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Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29982244/challenges-in-diagnosing-myelodysplastic-syndromes-in-the-era-of-genetic-testing-proceedings-of-the-13th-workshop-of-the-european-bone-marrow-working-group
#1
Konnie M Hebeda, Alexandar Tzankov, Ludmila Boudova, Leonie Saft, Rob P Hasserjian, Mirthe de Boer, Falko Fend, Attilio Orazi, Roos Leguit
The 13th workshop of the European Bone Marrow Working Group in Utrecht, The Netherlands, was devoted to studying myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and their boundaries. The panel received 44 cases submitted to the 3 invited categories, which included: reactive cytopenias with dysplasia, idiopathic cytopenia of undetermined significance, clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential, idiopathic dysplasia of uncertain significance and overt MDS. For this summary, we have selected 17 cases that highlight difficulties in separating true MDS from other causes of cytopenia and the intricate relationship between clonal haematopoiesis and true MDS...
July 6, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961056/the-diagnostic-work-up-of-hypereosinophilia
#2
REVIEW
Sa A Wang
Hypereosinophilia (HE) is defined as a persistent elevated eosinophil count of ≥1.5 × 109/L. HE can be one of the dominant manifestations of a hematopoietic myeloid neoplasm or secondary/reactive to an underlying medical condition. If a cause of HE and its associated tissue/organ damage is not determined, the condition is considered to be idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). The work-up of HE can be challenging due to a broad range of causes of HE that can be either reactive or neoplastic. In recent years, with the advent of molecular genetic testing and the introduction of targeted therapy in the management of these patients, there is a growing interest in better characterization of these diseases...
June 29, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29953991/breast-cancer-in-a-lagos-facility-implications-for-the-institution-of-a-cancer-screening-programme
#3
Nzechukwu Zimudo Ikeri, Olubanji Ajibola Oguntunde, Uche Igbokwe, Fatimah Biade Abdulkareem, Adekunbiola Aina Banjo
OBJECTIVE: There are significant epidemiological and biological differences between breast cancer in blacks and whites which have wide-reaching implications for the institution of an effective cancer screening programme in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to describe the clinicopathologic features of breast cancer diagnosed in our facility and to discuss their implications for cancer screening. METHODS: A retrospective review of the forms, slides, and results of breast cancer cases received in our facility over an 8-year period was carried out, as well as a systematic review of the characteristics of breast cancer in Nigeria, Africa, the US, and the UK...
June 28, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29949804/the-72pro-variant-of-the-tumor-protein-53-is-associated-with-an-increased-breast-cancer-risk-in-the-moroccan-population
#4
Salah Eddine Ayoubi, Mohamed Elkarroumi, Meryam El Khachibi, Hind Hassani Idrissi, Hasnaa Ayoubi, Simohamed Ennachit, Mounia Arazzakou, Sellama Nadifi
BACKGROUND: The purpose of our case control study is to explore the potential association of tumor protein 53 (TP53) c.215G>C, p. (Arg72Pro) polymorphism (rs1042522) with the risk of breast cancer (BC) development in the Moroccan population. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study population consisted of 125 female patients with confirmed BC and 126 healthy controls. DNA samples were genotyped by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism assay method using BstUI restriction enzyme...
June 25, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860247/acral-lentiginous-melanoma-is-associated-with-certain-poor-prognostic-histopathological-factors-but-may-not-be-correlated-with-nodal-involvement-recurrence-and-a-worse-survival
#5
Faruk Tas, Kayhan Erturk
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) is a small subtype of melanoma affecting Caucasians far more often than other ethnic groups, such as blacks, Hispanics, and Asians. Only a few studies have yielded controversial results on ALM so far. The aim of this study was to define the histopathological and clinical expressions of ALM and to compare them with those of non-ALM in a large group of Turkish patients from a single referral institution. METHODS: One hundred two ALM patients were analyzed retrospectively...
June 1, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860246/icus-idus-chip-and-ccus-diagnostic-criteria-separation-from-mds-and-clinical-implications
#6
Peter Valent
Various myeloid neoplasms, including the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), bear a certain risk of progression to secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML). The evolution from low-risk to high-risk MDS and finally to sAML suggests that leukemogenesis is a multistep process. However, even before an overt neoplasm, such as an MDS, develops, "prediagnostic" clonal conditions may be identified. With the advent of large-scale genomic screens, such conditions may be detected quite frequently and early in apparently healthy individuals...
