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Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212156/impact-of-very-low-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-on-pregnancy-success
#1
Alberto Pacheco, María Cruz, Juan A García-Velasco
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Biomarkers are useful tool to help clinicians to estimate the chances of pregnancy of an infertile couple prior to assisted reproductive treatment. One proposed candidate is anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), but its role as a predictor of reproductive success, especially in patients with low or very low levels, is under discussion. This review highlights recent findings from literature regarding to reproductive outcome in women with very low levels of AMH. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there is a general agreement about the lower pregnancy rates of patients with very low levels of AMH compared with patients with normal AMH levels, the role of AMH as a predictor of success is still under discussion...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151755/renal-cystic-disease-and-associated-ciliopathies
#2
Karl O Kagan, Andreas Dufke, Ulrich Gembruch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review disorders that are associated with renal cystic disease during prenatal life and to highlight the strong association between renal cystic disease and ciliopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: There are numerous causative genes for ciliopathies that can present with cystic kidney disease. In the group of single gene ciliopathies, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is by far the most prevalent one. Other examples are autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, nephronophthisis, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, Joubert syndrome and related disorders as well as X-linked orofaciodigital syndrome type 1, respectively...
February 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151754/maternal-risks-of-fetal-therapy
#3
Alyaa Al-Refai, Greg Ryan, Tim Van Mieghem
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although most fetal disorders can be treated after birth, a few conditions that predictably lead to fetal or neonatal death, or that progress significantly before birth, are ideally treated prenatally. The number of centers offering fetal therapeutic procedures is gradually increasing worldwide. Patients and caregivers should be aware of the potential maternal risks of these interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: For transplacental medical therapy (corticosteroids, antiarrhythmics and immunoglobulins), severe maternal adverse events are rare, when done in expert centers...
February 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134671/maternal-fetal-medicine
#4
James F Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134670/noninvasive-prenatal-diagnosis-for-single-gene-disorders
#5
Stephanie Allen, Elizabeth Young, Benjamin Bowns
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders is coming to fruition in its clinical utility. The presence of cell-free DNA in maternal plasma has been recognized for many years, and a number of applications have developed from this. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders has lagged behind due to complexities of technology development, lack of investment and the need for validation samples for rare disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Publications are emerging demonstrating a variety of technical approaches and feasibility of clinical application...
January 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134669/prenatal-imaging-findings-in-fetal-zika-virus-infection
#6
Edward Araujo Júnior, Francisco H C Carvalho, Gabriele Tonni, Heron Werner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to report the most recent observations concerning intrauterine Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and associated neuroimaging. RECENT FINDINGS: ZIKV outbreak in Brazil in 2015 was associated with an impressive registration of cases of congenital microcephaly in women with symptoms suggestive of ZIKV infection. Clinical and laboratory testing for ZIKV and hypothetic etiopathogenetic mechanisms are described. Diagnostic tests on blood, urine and amniotic fluid should be performed in all mothers with symptoms suggestive of intrauterine ZIKV infection...
January 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005569/updates-on-the-role-of-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ligand-osteoprotegerin-pathway-in-breast-cancer-risk-and-treatment
#7
Christian M Bayer, Matthias W Beckmann, Peter A Fasching
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatment with bisphosphonates and denosumab is the standard of care in bone metastatic disease. In addition, the adjuvant therapy of denosumab or bisphosphonates is very effective to prevent loss of bone mineral density, for example in osteoporosis. However, it is still unclear if this therapy has an influence on preventing cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the identification of novel genes in the 1980s, it took about 30 years until denosumab, as a fully human mAb against receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL), could be introduced to clinical practice...
December 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002265/updates-on-the-role-of-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ligand-osteoprotegerin-pathway-in-breast-cancer-risk-and-treatment
#8
Christian M Bayer, Matthias W Beckmann, Peter A Fasching
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatment with bisphosphonates and denosumab is the standard of care in bone metastatic disease. In addition, the adjuvant therapy of denosumab or bisphosphonates is very effective to prevent loss of bone mineral density, for example in osteoporosis. However, it is still unclear if this therapy has an influence on preventing cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the identification of novel genes in the 1980s, it took about 30 years until denosumab, as a fully human mAb against receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL), could be introduced to clinical practice...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984344/genomic-profiling-of-gynecologic-cancers-and-implications-for-clinical-practice
#9
Emily N Prendergast, Julia A Elvin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarizes advances in the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to the personalized treatment of gynecologic malignancies. RECENT FINDINGS: Many recurrent genomic alterations (GA) in gynecologic malignancies have been identified by studies applying NGS to tumor tissue, which can provide insights into tumor biology, diagnostic or prognostic information, and potential targeted therapy options. NGS can be used to assay single genes, portions of multiple genes ("hot-spot" panels), or the complete coding sequence of a broad range of cancer-associated genes [i...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977463/breast-cancer-updates-and-advances-in-2016
#10
