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Current Opinion in Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445233/preclinical-models-for-translational-sarcoma-research
#1
Rainer Hamacher, Sebastian Bauer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sarcoma is a basket term for mesenchymal tumors for which more than 75 genetically and histologically distinct subtypes are recognized. Therapeutic progress has largely been achieved with classical chemotherapeutic drugs that were tested in empirical clinical trials. However, outcome in metastatic patients remains poor and with few exceptions numerous trials have failed or only provided limited improvement in recent years. RECENT FINDINGS: Given the genomic heterogeneity, preclinical model systems will be indispensable to identify new molecular targets and to prioritize drugs and drug combinations...
April 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426465/neoadjuvant-treatment-a-novel-standard
#2
Sandro Pasquali, Elena Palassini, Silvia Stacchiotti, Paolo G Casali, Alessandro Gronchi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to summarize developments in the adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy of high-risk adult-type soft tissue sarcomas (STS). RECENT FINDINGS: The role of adjuvant/neaodjuvant chemotherapy in these patients is controversial, with a meta-analysis suggesting a 10% survival benefit. Recently, a randomized controlled trial in high-risk STS of extremities and trunk wall showed a 20% improvement in progression-free and overall survival after three preoperative cycles of epirubicin along with ifosfamide compared with a histology-tailored chemotherapy...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323658/changing-face-of-metastatic-prostate-cancer-the-law-of-diminishing-returns-holds-true
#3
Ulka N Vaishampayan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prostate cancer presents with a multitude of faces. It ranges from localized cancers staying quiescent for many years during active surveillance to the raging diffuse liver metastases causing terminal disease. The incidence of metastatic disease is increasing. This review will highlight some of the recent developments as well as ongoing challenges of managing advanced prostate cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Significant strides are being made in managing metastatic prostate cancer...
March 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306559/immunotherapy-a-new-treatment-paradigm-in-bladder-cancer
#4
Nicole N Davarpanah, Akira Yuno, Jane B Trepel, Andrea B Apolo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: T-cell checkpoint blockade has become a dynamic immunotherapy for bladder cancer. In 2016, atezolizumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, became the first new drug approved in metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) in over 30 years. In 2017, nivolumab was also approved for the same indication. This overview of checkpoint inhibitors in clinical trials focuses on novel immunotherapy combinations, predictive biomarkers including mutational load and neoantigen identification, and an evaluation of the future of bladder cancer immunotherapy...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282344/how-to-evaluate-and-assess-quality-of-life-issues-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients
#5
Jose G Vartanian, Simon N Rogers, Luiz P Kowalski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Review quality of life (QOL) concepts and most common instruments to be used in patients with head and neck cancer, as well as the potential benefits and limitations of information derived from QOL studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Information from QOL studies can be clinical predictors of prognosis, serve as potential screening and planning tools for clinical care and rehabilitation efforts. Enhancements in computer technology and the advent of tools like head and neck cancer-specific item prompt list will allow for QOL data to be used more easily...
March 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282343/targeting-of-protein-translation-as-a-new-treatment-paradigm-for-prostate-cancer
#6
Vidya P Ramamurthy, Senthilmurugan Ramalingam, Andrew K Kwegyir-Afful, Arif Hussain, Vincent C O Njar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current overview will summarize some of the developments in the area of protein translation, including their relation to the therapeutic targeting of prostate cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Translational control, mediated by the rate-limiting eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), drives selective translation of several oncogenic proteins, thereby contributing to tumor growth, metastasis, and treatment resistance in various cancers, including prostate cancer...
March 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282342/new-developments-in-the-biology-and-the-treatment-of-metastatic-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#7
Patrick Terheyden, J├╝rgen C Becker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with stage IIIB und IV metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (mMCC), who are not suitable candidates for surgery or radiotherapy, are unlikely to achieve lasting remission or tumor control by chemo or targeted therapy. In the majority of cases, the tumor arises from viral carcinogenesis associated with the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). In MCPyV-negative tumors with a presumable ultraviolet carcinogenesis, a high mutational burden resulting in neoantigens was discovered...
March 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282341/new-developments-in-the-management-of-nonmuscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#8
Mark D Tyson, Daniel Lee, Peter Clark
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we summarize the core principles in the management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) with an emphasis on new developments that have emerged over the last year. RECENT FINDINGS: NMIBC has a propensity to recur and progress. Risk stratification has facilitated appropriate patient selection for treatment but improved tools, including biomarkers, are still needed. Enhanced cystoscopy with photodynamic imaging and narrow band imaging show promise for diagnosis, risk stratification, and disease monitoring and has been formally recommended this year by the American Urological Association...
March 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252460/the-role-of-transoral-robotic-surgery-in-the-management-of-oropharyngeal-cancer
#9
Fernando L Dias, Fernando Walder, Fernando Danelon Leonhardt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rising incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), in large part as a result of the human papillomavirus (HPV), has driven a movement for the change in the management strategies. Renewed interest in minimally invasive approaches of endoscopic head and neck surgery led to introduction of transoral surgery, including transoral robotic surgery (TORS). RECENT FINDINGS: Several recent studies, based on large multi-institutional studies and systematic reviews of the literature, have shown excellent oncologic and functional outcomes with TORS for OPSCC...
March 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252459/renal-cell-carcinoma-molecular-characterization-and-evolving-treatment-paradigms
#10
Mark W Ball, Eric A Singer, Ramaprasad Srinivasan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The treatment landscape of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) continues to shift as both new targeted therapies and immunotherapies show efficacy in treating the disease. Contemporary insights into the molecular characterization of RCC are likely to fuel the development of additional therapies. This review summarizes recent advancements in the biologic characterization of RCC and discusses newly approved therapies and ongoing studies in the treatment of advanced RCC...
