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Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30408778/exosomes-from-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-activated-dendritic-cells-promote-th2-differentiation-through-the-ox40-ligand
#1
Li Huang, Xinxing Zhang, Meijuan Wang, Zhengrong Chen, Yongdong Yan, Wenjing Gu, Jiahong Tan, Wujun Jiang, Wei Ji
OBJECTIVES: Exosomes are extracellular vesicles released from various inflammatory cells, such as T cells, B cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and mast cells, which have been implicated in the modulation of immune response in asthma. This study aimed to investigate whether exosomes from DCs activated by thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) play a role in T-helper cell differentiation through the OX40 ligand (OX40L). METHODS: Serum samples from patients with asthma were collected to measure the levels of OX40L, T-helper type 1 (Th1) cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ, and T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine interleukin (IL)-4 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
November 8, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30404093/effect-of-hawthorn-leaf-flavonoids-in-dehydroepiandrosterone-induced-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-rats
#2
Yanhua Shi, Xiang Kong, Hongmei Yin, Wentong Zhang, Wei Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential beneficial effects of hawthorn leaf flavonoids (HLF) against polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in a rat model of disease and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism. METHODS: The PCOS model was established by subcutaneous injection of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 60 mg/kg/day) for 21 consecutive days. HLF (200 mg/kg/day) were orally administered simultaneously or after the injection. The body weight was regularly monitored and recorded...
November 7, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30396184/runx1-mutations-can-lead-to-aberrant-expression-of-cd79a-and-pax5-in-acute-myelogenous-leukemias-a-potential-diagnostic-pitfall
#3
Thomas Menter, Pontus Lundberg, Friedel Wenzel, Jan Dirks, Paula Fernandez, Dorothea Friess, Stefan Dirnhofer, Alexandar Tzankov
BACKGROUND: RUNX1 is a crucial transcription factor for hematological stem cells and well-known for its association with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Besides the translocation t(8; 21) that leads to the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 fusion, somatic mutations of RUNX1 have been discovered. METHODS: Four bone marrow trephine biopsies of patients with CD79a-positive and/or PAX5-positive acute leukemias were investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC), karyotyping, and next-generation sequencing-based genetic analysis...
November 5, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30347405/the-american-joint-commission-cancer-8th-edition-prognostic-stage-including-oncotype-dx%C3%A2-recurrence-score-impact-on-staging-of-early-breast-cancer
#4
Roisin O'Cearbhaill, John M Gannon, Ruth S Prichard, Janice M Walshe, Enda McDermott, Cecily M Quinn
BACKGROUND: The American Joint Commission Cancer (AJCC) Cancer Staging Manual 8th edition introduced a breast cancer (BC) Prognostic Stage (PS) that combines tumour grade, oestrogen (ER), progesterone (PgR), and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2) receptor status with Anatomic TNM Stage (AS). In a further modification, patients with early BC and an Oncotype DX® Recurrence Score (RS) < 11 are assigned to PS 1A irrespective of grade and size up to 5 cm. This study profiles the impact of these changes on staging in patients with early BC and RS < 11...
October 22, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332671/progression-potential-of-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-assessed-by-genomic-copy-number-profiling
#5
Mina Kitamura, Takahisa Nakayama, Ken-Ichi Mukaisho, Tsuyoshi Mori, Tomoko Umeda, Suzuko Moritani, Ryoji Kushima, Masaji Tani, Hiroyuki Sugihara
BACKGROUND: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is heterogeneous in terms of the risk of progression to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). To treat DCIS appropriately for its progression risk, we classified individual DCIS by its profile of genomic changes into 2 groups and correlated them with clinicopathological progression factors. METHODS: We used surgically resected, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of 22 DCIS and 30 IDC lesions. We performed immunohistochemical intrinsic subtyping, array-based comparative genomic hybridization, and unsupervised clustering...
October 17, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308500/breast-tumours-resembling-the-tall-cell-variant-of-thyroid-papillary-carcinoma-are-they-part-of-the-papillary-carcinoma-spectrum-or-a-distinct-entity
#6
Michael S Toss, Kim Billingham, Isioma U Egbuniwe, Filipa Moreno, Areeg Abass, Emad A Rakha
BACKGROUND: Papillary tumours of the breast are diagnostically challenging lesions and represent a wide spectrum of diseases from papilloma to invasive papillary carcinoma. A rare subtype of breast papillary tumour resembling the tall cell variant of thyroid papillary carcinoma (BTRTPC) has been described. The nomenclature of this entity, its relationship to other papillary tumours, and its nature, whether in situ or invasive, remain unclear. METHODS: Seventy-five papillary carcinomas (PCs) of the breast previously diagnosed in routine practice were reviewed and the presence of features (n = 10) characteristic of BTRTPC were assessed to determine whether BTRTPC comprises a distinct entity or is part of the spectrum of the previously defined PC variants...
