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Current Opinion in Oncology

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November 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
Giancarlo Pruneri, Giuseppina Bonizzi, Andrea Vingiani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the mechanisms of anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) resistance in breast cancer patients, detailing possible predictive biomarkers of therapy benefit that could implement novel therapeutic strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite a remarkable improvement in survival over the past two decades, up to 30% of early-stage HER2+ breast cancer patients exhibit de-novo or acquired resistance to targeted therapy, underlying the need of developing predictive biomarkers...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
Antonella Castellano, Andrea Falini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely employed in the diagnosis and clinical management of brain tumors. This review provides an overview of the advancements in the field of MRI, with a particular focus on the quantitative assessment by advanced physiological magnetic resonance techniques in light of the new molecular classification of brain tumor. RECENT FINDINGS: Understanding how molecular phenotypes of brain tumors are reflected in noninvasive imaging is the goal of radiogenomics, which aims at determining the association between imaging features and molecular markers in neuro-oncology...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
Bastian Malzkorn, Guido Reifenberger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Morphological features identifiable by light microscopy have been the basis of brain tumor diagnostics for many decades. The revised WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system 2016 combines histological and molecular features for an integrated classification. This new approach builds upon advances in brain tumor molecular genetics and has important practical implications. RECENT FINDINGS: Molecular genetic studies revealed distinct glioma entities with specific genetic and epigenetic profiles...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
Sadal Refae, Barbara Pistilli, Suzette Delaloge
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: One-year duration of adjuvant trastuzumab is the gold standard since 2005. During the last decade many attempts have been made to both increase and reduce the treatment duration. The purpose of this article is to review the current available evidence regarding alternative anti-HER2 therapy durations in the (neo)adjuvant treatment of HER2-positive localized breast cancer patients. RECENT FINDINGS: According to the majority of published data, shorter trastuzumab schedule has shown a decreased benefit in the overall HER2 population, whereas extending adjuvant trastuzumab, beyond 1 year, does not improve the outcome and is associated with increased cardiac toxicity...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
Connor G O'Leary, Haley Ellis, Michaela Higgins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The risk of relapse associated with oestrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer persists for at least 15 years after diagnosis. Several large clinical trials have examined extended adjuvant endocrine therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: The MA.17 trial demonstrated improved disease-free survival (DFS) with use of letrozole for 5 years after some years of tamoxifen and an overall survival advantage for this approach in women with node-positive oestrogen receptor-positive cancer at diagnosis...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
Roberta Rudà, Federica Franchino, Riccardo Soffietti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight the most recent advances in the management of brain metastases. RECENT FINDINGS: Role of local therapies (surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery), new approaches to minimize cognitive sequelae following whole-brain radiotherapy and advances in targeted therapies have been reviewed. SUMMARY: The implications for clinical trials and daily practice of the increasing use of stereotactic radiosurgery in multiple brain metastases and upfront targeted agents in asymptomatic brain metastases are discussed...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
Bruno Paiva, Juana Merino, Jesús F San Miguel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the input of multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) into the clinical management of multiple myeloma patients has faced some reluctance, continuously growing evidence supports the utility of MFC in this disease. RECENT FINDINGS: MFC immunophenotyping of bone marrow and peripheral blood plasma cells affords cost-effective assessment of clonality, and provides prognostic information on the risk of progression in smoldering multiple myeloma, and the identification of active multiple myeloma patients with dismal outcome (e...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
Mark Abramovitz, Amy Krie, Nandini Dey, Pradip De, Casey Williams, Brian Leyland-Jones
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we summarize recent and current biomarkers and assays that are being considered in the selection of suitable patients with estrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer for extended (years 5-10) adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET). RECENT FINDINGS: Women with estrogen receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer (65% of cases) continue to have late risk for distant recurrence extending beyond 5 years from surgery. Recent large trials have consistently demonstrated improvement for prolonging endocrine therapy...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
Philippe Lewalle, Sebastian Wittnebel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The treatment of high-risk classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) patients remains challenging, especially after autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) failure. Moreover, the outcome of chemorefractory patients is still poor. RECENT FINDINGS: The development of novel targeted therapies has changed the therapeutic options for high-risk patients. To improve outcome, treatment algorithms should integrate up-front, newly established prognostic markers. Tandem ASCT instead of single ASCT has been proposed as an option to improve outcome for high-risk patients...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
