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Current Opinion in Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665819/targeting-ezh2-in-cancer-therapy
#1
Makoto Yamagishi, Kaoru Uchimaru
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review introduces recent outstanding progress pertaining to Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), especially regarding its mode of action as a master regulator of chromatin, and provides molecular-based evidence for targeting EZH2 in cancer therapy. We discuss the active development of small molecules targeting the enzymatic activity of EZH2/polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). RECENT FINDINGS: Genetic, transcriptional, and posttranscriptional dysregulation of EZH2 is frequently observed in many cancer types...
July 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704211/how-to-emerge-from-the-conservatism-in-clinical-research-methodology
#2
Nuria Kotecki, Nicolas Penel, Ahmad Awada
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite recent changes in clinical research methodology, many challenges remain in drug development methodology. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in molecular biology and cancer treatments have changed the clinical research landscape. Thus, we moved from empirical clinical oncology to molecular and immunological therapeutic approaches. Along with this move, adapted dose-limiting toxicities definitions, endpoints, and dose escalation methods have been proposed...
July 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697002/re-irradiation-of-cervical-and-endometrial-cancer
#3
Megan Llewelyn, Alexandra Taylor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Re-irradiation historically has been associated with unacceptable toxicity and limited benefit. Recent advances in radiotherapy can change the treatment paradigm to provide new salvage treatments for recurrences of cervical and endometrial cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Image-guided brachytherapy is an effective method for salvaging central pelvic recurrence, although it has resulted in 20-25% severe late toxicity. Pelvic sidewall disease is not accessible to brachytherapy, so a combined modality approach with radical surgery and intraoperative radiotherapy is an alternative approach...
July 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697001/the-genetics-of-hodgkin-lymphoma-an-overview-and-clinical-implications
#4
Sven Borchmann, Andreas Engert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to give an overview of the genetics of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Copy number changes, somatic mutations, genome-wide association studies, changes in gene expression, familial classical Hodgkin lymphoma and epigenetic changes will be reviewed. In doing so, special focus is placed on the way recent discoveries have influenced clinical research, diagnostics, treatment and remission monitoring. Furthermore, emphasis is put on how these advances can help to advance the treatment of elderly patients who have a markedly worse prognosis than younger patients...
July 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692589/emerging-cancer-specific-therapeutic-aptamers
#5
Sorah Yoon, John J Rossi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We will describe recently discovered smart aptamers with tumor specificity, with an emphasis on targeted delivery of novel therapeutic molecules, cancer-specific biomarkers, and immunotherapy. RECENT FINDINGS: The development of cancer-specific aptamers has facilitated targeted delivery of potent therapeutic molecules to cancer cells without harming nontumoral cells. This specificity also makes it possible to discover novel cancer biomarkers. Furthermore, alternative immune-checkpoint blockade aptamers have been developed for combinational immunotherapy...
July 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678032/therapeutic-oncolytic-viruses-clinical-advances-and-future-directions
#6
Susanne G Warner, Michael P O'Leary, Yuman Fong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review will highlight recent advances in the clinical application of oncolytic viral therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Until recently, oncolytic viral researchers saw the immune system as an enemy that would clear the virus from the bloodstream. However, researchers now understand that sustained responses are seen in those patients with more robust antitumor immune responses. Much of the current focus in oncolytic viral research is trained on manipulation of the immune system to affect cancer cell killing in the tumor microenvironment and to facilitate durable systemic antitumor immunity...
July 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678031/immunotherapy-based-combinations-current-status-and-perspectives
#7
María J de Miguel-Luken, André Mansinho, Valentina Boni, Emiliano Calvo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the approval of ipilimumab, different immune checkpoint inhibitors, vaccines and costimulatory agonists have been developed with success, improving patient's survival in a number of different tumour types. However, immunotherapy results in durable responses but only in a fraction of patients. In order to improve this, combination of different immune agents is currently being attempted in the clinic with the potential of becoming one day the next wave of immune treatments available for our cancer patients...
July 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614136/surgery-for-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-advanced-ovarian-cancer-which-patient-when-and-extent
#8
Florine A Eggink, Corine M Koopmans, Hans W Nijman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cytoreduction to no residual disease is the mainstay of primary treatment for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (AdvEOC). This review addresses recent insights on optimal patient selection, timing, and extent of surgery, intended to optimize cytoreduction in patients with AdvEOC. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical guidelines recommend primary cytoreductive surgery (PCS) for AdvEOC patients with a high likelihood of achieving complete cytoreduction with acceptable morbidity...
June 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614135/cancer-in-pregnancy-safety-and-efficacy-of-systemic-therapies
#9
Ingrid Boere, Christianne Lok, Tineke Vandenbroucke, Frédéric Amant
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cancer in pregnancy has become increasingly frequent. It has become clear that for specific cancers under well defined circumstances, oncological treatment in pregnancy can be well tolerated and feasible for both mother and fetus. Continued critical assessment of the available literature and registration of cancer in pregnancy cases and outcomes for mother and child are necessary to work toward implementing optimal cancer treatment during pregnancy. RECENT FINDINGS: Physiologic changes in pregnancy may alter distribution and efficacy of systemic therapy...
