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Current Opinion in Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151756/recent-developments-in-the-management-of-germ-cell-tumors
#1
Pavlos Msaouel, Mehmet A Bilen, Miao Zhang, Matthew Campbell, Jennifer Wang, Shi-Ming Tu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the present review, we summarize the recent developments in the management of germ cell tumors (GCTs). RECENT FINDINGS: Treatment-related acute and late-onset toxicity remains a key challenge in the management of GCTs. Recent data show that patients with large retroperitoneal lymph node metastases are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism and may benefit from prophylactic anticoagulation. Predictive models have been developed to identify patients with residual retroperitoneal lymph node masses who are more likely to benefit from surgical resection...
February 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151757/drug-therapy-of-advanced-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-is-there-any-evidence
#2
Simone Ribero, Luigia Stefania Stucci, Gregory A Daniels, Luca Borradori
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are few randomized controlled studies to guide the treatment of advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. The existing treatments are mostly based on case reports and small case series. Here we review recently available insights concerning the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma, with a special emphasis on novel targeted therapy and immunotherapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Surgery and combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy have been long considered the gold standard options for advanced squamous cell carcinoma...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141684/treatment-and-surveillance-of-advanced-metastatic-iodine-resistant-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#3
Eiman Y Ibrahim, Naifa L Busaidy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will focus on the management and treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer that is radioactive iodine refractory and review the new drugs and their mechanism of actions as well as their adverse events. RECENT FINDINGS: Until recently, there were no efficacious therapeutic modalities for these patients. With advancement in knowledge and research of the molecular aberrations and oncogenic mutations in thyroid cancer as well as further understanding the role of angiogenesis in tumor growth molecular pathogenesis, novel targeted therapies are available for these patients...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085680/can-we-define-the-optimal-sequence-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutant-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Jong-Mu Sun, Keunchil Park
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The most common mechanism of resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is acquisition of the T790M gatekeeper mutation. Third-generation EGFR TKIs irreversibly inhibit EGFR mutants (EGFRm), especially T790M, while sparing wild-type EGFR. There are several third-generation EGFR TKIs under development, including osimertinib, CO-1686 (rociletinib), HM61713 (olmutinib), ASP8273, and EGF816. These third-generation EGFR TKIs have shown promising efficacy with favorable toxicity profiles in the management of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with an acquired T790M mutation (EGFR)...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085679/radiotherapy-in-combination-with-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#5
Dirk De Ruysscher, Kobe Reynders, Evert Van Limbergen, Maarten Lambrecht
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The immunomodulatory effects of ionizing radiation have long been recognized; however, so far these have not been fully exploited in clinical practice. We review the rationale to combine radiation with immune checkpoint inhibitors, which are used in standard practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical research suggests a synergy between radiotherapy and these immune checkpoint inhibitors. Whether or not this benefit translates into a clinical benefit is currently subject of ongoing research...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059853/a-review-of-serious-adverse-effects-under-treatment-with-checkpoint-inhibitors
#6
Lucie Heinzerling, Simone M Goldinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to raise awareness of physicians for the serious side-effects of immune-checkpoint blocking antibodies. As checkpoint inhibitors can induce severe side-effects and are increasingly being used also in subspecialties besides dermatology and oncology, with less experience with these drugs available, knowledge has to be spread. Early recognition and adequate management is essential. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports on side-effects document cases of serious side-effects involving all organ systems...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059852/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-first-line-therapy-of-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#7
Jordi Remon, Benjamin Besse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evading immune destruction is a hallmark of cancer. The first therapeutic wave in immunotherapies comprised a series of monoclonal antibodies directed against the immune checkpoint molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4, programmed death 1 (PD-1), and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) revolutionizing the therapeutic landscape of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. They were validated initially as second-line treatment, becoming the new standard of care...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027106/systemic-treatment-for-thymic-malignancies
#8
Nicolas Girard, Claire Merveilleux du Vignaux
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The management of thymic epithelial tumors is a paradigm of multidisciplinary collaboration. Chemotherapy may be administered as part of curative-intent sequential strategy integrating subsequent surgery or radiotherapy, or as an exclusive treatment if local treatment is not achievable. Recurrences of thymic epithelial tumors should be managed according to the same strategy as newly diagnosed tumors. RECENT FINDINGS: More options have become available for advanced, refractory, and recurrent thymic epithelial tumors, which include cytotoxic agents such as carboplatin-paclitaxel, pemetrexed, and oral etoposide...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027105/concurrent-driver-mutations-rearrangements-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
Samer Tabchi, Hampig R Kourie, Jean Klastersky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The concept of mutually exclusive oncogenic driver alterations has prevailed over the past decade, but recent reports have stressed the possible occurrence of dual-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and even triple-positive disease for these oncogenes. This entity presents novel prognostic and therapeutic challenges. The present review highlights the available data in an effort to clarify the clinical and pathological significance of coexisting mutations as well as the subsequent therapeutic consequences...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027104/critical-aspects-to-achieve-a-high-quality-melanoma-clinic
#10