October 11, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30278467/resistance-to-fas-mediated-apoptosis-does-not-correlate-to-structural-alterations-or-expression-changes-of-the-death-receptor-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinomas
#7
Angelica A Saetta, Andreas C Lazaris, Maria Miaouli, Gerassimos E Voutsinas, Efstratios Patsouris, Sofia Tseleni-Balafouta
BACKGROUND: Malignant cells exhibit significant resistance to FAS-mediated cell death, through different processes, including FAS mutations, soluble FAS expression, or FAS transcriptional dysregulation by P53, eventually escaping from immune surveillance. Since thyroid carcinomas were shown to be resistant to FAS-mediated apoptosis, we investigated the above mechanisms in thyroid carcinoma samples. METHODS: Thirty-seven thyroid carcinoma samples were analyzed for mutations in FAS exon 9 and TP53 exons 5-8 and protein expression by means of immunohistochemistry...
October 2, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30227408/clinical-implication-of-multi-parameter-flow-cytometry-in-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#8
REVIEW
Carolien Duetz, Theresia M Westers, Arjan A van de Loosdrecht
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a challenging group of diseases for clinicians and researchers, as both disease course and pathobiology are highly heterogeneous. In (suspected) MDS patients, multi-parameter flow cytometry can aid in establishing diagnosis, risk stratification and choice of therapy. This review addresses the developments and future directions of multi-parameter flow cytometry scores in MDS. Additionally, we propose an integrated diagnostic algorithm for suspected MDS.
September 18, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30227407/early-loss-of-forkhead-transcription-factor-o-subgroup-member-1-protein-in-the-development-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#9
Wael Al-Zoughbi, Silvia Schauer, Martin Pichler, Gerald Hoefler
OBJECTIVES: Forkhead transcription factor, O subgroup, member 1 (FOXO1) is a regulatory protein that plays an essential role in cellular homeostasis. A biological function as a tumor suppressor has been proposed. Here, we examined FOXO1 expression in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and its precursor lesions. METHODS: We immunohistochemically labeled tissue samples from 47 patients with PDAC for FOXO1 protein. In addition, we extracted data from the Cancer Genome Atlas and the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and studied a potential association with well-established genetic variants...
September 18, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223275/proliferation-potential-related-protein-promotes-the-esophageal-cancer-cell-proliferation-migration-and-suppresses-apoptosis-by-mediating-the-expression-of-p53-and-interleukin-17
#10
Fei Ye, Jizhong Song, Yetao Wang, Xuemei Xu, Kaiguang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the mechanism of proliferation potential-related protein (PP-RP) in influencing the proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to analyze the expression of PP-RP gene, p53, and interleukin (IL)-17 in human normal tissues and tumor tissues, as well as the expression of p53 and IL-17 in Eca109 and TE3 cells. The esophageal cancer cell proliferation was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry, and cell migration was detected by transwell migration...
September 17, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223270/differential-expression-of-cancer-associated-fibroblast-related-proteins-in-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-according-to-molecular-subtype-and-stromal-histology
#11
Ji Hee Lee, Hye Min Kim, Ja Seung Koo
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF)-related proteins and their implication in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). METHODS: We constructed a tissue microarray of 223 cases of DCIS and examined immunohistochemical staining for the 7 CAF-related proteins. We classified DCIS into luminal type, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) type, and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) according to the immunohistochemical results for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER-2...
September 17, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223268/airway-centered-pleuroparenchymal-fibroelastosis-associated-with-non-necrotizing-granulomas-a-rare-new-entity
#12
Elena Bargagli, Paola Rottoli, Elena Torricelli, Chiara Allegrini, Alessandra Dubini, David Bennett, Luca Luzzi, Donatella Spina, Venerino Poletti, Sara Tomassetti
Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis is a rare form of upper-lobe-dominant progressive pulmonary fibrosis characterized histologically by visceral pleural thickening with collagenous fibrosis, subpleural elastosis, and intra-alveolar collagenous fibrosis. It was first described 25 years ago by Amitani et al. This report firstly describes a new variant or rare phenotype of PPFE with airway involvement, minimal pleuroparenchymal connections, and non-necrotizing granulomas.
September 17, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223266/immunohistochemical-and-molecular-analyses-focusing-on-mesenchymal-cells-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-with-desmoid-type-fibromatosis
#13
Nami Takada, Zhanna Mussazhanova, Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa, Masahiro Nakashima, Akira Miyauchi
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of CTNNB1 (β-catenin) mutations in cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma with desmoid-type fibromatosis (PTC-DTF) expressing aberrant nuclear and cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for β-catenin. METHODS: Eight cases of PTC-DTF were available for this study. Immunohistochemistry for β-catenin and BRAFV600E was performed. CTNNB1 and BRAFV600E mutations were also evaluated by direct sequencing. RESULTS: For β-catenin, although we could demonstrate aberrant nuclear and cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in DTF components in all cases, suggesting activated Wnt signaling, direct sequencing revealed a missense mutation, c...
