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Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

Tahir Farooq, Arruje Hameed, Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Ibrahim, Muhammad Imran Qadir, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
For the last thirty years, ongoing efforts have revolutionized the antiretroviral therapy, which changed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections from terrifying lethal diseases to chronic conditions. However, many challenges, like emergence of drug resistance, limited the scope of activity of currently existing anti-HIV agents. Quite often severe side effects and lifelong dependency are the major concerns of present era. All these issues have compelled the scientists to reconsider and refine the current therapies and also contemplate the pivotal priorities for the developments of novel therapeutic paradigms...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Usman Ali Ashfaq, Muhammad Sarfaraz Iqbal, Saba Khaliq
Viral infections are rising every day, and viruses appear to be the most dangerous pathogens in the world. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is accepted as one of the major destructive factors of promoting severe hepatic disorders by infecting more than 180 million individuals throughout the world. Chronic infection caused by HCV poses a serious global health emergency and appears to be a powerful threat to humanity. Almost 20 years have passed since the disclosure of HCV, but even now, treatment preferences remain limited...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Bahman Navidshad, Seyed Ziaodin Mirhoseini
The commercial strains of broiler chickens have genetically selected to reach market weight at younger ages. In order to sustain increased growth rate requires an efficient assimilation of nutrients from the intestinal lumen, which is permitted through nutrient assimilation through the enterocytes that is facilitated by many nutrient transporter proteins. These trans-membrane proteins have specific action, well known kinetics and assist in the partitioning of nutrients among tissues. Amino acids are transported across the plasma membrane as free amino acids or short chain peptides through several independent systems encoded by various nutrient transporter gene products, and these systems may act on multiple substrates...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Bahman Navidshad, M Royan
Traditionally, poultry farmers aimed to produce birds with high body weight and feed conversion ratio. However, in line with current developments, there are other traits that must be taken into account as well. These include producing poultry meat with lower body fat content and improving the nutritional quality of the poultry meat to appeal to consumer requirements. The interrelated importance of human diet and health status is an ancient subject. Human foods as a lifestyle factor is involved in the incidence of many types of diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has risen exponentially, and the number of incidences increases every day. The purpose of this article is to summarize the experimental evidence supporting the important association between nutrition and diet-based therapy for the control and management of T2DM. Evidence from several in vitro, in vivo, and human studies broadly found that nutrition-based therapy enriched with several important phytochemical constituents modulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and it ameliorates glucolipotoxicity and insulin resistance...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Tiwei Fu, Yuzhong Zhao, Jianping Xi
Nucleotide-based second messengers transduce signals originating from both outside and inside the cell to adaptive responses accordingly. c-di-AMP is a newly established second messenger employed by many organisms. We summarize recent advances in bacterial c-di-AMP-mediated signaling, especially the interaction between c-di-AMP signaling and the host.
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Bahman Navidshad, M Royan
Dietary fatty acids have various effects on cellular metabolism, and many of these effects are carried out through the alteration of the gene expression. Fatty acids upregulate or downregulate the expression of different genes by acting both as agonists or antagonists for nuclear hormone receptors. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. To date, three PPAR subtypes, α, β, and γ, have been recognized. PPARs regulate various target genes with a role in intracellular and extracellular lipid metabolism, mainly those involved in peroxisomal β-oxidation...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Yanan Yu, Zhong Wang, Yongyan Wang
Advances in identifying architecture of modules and elucidating their modes of action are gradually improving the decoding of complex relationships between phenotypic robustness and genotypic networks. However, approaches to detecting modules have largely focused on identifying modules in static graphs. In this review, we attempt to reveal the mechanism of polyphyletic architectural transformation based on modular boundary evolutions and different oscillating factors. With the rapid progress in probing into the detailed structural model of modular networks, flexible modular organization manifests a key adaptive balancing ability of allosterically regulating or reconstructing intermodular and intramodular states to uncover the novel biological alterations beyond engineering properties...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Qiushi Wang, Chongdong Liu, Zhenyu Zhang
Since transthyretin (TTR) was discovered, it has been regarded as a serum protein carrier of thyroid hormones and retinol. However, many other important functions of TTR have been found recently, and current evidence suggests that it plays a role in human receptivity and normal pregnancy. TTR is abundant in the uterine cavity, uterine secretion, placenta, and serum of pregnant females in the peri-implantation uterus and the first trimester of pregnancy. It may be involved in the delivery of maternal thyroid hormones to the fetus...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Amna Parveen, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash, Kanwal Rehman, Whang Wan Kyunn
For the treatment of several types of cancers, tumors and malignancies, scientists are investigating natural sources to discover novel therapeutic agents from medicinal plants having diverse anticancer properties. Research on natural products is being conducted to identify unexplored phytochemical constituents that have been proven to have diverse pharmacological activities. Several medicinal plants have been reported to regulate the progression of different types of cancers, tumors, and malignancies. In this article, we briefly summarize the recent progress in exploring the anticancer properties of various medicinal plants reported to modulate the expression of p53 and the induction of apoptosis...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Jonathan D Ravid, David I Mostofsky
