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Current Opinion in Oncology

Richa Bajpai, Mala Shanmugam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Targeting cancer metabolism for therapy has received much attention over the last decade with various small molecule inhibitors entering clinical trials. The present review highlights the latest strategies to target glucose and glutamine metabolism for cancer therapy with a particular emphasis on novel combinatorial treatment approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: Inhibitors of glucose, lactate, and glutamine transport and the ensuing metabolism are in preclinical to clinical trial stages of investigation...
July 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Alecia S Folkes, Mingye Feng, Jasmine M Zain, Farah Abdulla, Steven T Rosen, Christiane Querfeld
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the relevance of CD47 in the tumor microenvironment and summarize data on anti-CD47 therapies, including its role in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). RECENT FINDINGS: CD47 is expressed on all normal cells and targets SIRPα on the surface of myeloid cells. However, CD47 is found to be overexpressed on cancer cells. CD47-SIRPα interaction inhibits macrophage phagocytosis, allowing cancer cells to escape immune surveillance. Current focus in immunotherapy has been targeted toward inhibiting CD47-SIRPα interaction via anti-CD47 antibodies...
July 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Pushpa Naga Ch, Lavanya Gurram, Supriya Chopra, Umesh Mahantshetty
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cervical cancer is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women worldwide. Surgery and chemoradiation are widely utilized treatments for cervical cancer. Despite the available standard treatment of choice, outcome is suboptimal among patients with LACC. It is vital to integrate the evidence generated from high-quality research work for effective management of these cases. This review intends to critically evaluate the latest evidence supporting the available treatment modalities and to provide a comprehensive overview of recent advances and ongoing research in the management of LACC...
July 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Sven Borchmann, Andreas Engert, Boris Böll
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to summarize the current knowledge on the treatment of elderly Hodgkin lymphoma patients with a focus on evidence from clinical trials and novel drugs. RECENT FINDINGS: For elderly Hodgkin lymphoma patients above 60 years without precluding comorbidities a curative treatment approach is warranted. Early favorable stage patients should receive two cycles of multiagent chemotherapy followed by 20 Gy localized radiotherapy. Early unfavorable stage patients should receive four cycles of multiagent chemotherapy followed by 30 Gy localized radiotherapy...
July 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Giovanni Fucà, Filippo de Braud, Massimo Di Nicola
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The advent of immunotherapy significantly improved clinical outcomes in cancer patients, although immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) still lack of efficacy in a consistent proportion of treated patients. The purpose of this article is to review the most innovative and clinically promising ICB-based combinations designed to improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. RECENT FINDINGS: First-line combinatorial treatment with ipilimumab and nivolumab has recently shown to be superior to the standard of care in a subset of metastatic nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC)...
July 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Carla Ida Ripamonti, Andrea Antonuzzo, Paolo Bossi, Stefano Cavalieri, Fausto Roila, Sonia Fatigoni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a frequent and distressing symptom present at any stage of the disease. However, it is still underreported, rarely properly assessed and undertreated. RECENT FINDINGS: There are international guidelines available, but also several barriers to their implementation into clinical practice. SUMMARY: According to guidelines, all patients should be clinically screened for CRF on regular basis, at the initial cancer visit and at intervals during every clinic visit, also at posttreatment follow-up visits...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Patrick Crombez, Sandra Michiels, Dominique Bron
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Migration is increasing worldwide, with accumulating evidence of health disparities. At the same time, oncology faces new challenges within a fast-changing care landscape. These two developments raise the question of integration of migrants and ethnic minorities (MEMs) and cultural influences in oncology. RECENT FINDINGS: Perceptions of health and disease differ substantially across and within societies and cultures. However, health needs of MEMs and cultural influences seem often out of the scope of cancer care...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Justine Gantzer, Isabelle Ray-Coquard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we focus on recent published data (2017) on the management of gynecologic sarcomas. RECENT FINDINGS: The most significant data published in 2017 develop definition of a new molecular subtype of high grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) using molecular technics added to histological analysis. The identification of a new translocation on presumed uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) points to refinement of nosological classification, with fragmentation of even rare tumors into distinct molecular entities: gynecologic sarcomas are now distinguished into distinct entities from a heterogeneous group of tumors...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Jean-Yves Blay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Closset Céline