June 1, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847827/micrornas-associated-with-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-can-be-targeted-to-inhibit-peritoneal-dissemination-of-human-scirrhous-gastric-cancers
#7
Yoshifumi Takei, Guodong Shen, Ayami Morita-Kondo, Toshifumi Hara, Keichiro Mihara, Kazuyoshi Yanagihara
OBJECTIVES: Scirrhous gastric cancers grow rapidly, and frequently invade the peritoneum. Such peritoneal dissemination properties markedly reduce patient survival. Thus, an effective means for inhibiting peritoneal dissemination is urgently required. METHODS: We previously established a cell line, HSC-58, from a scirrhous gastric cancer patient, and further successfully isolated a metastatic line, 58As9, in nude mice upon orthotopic inoculation. Using the lines, we examined the mechanism underlying peritoneal dissemination from the viewpoint of microRNA (miRNA) expression...
May 30, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791912/differential-expression-of-micrornas-in-breast-cancers-from-four-different-ethnicities
#8
Jennifer Pollard, Phil A Burns, Tom A Hughes, Colan Ho-Yen, J Louise Jones, Geetashree Mukherjee, Ganiat O Omoniyi-Esan, Nicholas Akinwale Titloye, Valerie Speirs, Abeer M Shaaban
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer outcomes vary across different ethnic groups. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression across a range of pathologies, including breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and expression of miRs in breast cancer samples from different ethnic groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Breast cancer tissue from 4 ethnic groups, i.e., British Caucasian, British Black, Nigerian, and Indian, were identified and matched for patients' age, tumour grade/type, and 10 × 10 µm sections taken...
May 23, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791902/the-molecular-pathology-of-myelodysplastic-syndrome
#9
Torsten Haferlach
The diagnosis and classification of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are based on cytomorphology and cytogenetics (WHO classification). Prognosis is best defined by the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). In recent years, an increasing number of molecular aberrations have been discovered. They are already included in the classification (e.g., SF3B1) and, more importantly, have emerged as valuable markers for better classification, particularly for defining risk groups. Mutations in genes such as SF3B1 and IDH1/2 have already had an impact on targeted treatment approaches in MDS...
May 23, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788010/metaplastic-breast-cancer-masquerading-as-liposarcoma-of-the-breast-a-case-report-following-oncoplastic-treatment
#10
Maiar Elghobashy, Naren Basu, Robert Warner, John Dickson, Abeer M Shaaban
Mammary liposarcoma is among the rarest of breast tumours. Here we report the presentation, macroscopic, microscopic, and immunohistochemical features of an extremely rare case of metaplastic carcinoma with extensive pleomorphic liposarcomatous differentiation. A 47-year-old woman presented with bilateral grade III breast ptosis and a 3 × 4 cm mass in the lower outer quadrant of the left breast. Mammography and ultrasound confirmed a well-defined mass. A core biopsy performed was diagnosed as pleomorphic liposarcoma...
May 22, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617697/proteomic-profiling-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphomas
#11
Anna Kwiecińska, Anna Porwit, Nazariy Souchelnytskyi, Ann Kaufeldt, Catharina Larsson, Svetlana Bajalica-Lagercrantz, Serhiy Souchelnytskyi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify differences in proteome profiles of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of nongerminal center (non-GC) versus GC type in the search for new markers and drug targets. METHODS: Six DLBCL, with 3 repeats for each, were used for the initial study by proteomics: 3 non-GC and 3 GC DLBCL cases. For immunohistochemistry, tissue microarrays were made from 31 DLBCL samples: 16 non-GC de novo lymphomas and 15 GC cases (11 transformed from follicular lymphomas and 4 de novo GC lymphomas)...
April 4, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642072/clinical-relevance-of-intra-tumour-heterogeneity
#12
Bettina Borisch, Giorgio Stanta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635240/heterogeneity-in-lung-cancer
#13
Vitor Manuel Leitão de Sousa, Lina Carvalho
Lung cancer diagnosis is a challenge since it is also one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers. Diagnostic challenges are deeply related to the development of personalized therapy and molecular and precise histological characterizations of lung cancer. When addressing these features, it is very important to acknowledge the issue of tumour heterogeneity, as it imposes several questions. First of all, lung cancer is a very heterogeneous disease, at a cellular and histological level. Cellular and histological heterogeneity are addressed with emphasis on the diagnosis, pre-neoplastic lesions, and cell origin, trying to contribute to a better knowledge of carcinogenesis...
