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Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984646/first-trimester-prediction-and-prevention-of-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-related-to-poor-placentation
#1
Arlene DʼSilva, Rina Fyfe, Jon Hyett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent research findings related to first trimester prediction and prevention of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with poor placentation. Recent publications related to prediction and prevention of preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and stillbirth were reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Researchers continue to identify markers that will help predict pregnancies that go on to develop preeclampsia through screening at 11-13 weeks...
October 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961633/cardiovascular-origins-of-preeclampsia
#2
Erkan Kalafat, Basky Thilaganathan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current data on maternal cardiovascular adaptation in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia. RECENT FINDINGS: Defective placentation causes early-onset preeclampsia, a disease entity that is considered more or less distinct from late-onset preeclampsia. The latter has been attributed as 'maternal' preeclampsia. There are inconsistencies with the placental origins hypothesis, especially when considering the lack of a causative association with abnormal placental histology or impaired fetal growth...
September 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961632/to-image-or-not-in-noncyclic-breast-pain-a-systematic-review
#3
Manuel Martín-Díaz, Marta Maes-Carballo, Khalid Saeed Khan, Aurora Bueno-Cavanillas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Investigation of noncyclic mastalgia in women without signs or risk factors for cancer is controversial. An initial imaging strategy can diagnose breast cancer early, potentially leading to better treatment and survival. However, cancer diagnosis is very uncommon in these cases, and this approach can be harmful, as false positives or suspicion results will lead to unneeded interventions and follow-up. The purpose of this review is to analyse the trade-offs between desirable and undesirable consequences of initial imaging tests against clinical follow-up...
September 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961631/does-mindfulness-meditation-improve-chronic-pain-a-systematic-review
#4
Elizabeth F Ball, Emira Nur Shafina Muhammad Sharizan, Genny Franklin, Ewelina Rogozińska
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Psychological factors are associated with chronic pain. Mindfulness meditation may ameliorate symptoms. The objective was to evaluate the effects of mindfulness meditation in chronic pain. RECENT FINDINGS: A systematic search of four databases identified 534 citations; 13 Randomised controlled trials satisfied the inclusion criteria. Mindfulness meditation significantly reduced depression [Standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.28; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0...
September 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938376/updates-on-the-diagnostic-tools-for-evaluation-of-pelvic-floor-disorders
#5
Vivian C Aguilar, Amanda B White, Rebecca G Rogers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pelvic floor disorders are common and cause significant morbidity for women. Recent advances in the evaluation of women with pelvic floor dysfunction have improved diagnostic accuracy and, with the development and use of validated patient-reported outcomes, has improved measurement of outcomes important to patients. We describe recent advances in the evaluation and measurement of pelvic floor disorders (PFDs). RECENT FINDINGS: We describe recent developments in pelvic floor assessment of women with pelvic floor dysfunction...
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938375/difficult-implant-removals
#6
Amy Voedisch, Michele Hugin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Subdermal contraceptive implant insertions have rapidly increased worldwide. These devices are usually removed 3-5 years after insertion. Although removals are generally straightforward, difficult removals can occur. This review discusses the overall approach to potentially problematic removals and the appropriate steps to avoid complications and safely remove implants. RECENT FINDINGS: Given the rapid uptake of contraceptive implants and subsequent need for removals, an Implants Removal Task Force was formed to create standard protocols for difficult implant removals worldwide...
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938374/contraceptive-counseling-for-continuation-and-satisfaction
#7
Gillian B Schivone, Laura L Glish
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Quality contraceptive counseling has been identified as a potential means to reduce unintended pregnancy and to increase contraceptive continuation and satisfaction. Past approaches that focused on autonomous decision making and directive counseling have not been shown to meet these goals consistently. Women's health organizations globally are calling for improved counseling through more thorough discussion of side-effects and bleeding changes, and renewed focus on shared decision making and patient-centered care...
