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Current Opinion in Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329112/master-protocols-in-lung-cancer-experience-from-lung-master-protocol
#1
Vincent K Lam, Vassiliki Papadimitrakopoulou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Contemporary advances in the understanding of the molecular and immunologic basis of metastatic lung cancer have firmly changed its treatment paradigm to a personalized, biomarker-driven approach. However, the majority of lung-cancer patients [especially lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC)] still do not have effective targeted therapeutic options. Master protocols, such as Lung-MAP, represent an innovative clinical trial approach designed to accelerate evaluation of novel biomarker-driven therapies...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303788/the-dynamics-of-medical-care-in-skin-cancers
#2
Reinhard Dummer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303787/supportive-care-in-the-era-of-immunotherapies-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#3
Gil Awada, Jean Klastersky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The therapeutic armamentarium for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer has evolved considerably over the past years. Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting programmed cell death-1 such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab or programmed cell death ligand 1 such as atezolizumab, durvalumab and avelumab have shown favorable efficacy results in this patient population in the first-line and second-line setting. These immunotherapies are associated with a distinct toxicity profile based on autoimmune organ toxicity which is a new challenge for supportive care during treatment with these drugs...
January 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256902/update-on-adjuvant-melanoma-therapy
#4
Florentia Dimitriou, Ralph Peter Braun, Joanna Mangana
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the results from relevant clinical trials and discuss current strategies in the melanoma adjuvant setting. RECENT FINDINGS: The favorable therapeutic efficacy and the significant less toxicity of nivolumab compared with ipilimumab, fully substitutes today's approval of ipilimumab, regardless mutation status, whereas in BRAF-mutated patients, dabrafenib and trametinib seem to confirm their high efficacy also in adjuvant setting. The use of interferon is restricted to patients with ulcerated melanoma and countries with no access to the new drugs...
December 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256901/treatment-of-alk-positive-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer-recent-advances
#5
Alesha A Thai, Benjamin J Solomon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review will highlight recent advances in development of ALK-TKIs and management of patients with ALK-positive nonsmall cell lung cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been rapid progress in the use of targeted therapies for ALK-positive NSCLC. Since the discovery, development and approval of crizotinib in 2011, three second-generation ALK-TKIs, ceritinib, alectinib and brigatinib have been approved by the FDA. A range of newer generation ALK inhibitors with improved potency against ALK and against mutations that confer resistance to crizotinib are in clinical development...
December 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251666/advanced-pet-imaging-in-oncology-status-and-developments-with-current-and-future-relevance-to-lung-cancer-care
#6
Wieland Voigt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the status and developments of PET imaging in oncology, with particular emphasis on lung cancer. We discuss the significance of PET for diagnosis, staging, decision-making, monitoring of treatment response, and drug development. The PET key advantage, the noninvasive assessment of functional and molecular tumor characteristics including tumor heterogeneity, as well as PET trends relevant to cancer care are exemplified. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances of PET and radiotracer technology are encouraging for multiple fields of oncological research and clinical application, including in-depth assessment of PET images by texture analysis (radiomics)...
December 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251665/molecular-pathology-of-lung-cancer-current-status-and-perspectives
#7
Felicitas Oberndorfer, Leonhard Müllauer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we summarize the current knowledge on molecular alterations in lung cancer that are targets for therapy, and provide an outlook on the future development of molecular pathology in precision oncology. RECENT FINDINGS: Lung cancer has become a paradigm for the success of molecular targeted therapies in solid tumors. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are effective treatment options in adenocarcinoma patients with an EGFR, ALK, ROS1 or B-Raf Proto-Oncogene, Serine/Threonine kinase mutation...
December 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227308/medical-bioinformatics-in-melanoma
#8
Phil F Cheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bioinformatic insights from next-generation sequencing has been integral in understanding melanoma biology, resistance to treatment and provided new avenues for melanoma treatment. Whole-genome sequencing, whole-exome sequencing and RNA sequencing has redefined the molecular classification of melanoma, revealed distinct genetic aberrations that define clinical subtypes of melanoma and uncovered the diverse heterogeneity that resides in an individual tumor. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we will summarize the recent whole-genome study that catalogs the genomic landscape across many melanoma subtypes, the single-cell RNA sequencing studies that interrogates tumor heterogeneity and the personalized vaccine approaches to melanoma treatment...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206651/novel-therapeutic-strategies-and-targets-in-advanced-uveal-melanoma
#9
Vivian Chua, Andrew E Aplin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Currently, there are no U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved or effective treatment options for advanced-stage uveal melanoma. In this article, we focus on therapeutic targets in pathways/mechanisms associated with common mutations in uveal melanoma. We review the challenges associated with targeting of these pathways and novel treatment strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Common mutations that promote uveal melanoma initiation and progression include alterations in G protein subunit alpha q/11 (GNAQ/GNA11) and breast cancer gene 1-associated protein 1 (BAP1)...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194075/cutaneous-angiosarcoma-update-on-biology-and-latest-treatment
#10
Yoshihiro Ishida, Atsushi Otsuka, Kenji Kabashima
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review aims to provide readers with the latest updates on the biology and clinical management of cutaneous angiosarcoma (cAS). RECENT FINDINGS: The genomic alteration of cAS is heterogeneous. Mutations are enriched in the mitosis-activated kinase (MAPK) pathway. Functional analysis has identified molecules that may serve as potential markers and therapeutic targets of angiosarcoma. These molecules include survivin, HSP90, FOXM1, miR-497-5p, KCa3...
