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Current Opinion in Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762149/pseudoadjuvant-chemotherapy-in-resectable-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#1
Laura Polastro, Georges El Hachem, Alain Hendlisz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we focus on the potential benefits and risks of chemotherapy administration before (perioperative) or after (pseudoadjuvant) a curative resection of colorectal cancer (CRC) metastases. RECENT FINDINGS: In the published evidence, there is a lack of survival benefit from peri or postoperative chemotherapy in the context of resectable metastatic CRC. However, high-risk patients may have a certain benefit when receiving a postoperative cytotoxic treatment...
May 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746283/spiritual-care-in-cancer-patients-a-need-or-an-option
#2
Carla I Ripamonti, Federico Giuntoli, Silvia Gonella, Guido Miccinesi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Because of cancer is generally perceived as a life-threatening illness, patients often develop spiritual needs upon the diagnosis. Spirituality impacts patient quality of life (QoL) and provides a context in which to derive hope and meaning to cope with illness. The goal of this review is to give an overview of the most relevant studies with a focus on the relationship between spiritual well being, QoL and hope in patients with cancer, in addition to exploring the importance of spiritual issues both for patients and healthcare professionals...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746284/the-concept-of-oligometastases-in-colorectal-cancer-from-the-clinical-evidences-to-new-therapeutic-strategies
#3
Edouard Massaut, Ali Bohlok, Valerio Lucidi, Alain Hendlisz, Jean Klastersky, Vincent Donckier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The concept of oligometastases, defining cancers with limited metastatic capacity and attaining a limited number of secondary sites, is now widely accepted, particularly in colorectal cancer. Currently, however, accurate predictive markers for oligometastatic tumors are still lacking. For this reason, it remains challenging to translate this concept into clinical recommendations. In the present work, we review recent publications on oligometastases in colorectal cancer, showing the evidences for such presentation and underlying the need for the identification of biomarkers, necessary to further develop new therapeutic strategies...
May 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702501/the-latest-consensus-on-antiemetics
#4
Jørn Herrstedt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes and discuss the most recent updated antiemetic consensus. RECENT FINDINGS: Two new neurokinin (NK)1-receptor antagonists, netupitant and rolapitant, have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency and incorporated in the latest versions of the MASCC/ESMO, ASCO, and NCCN guidelines. Guidelines all recommend a combination of a serotonin (5-HT)3-receptor antagonist, dexametha-sone, and a NK1-receptor antagonist in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) with the addition of the multireceptor targeting agent, olanzapine, as an option in cisplatin or anthracycline-cyclophosphamide chemotherapy...
April 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538042/the-evolving-genomic-landscape-in-urothelial-cancer
#5
Lara Kujtan, Arif Hussain, Janakiraman Subramanian, Ashiq Masood
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent advances in next-generation sequencing have allowed for detailed molecular analysis of urothelial carcinomas, with potentially significant clinical implications for personalized treatment. Our objective in this review is to highlight studies from the past year that have furthered the understanding of urothelial cancer genomics. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies by The Cancer Genome Atlas consortium further characterized urothelial carcinomas via molecular subtyping, and a schema was proposed to match each subtype with potential therapeutic implications...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538041/tobacco-and-alcohol-induced-epigenetic-changes-in-oral-carcinoma
#6
Yasmine Ghantous, Juliana L Schussel, Mariana Brait
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review aims to describe the epigenetic alterations observed in oral cancer linked to the exposure to alcohol and/or tobacco. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings emphasize the importance of epigenetics in oral cancer progression and in how risk factors (as tobacco and alcohol) affect the basal epigenetic profiles. Deeper techniques and detailed approaches allowed the perception that individual CG changes and even subtle changes may represent important epigenetic alterations resulting in expression changes and other carcinogenic consequences...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553950/the-emerging-role-of-immunotherapy-in-advanced-urothelial-cancers
#7
William Tabayoyong, Jianjun Gao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of five new immune checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of metastatic urothelial cancer represents the first major treatment breakthrough for this disease since the introduction of combination chemotherapy over 30 years ago. This review examines the recent clinical trials leading to FDA approval of these agents, the current challenges facing immunotherapy and areas that require further research. RECENT FINDINGS: The programmed death 1 receptor (PD-1) and its ligand programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) are important negative regulators of immune activity, preventing destruction of normal tissues and autoimmunity...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553949/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-metastatic-prostate-cancer-optimizing-use-of-existing-therapies-while-searching-for-novel-interventions
#8
Theodore Gourdin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Summarizes recent advances in the treatment of metastatic castration-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: New randomized data suggest a survival advantage to early abiraterone in castration-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer. Prospective and retrospective studies are examining sequencing of existing cytotoxic and androgen-receptor-targeted therapies in both castration-sensitive and castration-resistant disease...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538040/managing-seminomatous-and-nonseminomatous-germ-cell-tumors
#9
Jad Chahoud, Miao Zhang, Amishi Shah, Sue-Hwa Lin, Louis L Pisters, Shi-Ming Tu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the present review, we summarize the recent developments in the management of germ cell tumors (GCTs). RECENT FINDINGS: Treatment-related acute and late-onset toxicity remains a key challenge in the management of GCTs, with recent evidence showing that the adverse health outcomes of etoposide and cisplatin for four cycles in comparison to bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin for three cycles appear to be similar. Recent data showed that multidisciplinary clinic approach and management in experienced academic centers were associated with improved overall survival in GCT patients...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474271/de-escalation-treatment-of-human-papillomavirus-positive-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-an-evidence-based-review-for-the-locally-advanced-disease