March 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151756/recent-developments-in-the-management-of-germ-cell-tumors
#11
Pavlos Msaouel, Mehmet A Bilen, Miao Zhang, Matthew Campbell, Jennifer Wang, Shi-Ming Tu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the present review, we summarize the recent developments in the management of germ cell tumors (GCTs). RECENT FINDINGS: Treatment-related acute and late-onset toxicity remains a key challenge in the management of GCTs. Recent data show that patients with large retroperitoneal lymph node metastases are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism and may benefit from prophylactic anticoagulation. Predictive models have been developed to identify patients with residual retroperitoneal lymph node masses who are more likely to benefit from surgical resection...
February 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151757/drug-therapy-of-advanced-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-is-there-any-evidence
#12
Simone Ribero, Luigia Stefania Stucci, Gregory A Daniels, Luca Borradori
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are few randomized controlled studies to guide the treatment of advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. The existing treatments are mostly based on case reports and small case series. Here we review recently available insights concerning the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma, with a special emphasis on novel targeted therapy and immunotherapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Surgery and combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy have been long considered the gold standard options for advanced squamous cell carcinoma...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141684/treatment-and-surveillance-of-advanced-metastatic-iodine-resistant-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#13
Eiman Y Ibrahim, Naifa L Busaidy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will focus on the management and treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer that is radioactive iodine refractory and review the new drugs and their mechanism of actions as well as their adverse events. RECENT FINDINGS: Until recently, there were no efficacious therapeutic modalities for these patients. With advancement in knowledge and research of the molecular aberrations and oncogenic mutations in thyroid cancer as well as further understanding the role of angiogenesis in tumor growth molecular pathogenesis, novel targeted therapies are available for these patients...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085680/can-we-define-the-optimal-sequence-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutant-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer
#14
Jong-Mu Sun, Keunchil Park
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The most common mechanism of resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is acquisition of the T790M gatekeeper mutation. Third-generation EGFR TKIs irreversibly inhibit EGFR mutants (EGFRm), especially T790M, while sparing wild-type EGFR. There are several third-generation EGFR TKIs under development, including osimertinib, CO-1686 (rociletinib), HM61713 (olmutinib), ASP8273, and EGF816. These third-generation EGFR TKIs have shown promising efficacy with favorable toxicity profiles in the management of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with an acquired T790M mutation (EGFR)...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085679/radiotherapy-in-combination-with-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#15
Dirk De Ruysscher, Kobe Reynders, Evert Van Limbergen, Maarten Lambrecht
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The immunomodulatory effects of ionizing radiation have long been recognized; however, so far these have not been fully exploited in clinical practice. We review the rationale to combine radiation with immune checkpoint inhibitors, which are used in standard practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical research suggests a synergy between radiotherapy and these immune checkpoint inhibitors. Whether or not this benefit translates into a clinical benefit is currently subject of ongoing research...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059853/a-review-of-serious-adverse-effects-under-treatment-with-checkpoint-inhibitors
#16
Lucie Heinzerling, Simone M Goldinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to raise awareness of physicians for the serious side-effects of immune-checkpoint blocking antibodies. As checkpoint inhibitors can induce severe side-effects and are increasingly being used also in subspecialties besides dermatology and oncology, with less experience with these drugs available, knowledge has to be spread. Early recognition and adequate management is essential. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports on side-effects document cases of serious side-effects involving all organ systems...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059852/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-first-line-therapy-of-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
Jordi Remon, Benjamin Besse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evading immune destruction is a hallmark of cancer. The first therapeutic wave in immunotherapies comprised a series of monoclonal antibodies directed against the immune checkpoint molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4, programmed death 1 (PD-1), and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) revolutionizing the therapeutic landscape of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. They were validated initially as second-line treatment, becoming the new standard of care...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027106/systemic-treatment-for-thymic-malignancies
#18
Nicolas Girard, Claire Merveilleux du Vignaux
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The management of thymic epithelial tumors is a paradigm of multidisciplinary collaboration. Chemotherapy may be administered as part of curative-intent sequential strategy integrating subsequent surgery or radiotherapy, or as an exclusive treatment if local treatment is not achievable. Recurrences of thymic epithelial tumors should be managed according to the same strategy as newly diagnosed tumors. RECENT FINDINGS: More options have become available for advanced, refractory, and recurrent thymic epithelial tumors, which include cytotoxic agents such as carboplatin-paclitaxel, pemetrexed, and oral etoposide...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027105/concurrent-driver-mutations-rearrangements-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#19
Samer Tabchi, Hampig R Kourie, Jean Klastersky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The concept of mutually exclusive oncogenic driver alterations has prevailed over the past decade, but recent reports have stressed the possible occurrence of dual-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and even triple-positive disease for these oncogenes. This entity presents novel prognostic and therapeutic challenges. The present review highlights the available data in an effort to clarify the clinical and pathological significance of coexisting mutations as well as the subsequent therapeutic consequences...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027104/critical-aspects-to-achieve-a-high-quality-melanoma-clinic
#20
Reinhard Dummer, Egle Ramelyte, Mitch Levesque, Simone M Goldinger, Ralph P Braun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With incidence of melanoma growing worldwide and new therapies prolonging the survival of patients with advanced disease, complex medical care is needed. RECENT FINDINGS: Best care of complicated melanoma cases is achieved in specialized referral centers. Aims to provide optimized melanoma therapy, best patient-reported treatment outcome, and successful clinical and translational research, necessitate a dedicated interdisciplinary team. SUMMARY: We report on critical aspects of the interaction between patients, medical care givers, clinical trial and biobanking teams, and emphasize the importance of interdisciplinary tumor boards...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
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