September 17, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223259/metastatic-prostate-carcinoma-from-imperial-rome-1st-to-2nd-centuries-ad
#14
Simona Minozzi, Agata Lunardini, Carla Caldarini, Davide Caramella, Gino Fornaciari, Paola Catalano, Valentina Giuffra
OBJECTIVE: This study describes and discusses a rare case of metastatic carcinoma that affected the skeleton of an adult male recovered in the necropolis of Casal Bertone in Rome (Italy). The necropolis, which dates back to the Imperial Age (1st to 2nd century AD), is located near some residential structures and a large place identified as a fullery (fullonica). METHODS: Anthropological and paleopathological studies of the skeletal remains were performed via careful macroscopic, microscopic, radiological (X-ray and CT scan), and histological investigation...
September 17, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223255/congenital-pouch-colon-role-of-genetics-or-environmental-influence
#15
Praveen Mathur, Vandana Nunia, Rakesh Sharma, Anita Simlot, Krishna Mohan Medicherla
BACKGROUND: Congenital pouch colon (CPC), a high type of anorectal malformation, is a sporadic disease and several environmental factors are known to be involved in its pathology. To the best of our knowledge, no familial incidence of CPC has been reported anywhere in the literature so far. AIM: In the present study, which is first of its kind, we have reported the familial incidences of CPC and also tried to elucidate the role of genetics in this pathology. METHODS: We have reported 1 familial pedigree of CPC and 2 incidences of dizygotic twins (DZ), out of them one is affected and another one is normal...
September 17, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30130765/egyptian-canopic-jars-at-the-crossroad-of-medicine-and-archaeology-overview-of-100-years-of-research-and-future-scientific-expectations
#16
REVIEW
Sidney Senti, Michael E Habicht, Enrique Rayo, Patrick E Eppenberger, Frank J Rühli, Francesco M Galassi
Ancient Egyptian human remains have been of interest in the fields of both medical and Egyptological research for decades. However, canopic jar holders for internal organs (liver, lungs, stomach, intestines) of Egyptian mummies appear to be but a very occasional source of data for such investigations. The few medical approaches focusing on the content of these jars are summarized and listed according to pathogens and diseases to give a structured overview of this field of study. An extensive search of the literature has been conducted from different bibliographic databases with a total of n = 26 studies found...
August 21, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078017/baiba-attenuates-the-expression-of-inflammatory-cytokines-and-attachment-molecules-and-er-stress-in-huvecs-and-thp-1-cells
#17
Wonjae Lee, Subin Yun, Geum Hee Choi, Tae Woo Jung
OBJECTIVE: β-Aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA), a myokine, is a thymine catabolite that is induced during exercise, leading to browning of white fat, hepatic fatty acid oxidation, and suppression of hepatic lipogenesis. However, the effects of BAIBA on the progression of atherosclerosis remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a Western blot analyses to determine various protein expression. ELISAs (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays), cell adhesion assays, and cell viability assays were also performed on human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human monocytes (THP-1 cells)...
August 3, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30048985/myeloid-neoplasms-with-germline-predisposition
#18
REVIEW
Julia T Geyer
The updated 2016 WHO classification of hematopoietic tumors has a new category: "myeloid neoplasms with germline predisposition." These entities are rare, but are also currently underdiagnosed and underreported. Recognition is critical for appropriate clinical evaluation and therapy, with potential implications for the patient's entire family. The WHO includes 3 categories of myeloid neoplasms with germline predisposition: neoplasms without preexisting conditions, neoplasms with a history of thrombocytopenia, and neoplasms with other organ dysfunction...
July 26, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30041243/myelodysplastic-syndrome-updated
#19
REVIEW
Robert P Hasserjian
This review highlights the main changes in the revised 2016 WHO Classification of Myeloid Neoplasms (published in 2017) that impact the diagnosis and management of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The revision was based on data accumulated since the 2008 WHO classification of MDS, much of which relates to new molecular genetic information about these neoplasms. The new information has led to some reorganization of the MDS disease categories, including a broadening of the subset of cases classified as MDS with ring sideroblasts, many of which have mutations in the spliceosome gene SF3B1...
July 24, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29982244/challenges-in-diagnosing-myelodysplastic-syndromes-in-the-era-of-genetic-testing-proceedings-of-the-13th-workshop-of-the-european-bone-marrow-working-group
#20
Konnie M Hebeda, Alexandar Tzankov, Ludmila Boudova, Leonie Saft, Rob P Hasserjian, Mirthe de Boer, Falko Fend, Attilio Orazi, Roos Leguit
The 13th workshop of the European Bone Marrow Working Group in Utrecht, The Netherlands, was devoted to studying myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and their boundaries. The panel received 44 cases submitted to the 3 invited categories, which included: reactive cytopenias with dysplasia, idiopathic cytopenia of undetermined significance, clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential, idiopathic dysplasia of uncertain significance and overt MDS. For this summary, we have selected 17 cases that highlight difficulties in separating true MDS from other causes of cytopenia and the intricate relationship between clonal haematopoiesis and true MDS...
July 6, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
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