#10
Gustavo T Stock, Renata R C Colombo Bonadio, Gilberto de Castro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) incidence is increasing worldwide, especially in developed countries where it seems to be etiologically related to the elevating rates of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Considered a distinct disease because of its weak correlation with the traditional risk factors (tobacco use and alcohol), it has different patterns of survival outcomes, locoregional and distant failure, generally with better prognosis independently of the treatment...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474270/patients-choices-quality-of-life-and-treatment-selection-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#11
Maria Perez Soares D'Alessandro, Gilberto de Castro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465429/advances-in-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-pet-of-prostate-cancer
#12
Kirsten Bouchelouche, Peter L Choyke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent years, a large number of reports have been published on prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)/PET in prostate cancer (PCa). This review highlights advances in PSMA PET in PCa during the past year. RECENT FINDINGS: PSMA PET/computed tomography (CT) is useful in detection of biochemical recurrence, especially at low prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values. The detection rate of PSMA PET is influenced by PSA level. For primary PCa, PSMA PET/CT shows promise for tumour localization in the prostate, especially in combination with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI)...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465428/recent-advances-in-radiation-oncology-multimodal-targeting-of-high-risk-and-recurrent-prostate-cancer
#13
Young Kwok, Adeel Kaiser, Stephanie R Rice, Randi Cohen, Mark Mishra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The overview summarizes recent developments in radiation oncology for high risk and recurrent prostate cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of well known phase III prostate hypofractionated radiation therapy (HFxRT) trials were finally published with long-term follow-ups. These trials demonstrate patterns of equivalent tumor control with several showing worse toxicity rates. The ASCENDE-RT randomized trial demonstrated the superiority of brachytherapy boost in intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356698/development-of-encorafenib-for-braf-mutated-advanced-melanoma
#14
Peter Koelblinger, Olaf Thuerigen, Reinhard Dummer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the pharmacological properties, preclinical and clinical data of the novel V-Raf Murine Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog B (BRAF)-inhibitor encorafenib (LGX818) and to compare these with established BRAF-inhibitors in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic melanoma. RECENT FINDINGS: Encorafenib has shown improved efficacy in the treatment of metastatic melanoma in comparison with vemurafenib. Combination with the MEK inhibitor (MEKi) binimetinib allows for higher dose intensities of encorafenib further improving response rates (RRs)...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329112/master-protocols-in-lung-cancer-experience-from-lung-master-protocol
#15
Vincent K Lam, Vassiliki Papadimitrakopoulou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Contemporary advances in the understanding of the molecular and immunologic basis of metastatic lung cancer have firmly changed its treatment paradigm to a personalized, biomarker-driven approach. However, the majority of lung-cancer patients [especially lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC)] still do not have effective targeted therapeutic options. Master protocols, such as Lung-MAP, represent an innovative clinical trial approach designed to accelerate evaluation of novel biomarker-driven therapies...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303788/the-dynamics-of-medical-care-in-skin-cancers
#16
Reinhard Dummer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303787/supportive-care-in-the-era-of-immunotherapies-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
Gil Awada, Jean Klastersky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The therapeutic armamentarium for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer has evolved considerably over the past years. Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting programmed cell death-1 such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab or programmed cell death ligand 1 such as atezolizumab, durvalumab and avelumab have shown favorable efficacy results in this patient population in the first-line and second-line setting. These immunotherapies are associated with a distinct toxicity profile based on autoimmune organ toxicity which is a new challenge for supportive care during treatment with these drugs...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256902/update-on-adjuvant-melanoma-therapy
#18
Florentia Dimitriou, Ralph Peter Braun, Joanna Mangana
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the results from relevant clinical trials and discuss current strategies in the melanoma adjuvant setting. RECENT FINDINGS: The favorable therapeutic efficacy and the significant less toxicity of nivolumab compared with ipilimumab, fully substitutes today's approval of ipilimumab, regardless mutation status, whereas in BRAF-mutated patients, dabrafenib and trametinib seem to confirm their high efficacy also in adjuvant setting. The use of interferon is restricted to patients with ulcerated melanoma and countries with no access to the new drugs...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256901/treatment-of-alk-positive-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer-recent-advances
#19
Alesha A Thai, Benjamin J Solomon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review will highlight recent advances in development of ALK-TKIs and management of patients with ALK-positive nonsmall cell lung cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been rapid progress in the use of targeted therapies for ALK-positive NSCLC. Since the discovery, development and approval of crizotinib in 2011, three second-generation ALK-TKIs, ceritinib, alectinib and brigatinib have been approved by the FDA. A range of newer generation ALK inhibitors with improved potency against ALK and against mutations that confer resistance to crizotinib are in clinical development...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251666/advanced-pet-imaging-in-oncology-status-and-developments-with-current-and-future-relevance-to-lung-cancer-care
#20
Wieland Voigt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the status and developments of PET imaging in oncology, with particular emphasis on lung cancer. We discuss the significance of PET for diagnosis, staging, decision-making, monitoring of treatment response, and drug development. The PET key advantage, the noninvasive assessment of functional and molecular tumor characteristics including tumor heterogeneity, as well as PET trends relevant to cancer care are exemplified. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances of PET and radiotracer technology are encouraging for multiple fields of oncological research and clinical application, including in-depth assessment of PET images by texture analysis (radiomics)...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
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