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Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005569/updates-on-the-role-of-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ligand-osteoprotegerin-pathway-in-breast-cancer-risk-and-treatment
#1
Christian M Bayer, Matthias W Beckmann, Peter A Fasching
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatment with bisphosphonates and denosumab is the standard of care in bone metastatic disease. In addition, the adjuvant therapy of denosumab or bisphosphonates is very effective to prevent loss of bone mineral density, for example in osteoporosis. However, it is still unclear if this therapy has an influence on preventing cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the identification of novel genes in the 1980s, it took about 30 years until denosumab, as a fully human mAb against receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL), could be introduced to clinical practice...
December 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002265/updates-on-the-role-of-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ligand-osteoprotegerin-pathway-in-breast-cancer-risk-and-treatment
#2
Christian M Bayer, Matthias W Beckmann, Peter A Fasching
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatment with bisphosphonates and denosumab is the standard of care in bone metastatic disease. In addition, the adjuvant therapy of denosumab or bisphosphonates is very effective to prevent loss of bone mineral density, for example in osteoporosis. However, it is still unclear if this therapy has an influence on preventing cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the identification of novel genes in the 1980s, it took about 30 years until denosumab, as a fully human mAb against receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL), could be introduced to clinical practice...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002264/editorial-introductions
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984344/genomic-profiling-of-gynecologic-cancers-and-implications-for-clinical-practice
#4
Emily N Prendergast, Julia A Elvin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarizes advances in the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to the personalized treatment of gynecologic malignancies. RECENT FINDINGS: Many recurrent genomic alterations (GA) in gynecologic malignancies have been identified by studies applying NGS to tumor tissue, which can provide insights into tumor biology, diagnostic or prognostic information, and potential targeted therapy options. NGS can be used to assay single genes, portions of multiple genes ("hot-spot" panels), or the complete coding sequence of a broad range of cancer-associated genes [i...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977463/breast-cancer-updates-and-advances-in-2016
#5
Sara B Giordano, William Gradishar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately 1 in 8 US women (12%) will develop invasive breast cancer over the course of her lifetime. In 2016, an estimated 246,660 new cases of invasive breast cancer are expected to be diagnosed and approximately 40,450 would die as a result of it. The global burden of breast cancer exceeds all other cancers and the incidence is increasing. The heterogeneity of breast cancer makes it a challenging solid tumor to diagnose and treat. This review focuses on the recent advances in breast cancer therapy including hormonal treatment of metastatic breast cancer, targeting cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 4/6 in breast cancer, updates in targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive breast cancer, adaptive randomization trial design and cancer genetic risk assessment...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941363/cancer-genomics-and-clinical-practice-how-can-we-close-the-gap-more-quickly
#6
Gottfried E Konecny
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941362/molecular-characterization-of-endometrial-cancer-and-therapeutic-implications
#7
Locke Uppendahl, Sally A Mullany, Boris Winterhoff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the emerging comprehensive genomic classification of endometrial carcinoma and discusses the therapeutic implications of these subgroups. RECENT FINDINGS: Comprehensive, multiplatform evaluation of endometrial cancers by the Cancer Genome Atlas stratified the molecular aberrations into four distinct subtypes: POLE mutations, microsatellite instability, copy-number low/microsatellite stable, and copy-number high/'serous-like...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941361/treatment-strategies-for-endometrial-cancer-current-practice-and-perspective
#8
Yeh C Lee, Stephanie Lheureux, Amit M Oza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endometrial cancer incidence is increasing in North America and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women. We review recent literature published on treatment of endometrial cancer and highlight areas of active interest. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been movement toward minimal invasive surgery at diagnosis; lymph node staging remains controversial and continues to be investigated. Progress has been made to establish consensus on endometrial cancer risk classification to promote consistency for future trial design...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922944/oocyte-vitrification-for-elective-fertility-preservation-the-past-present-and-future
#9
Vinay Gunnala, Glenn Schattman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oocyte cryopreservation is no longer experimental and one of its rapidly growing indications is elective fertility preservation. Currently there is no sufficient evidence to support its practice and therefore its place in IVF remains uncertain. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitrification has superior post-thaw survival and fertilization outcomes compared with oocytes that were frozen with the slow-freeze technique. Oocyte vitrification produces similar IVF outcomes compared with fresh oocytes and is not associated with further obstetrical or perinatal morbidity...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898521/pathogenesis-and-heterogeneity-of-ovarian-cancer
#10
Paul T Kroeger, Ronny Drapkin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The most common type of ovarian cancer, high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC), was originally thought to develop from the ovarian surface epithelium. However, recent data suggest that the cells that undergo neoplastic transformation and give rise to the majority of HGSOC are from the fallopian tube. This development has impacted both translational research and clinical practice, revealing new opportunities for early detection, prevention, and treatment of ovarian cancer...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861202/novel-approaches-to-early-detection-of-endometrial-cancer
