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Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology

Lauren E Stewart, Evelyn Hall, Cassandra L Carberry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides an update on the use of cystoscopy at the time of prolapse and incontinence surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Iatrogenic lower urinary tract injury is a known complication of antiincontinence procedures and surgical repair of pelvic organ prolapse. Intraoperative cystoscopy improves detection of lower urinary tract injuries in women undergoing pelvic floor surgery. The pelvic surgeon has a number of agents available to aid in the cystoscopic visualization of ureteral efflux...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Erica P Cahill, Paul D Blumenthal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the literature on repeat use of emergency contraception and pericoital approaches to contraception. RECENT FINDINGS: Women are very interested in an oral, on-demand contraceptive option, were one available. Ulipristal acetate and a combination of levonorgestrel (LNG) and meloxicam (a cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor) both appear to be more effective at disrupting ovulation than LNG alone. Recent advisories from the United Kingdom regarding daily dosing of ulipristal for fibroids emphasize the need for more safety data...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Wing Kay Fok, Alice Mark
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Medical abortion offers a well tolerated and effective method to terminate early pregnancy, but remains underutilized in the United States. Over the last decade, 'telemedicine' has been studied as an option for medical abortion to improve access when patients and providers are not together. A number of studies have explored various practice models and their feasibility as an alternative to in-person service provision. RECENT FINDINGS: A direct-to-clinic model of telemedicine medical abortion has similar efficacy with no increased risk of significant adverse events when compared with in-person abortion...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Paul D Blumenthal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Tatiana Catanzarite, Jasmine Tan-Kim, Shawn Adam Menefee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are prevalent among surgeons and result in significant disability. We aimed to review the English-language literature regarding ergonomic risk, prevalence of WMSDs, and unique ergonomic considerations of gynecologic surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Surgeon WMSDs are prevalent, with rates ranging from 66 to 94% for open surgery, 73-100% for conventional laparoscopy, 54-87% for vaginal surgery, and 23-80% for robotic-assisted surgery...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Evelyn Hall, Katina Robison, Kyle Wohlrab
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article serves as an update on issues relating to the intersection of pelvic floor disorders and gynecology oncology. RECENT FINDINGS: Gynecologic cancer survivors experience pelvic floor disorders (PFDs) at a higher rate than their age-matched peers, often because of shared risk factors and as sequelae of cancer treatment. Concomitant pelvic floor and oncologic surgery can serve as a method to promote quality of life. Studies have demonstrated concomitant surgery to be well tolerated in appropriately selected patients, but only about 2% of oncologic surgeries are coordinated to include the treatment of PFDs...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Andrea Henkel, Kate A Shaw
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe recent advances in management of early pregnancy loss. RECENT FINDINGS: Addition of mifepristone to current protocols for medical management of miscarriage increases effectiveness of a single dose of misoprostol and significantly reduces subsequent aspiration procedures. Women with an incomplete evacuation after medical management may be treated expectantly with similar rates of complete expulsion compared with surgical management at 6 weeks...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Anna L Altshuler, Natalie S Whaley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Abortion services are essential in sexual and reproductive health and should be held to the same standards as other health services. Patient (or person)-centeredness is a key dimension of healthcare quality that incorporates the perspectives of patients in care provision. The purpose of this review is to summarize studies published in the last year examining women's experiences with abortion care and to describe facilitators and barriers to person-centered care. RECENT FINDINGS: Considering person-centeredness in abortion care using dimensions of dignity, autonomy, privacy, communication, social support, supportive care and health facility environment allows for critical evaluation of data describing women's experiences with abortion and postabortion services...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Erkan Kalafat, Asma Khalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Two-thirds of the pregnancies complicated by stillbirth demonstrate growth restriction. Identification of the foetus at risk of growth restriction is essential to reduce the risk of stillbirth. The aim of this review is to critically appraise the current evidence regarding clinical utility of cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) in antenatal surveillance. RECENT FINDINGS: The CPR has emerged as an assessment tool for foetuses at increased risk of growth disorders...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Rebekah L Williams, Ashley H Meredith, Mary A Ott
