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Current Opinion in Oncology

Sara Lozano Cerrada, Syed Y Altaf, Eduardo Olavarria
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the past and current knowledge of the use of unrelated donors (URDs) in allogeneic stem cell transplantation for patients with acute leukaemia. RECENT FINDINGS: The outcome of URD stem cell transplants in terms of treatment-related mortality, relapse rates, disease free survival and overall survival is comparable to sibling donors. SUMMARY: Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the therapy of choice in many haematological malignant diseases but only one-third of the patients will have an HLA-matched sibling...
September 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Federica Galaverna, Annalisa Ruggeri, Franco Locatelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are rare disorders in children, showing peculiar clinical manifestations and biological features. This review will summarize biological, genetic and clinical features of childhood MDS and will provide an update of the algorithm of treatment of the different disease variants. RECENT FINDINGS: The most recent classification of MDS includes refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC), advanced and therapy-related MDS...
September 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Elvira Mora, Guillermo F Sanz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review focuses on the current management of patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and the most recent developments in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: CMML is a heterogeneous malignant myeloid disorder sharing features of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms and characterized by peripheral blood monocytosis and increased risk of progression to acute leukemia. Its natural course is highly variable and use of CMML-specific prognostic scoring systems is strongly recommended for tailoring treatment...
August 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Marc Barritault, David Meyronet, François Ducray
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent advances in the molecular classification of adult gliomas. RECENT FINDINGS: According to the 2016 WHO classification, five main molecular subgroups of adult diffuse gliomas can be distinguished based on the 1p/19q codeletion, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), and histone H3.3 mutation status. In the future, this classification may be further refined based on the integration of additional biomarkers, in particular CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion in IDH-mutant astrocytomas, TERT promoter mutations, EGFR amplification, chromosome 7 gain and chromosome 10 loss in IDH-wildtype astrocytomas, and FGFR1 mutations in midline gliomas...
August 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Carmine M Carapella, Nicola Gorgoglione, Piero Andrea Oppido
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatment of brain metastases represent a critical issue and different options have to be considered according to patients and tumour characteristics; in recent years, new therapeutic strategies have been proposed. In this review, we discuss the role of surgical resection on the basis of patient selection, new surgical techniques and the use of intraoperative adjuncts. The integration with postoperative whole brain radiotherapy will be also outlined because alternative treatment options are currently available...
August 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Juan Montoro, José L Piñana, Jaime Sanz, Manuel Guerreiro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We present an overview of the clinically available immunotherapeutic platforms centered on T cell lymphocytes for the treatment of hematological malignancies with a special focus on the advances achieved since 2017. RECENT FINDINGS: The most promising strategies of T cell therapies are based on the infusion of unmanipulated donor lymphocytes, antigen-specific T cells, ex-vivo genetically modified T cells or in-vivo manipulation of T cells using antibodies (bispecific and checkpoint inhibitors)...
August 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Giulia Berzero, Dimitri Psimaras
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS). RECENT FINDINGS: PNS are rare complications of cancer caused by an immune cross-reaction between antigens expressed by tumor cells and neurons. The target of the immune attack can be an intracellular antigen or a cell-surface antigen. Although both types of autoimmunity are 'paraneoplastic', as indirectly triggered by the presence of a tumor, they profoundly differ in terms of clinical profile, pathogenesis and outcome...
August 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Hugues Duffau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Because diffuse low-grade glioma (DLGG) is constantly migrating in the brain until malignant transformation, the historic wait-and-watch attitude was replaced by an early therapeutic management. Moreover, advances in cognitive neurosciences allowed an improved understanding of neuroplasticity reactional to DLGG growth. Here, the aim is to reevaluate the role of surgery regarding both oncological and functional outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data evidenced the significant benefit of maximal well tolerated resection on survival and quality of life (QoL)...
August 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Mirco Friedrich, Lukas Bunse, Wolfgang Wick, Michael Platten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review introduces recent progress in eliciting the role of mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in gliomas, especially regarding its mode of action as a modulator of antitumor immune response, and provides rationales for targeting mutant IDH in glioma immunotherapy. Both the development of small molecule inhibitors repressing the enzymatic activity of mutant IDH and novel, mechanism-led combination immunotherapies are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the discovery of highly frequent IDH mutations in low-grade gliomas and nonsolid malignancies, its tumor cell-intrinsic effects have been intensively investigated...
August 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Nicolas Penel, Loïc Lebellec, Marie Vanseymortier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aimed to summarize the recent reflections and collaborative initiatives pertaining to the definition of more appropriate eligibility criteria in cancer clinical trials. RECENT FINDINGS: There is an intrinsic tension between two opposite purposes when it comes to defining eligibility criteria: on the one hand, participants must be protected, and on the other, the study population must be defined as accurately as possible. However, stringent eligibility criteria jeopardize the feasibility of trials, and, consequently, the generalizability of trial results...