June 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594645/novel-imaging-techniques-in-gynaecological-cancer
#10
Vincent Vandecaveye, Raphaëla Dresen, Frederik De Keyzer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the added value of novel functional MRI techniques towards detection, staging, characterization, response monitoring and prognostication in gynaecological cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Functional MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI adds structural, hemodynamic and physiological information to anatomical MRI. In endometrial and cervical cancer, the addition of DWI-MRI and DCE-MRI improves tumour detection as well as staging of uterine and extra-uterine pelvic spread...
June 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538258/long-term-survival-after-cancer-at-what-cost
#11
Jean A Klastersky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520569/the-meaningness-of-colon-cancer-sidedness
#12
Alain Hendlisz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509807/treatment-of-retroperitoneal-sarcoma-current-standards-and-new-developments
#13
Winan J van Houdt, Shane Zaidi, Christina Messiou, Khin Thway, Dirk C Strauss, Robin L Jones
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Retroperitoneal sarcomas are rare tumors and with complex treatment. In this manuscript we give an overview of current standards in treatment of this disease and discuss new developments. RECENT FINDINGS: Surgery with complete resection of the primary tumor is still the only curative modality. The role of preoperative radiotherapy is not clear and is currently being investigated in a clinical trial. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is not the standard of care but can be considered occasionally when complete resection is uncertain...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509806/advances-in-management-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Manon Allaire, Jean-Charles Nault
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of death by cancer worldwide due to a dismal prognosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the main advances in the pathophysiology and management of HCC. RECENT FINDINGS: Genomic analysis has recently delineated the key signaling pathways aberrantly deregulated in HCC (telomere maintenance, cell cycle gene, Wnt/β-catenin, epigenetic modifier, oxidative stress etc.). Major advances in the clinical care of patients with HCC are helping to refine the diagnosis algorithm and tumor staging...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505010/tackling-immunomonitoring-in-gastrointestinal-cancer
#15
Maëlle Anciaux, Caroline Vandeputte, Alain Hendlisz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The growing awareness that the immune system is a key player in the antitumoral response and the excellent clinical results achieved in some settings with anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1) and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) drugs has led to the rise of immunotherapy as a supplement or an alternative to conventional cancer treatment. The high costs associated with these therapies, their significant toxicity and the need to understand and circumvent immune escape mechanisms raise the urgent need for immunological assessment of therapy response...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489620/adult-desmoid-tumors-biology-management-and-ongoing-trials
#16
Nicolas Penel, Frédéric Chibon, Sébastien Salas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the current knowledge about the biology and clinical management of adult desmoid tumors. RECENT FINDINGS: In the past decade, we have learned that desmoid tumors are driven by alterations of the Wnt/APC/β-catenin pathway, sporadic desmoid tumors are associated with somatic mutations of CTNNB1, and germline mutations of APC and somatic mutations of CTNNB1 are probably mutually exclusive. One-third of desmoid tumors are misdiagnosed; a second pathological opinion is therefore of major importance for desmoid tumor...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463858/physical-long-term-side-effects-in-young-adult-cancer-survivors-germ-cell-tumors-model
#17
Hampig Raphael Kourie, Jean A Klastersky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: After the important advances in the treatment of germ cell tumors (GCTs) leading to high cure rates, physical long-term side-effects represent an important cause of death in these young adult survivors. Highlighting these physical long-term side-effects, their monitoring and their prevention modalities is necessary for a better management of these cancer survivors. RECENT FINDINGS: Impaired fertility, increased risk of developing a second cancer, cardiac, pulmonary, renal and neural toxicity, hearing and vision impairment are the major physical side-effects in young adult cancer survivors...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463857/controversies-about-fertility-and-pregnancy-issues-in-young-breast-cancer-patients-current-state-of-the-art
#18
Matteo Lambertini, Oranite Goldrat, Florian Clatot, Isabelle Demeestere, Ahmad Awada
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: For trying to help physicians in counseling their young patients with breast cancer interested in fertility preservation and future reproductive plans, this manuscript aims to perform an overview of the main available data on 10 controversies in this field. RECENT FINDINGS: Thanks to the improvement in patients' prognosis, a growing attention towards fertility and pregnancy issues has been given over the past years and is currently provided to young breast cancer patients...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459738/integrative-medicine-in-cancer-survivors
#19
Paul V Viscuse, Katharine Price, Denise Millstine, Anjali Bhagra, Brent Bauer, Kathryn J Ruddy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Due to medical advances and an aging population, the number of cancer survivors continues to rise. Survivors often experience late and long-term sequelae of cancer and its treatment (e.g., fatigue, pain, fear of recurrence, and stress). As a result, some patients have utilized or expressed interest in integrative medicine (IM) modalities for prevention of recurrence, optimizing health, enhancing quality of life, and managing symptoms. The purpose of this review is to focus on research published during the past year that informs our understanding of the utility of IM for cancer survivors...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445233/preclinical-models-for-translational-sarcoma-research
#20
Rainer Hamacher, Sebastian Bauer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sarcoma is a basket term for mesenchymal tumors for which more than 75 genetically and histologically distinct subtypes are recognized. Therapeutic progress has largely been achieved with classical chemotherapeutic drugs that were tested in empirical clinical trials. However, outcome in metastatic patients remains poor and with few exceptions numerous trials have failed or only provided limited improvement in recent years. RECENT FINDINGS: Given the genomic heterogeneity, preclinical model systems will be indispensable to identify new molecular targets and to prioritize drugs and drug combinations...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
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