#11
Madhu Bagaria, Emily Shields, Jamie N Bakkum-Gamez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Detection of endometrial cancer at an early stage leads to better oncologic outcomes. To date, a screening test for endometrial cancer does not exist. RECENT FINDINGS: Evolving knowledge of molecular changes involved in endometrial cancer carcinogenesis paired with sensitive and high-throughput technological advancements are a promising combination that can be leveraged to detect tumor DNA and proteins. These molecular biomarkers can be identified in biospecimens collected via minimally invasive and noninvasive approaches...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805969/update-on-abortion-policy
#12
Jennifer A Conti, Ashley R Brant, Heather D Shumaker, Matthew F Reeves
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the status of antiabortion restrictions enacted over the last 5 years in the United States and their impact on abortion services. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, there has been an alarming rise in the number of antiabortion laws enacted across the United States. In total, various states in the union enacted 334 abortion restrictions from 2011 to July 2016, accounting for 30% of all abortion restrictions since the legalization of abortion in 1973...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805968/editorial-introductions
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787288/family-planning-and-the-zika-era
#14
Lisa M Goldthwaite, Griselda Velasquez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current evidence regarding the impact of the Zika virus epidemic on pregnancy and the implications for family planning and reproductive health services for women in affected countries. RECENT FINDINGS: In the past 2 years, over the course of the Zika epidemic, much has been learned about the virus. Specifically in regard to pregnancy, a causative relationship has been established between the Zika virus and adverse fetal outcomes, and sexual transmission of the virus has been documented...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787287/injectable-contraception-updates-and-innovation
#15
Gillian Schivone, Laneta Dorflinger, Vera Halpern
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Injectable contraception is a highly effective form of birth control that is globally popular. Recent research has focused on ways to make injectables such as depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) more accessible and to improve the side-effect profile of injectables. This review will focus on new directions and approaches to the use of injectable contraception. RECENT FINDINGS: Research in the area of injectable contraception has focused on improving access for women through home or self-injection, and also task-shifting and community-based distribution in low-resource areas...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787286/haemorrhage-at-caesarean-section-a-framework-for-prevention-and-research
#16
Jennifer E Jardine, Penny Law, Matthew Hogg, Deirdre Murphy, Khalid S Khan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Caesarean section rates are increasing across the world. Postpartum haemorrhage is a major cause of morbidity and mortality; major haemorrhage is more common after caesarean delivery. There is a wide range of practice in the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage at caesarean section. The aim of this review is to summarize current opinion in the management of postpartum haemorrhage at caesarean section. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent large randomized controlled trials have shown a possible effect from the routine use of tranexamic acid and ergometrine...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764015/progesterone-as-a-tocolytic-agent-for-preterm-labor-a-systematic-review
#17
Reshama Navathe, Vincenzo Berghella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tocolytic agents have been used for over 60 years in the fight against preterm labor, which ultimately can lead to preterm birth. Currently, clinicians can choose from a variety of drug classes to achieve the primary goal of delaying delivery by 48 h, thereby allowing time for administration of corticosteroids for fetal lung maturity, and if appropriate, starting magnesium sulfate for fetal neuroprotection. However, there are currently no known therapies to maintain the tocolytic effect beyond those initial 48 h...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755130/twin-pregnancy-complicated-by-selective-growth-restriction
#18
Rosemary Townsend, Asma Khalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) in twin pregnancies presents a complex management problem for the fetal medicine specialist. This review summarizes what is currently known about sIUGR pathophysiology, particularly in monochorionic pregnancies and looks at the results of early trials of fetal intervention in high-risk sIUGR pregnancies. RECENT FINDINGS: sIUGR in monochorionic pregnancies is due to unequal placental sharing, but the clinical outcome is determined by the characteristics of the placental vascular anastomoses...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676405/update-on-emergency-contraception
#19
Wing Kay Fok, Paul D Blumenthal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Emergency contraception provides a critical and time-sensitive opportunity for women to prevent undesired pregnancy after intercourse. Both access and available options for emergency contraception have changed over the last several years. RECENT FINDINGS: Emergency contraceptive pills can be less effective in obese women. The maximum achieved serum concentration of levonorgestrel (LNG) is lower in obese women than women of normal BMI, and doubling the dose of LNG (3 mg) increases its concentration maximum, approximating the level in normal BMI women receiving one dose of LNG...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661402/placental-implantation-abnormalities-a-modern-approach
#20
Sevan A Vahanian, Anthony M Vintzileos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Placental implantation abnormalities (PIAs) comprise a large group of disorders associated with significant maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity. RECENT FINDINGS: Risk factors include prior uterine surgery/myometrial scarring and the presence of placenta previa with or without prior cesarean delivery. Newly identified risk factors include previous prelabor cesarean delivery and previous postpartum hemorrhage. PIAs contribute substantially to preterm birth with prematurity rates ranging from 38 to 82%...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
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