July 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Nuria Kotecki, Ahmad Awada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Birte Friedrichs, Matthias Stelljes, Norbert Schmitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: T - and natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms are a heterogeneous group of rare diseases with often inferior outcome. Only few studies exist, clarifying the role of allogeneic transplantation in different clinical scenarios. Larger prospective randomized studies are largely missing even for the more frequent entities. Mostly retrospective analysis and anecdotal reports of patients with advanced disease are available, hampering direct conclusions on the significance of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT)...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Camille Laurent, Corinne Haioun, Pierre Brousset, Philippe Gaulard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BI-ALCL) is a rare form of lymphoma arising adjacent to a breast implant. We aim to review the pathogenesis and clinico-biological features of BI-ALCL. RECENT FINDINGS: BI-ALCL is a new provisional entity in the 2017 updated WHO classification. Among several hypotheses, BI-ALCL development seems to be determined by the interaction of immune response related to implant products and additional genetic events...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Christian Gisselbrecht, David Sibon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a heterogeneous group of mature T-cell and natural killer (NK)-cell neoplasms in the WHO 2016 classification. Patient prognosis is poor when treated with CHOP, and there is an unmet need for new drugs. Several agents have been developed for PTCL, and their use is the subject of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Phase 2 studies demonstrated the activity of new drugs in Relapsed/refractory PTCL. Only four compounds were approved by the food and drug administration: romidepsin and belinostat, which are epigenetic modifiers, the antifolate agent pralatrexate, the immuno-conjugate brentuximab vedotin...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Angela George
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is an increasing interest in the role of routine testing for germline mutations in the management and outcome of gynaecological cancers as the therapeutic options for these patients develop, and knowledge about specific gene risks increase. This review focuses on recent literature assessing these areas of interest. RECENT FINDINGS: Systemic treatment options continue to increase, with two recent studies (SOLO2 and ARIEL-3) of the use of PARP inhibitors in the maintenance setting; and approval of pembrolizomab for mismatch repair deficient/microsatellite unstable tumours...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
François Lemonnier, Philippe Gaulard, Laurence de Leval
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) represent diverse and aggressive malignancies, with few recent therapeutic improvements. Recent high-throughput genomic studies have revealed the complex mutational landscape of these rare diseases. These novel findings provide the grounds to a more comprehensive classification of these diseases, reflected in the 2017 WHO classification. RECENT FINDINGS: Our review is focused on selected PTCL entities. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and other lymphomas derived from T follicular helper cells feature a rather homogeneous mutational landscape...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Richa Bajpai, Mala Shanmugam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Targeting cancer metabolism for therapy has received much attention over the last decade with various small molecule inhibitors entering clinical trials. The present review highlights the latest strategies to target glucose and glutamine metabolism for cancer therapy with a particular emphasis on novel combinatorial treatment approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: Inhibitors of glucose, lactate, and glutamine transport and the ensuing metabolism are in preclinical to clinical trial stages of investigation...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Alecia S Folkes, Mingye Feng, Jasmine M Zain, Farah Abdulla, Steven T Rosen, Christiane Querfeld
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the relevance of CD47 in the tumor microenvironment and summarize data on anti-CD47 therapies, including its role in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). RECENT FINDINGS: CD47 is expressed on all normal cells and targets SIRPα on the surface of myeloid cells. However, CD47 is found to be overexpressed on cancer cells. CD47-SIRPα interaction inhibits macrophage phagocytosis, allowing cancer cells to escape immune surveillance. Current focus in immunotherapy has been targeted toward inhibiting CD47-SIRPα interaction via anti-CD47 antibodies...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Pushpa Naga Ch, Lavanya Gurram, Supriya Chopra, Umesh Mahantshetty
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cervical cancer is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women worldwide. Surgery and chemoradiation are widely utilized treatments for cervical cancer. Despite the available standard treatment of choice, outcome is suboptimal among patients with LACC. It is vital to integrate the evidence generated from high-quality research work for effective management of these cases. This review intends to critically evaluate the latest evidence supporting the available treatment modalities and to provide a comprehensive overview of recent advances and ongoing research in the management of LACC...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
Sven Borchmann, Andreas Engert, Boris Böll
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to summarize the current knowledge on the treatment of elderly Hodgkin lymphoma patients with a focus on evidence from clinical trials and novel drugs. RECENT FINDINGS: For elderly Hodgkin lymphoma patients above 60 years without precluding comorbidities a curative treatment approach is warranted. Early favorable stage patients should receive two cycles of multiagent chemotherapy followed by 20 Gy localized radiotherapy. Early unfavorable stage patients should receive four cycles of multiagent chemotherapy followed by 30 Gy localized radiotherapy...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
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