November 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135607/targeting-the-perivascular-niche-in-brain-tumors
#11
Giorgio Seano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Brain tumors are composed of primary tumors of the central nervous system, such us glioblastoma (GBM), and secondary metastatic tumors, such as melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma as well as lung and breast cancers. Brain tumors are highly deadly, and unfortunately not many improvements have been achieved to improve the survival of patients with brain tumors. Chemoradiation resistance is one of the most clinically relevant challenges faced in patients with brain tumors. The perivascular niche is one of the most relevant microenvironment hubs in brain tumors...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084000/paracrine-interactions-of-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-macrophages-and-endothelial-cells-tumor-allies-and-foes
#12
Roberto Ronca, Jo A Van Ginderachter, Andrei Turtoi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tumor stroma is composed of many cellular subtypes, of which the most abundant are fibroblasts, macrophages and endothelial cells. During the process of tissue injury, these three cellular subtypes must coordinate their activity to efficiently contribute to tissue regeneration. In tumor, this mechanism is hijacked by cancer cells, which rewire the interaction of stromal cells to benefit tumor development. The present review aims at summarizing most relevant information concerning both pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic actions implicating the three stromal cell subtypes as well as their mutual interactions...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076966/revisiting-tumor-patterns-and-penetrance-in-germline-tp53-mutation-carriers-temporal-phases-of-li-fraumeni-syndrome
#13
Amina Amadou, Maria I Waddington Achatz, Pierre Hainaut
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Germline pathogenic TP53 mutation may predispose to multiple cancers but penetrance and cancer patterns remain incompletely documented. We have analyzed international agency for research on cancer TP53 database to reevaluate age and variant-dependent tumor patterns. RECENT FINDINGS: Genome-wide studies suggest that germline variants are more frequent than estimated prevalence of Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), suggesting that many carriers of potentially pathogenic mutations may not develop the syndrome...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076964/lysine-methylation-signaling-in-pancreatic-cancer
#14
Gaël S Roth, Alexandre G Casanova, Nathanaël Lemonnier, Nicolas Reynoird
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite better knowledge of its genetic basis, pancreatic cancer is still highly lethal with very few therapeutic options. In this review, we discuss the potential impact of epigenetic therapies, focusing on lysine methylation signaling and its implication in pancreatic cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Protein lysine methylation, a key mechanism of posttranslational modifications of histone proteins, has emerged as a major cell signaling mechanism regulating physiologic and pathologic processes including cancer...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049050/an-update-on-noninvasive-follicular-thyroid-neoplasm-with-papillary-like-nuclear-features
#15
REVIEW
Danielle E Range, Xiaoyin S Jiang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has been established in the literature as a clinically indolent tumor. Despite this, it was traditionally treated like all other PTCs. In an attempt to reduce overtreatment of this entity, a panel of experts reclassified this entity as noninvasive follicular neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). This reclassification has led to a flurry of literature elucidating the molecular, cytologic and clinical parameters of this 'new' entity and the implications for patient management...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028645/an-update-on-the-status-of-molecular-testing-for-the-indeterminate-thyroid-nodule-and-risk-stratification-of-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#16
Kristina J Nicholson, Linwah Yip
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Correct identification of malignancy in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules is a diagnostic challenge, leading to potentially unnecessary surgery in patients for whom final histology is benign. Similarly, many patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) undergo aggressive surgical management of tumors, which may ultimately have low-risk histologic features. Use of molecular testing strategies can aid in both the diagnosis of indeterminate thyroid nodules and preoperative risk stratification of DTC...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984651/new-anti-her2-agents-from-second-generation-tyrosine-kinases-inhibitors-to-bifunctional-antibodies
#17
Joseph Gligorov, Sandrine Richard, Vladimir Todorovic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HER2-positive breast cancers have benefited since the end of the twentieth century, not only from the improvement of biological knowledge, but also from major technological advances. The latter allowed the synthesis of the first generation of enzymatic inhibitors of the HER receptor family such as lapatinib, but above all, monoclonal antibodies such as trastuzumab or pertuzumab having profoundly modified the management of these cancers. However, despite outstanding progresses, there are still patients who are not cured with these first-generation treatments, and they will need new approaches to improve disease control and impact patients' survival...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914645/notch-inhibitors-and-their-role-in-the-treatment-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer-promises-and-failures
#18
Marzia Locatelli, Giuseppe Curigliano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Notch signaling is a highly evolutionarily conserved cell-to-cell communication system that is involved in a number of pivotal cellular processes, such as development, stem cell maintenance, cell fate specification, differentiation, proliferation, and death. Much progress has been made in understanding Notch signaling. This review will focus on the role of canonical Notch signaling pathway in breast cancer cause and progressing. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we will discuss the results of the studies using drugs, which target the Notch pathway...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914644/systemic-therapy-in-advanced-melanoma-integrating-targeted-therapy-and-immunotherapy-into-clinical-practice
#19
Inês P Silva, Georgina V Long
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here we review the results from relevant phase III trials and discuss treatment strategies for challenging subgroups of melanoma patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Targeted therapies induce rapid responses in the majority of BRAF-mutant patients, however, 50% of these responders will develop resistance within approximately 13 months. In contrast, inhibitors of checkpoints on T cells, particularly inhibitors of PD-1, induce responses in 40-55% of patients (monotherapy or whenever combined with anti-CTLA-4), and these responses tend to be durable...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901965/anaplastic-gliomas-in-adults-an-update
#20
REVIEW
Cristina Izquierdo, Bastien Joubert, François Ducray
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review summarizes recent advances on the oncogenesis, classification and treatment of adult anaplastic gliomas. RECENT FINDINGS: According to the 2016 WHO classification, three main molecular subgroups of adult diffuse anaplastic gliomas can be distinguished based on the 1p/19q codeletion and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status. In the future, this classification may be further refined based on the telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter and alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked mutation status, gene expression, DNA methylation and genomic profiling...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
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