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922193/update-on-second-trimester-medical-abortion
#8
Klaira Lerma, Kate A Shaw
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent literature on second trimester abortion with medical methods. RECENT FINDINGS: Across studies published in the recent past, it is apparent that women prefer shorter procedures and procedure times. Several randomized controlled trials have confirmed adding mifepristone to the second trimester medication abortion regimen results in shorter abortion intervals from first misoprostol administration to complete fetal expulsion. A study of simultaneous administration of mifepristone and misoprostol yielded shorter mean 'total' abortion times, presenting several logistical advantages...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915160/current-insights-in-obstetric-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#9
Karen Schreiber, Massimo Radin, Savino Sciascia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined as the association of thrombotic events and/or obstetric morbidity in patients persistently positive for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). In this review, we will highlight the most important clinical presentations of APS with a focus on the obstetric morbidity, the current management strategies and the outlook for the future. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of aspirin and heparin has improved the pregnancy outcome in obstetric APS and approximately 70% of pregnant women with APS have a successful pregnancy outcome...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915159/contraception-in-us-servicewomen-emerging-knowledge-considerations-and-needs
#10
Lauren A Harrington, Kate A Shaw, Jonathan G Shaw
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We describe current literature regarding contraceptive use among women serving in the military. We explore the state of contraceptive use by female servicewomen, gaps in knowledge, special considerations, and evidence of unmet needs. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data on US servicewomen show that overall rates of contraceptive use remain low. Data highlight disparities and suggest barriers to contraceptive uptake persist, with contraceptive use being lower around the time of deployment...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915158/simulation-training-for-family-planning-procedures
#11
Lisa M Goldthwaite, Kristina Tocce
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current evidence for use of simulation in family planning procedural training. RECENT FINDINGS: A variety of simulation models exist for abortion, contraception, and sterilization procedures, ranging from low to high fidelity. Most models for abortion and contraception are low fidelity, inexpensive, and provide opportunities for acquisition and practice of procedural skills. Hysteroscopic and laparoscopic simulation models for sterilization procedures are generally higher fidelity, and their use has been shown to increase knowledge, skill performance, and procedural comfort...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915157/abortion-in-the-media
#12
Jennifer A Conti, Erica Cahill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review updates in how abortion care is depicted and analysed though various media outlets: news, television, film, and social media. RECENT FINDINGS: A surge in recent media-related abortion research has recognized several notable and emerging themes: abortion in the news media is often inappropriately sourced and politically motivated; abortion portrayal in US film and television is frequently misrepresented; and social media has a new and significant role in abortion advocacy...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914654/accuracy-of-tests-used-to-detect-infection-with-chlamydia-trachomatis-in-asymptomatic-pregnant-women-a-systematic-review
#13
Siew-Veena Sahi, Ewelina Rogozińska, Soha Sobhy, Khalid S Khan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy is linked to increased risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, and preterm birth. Currently, PCR or DNA-based tests are the gold standard when detecting the infection; however, they are costly and require access to specialist equipment. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the accuracy of available tests to detect infection in an asymptomatic pregnant population. RECENT FINDINGS: There was evidence of the superior accuracy of nucleic acid amplification tests to cell culture in nonpregnant asymptomatic women; however, there are multiple commercial nucleic acid amplification tests with varying sensitivities and specificities...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901968/medical-comorbidity-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-with-special-focus-on-cardiometabolic-autoimmune-hepatic-and-cancer-diseases-an-updated-review
#14
Dorte Glintborg, Marianne Andersen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is defined by hyperandrogenism, irregular menses and polycystic ovaries when other causes are excluded. The possible implication of increased morbidity in PCOS for screening and follow-up is uncertain and is reviewed in this article. RECENT FINDINGS: The increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in PCOS is closely associated with BMI. Women with PCOS should be screened for the elements of the metabolic syndrome upon diagnosis...
September 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863005/hiv-and-contraception
#15
Wing K Fok, Paul D Blumenthal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Contraception is a vital component of medical care for women with HIV or at high risk of acquiring HIV. Over the last several years, there has been emerging evidence regarding the safety and effectiveness of various contraceptive methods, ultimately leading to a revision in the WHO Medical Eligibility Criteria for contraceptive use. RECENT FINDINGS: Progestogen-only injectables may be associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition and its use has been revised to category 2 from category 1...
August 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834787/transition-of-care-to-an-adult-provider
#16
Andrea L Zuckerman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The transition from adolescence to young adulthood can be a difficult and overwhelming time. Many adult care providers are unaware of the issues facing adolescents and young adults. Often the focus is on older patients and their problems. Internists, family practitioners and obstetricians and Gynecologists (OBGYNs) typically care for these patients. Often, young adults view their obstetrician and gynecologist as their primary care physician, so reviewing the issues facing this age group is important...
August 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953004/fertility-preservation-in-children-and-adolescents-current-options-and-considerations
#17
Kate McCracken, Leena Nahata
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to outline current pediatric fertility preservation options, and discuss ethical and financial considerations impacting this rapidly expanding field. RECENT FINDINGS: With the improvement in treatment of pediatric malignancies and medical conditions that threaten fertility, survival rates are increasing. Therefore, minimizing long-term morbidities such as gonadal damage and infertility is of utmost importance. Impaired fertility not only has a significant negative impact on patient's quality of life; in women, gonadal damage puts patients at risk for premature menopause, and increased risk of cardiac, skeletal, and cognitive issues...
August 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787283/fertility-preservation-in-children-and-adolescents-current-options-and-considerations
#18
Kate McCracken, Leena Nahata
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to outline current pediatric fertility preservation options, and discuss ethical and financial considerations impacting this rapidly expanding field. RECENT FINDINGS: With the improvement in treatment of pediatric malignancies and medical conditions that threaten fertility, survival rates are increasing. Therefore, minimizing long-term morbidities such as gonadal damage and infertility is of utmost importance. Impaired fertility not only has a significant negative impact on patient's quality of life; in women, gonadal damage puts patients at risk for premature menopause, and increased risk of cardiac, skeletal, and cognitive issues...
August 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759461/lasers-for-pelvic-floor-dysfunctions-is-there-evidence
#19
Patrick Lang, Mickey Karram
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss the available energy sources used in the vaginal canal that are currently being promoted for certain pelvic floor conditions and explore the body of peer-reviewed literature supporting their use. RECENT FINDINGS: The majority of research has focused on the use of fractional CO2 laser treatment for genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM). Most of these studies are nonrandomized prospective studies, but their data consistently shows an improvement in symptoms without significant side effects...
July 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737524/female-athlete-triad
#20
Meredith B Loveless
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The obstetrician/gynecologist (ob/gyn) may be the first provider to have the opportunity to recognize and diagnose female athlete triad. This review will help the ob/gyn to understand the female athlete triad and what is new on this topic, how to screen and diagnose the condition and the ob/gyn's role in treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Female athlete triad, also known as relative energy deficiency in sports, involves an interrelationship among energy availability, menstrual function and low bone density...
July 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
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