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Current Opinion in Oncology

Robert Pirker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have been established as a new class of anticancer drugs for patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer. Predictive biomarkers might help to select those patients who will derive the greatest benefit from these expensive drugs. This review summarizes the current status of predictive biomarkers for immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer. RECENT FINDING: Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) staining on tumor cells and immune cells has been studied as a predictive biomarker for immune checkpoint inhibitors...
November 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Christoph Oliver Ryser, Joachim Diebold, Oliver Gautschi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We describe recent developments in the rapidly evolving field of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-targeting agents. RECENT FINDINGS: Five targeted drugs are currently available in the clinic via regular approval or named patient programs, including crizotinib, ceritinib, alectinib, brigatinib and lorlatinib. Further drugs are tested in clinical trials. This review summarizes published data, together with drug-specific information on dosing and toxicity...
November 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Katrien Ghysen, Johan Vansteenkiste
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: 'Early-stage' nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) refers to stage I and stage II disease, and selected cases of stage IIIA disease where complete tumor resection is feasible. Surgery is the standard treatment for early NSCLC, but the overall 5-year survival remains below 50%. The addition of adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy to surgery improved 5-year survival rates by 5-10%, but no significant therapeutic innovation has been established thereafter. We review recent and ongoing studies looking how immunotherapy may improve the outcome of these patients...
October 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Maria Vittoria Dieci, Grazia Vernaci, Valentina Guarneri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current standard for HER2+ early breast cancer patients includes chemotherapy and trastuzumab for 1 year. The purpose of this article is to review available evidence on escalated treatment strategies for high-risk patients and de-escalated treatments for patients at low risk of relapse or high risk of cardiac toxicity. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent results have led to the approval of two adjuvant escalated treatment strategies: pertuzumab and trastuzumab combined with chemotherapy for up to 1 year for high-risk patients; extension of adjuvant anti-HER2 treatment with 1 year of neratinib...
October 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Ivana Sestak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is growing consensus that genomic assays provide useful complementary information to clinicopathological features in oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers. Here, ongoing research with multigene tests used for postmenopausal breast cancer and new emerging prognostic and predictive markers for pre- and postmenopausal women are summarised. RECENT FINDINGS: Results of the TAILORx trial have shown that women with an intermediate risk score do not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy...
October 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Matteo Lambertini, Giulia Viglietti, Evandro de Azambuja
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This manuscript aims at providing an updated overview on the role of adding ovarian function suppression to tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor as adjuvant endocrine therapy in premenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive early breast cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Until recently, tamoxifen alone was the only standard adjuvant treatment option for premenopausal women with ER-positive disease. However, recent important evidence has contributed to significantly modify the endocrine treatment landscape in this setting...
October 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Marta González-Vicent, Miguel A Díaz Perez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nowadays, T-cell-depleted haploidentical transplantation is considered a valid approach for children lacking a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical donor for allogeneic transplantation. This kind of allogeneic transplant is now widely used especially for pediatric patients with high-risk hematological malignancies. However, relapsing disease and life-threatening viral infections are still relevant clinical problems as a consequence of delayed immune reconstitution...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Sara Lozano Cerrada, Syed Y Altaf, Eduardo Olavarria
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the past and current knowledge of the use of unrelated donors (URDs) in allogeneic stem cell transplantation for patients with acute leukaemia. RECENT FINDINGS: The outcome of URD stem cell transplants in terms of treatment-related mortality, relapse rates, disease free survival and overall survival is comparable to sibling donors. SUMMARY: Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the therapy of choice in many haematological malignant diseases but only one-third of the patients will have an HLA-matched sibling...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Federica Galaverna, Annalisa Ruggeri, Franco Locatelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are rare disorders in children, showing peculiar clinical manifestations and biological features. This review will summarize biological, genetic and clinical features of childhood MDS and will provide an update of the algorithm of treatment of the different disease variants. RECENT FINDINGS: The most recent classification of MDS includes refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC), advanced and therapy-related MDS...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Elvira Mora, Guillermo F Sanz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review focuses on the current management of patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and the most recent developments in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: CMML is a heterogeneous malignant myeloid disorder sharing features of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms and characterized by peripheral blood monocytosis and increased risk of progression to acute leukemia. Its natural course is highly variable and use of CMML-specific prognostic scoring systems is strongly recommended for tailoring treatment...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Marc Barritault, David Meyronet, François Ducray