Reinhard Dummer, Egle Ramelyte, Mitch Levesque, Simone M Goldinger, Ralph P Braun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With incidence of melanoma growing worldwide and new therapies prolonging the survival of patients with advanced disease, complex medical care is needed. RECENT FINDINGS: Best care of complicated melanoma cases is achieved in specialized referral centers. Aims to provide optimized melanoma therapy, best patient-reported treatment outcome, and successful clinical and translational research, necessitate a dedicated interdisciplinary team. SUMMARY: We report on critical aspects of the interaction between patients, medical care givers, clinical trial and biobanking teams, and emphasize the importance of interdisciplinary tumor boards...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027103/neoadjuvant-approach-for-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer-overview-of-the-current-issues
#11
Giulio Francolini, Katia Ferrari, Vieri Scotti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the large numbers of studies, role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is debated. This approach would increase resectability in locally advanced patients, and improve surgical outcome in resectable patients. Thus, an overview of recent literature is relevant to highlight the current issues. RECENT FINDINGS: Literature in the previous year mainly focused on overall treatment strategy, radiotherapy technique, role of radiological response and metabolic imaging, and biological agents in this setting...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906861/new-and-emerging-developments-in-extensive-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer-therapeutics-erratum
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906860/liquid-biopsy-for-early-detection-of-lung-cancer
#13
Paul Hofman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The possibility of complete recovery for a lung cancer patient depends on very early diagnosis, as it allows total surgical resection. Screening for this cancer in a high-risk population can be performed using a radiological approach, but this holds a certain number of limitations. Liquid biopsy could become an alternative and complementary screening approach to chest imaging for early diagnosis of lung cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Several circulating biomarkers indicative of lung cancer can be investigated in blood, such as circulating tumor cells, circulating free nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) and proteins...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906859/recent-advances-in-nuclear-medicine-in-endocrine-oncology
#14
Markus Luster, Andreas Pfestroff, Frederik A Verburg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to review recent advances concerning the role of nuclear medicine in endocrine oncology. RECENT FINDINGS: For I therapy of thyroid cancer a thyrotropin (TSH) more than 30 mU/l has for many years been deemed a condition sine qua non. However, new data show that patients with lower TSH levels at the time of ablation have the same rate of successful ablation as those with TSH more than 30 mU/l.I-124 combined integrated positron emission tomography and computed X-ray tomography was shown to be highly accurate in predicting findings on posttherapy radioiodine scanning and was shown to have a high prognostic power...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875343/more-chinks-in-the-armor-of-cancer-potential-for-new-therapies
#15
Pierre Hainaut, Amelie Plymoth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875342/the-multifaceted-roles-of-inflammasome-proteins-in-cancer
#16
Virginie Petrilli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammasomes are major actors of the innate immune system, through their regulation of inflammatory caspases and maturation of IL-1β and IL-18. These multiprotein complexes have been shown to play major roles in inflammatory and metabolic diseases and have more recently been implicated in tumor development and dissemination. In this review, we address these recent findings, focusing particularly on colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation and tumor dissemination. RECENT FINDINGS: Based mostly on loss-of-function experiments in mouse models, paradoxical results were obtained as both protumoral and antitumoral activities were reported...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849645/current-management-of-patients-with-chronic-myelomonocytic-leukemia
#17
Ana Alfonso, Guillermo Montalban-Bravo, Guillermo Garcia-Manero
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review will focus on the current management of patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) as well as in future therapeutic perspectives. RECENT FINDINGS: CMML is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder characterized by peripheral blood monocytosis and myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative alterations in the bone marrow. Clinical behavior of the disease can be heterogeneous, with some patients having an indolent form of the disease, whereas others experience an aggressive course with decreased survival and eventual transformation to leukemia...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845971/the-follicular-variant-of-papillary-thyroid-cancer-and-noninvasive-follicular-thyroid-neoplasm-with-papillary-like-nuclear-features-niftp
#18
Joseph Scharpf, Dipti Kamani, Peter M Sadow, Gregory W Randolph
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is a new terminology proposed for encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC). Recently, thyroid cancer incidence has increased dramatically, without affecting related mortality rate. This increase is widely attributed to the intensified surveillance leading to a substantial increase in the diagnosis of small classic papillary thyroid cancers and EFVPTCs...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845970/role-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-tumor-cell-characteristics-and-cancer-outcome
#19
Antoine Galmiche, Chloé Sauzay, Eric Chevet, Olivier Pluquet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the present review, we discuss the possible role of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the acquisition of tumor cell characteristics and in the prognosis of cancer outcome, which could assist and contribute to the development of more promising therapeutic strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Accumulating evidence supports the idea that alteration of endoplasmic reticulum proteostasis is a key player in cancer development and aggressiveness. Some UPR components were reported as independent prognostic biomarker...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792053/probiotics-mediated-suppression-of-cancer
#20
Stephanie S Y So, Murphy L Y Wan, Hani El-Nezami
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Probiotics can be used as an adjuvant for cancer prevention or/and treatment through their abilities to modulate intestinal microbiota and host immune response. Although most of the recent reviews have focused on the potential role of probiotics against colon cancer, only few of them include the probiotic effect on extraintestinal cancers. The present review covers the most important findings from the literature published during the past 20 months (from January 2015 to August 2016) regarding the probiotics-mediated suppression of both gastrointestinal and extraintestinal cancers and the underlying mechanisms...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
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