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Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333696/a-universal-freeze-all-strategy-why-it-is-not-warranted
#1
Baris Ata, Emre Seli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There's some preclinical evidence of an adverse effect of multifollicular growth on endometrial function in assisted reproductive technology cycles. Universal elective frozen embryo transfer (eFET) in an unstimulated cycle is being promoted as a panacea, regardless of patient, and cycle characteristics. We review the clinical evidence on the effectiveness and safety of eFETs. RECENT FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing fresh and eFET yield contradictory results in terms of live birth rates...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306561/diving-into-the-oocyte-pool
#2
Stine G Kristensen, Susanne E Pors, Claus Y Andersen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The ovarian reserve comprises an enormous surplus of follicles. Despite this, some women produce insufficient numbers of oocytes by conventional fertility treatments. However, recent technical accomplishments may transform assisted reproductive technology (ART) in such a way that oocytes are not necessarily the limiting factor. In this review, we present possible new strategies for enhancing the quantity of mature oocytes, and current views on autologous oocytes as potential sources of mitochondria to lift performance of compromised oocytes...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306560/growth-hormone-in-ivf-cycles-any-hope
#3
Roger J Hart, Luk Rombauts, Robert J Norman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Growth hormone (GH) has been used as an adjunct in ovulation induction and IVF for 25 years, particularly as an adjunct to ovarian stimulation for women who had a previous poor response to stimulation in an IVF cycle. It does not have US Food and Drug Administration approval for this use. Unfortunately, due to the problems inherent with recruiting women who have undergone unsuccessful IVF treatment cycles and their inevitable low live birth rate per initiated cycle, many studies performed to date have been underpowered...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266934/preimplantation-embryonic-mosaicism-origin-consequences-and-the-reliability-of-comprehensive-chromosome-screening
#4
Diego Marin, Richard T Scott, Nathan R Treff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Embryonic mosaicism represents an ongoing challenge for contemporary comprehensive chromosome screening platforms due to the unknown reproductive potential of mosaic embryos and technical difficulties of its detection from a single embryo biopsy. RECENT FINDINGS: Mosaicism in preimplantation embryos is a product of mitotic errors arising primarily from anaphase lag and chromosome nondisjunction. To date, there is high variability among estimations of prevalence of mosaicism in blastocysts, the most recent ranging from 3...
March 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266933/endometrial-microbiome
#5
Jason M Franasiak, Richard T Scott
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There have been great improvements in assisted reproduction in the recent decade; however, there are still a significant number of chromosomally normal blastocysts that fail to produce live births. The human microbiome is the totality of the microbes and their genomes that exist in and on the host. The understanding of its impact on health and human disease, particularly in human reproduction, is evolving. RECENT FINDINGS: New technologies have empowered metagenomic sample analysis that allows for more fully characterizing the reproductive tract microbiome...
March 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266932/should-we-forget-about-embryos-till-day-5
#6
Fernando Bronet, David Agudo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To find the way of having more and better blastocyst is essential. How to culture embryos up to blastocyst stage remains critical. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies show how a blastocyst score can predict the implantation potential. If that score is enough to choose the best blastocyst, as culture conditions would not be affected in these days, we would not need to check early cleavage embryos, even it could be better for the embryo development...
March 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234769/perinatal-outcomes-after-oocyte-donation-and-in-vitro-fertilization
#7
Mohan S Kamath, Sesh K Sunkara
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critically appraise the existing literature on perinatal outcomes following oocyte donation (OD) pregnancies and compare it with autologous in-vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancies. RECENT FINDINGS: OD pregnancies are at higher risk of developing hypertensive disorders compared with autologous IVF. The risk of preterm birth and low birth weight is higher with singleton and multiple OD compared with autologous IVF pregnancies. There is no increased risk of congenital malformations following OD compared with autologous IVF births...