The interface of receptor-mediated regulation of cellular signaling and neurological outputs remains an active field of investigation. The metabotropic G protein-coupled glutamate receptors, and in particular, the group II cyclic adenosine mono-phosphate (cAMP)-lowering metabotropic glutamate receptors 2 and 3 (mGlu2/3 glutamate receptors), have gained interest as therapeutic targets in different forms of neurological disorders. This review explores mGlu2/3 glutamate receptors expression, pharmacological activation, and signaling links to anxiety, as assessed in animal models and in clinical trials...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Lingbao Gao, Keyu Yuan, Wei Ding, Mei Lin
Notch signaling is a well-conserved cell-fate determining factor in embryo development, and the dyregulation of this signaling is frequently observed in many types of cancers, including hematological malignancies. In this review, we briefly describe the Notch signaling pathway, and we primarily focus on the relationship between Notch and hematological malignancies. We also discuss the clinical development of promising agents including γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Complete response has been observed among patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) when treated with GSIs...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Mutong Zhao, Zhenyu Zhang
Cancer cells are characterized by increased energy demand and glucose uptake. Glucose transporters (GLUTs) are regarded as one of the most important proteins controlling glycolytic flux. At the protein level, GLUTs are regulated both by expression and by translocation from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane. Many oncogenic pathways, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, mTOR, hypoxia-inducible factor as well as mutations of p53 and RAS, are involved in the regulation of GLUT function...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Samuel Rubin, Nir Qvit
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) represent a significant portion of functionally relevant biological interactions, and therefore potential therapeutic targets. Small molecules were traditionally used to target PPIs. However, many PPI surfaces lack binding pockets due to their large and flat structures. Antibodies can also be used to modulate PPIs, but they are expensive and not cell permeable. Linear peptides are less expensive to produce than antibodies and are generally more selective than small molecules, but they are limited by decreased stability and poor permeability...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Alexandre Abilio de Souza Teixeira, Fábio Santos Lira, Gustavo D Pimentel, Camila Oliveira de Souza, Helena Batatinha, Luana A Biondo, Alex S Yamashita, Edson A Lima Junior, José Cesar Rosa Neto
White adipose tissue (WAT) is no longer considered a tissue whose main function is the storage of TAG. Since the discovery of leptin in 1994, several studies have elucidated the important role of WAT as an endocrine organ, the source of the adipokines. The low-grade inflammation observed in obese and cancer cachexia patients is explained, at least partially, by the exacerbated release of proinflammatory adipokines. Despite of the recent progress in the characterization of the various adipokines and lipokines produced by WAT, little is known about the mechanisms regulating the secretion of these molecules in different physiological and pathological circumstances...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Michail R Ponizovskiy
Interactions between nucleus and mitochondria functions induce the mechanism of maintenance stability of cellular internal energy according to the first law of thermodynamics in able-bodied cells and changes the mechanisms of maintenance stability of cellular internal energy creating a transition stationary state of ablebodied cells into quasi-stationary pathologic states of acute inflammation transiting then into chronic inflammation and then transmuting into cancer metabolism. The mechanisms' influences of intruding etiologic pathologic agents (microbe, virus, etc...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Srishti Kotiyal, Susinjan Bhattacharya
EMT is the process by which epithelial cells, characterized by well-developed intercellular contacts, transdifferentiate into motile and invasive mesenchymal cells. This process is associated with the loss of transmembrane intercellular adhesion molecule E-cadherin and disruption of cell-cell junctions along with acquisition of migratory properties. EMT is integral in embryonic development, wound healing, and stem cell behavior; however, its aberrant activation by micro-environmental alterations and abnormal stimuli can lead to cancer progression...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Carolina N Franca, Jonatas B Amaral, Izabela D Tuleta, Fábio Siviero, Carlos E S Ferreira, Maria C O Izar, Francisco A H Fonseca
The paper summarizes the difficulties to study the rare population of endothelial progenitor cells in clinical trials, based on the experience of our group in many publications in this area.
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Amna Parveen, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash, Kanwal Rehman, Whang Wan Kyunn
In the biological system, reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the defense mechanisms of the body. ROS is responsible for the initiation of several cellular responses that can impart the harmful effects on the body, initiating biomolecular damage. Therefore, it is essential to counteract the dangerous effects produced by ROS, which is only possible through the use of antioxidants. Researchers are evaluating medicinal plants to discover and investigate the new antioxidant sources. Using natural antioxidants, beneficial effects on human health can be achieved...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Rasime Kalkan, Emine İkbal Atli
miRNAs are short noncoding RNA sequences that cause translational repression or mRNA degradation. A growing number of studies have sought new biomarkers in GBM that will be important in disease progression and prognosis and as potential therapeutic targets. miRNA-profiling studies in glioblastoma patients have found that aberrant miRNA expression can be used as a target to develop new biomarkers for disease detection and for determining prognosis or therapeutic response. In evaluating the tumor or its therapeutic response, genetic abnormalities such as mutations, epigenetic abnormalities, and aberrant miRNA expressions can be useful markers...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
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