Sara B Giordano, William Gradishar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately 1 in 8 US women (12%) will develop invasive breast cancer over the course of her lifetime. In 2016, an estimated 246,660 new cases of invasive breast cancer are expected to be diagnosed and approximately 40,450 would die as a result of it. The global burden of breast cancer exceeds all other cancers and the incidence is increasing. The heterogeneity of breast cancer makes it a challenging solid tumor to diagnose and treat. This review focuses on the recent advances in breast cancer therapy including hormonal treatment of metastatic breast cancer, targeting cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 4/6 in breast cancer, updates in targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive breast cancer, adaptive randomization trial design and cancer genetic risk assessment...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941363/cancer-genomics-and-clinical-practice-how-can-we-close-the-gap-more-quickly
#11
Gottfried E Konecny
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941362/molecular-characterization-of-endometrial-cancer-and-therapeutic-implications
#12
Locke Uppendahl, Sally A Mullany, Boris Winterhoff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the emerging comprehensive genomic classification of endometrial carcinoma and discusses the therapeutic implications of these subgroups. RECENT FINDINGS: Comprehensive, multiplatform evaluation of endometrial cancers by the Cancer Genome Atlas stratified the molecular aberrations into four distinct subtypes: POLE mutations, microsatellite instability, copy-number low/microsatellite stable, and copy-number high/'serous-like...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941361/treatment-strategies-for-endometrial-cancer-current-practice-and-perspective
#13
Yeh C Lee, Stephanie Lheureux, Amit M Oza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endometrial cancer incidence is increasing in North America and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women. We review recent literature published on treatment of endometrial cancer and highlight areas of active interest. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been movement toward minimal invasive surgery at diagnosis; lymph node staging remains controversial and continues to be investigated. Progress has been made to establish consensus on endometrial cancer risk classification to promote consistency for future trial design...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922944/oocyte-vitrification-for-elective-fertility-preservation-the-past-present-and-future
#14
Vinay Gunnala, Glenn Schattman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oocyte cryopreservation is no longer experimental and one of its rapidly growing indications is elective fertility preservation. Currently there is no sufficient evidence to support its practice and therefore its place in IVF remains uncertain. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitrification has superior post-thaw survival and fertilization outcomes compared with oocytes that were frozen with the slow-freeze technique. Oocyte vitrification produces similar IVF outcomes compared with fresh oocytes and is not associated with further obstetrical or perinatal morbidity...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898521/pathogenesis-and-heterogeneity-of-ovarian-cancer
#15
Paul T Kroeger, Ronny Drapkin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The most common type of ovarian cancer, high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC), was originally thought to develop from the ovarian surface epithelium. However, recent data suggest that the cells that undergo neoplastic transformation and give rise to the majority of HGSOC are from the fallopian tube. This development has impacted both translational research and clinical practice, revealing new opportunities for early detection, prevention, and treatment of ovarian cancer...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861202/novel-approaches-to-early-detection-of-endometrial-cancer
#16
Madhu Bagaria, Emily Shields, Jamie N Bakkum-Gamez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Detection of endometrial cancer at an early stage leads to better oncologic outcomes. To date, a screening test for endometrial cancer does not exist. RECENT FINDINGS: Evolving knowledge of molecular changes involved in endometrial cancer carcinogenesis paired with sensitive and high-throughput technological advancements are a promising combination that can be leveraged to detect tumor DNA and proteins. These molecular biomarkers can be identified in biospecimens collected via minimally invasive and noninvasive approaches...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805969/update-on-abortion-policy
#17
Jennifer A Conti, Ashley R Brant, Heather D Shumaker, Matthew F Reeves
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the status of antiabortion restrictions enacted over the last 5 years in the United States and their impact on abortion services. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, there has been an alarming rise in the number of antiabortion laws enacted across the United States. In total, various states in the union enacted 334 abortion restrictions from 2011 to July 2016, accounting for 30% of all abortion restrictions since the legalization of abortion in 1973...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787288/family-planning-and-the-zika-era
#18
Lisa M Goldthwaite, Griselda Velasquez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current evidence regarding the impact of the Zika virus epidemic on pregnancy and the implications for family planning and reproductive health services for women in affected countries. RECENT FINDINGS: In the past 2 years, over the course of the Zika epidemic, much has been learned about the virus. Specifically in regard to pregnancy, a causative relationship has been established between the Zika virus and adverse fetal outcomes, and sexual transmission of the virus has been documented...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787287/injectable-contraception-updates-and-innovation
#19
Gillian Schivone, Laneta Dorflinger, Vera Halpern
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Injectable contraception is a highly effective form of birth control that is globally popular. Recent research has focused on ways to make injectables such as depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) more accessible and to improve the side-effect profile of injectables. This review will focus on new directions and approaches to the use of injectable contraception. RECENT FINDINGS: Research in the area of injectable contraception has focused on improving access for women through home or self-injection, and also task-shifting and community-based distribution in low-resource areas...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787286/haemorrhage-at-caesarean-section-a-framework-for-prevention-and-research
#20
Jennifer E Jardine, Penny Law, Matthew Hogg, Deirdre Murphy, Khalid S Khan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Caesarean section rates are increasing across the world. Postpartum haemorrhage is a major cause of morbidity and mortality; major haemorrhage is more common after caesarean delivery. There is a wide range of practice in the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage at caesarean section. The aim of this review is to summarize current opinion in the management of postpartum haemorrhage at caesarean section. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent large randomized controlled trials have shown a possible effect from the routine use of tranexamic acid and ergometrine...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
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