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Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922944/oocyte-vitrification-for-elective-fertility-preservation-the-past-present-and-future
#1
Vinay Gunnala, Glenn Schattman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oocyte cryopreservation is no longer experimental and one of its rapidly growing indications is elective fertility preservation. Currently there is no sufficient evidence to support its practice and therefore its place in IVF remains uncertain. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitrification has superior post-thaw survival and fertilization outcomes compared with oocytes that were frozen with the slow-freeze technique. Oocyte vitrification produces similar IVF outcomes compared with fresh oocytes and is not associated with further obstetrical or perinatal morbidity...
December 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898521/pathogenesis-and-heterogeneity-of-ovarian-cancer
#2
Paul T Kroeger, Ronny Drapkin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The most common type of ovarian cancer, high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC), was originally thought to develop from the ovarian surface epithelium. However, recent data suggest that the cells that undergo neoplastic transformation and give rise to the majority of HGSOC are from the fallopian tube. This development has impacted both translational research and clinical practice, revealing new opportunities for early detection, prevention, and treatment of ovarian cancer...
November 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861202/novel-approaches-to-early-detection-of-endometrial-cancer
#3
Madhu Bagaria, Emily Shields, Jamie N Bakkum-Gamez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Detection of endometrial cancer at an early stage leads to better oncologic outcomes. To date, a screening test for endometrial cancer does not exist. RECENT FINDINGS: Evolving knowledge of molecular changes involved in endometrial cancer carcinogenesis paired with sensitive and high-throughput technological advancements are a promising combination that can be leveraged to detect tumor DNA and proteins. These molecular biomarkers can be identified in biospecimens collected via minimally invasive and noninvasive approaches...
November 17, 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755130/twin-pregnancy-complicated-by-selective-growth-restriction
#4
Rosemary Townsend, Asma Khalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) in twin pregnancies presents a complex management problem for the fetal medicine specialist. This review summarizes what is currently known about sIUGR pathophysiology, particularly in monochorionic pregnancies and looks at the results of early trials of fetal intervention in high-risk sIUGR pregnancies. RECENT FINDINGS: sIUGR in monochorionic pregnancies is due to unequal placental sharing, but the clinical outcome is determined by the characteristics of the placental vascular anastomoses...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755129/use-of-dietary-assessment-tools-in-randomized-trials-evaluating-diet-based-interventions-in-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-of-literature
#5
Bassel H Al Wattar, Bronacha Mylrea-Lowndes, Catrin Morgan, Amanda P Moore, Shakila Thangaratinam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Accurate assessment of dietary intake in interventional trials is the key to evaluate changes in dietary behaviour and compliance. We evaluated the use of dietary assessment tools in randomized trials on diet-based interventions in pregnancy by a systematic review. RECENT FINDINGS: We updated our previous search (until January 2012) on trials of diet and lifestyle interventions in pregnancy using Medline and EMBASE up to December 2015. Two independent reviewers undertook study selection and data extraction...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749356/methods-of-pushing-during-vaginal-delivery-and-pelvic-floor-and-perineal-outcomes-a-review
#6
Renaud de Tayrac, Vincent Letouzey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past 20 years, several randomized studies have compared Valsalva and spontaneous pushing techniques during vaginal delivery. This review summarizes current medical knowledge concerning their maternal and fetal consequences, focusing on pelvic and perineal outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: We selected nine randomized controlled trials comparing Valsalva and spontaneous pushing, and a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing different methods of perineal protection...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684047/update-on-second-trimester-surgical-abortion
#7
Kate A Shaw, Klaira Lerma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recent literature on surgical second-trimester abortion, with specific attention to cervical preparation techniques. RECENT FINDINGS: Confirming previous studies, a recent retrospective observational cohort study, including 54 911 abortions, estimated the total abortion-related complication rate to be 0.41% for second-trimester or later procedures. Cervical preparation is known to reduce risks associated with second-trimester dilation and evacuation (D&E)...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805969/update-on-abortion-policy
#8
Jennifer A Conti, Ashley R Brant, Heather D Shumaker, Matthew F Reeves
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the status of antiabortion restrictions enacted over the last 5 years in the United States and their impact on abortion services. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, there has been an alarming rise in the number of antiabortion laws enacted across the United States. In total, various states in the union enacted 334 abortion restrictions from 2011 to July 2016, accounting for 30% of all abortion restrictions since the legalization of abortion in 1973...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805968/editorial-introductions
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787288/family-planning-and-the-zika-era
#10
Lisa M Goldthwaite, Griselda Velasquez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current evidence regarding the impact of the Zika virus epidemic on pregnancy and the implications for family planning and reproductive health services for women in affected countries. RECENT FINDINGS: In the past 2 years, over the course of the Zika epidemic, much has been learned about the virus. Specifically in regard to pregnancy, a causative relationship has been established between the Zika virus and adverse fetal outcomes, and sexual transmission of the virus has been documented...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787287/injectable-contraception-updates-and-innovation
#11