2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428954/tumour-heterogeneity-of-breast-cancer-from-morphology-to-personalised-medicine
#14
Mohammed A Aleskandarany, Michel E Vandenberghe, Caterina Marchiò, Ian O Ellis, Anna Sapino, Emad A Rakha
Breast cancer (BC) displays striking clinical, morphological, and behavioural diversity within a single tumour and between tumours. Currently, mounting evidence indicates that the morphological heterogeneity of BC reflects an underlying spectrum of genetic and epigenetic portraits that control BC behaviour. Further understanding of BC heterogeneity will have an impact, not only on the routine diagnostic practices but also on patients' management decisions. Phenomena like diagnostic inconsistencies and therapeutic resistance, both primary and acquired, could be attributed, at least in part, to tumour heterogeneity within the same cancer and between the primary disease and subsequent recurrences...
2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428932/metabolite-levels-in-paediatric-brain-tumours-correlate-with-histological-features
#15
Eleni Orphanidou-Vlachou, Sarah E Kohe, Marie-Anne Brundler, Lesley MacPherson, Yu Sun, Nigel Davies, Martin Wilson, Xiaoyan Pan, Theodoros N Arvanitis, Richard G Grundy, Andrew C Peet
AIMS: Metabolite levels can be measured non-invasively using in vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). These tumour metabolite profiles are highly characteristic for tumour type in childhood brain tumours; however, the relationship between metabolite values and conventional histopathological characteristics has not yet been fully established. This study systematically tests the relationship between metabolite levels detected by MRS and specific histological features in a range of paediatric brain tumours...
2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414818/tumor-heterogeneity-in-colorectal-cancer-what-do-we-know-so-far
#16
Xavier Sagaert, Arno Vanstapel, Sanne Verbeek
Colorectal cancer is not one disease but rather a collection of neoplastic diseases. Due to heterogeneity in the disease biology, therapy response, and prognosis, extensive disease stratification is required. Therefore, TNM stage, microsatellite status, tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, and other parameters are assessed in the pathology report to indicate the extent and prognosis of the disease. The mutation status of KRAS, BRAF, and NRAS is also investigated in a metastatic context to predict the response to anti-EGFR therapy...
2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408820/heterogeneity-of-thyroid-cancer
#17
Ewa Chmielik, Dagmara Rusinek, Malgorzata Oczko-Wojciechowska, Michal Jarzab, Jolanta Krajewska, Agnieszka Czarniecka, Barbara Jarzab
There are 5 main histological types of thyroid cancers (TCs): papillary, follicular (also known as differentiated), poorly differentiated, anaplastic (the most aggressive form), and medullary TC, and only the latter arises from thyroid C cells. These different forms of TCs show significant variability, both among and within tumours. This great variation is particularly notable among the first 4 types, which all originate from thyroid follicular cells. Importantly, this heterogeneity is not limited to histopathological diversity only but is also manifested as variation in several genetic and/or epigenetic alterations, the numbers of interactions between the tumour and surrounding microenvironment, and interpatient differences, for example...
2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393241/the-heterogeneity-of-prostate-cancer-a-practical-approach
#18
Yuri Tolkach, Glen Kristiansen
Prostate cancer is a paradigm tumor model for heterogeneity in almost every sense. Its clinical, spatial, and morphological heterogeneity divided by the high-level molecular genetic diversity outline the complexity of this disease in the clinical and research settings. In this review, we summarize the main aspects of prostate cancer heterogeneity at different levels, with special attention given to the spatial heterogeneity within the prostate, and to the standard morphological heterogeneity, with respect to tumor grading and modern classifications...
2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212085/the-impact-of-anti-tnf-therapy-on-cd4-and-cd8-cell-subsets-in-ankylosing-spondylitis
#19
Sonja Dulic, Zsofia Vasarhelyi, Anna Bajnok, Balazs Szalay, Gergely Toldi, Laszlo Kovacs, Attila Balog
OBJECTIVES: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic, progressive immune-mediated inflammatory disease, driven primarily by Th1 and Th17 cells. Anti-TNF therapies are successfully used in AS to achieve and maintain remission. However, their influence on the composition of T-cell subsets is not clear. We aimed to characterize the changes in the T-cell repertoire after a long-term anti-TNF treatment in AS patients. METHODS: Twenty-two AS patients under long-term anti-TNF therapy were evaluated (15 anti-TNF responders and 7 nonresponders)...
2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166639/apobec3a-expression-in-penile-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#20
Martina Heller, Elena-Sophie Prigge, Adam Kaczorowski, Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz, Markus Hohenfellner, Stefan Duensing
BACKGROUND: APOBECs (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptides) are cytidine deaminases that have been implicated in the host defense against viruses by blocking viral replication. They have also been shown to play a role in genome hypermutation in several human cancers. An APOBEC3 hypermutation signature has been discovered in cervical cancer, which is intimately associated with infection by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs). At the same time, HPV genomes themselves are subject to DNA editing by APOBECs...
2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
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