Nicholas S Reed
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article will be to review neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the gynaecological tract. NETs are generally considered to be uncommon and primary tumours in the gynaecological tract on arrival rare or very rare. It is important to distinguish true primary tumours from metastatic as the management is very different. These tumours ranged from highly aggressive small cell carcinomas (SCCs) sometimes associated with secretion of neuropeptides that may be functional and cause distinctive syndromes...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
Sven Borchmann, Bastian von Tresckow, Andreas Engert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: After presenting the current treatment recommendations for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, we give an overview on recently published clinical trials in this setting. Furthermore, the potential influence of current trials on the treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma and integration of newly emerging drugs into treatment protocols will be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Trials attempting treatment de-escalation and omission of radiotherapy on the basis of early interim PET-scans have been disappointing so far, but results of some large trials employing this strategy are still awaited...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
Alexandra Leary, Aurelie Auguste, Soizick Mesnage
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The proven activity of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in BRCA-mutated homologous recombination deficient (HRD) ovarian cancer has led to the availability to patients with ovarian cancer of the first targeted therapy with an associated predictive biomarker. Our focus has recently turned towards expanding the clinical utility of PARP inhibitors beyond BRCA mutated ovarian cancer, and to a search for novel targets within DNA damage response (DDR). RECENT FINDINGS: Early trials in unselected patients with ovarian cancer showed responses to PARP inhibition in BRCA-wildtype ovarian cancer, and recent genomic studies have demonstrated that germline or somatic aberrations in other homologous recombination genes are present in a significant proportion of ovarian cancers...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
Rolf Issels, Lars H Lindner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent developments of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy treatment strategies for high-risk soft tissue sarcoma (STS) with special emphasis on regional hyperthermia (RHT) are reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Attempts to improve outcomes using up-front strategies in addition to surgery have essentially focused on neo-adjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy or preoperative radiochemotherapy. Unfortunately, the results are either confounded by retrospective analyses of nonrandomized studies with small sample size or are negative showing no substantial clinical benefit in the few randomized trials...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
Charlotte Ngô, Caroline Cornou, Léa Rossi, Anne-Sophie Bats, Chérazade Bensaid, Albane Frati, Claude Nos, Fabrice Lécuru
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Robotically assisted laparoscopy has been introduced in the armamentarium of gynaecologic oncology surgeons. A lot of studies compared robotic surgery and laparotomy when the real issue is to demonstrate the interest and added value of robotically assisted laparoscopy versus standard laparoscopy. In this review, we will describe the most meaningful indications and advantages of robotically assisted laparoscopy in gynaecologic oncology. RECENT FINDINGS: The learning curve for advanced procedures in robot-assisted laparoscopy is shorter and easier than with the standard laparoscopy, especially for beginners...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
Nuria Kotecki, Nicolas Penel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The use of antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is challenging and often requires dose adaptation and transient or definitive treatment interruption. We believe that the inappropriate recommended dose of TKI is related to no optimal study designs in the early development of the drug. RECENT FINDINGS: As an example of this, we described herein some pitfalls made in the successive development of sunitinib, sorafenib, regorafenib, and pazopanib, but there are several other examples of early drugs development illustrating this issue...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
Gilberto Morgan, Philippe Aftimos, Ahmad Awada
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Precision oncology has been a strategy of prevention, screening, and treatment. Although much has been invested, have the results fallen so far short of the promise? The advancement of technology and research has opened new doors, yet a variety of pitfalls are present. This review presents the successes, failures, and opportunities of precision oncology in the current landscape. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of targeted gene sequencing and the overwhelming results of superresponders have generated much excitement and support for precision oncology from the medical community...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
Julia J Scarisbrick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Currently, there are no curative therapies for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), and consecutive treatments tend to be given until loss of response. There is an urgent need for new and improved therapies in CTCL to treat symptoms such as pruritus and painful skin lesions and prolong survival. This article reviews new drugs available for CTCL. RECENT FINDINGS: CTCL encompasses a group of T-cell neoplasms presenting in the skin without systemic involvement...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
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