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Alain Hendlisz, Vincent Donckier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Jean A Klastersky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
René-Jean Bensadoun
PURPOSE OR REVIEW: There is a large body of evidence supporting the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) also known as PhotoBioModulation (PBM) when used for the prevention and/or treatment of oral mucositis in patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, or high-dose chemotherapy regimens. This review aims at giving the state of the art of this technique in this indication. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent advances in LLLT/PBM technology, together with a better understanding of mechanisms involved and dosimetric parameters may lead to the management of a broader range of complications associated with cancer treatment...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Sandra J Strauss, Jeremy S Whelan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, the most common primary bone tumours in young people, are curable in most patients. However, these tumours remain a significant challenge due to the complexity and intensity of treatment and its long-term morbidity and the significant proportion of patients in whom treatment is unsuccessful. This review addresses questions about current management and emerging therapeutic targets for patients with osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma and chondrosarcoma, the commonest bone sarcoma but more common in older patients...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Laura Polastro, Georges El Hachem, Alain Hendlisz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we focus on the potential benefits and risks of chemotherapy administration before (perioperative) or after (pseudoadjuvant) a curative resection of colorectal cancer (CRC) metastases. RECENT FINDINGS: In the published evidence, there is a lack of survival benefit from peri or postoperative chemotherapy in the context of resectable metastatic CRC. However, high-risk patients may have a certain benefit when receiving a postoperative cytotoxic treatment...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Edouard Massaut, Ali Bohlok, Valerio Lucidi, Alain Hendlisz, Jean A Klastersky, Vincent Donckier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The concept of oligometastases, defining cancers with limited metastatic capacity and attaining a limited number of secondary sites, is now widely accepted, particularly in colorectal cancer. Currently, however, accurate predictive markers for oligometastatic tumors are still lacking. For this reason, it remains challenging to translate this concept into clinical recommendations. In the present work, we review recent publications on oligometastases in colorectal cancer, showing the evidences for such presentation and underlying the need for the identification of biomarkers, necessary to further develop new therapeutic strategies...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Carla I Ripamonti, Federico Giuntoli, Silvia Gonella, Guido Miccinesi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Because of cancer is generally perceived as a life-threatening illness, patients often develop spiritual needs upon the diagnosis. Spirituality impacts patient quality of life (QoL) and provides a context in which to derive hope and meaning to cope with illness. The goal of this review is to give an overview of the most relevant studies with a focus on the relationship between spiritual well being, QoL and hope in patients with cancer, in addition to exploring the importance of spiritual issues both for patients and healthcare professionals...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Jørn Herrstedt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes and discuss the most recent updated antiemetic consensus. RECENT FINDINGS: Two new neurokinin (NK)1-receptor antagonists, netupitant and rolapitant, have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency and incorporated in the latest versions of the MASCC/ESMO, ASCO, and NCCN guidelines. Guidelines all recommend a combination of a serotonin (5-HT)3-receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and a NK1-receptor antagonist in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) with the addition of the multireceptor targeting agent, olanzapine, as an option in cisplatin or anthracycline-cyclophosphamide chemotherapy...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
William Tabayoyong, Jianjun Gao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of five new immune checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of metastatic urothelial cancer represents the first major treatment breakthrough for this disease since the introduction of combination chemotherapy over 30 years ago. This review examines the recent clinical trials leading to FDA approval of these agents, the current challenges facing immunotherapy and areas that require further research. RECENT FINDINGS: The programmed death 1 receptor (PD-1) and its ligand programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) are important negative regulators of immune activity, preventing destruction of normal tissues and autoimmunity...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Theodore Gourdin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Summarizes recent advances in the treatment of metastatic castration-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: New randomized data suggest a survival advantage to early abiraterone in castration-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer. Prospective and retrospective studies are examining sequencing of existing cytotoxic and androgen-receptor-targeted therapies in both castration-sensitive and castration-resistant disease...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
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