactions are univalent (entirely positive or entirely negative). But what happens when powerful people also are ambivalent? On the basis of the self-validation theory of judgment, we hypothesized that power and ambivalence would interact to predict individuals' action. Because power can validate individuals' reactions, we reasoned that feeling powerful strengthens whatever reactions people have during a decision...
October 21, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738099/the-wisdom-to-know-the-difference-strategy-situation-fit-in-emotion-regulation-in-daily-life-is-associated-with-well-being
#19
Simon J Haines, John Gleeson, Peter Kuppens, Tom Hollenstein, Joseph Ciarrochi, Izelle Labuschagne, Caitlin Grace, Peter Koval
The ability to regulate emotions is central to well-being, but healthy emotion regulation may not merely be about using the "right" strategies. According to the strategy-situation-fit hypothesis, emotion-regulation strategies are conducive to well-being only when used in appropriate contexts. This study is the first to test the strategy-situation-fit hypothesis using ecological momentary assessment of cognitive reappraisal-a putatively adaptive strategy. We expected people who used reappraisal more in uncontrollable situations and less in controllable situations to have greater well-being than people with the opposite pattern of reappraisal use...
October 13, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729566/heritability-of-intraindividual-mean-and-variability-of-positive-and-negative-affect-genetic-analysis-of-daily-affect-ratings-over-a-month
#20
Yao Zheng, Robert Plomin, Sophie von Stumm
Positive affect (e.g., attentiveness) and negative affect (e.g., upset) fluctuate over time. We examined genetic influences on interindividual differences in the day-to-day variability of affect (i.e., ups and downs) and in average affect over the duration of a month. Once a day, 17-year-old twins in the United Kingdom (N = 447) rated their positive and negative affect online. The mean and standard deviation of each individual's daily ratings across the month were used as the measures of that individual's average affect and variability of affect...
October 11, 2016: Psychological Science
journal
journal
30445
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"