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hormonal contraceptives are largely responsible for recent declines in unintended adolescent pregnancies, with oral contraceptives being the most commonly used. Young people face multiple barriers to accessing effective contraception in clinical settings. This article reviews innovations in contraceptive access. RECENT FINDINGS: The three biggest innovations are over-the-counter oral contraceptives (OTC-OCs), pharmacist-prescribing, and web-based telehealth platforms...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Giuseppe Limongelli, Marta Rubino, Augusto Esposito, Mariagiovanna Russo, Giuseppe Pacileo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the risk preexisting or new onset cardiomyopathy/heart failure (CMP/heart failure) in pregnant woman, and recent insights regarding their management and therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data from the European Registry on Pregnancy and Heart disease of the European Society of Cardiology (ROPAC) suggest that, after an adequate prepregnancy evaluation in specialized centres, the vast majority of pregnancies are safe for both mother and foetus...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Toya Pratt, Kavita Mishra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the current recommendations for the evaluation and management of defecatory dysfunction in women and highlight key relationships between defecatory dysfunction and other pelvic floor disorders, including pelvic organ prolapse, fecal incontinence, and voiding dysfunction. RECENT FINDINGS: Conservative measures including lifestyle modifications, pharmacotherapy, and biofeedback continue to be the mainstay of treatment with newer therapies emerging...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Lynne Gaffikin, Robert Engelman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent evidence that family planning, readily accessible to all who seek it and exercised as a human right, can contribute to environmental sustainability. As global concern increases about the health of our planet, better understanding of the role family planning programs play in maintaining a sustainable environment could bolster public and policymaker support for access to family planning. RECENT FINDINGS: A recent Worldwatch Institute review of scientific literature (FPESA) exploring this relationship covered two potential cause-effect pathways: one demographic, one personal...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Rebecca Schneyer, Klaira Lerma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent literature on health outcomes associated with use of hormonal contraception with a focus on breast cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: A large cohort study documented an increased risk of breast cancer among hormonal contraceptive users compared to those who had never used hormonal contraception. The overall relative risk of breast cancer among current or recent users was 1.2 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-1.26]. Overall, this translates into one additional case of breast cancer for every 7690 users of hormonal contraception...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Alexander E P Heazell, Lydia Newman, Samantha C Lean, Rebecca L Jones
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The proportion of pregnancies occurring in women of at least 35 years of age has increased from 6.2% in 1980 to 22.3% of births in 2016. This review summarizes recent epidemiological and basic scientific studies investigating the association between older maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcome(s), and clinical studies which investigate the effects of intervention to reduce adverse events. RECENT FINDINGS: Women of at least 35 years of age have increased risk of maternal and foetal complications in pregnancy including: stillbirth, a small for gestational age baby, preterm birth, preeclampsia and maternal death...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Karl Oliver Kagan, Jiri Sonek, Klaus Hamprecht
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is by far the most common fetal viral infection. It carries a risk of long-term sequelae for the neonate; though the severity depends on the gestational age at the time of infection. Improvement in primary prevention of a CMV infection during pregnancy can be achieved by providing information regarding hygiene to the mother. Once a maternal infection occurs, treatment options include prevention of maternal-fetal transmission and, once transmission occurs, attempts to reduce the severity of its effect on the fetus...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Maki Kawasaki, Naoko Arata, Yoshihiro Ogawa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 2 diabetes and obesity during childhood, puberty, and adulthood have become more common. This trend presents a global problem in terms of public health and health economics. Associations between intrauterine exposure to hyperglycemia, obesity, and abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) in offspring have been reported in populations at high risk of diabetes such as Pima Indians, but these associations have not been established in other groups. In this review, we summarize the evidence on obesity and AGT in the offspring of mothers with diabetes...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Yaakov Melcer, Ron Maymon, Eric Jauniaux
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vasa previa is a rare disorder of placentation associated with a high rate of perinatal morbidity and mortality when undetected before delivery. We have evaluated the recent evidence for prenatal diagnosis and management of vasa previa. RECENT FINDINGS: Around 85% of cases of vasa previa have one or more identifiable risk factors including in-vitro fertilization, multiple gestations, bilobed, succenturiate or low-lying placentas, and velamentous cord insertion...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Sung Bin Park
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute pelvic pain in pregnant and postpartum patients presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Ultrasound remains the primary imaging modality of choice for assessing pregnant and postpartum women. The purpose of this review is to help practitioners ensure a correct diagnosis of acute pelvic pain in pregnancy and the postpartum period. RECENT FINDINGS: This review describes the various causes and highlights the sonographic features and characteristics of acute pelvic pain in pregnancy and the postpartum period...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Saifuddin T Mama
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present article provides an overview of the molecular mechanisms underlying adolescent endometriosis and advances in both medical and surgical management. RECENT FINDINGS: Molecular and cellular features of endometriotic lesions differ from eutopic endometrium. There is altered estrogen-mediated cell signaling, proinflammatory pathways develop in the local microenvironment, along with impaired cellular immunity and growth factors, cytokines, and angiogenic factors play a critical role...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
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