Gillian Schivone, Laneta Dorflinger, Vera Halpern
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Injectable contraception is a highly effective form of birth control that is globally popular. Recent research has focused on ways to make injectables such as depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) more accessible and to improve the side-effect profile of injectables. This review will focus on new directions and approaches to the use of injectable contraception. RECENT FINDINGS: Research in the area of injectable contraception has focused on improving access for women through home or self-injection, and also task-shifting and community-based distribution in low-resource areas...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787286/haemorrhage-at-caesarean-section-a-framework-for-prevention-and-research
#12
Jennifer E Jardine, Penny Law, Matthew Hogg, Deirdre Murphy, Khalid S Khan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Caesarean section rates are increasing across the world. Postpartum haemorrhage is a major cause of morbidity and mortality; major haemorrhage is more common after caesarean delivery. There is a wide range of practice in the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage at caesarean section. The aim of this review is to summarize current opinion in the management of postpartum haemorrhage at caesarean section. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent large randomized controlled trials have shown a possible effect from the routine use of tranexamic acid and ergometrine...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764015/progesterone-as-a-tocolytic-agent-for-preterm-labor-a-systematic-review
#13
Reshama Navathe, Vincenzo Berghella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tocolytic agents have been used for over 60 years in the fight against preterm labor, which ultimately can lead to preterm birth. Currently, clinicians can choose from a variety of drug classes to achieve the primary goal of delaying delivery by 48 h, thereby allowing time for administration of corticosteroids for fetal lung maturity, and if appropriate, starting magnesium sulfate for fetal neuroprotection. However, there are currently no known therapies to maintain the tocolytic effect beyond those initial 48 h...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676405/update-on-emergency-contraception
#14
Wing Kay Fok, Paul D Blumenthal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Emergency contraception provides a critical and time-sensitive opportunity for women to prevent undesired pregnancy after intercourse. Both access and available options for emergency contraception have changed over the last several years. RECENT FINDINGS: Emergency contraceptive pills can be less effective in obese women. The maximum achieved serum concentration of levonorgestrel (LNG) is lower in obese women than women of normal BMI, and doubling the dose of LNG (3 mg) increases its concentration maximum, approximating the level in normal BMI women receiving one dose of LNG...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661402/placental-implantation-abnormalities-a-modern-approach
#15
Sevan A Vahanian, Anthony M Vintzileos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Placental implantation abnormalities (PIAs) comprise a large group of disorders associated with significant maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity. RECENT FINDINGS: Risk factors include prior uterine surgery/myometrial scarring and the presence of placenta previa with or without prior cesarean delivery. Newly identified risk factors include previous prelabor cesarean delivery and previous postpartum hemorrhage. PIAs contribute substantially to preterm birth with prematurity rates ranging from 38 to 82%...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574887/editorial-introductions
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551881/laparoscopic-prolapse-surgery-types-and-evidence
#17
Arnaud Wattiez, Razan Nasir, Basma Al Maamari, Larissa Schindler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recommendations for the surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse have undergone significant changes over the last few decades.First described to be too difficult, the laparoscopic technique has gained popularity but is still controversial. The recent warning on vaginal mesh was the sign of revival and we start now to have many articles published on results and on techniques for laparoscopic prolapse repair. RECENT FINDINGS: If nothing is new in the comparison of the routes including vaginal mesh placement, the new articles are very interesting in terms of technical information and recommendations...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551880/eating-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents-what-does-the-gynecologist-need-to-know
#18
Erin H Sieke, Ellen S Rome
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss the diagnosis, medical complications, and treatment of eating disorders as defined by the newly released Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition. RECENT FINDINGS: With the introduction of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition, the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been revised to better capture the varied presentations of patients with eating disorders...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517341/exploring-the-basic-science-of-prolapse-meshes
#19
Rui Liang, Katrina Knight, Steve Abramowitch, Pamela A Moalli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Polypropylene mesh has been widely used in the surgical repair of pelvic organ prolapse. However, low but persistent rates of complications related to mesh, most commonly mesh exposure and pain, have hampered its use. Complications are higher following transvaginal implantation prompting the Food and Drug Administration to release two public health notifications warning of complications associated with transvaginal mesh use (PHN 2008 and 2011) and to upclassify transvaginal prolapse meshes from Class II to Class III devices...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517340/common-prepubertal-vulvar-conditions
#20
Samantha E Vilano, Cynthia L Robbins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to provide an update for the GP on selected common vulvar concerns in prepubertal girls. Presentation, diagnostic criteria, and management of common vulvar conditions will be described. The following conditions are frequently encountered and may pose diagnostic or management challenges if unrecognized. RECENT FINDINGS: The article is a review of current literature on pediatric vulvar conditions and was conducted through searching PubMed and published books on this topic...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
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