February 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212156/impact-of-very-low-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-on-pregnancy-success
#8
Alberto Pacheco, María Cruz, Juan A García-Velasco
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Biomarkers are useful tool to help clinicians to estimate the chances of pregnancy of an infertile couple prior to assisted reproductive treatment. One proposed candidate is anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), but its role as a predictor of reproductive success, especially in patients with low or very low levels, is under discussion. This review highlights recent findings from literature regarding to reproductive outcome in women with very low levels of AMH. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there is a general agreement about the lower pregnancy rates of patients with very low levels of AMH compared with patients with normal AMH levels, the role of AMH as a predictor of success is still under discussion...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253207/prenatal-diagnosis
#9
Jane Chueh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253206/invasive-therapies-for-primary-post-partum-haemorrhage-as-missed-opportunities-for-medical-prevention
#10
Gilles Kayem, Catherine Deneux-Tharaux
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Examine the available results from population-based studies to test the hypothesis that differences between countries in medical practices for the management of labour, delivery and early bleeding may lead to a differential risk of post-partum haemorrhage (PPH)-related maternal morbidity and in the need for PPH-related invasive therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: International comparison of ratios of maternal mortality due to PPH shows significant differences between developed countries...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151755/renal-cystic-disease-and-associated-ciliopathies
#11
Karl O Kagan, Andreas Dufke, Ulrich Gembruch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review disorders that are associated with renal cystic disease during prenatal life and to highlight the strong association between renal cystic disease and ciliopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: There are numerous causative genes for ciliopathies that can present with cystic kidney disease. In the group of single gene ciliopathies, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is by far the most prevalent one. Other examples are autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, nephronophthisis, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, Joubert syndrome and related disorders as well as X-linked orofaciodigital syndrome type 1, respectively...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151754/maternal-risks-of-fetal-therapy
#12
Alyaa Al-Refai, Greg Ryan, Tim Van Mieghem
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although most fetal disorders can be treated after birth, a few conditions that predictably lead to fetal or neonatal death, or that progress significantly before birth, are ideally treated prenatally. The number of centers offering fetal therapeutic procedures is gradually increasing worldwide. Patients and caregivers should be aware of the potential maternal risks of these interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: For transplacental medical therapy (corticosteroids, antiarrhythmics and immunoglobulins), severe maternal adverse events are rare, when done in expert centers...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134671/maternal-fetal-medicine
#13
James F Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134670/noninvasive-prenatal-diagnosis-for-single-gene-disorders
#14
Stephanie Allen, Elizabeth Young, Benjamin Bowns
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders is coming to fruition in its clinical utility. The presence of cell-free DNA in maternal plasma has been recognized for many years, and a number of applications have developed from this. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders has lagged behind due to complexities of technology development, lack of investment and the need for validation samples for rare disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Publications are emerging demonstrating a variety of technical approaches and feasibility of clinical application...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134669/prenatal-imaging-findings-in-fetal-zika-virus-infection
#15
Edward Araujo Júnior, Francisco H C Carvalho, Gabriele Tonni, Heron Werner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to report the most recent observations concerning intrauterine Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and associated neuroimaging. RECENT FINDINGS: ZIKV outbreak in Brazil in 2015 was associated with an impressive registration of cases of congenital microcephaly in women with symptoms suggestive of ZIKV infection. Clinical and laboratory testing for ZIKV and hypothetic etiopathogenetic mechanisms are described. Diagnostic tests on blood, urine and amniotic fluid should be performed in all mothers with symptoms suggestive of intrauterine ZIKV infection...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002265/updates-on-the-role-of-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ligand-osteoprotegerin-pathway-in-breast-cancer-risk-and-treatment
#16
Christian M Bayer, Matthias W Beckmann, Peter A Fasching
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatment with bisphosphonates and denosumab is the standard of care in bone metastatic disease. In addition, the adjuvant therapy of denosumab or bisphosphonates is very effective to prevent loss of bone mineral density, for example in osteoporosis. However, it is still unclear if this therapy has an influence on preventing cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the identification of novel genes in the 1980s, it took about 30 years until denosumab, as a fully human mAb against receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL), could be introduced to clinical practice...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984344/genomic-profiling-of-gynecologic-cancers-and-implications-for-clinical-practice
#17
Emily N Prendergast, Julia A Elvin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarizes advances in the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to the personalized treatment of gynecologic malignancies. RECENT FINDINGS: Many recurrent genomic alterations (GA) in gynecologic malignancies have been identified by studies applying NGS to tumor tissue, which can provide insights into tumor biology, diagnostic or prognostic information, and potential targeted therapy options. NGS can be used to assay single genes, portions of multiple genes ("hot-spot" panels), or the complete coding sequence of a broad range of cancer-associated genes [i...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977463/breast-cancer-updates-and-advances-in-2016
#18
Sara B Giordano, William Gradishar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately 1 in 8 US women (12%) will develop invasive breast cancer over the course of her lifetime. In 2016, an estimated 246,660 new cases of invasive breast cancer are expected to be diagnosed and approximately 40,450 would die as a result of it. The global burden of breast cancer exceeds all other cancers and the incidence is increasing. The heterogeneity of breast cancer makes it a challenging solid tumor to diagnose and treat. This review focuses on the recent advances in breast cancer therapy including hormonal treatment of metastatic breast cancer, targeting cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 4/6 in breast cancer, updates in targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive breast cancer, adaptive randomization trial design and cancer genetic risk assessment...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941363/cancer-genomics-and-clinical-practice-how-can-we-close-the-gap-more-quickly
#19
Gottfried E Konecny
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941362/molecular-characterization-of-endometrial-cancer-and-therapeutic-implications
#20
Locke Uppendahl, Sally A Mullany, Boris Winterhoff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the emerging comprehensive genomic classification of endometrial carcinoma and discusses the therapeutic implications of these subgroups. RECENT FINDINGS: Comprehensive, multiplatform evaluation of endometrial cancers by the Cancer Genome Atlas stratified the molecular aberrations into four distinct subtypes: POLE mutations, microsatellite instability, copy-number low/microsatellite stable, and copy-number high/'serous-like...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
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