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent advances in the molecular classification of adult gliomas. RECENT FINDINGS: According to the 2016 WHO classification, five main molecular subgroups of adult diffuse gliomas can be distinguished based on the 1p/19q codeletion, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), and histone H3.3 mutation status. In the future, this classification may be further refined based on the integration of additional biomarkers, in particular CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion in IDH-mutant astrocytomas, TERT promoter mutations, EGFR amplification, chromosome 7 gain and chromosome 10 loss in IDH-wildtype astrocytomas, and FGFR1 mutations in midline gliomas...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Carmine M Carapella, Nicola Gorgoglione, Piero Andrea Oppido
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatment of brain metastases represent a critical issue and different options have to be considered according to patients and tumour characteristics; in recent years, new therapeutic strategies have been proposed. In this review, we discuss the role of surgical resection on the basis of patient selection, new surgical techniques and the use of intraoperative adjuncts. The integration with postoperative whole brain radiotherapy will be also outlined because alternative treatment options are currently available...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Juan Montoro, José L Piñana, Jaime Sanz, Manuel Guerreiro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We present an overview of the clinically available immunotherapeutic platforms centered on T cell lymphocytes for the treatment of hematological malignancies with a special focus on the advances achieved since 2017. RECENT FINDINGS: The most promising strategies of T cell therapies are based on the infusion of unmanipulated donor lymphocytes, antigen-specific T cells, ex-vivo genetically modified T cells or in-vivo manipulation of T cells using antibodies (bispecific and checkpoint inhibitors)...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Giulia Berzero, Dimitri Psimaras
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS). RECENT FINDINGS: PNS are rare complications of cancer caused by an immune cross-reaction between antigens expressed by tumor cells and neurons. The target of the immune attack can be an intracellular antigen or a cell-surface antigen. Although both types of autoimmunity are 'paraneoplastic', as indirectly triggered by the presence of a tumor, they profoundly differ in terms of clinical profile, pathogenesis and outcome...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Hugues Duffau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Because diffuse low-grade glioma (DLGG) is constantly migrating in the brain until malignant transformation, the historic wait-and-watch attitude was replaced by an early therapeutic management. Moreover, advances in cognitive neurosciences allowed an improved understanding of neuroplasticity reactional to DLGG growth. Here, the aim is to reevaluate the role of surgery regarding both oncological and functional outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data evidenced the significant benefit of maximal well tolerated resection on survival and quality of life (QoL)...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Mirco Friedrich, Lukas Bunse, Wolfgang Wick, Michael Platten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review introduces recent progress in eliciting the role of mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in gliomas, especially regarding its mode of action as a modulator of antitumor immune response, and provides rationales for targeting mutant IDH in glioma immunotherapy. Both the development of small molecule inhibitors repressing the enzymatic activity of mutant IDH and novel, mechanism-led combination immunotherapies are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the discovery of highly frequent IDH mutations in low-grade gliomas and nonsolid malignancies, its tumor cell-intrinsic effects have been intensively investigated...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Nuria Kotecki, Ahmad Awada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Birte Friedrichs, Matthias Stelljes, Norbert Schmitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: T - and natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms are a heterogeneous group of rare diseases with often inferior outcome. Only few studies exist, clarifying the role of allogeneic transplantation in different clinical scenarios. Larger prospective randomized studies are largely missing even for the more frequent entities. Mostly retrospective analysis and anecdotal reports of patients with advanced disease are available, hampering direct conclusions on the significance of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT)...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Camille Laurent, Corinne Haioun, Pierre Brousset, Philippe Gaulard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BI-ALCL) is a rare form of lymphoma arising adjacent to a breast implant. We aim to review the pathogenesis and clinico-biological features of BI-ALCL. RECENT FINDINGS: BI-ALCL is a new provisional entity in the 2017 updated WHO classification. Among several hypotheses, BI-ALCL development seems to be determined by the interaction of immune response related to implant products and additional genetic events...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Christian Gisselbrecht, David Sibon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a heterogeneous group of mature T-cell and natural killer (NK)-cell neoplasms in the WHO 2016 classification. Patient prognosis is poor when treated with CHOP, and there is an unmet need for new drugs. Several agents have been developed for PTCL, and their use is the subject of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Phase 2 studies demonstrated the activity of new drugs in Relapsed/refractory PTCL. Only four compounds were approved by the food and drug administration: romidepsin and belinostat, which are epigenetic modifiers, the antifolate agent pralatrexate, the immuno-conjugate brentuximab vedotin...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
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