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Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436335/localization-of-the-werner-protein-together-with-h2ax-in-%C3%AE-irradiation-induced-neoplastic-transformed-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#1
Nedime Serakinci, Tufan Cankaya, Steen Kølvraa
The H2A histone family, member X (H2AX), and Werner (WRN) are important proteins for genome and telomere maintenance. WRN has a major role in genome stability, particularly during DNA replication, transcription, recombination, and repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) via base excision repair, homologous recombination, or nonhomologous end joining. H2AX plays a part in the rapid, sensitive, cellular response to the ionizing radiation or DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents that cause DSBs. This occurs when radiation-induced DSBs trigger the activation of H2AX and begin the damage-repair process...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436334/acute-hiv-infection-advances-in-mechanisms-and-prophylactic-therapeutic-management
#2
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Amman Abid
Human infection by HIV is spreading rapidly. The spread of the virus is generally organized and transmission can be rectal, oral, or penile. Several types of cells are susceptible to viral invasion. The appearance of symptoms during infection can vary, but the presence of the virus can be confirmed by testing for the antigen p24. The ELISA test is used to detect viral p24 antigen and antiviral antibodies. This technique is approved for the purposes of clinical practice. Highly active antiretroviral therapy is usually a costly and lengthy treatment for HIV infection...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436333/epidemiology-of-hepatitis-c-infection-in-pakistan-current-estimate-and-major-risk-factors
#3
Aiman Arshad, Usman Ali Ashfaq
In Pakistan, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major healthcare problem, with acute and chronic infections responsible for liver damage, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Under the Human Development Index of the United Nations, Pakistan is ranked 134th of 174 countries due to its poor educational and health standards. This study was designed to study HCV and its genotype prevalence in different cities and provinces of Pakistan and describe the major routes of HCV transmission. Literature searches were performed in PubMed, Mendeley, and Google Scholar...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436332/applications-of-three-dimensional-cell-cultures-in-the-early-stages-of-drug-discovery-focusing-on-gene-expressions-drug-metabolism-and-susceptibility
#4
Maddaly Ravi
Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures represent advances in the way in which cells are grown in vitro, and they are gaining ground for a variety of applications. Advantages of 3D systems include reliable and realistic study endpoints. Cells grown in 3D conditions mimic in vivo conditions to an extent that is not possible with traditional 2D cell-culture methods. One major area in which 3D cell cultures have proven to make a difference is with drug discovery. The facets taken advantage of for drug discovery are the cells' complex microenvironment, including the production of extracellular matrices, altered gene expressions and their protein products, drug metabolism, and susceptibility to drugs when compared to 2D cultures...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436331/lep-expression-and-its-role-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#5
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Zara Ahmed
Obesity is metabolic disorder that increases the risk of diabetes, heart disease, and other metabolic syndromes in human beings. One sign of diabetes is increased blood glucose levels in the body. Glucose levels increase due to problems with insulin secretion or insulin resistance. Maturity onset of diabetes of the young is more common in adults and occurs due to insulin resistance. Both diabetes and obesity are major problems that are responsible for the death of millions of individuals every year, worldwide...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436330/association-between-methionine-synthase-reductase-a66g-polymorphism-and-male-infertility-a-meta-analysis
#6
Weihai Xu, Lin Zhang, Xiangli Wu, Fan Jin
The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) gene 66A>G polymorphism and male infertility susceptibility. Studies were identified in PubMed and Embase databases. An odds ratio (OR) was used to assess the relationship between MTRR 66A>G polymorphism and male infertility risk. A total of seven case-control studies containing 1438 patients and 1363 controls were enrolled in the meta-analysis. Our results showed that no association exists between the MTRR 66A>G polymorphism and male infertility risk in the total population (GG vs...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436329/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-function-diversity-of-arsr-family-metalloregulator
#7
Sai Ren, Qiming Li, Longxiang Xie, Jianping Xie
The ArsR family of transcriptional regulators are widespread among microorganisms and are involved in various important cellular events, such as metal ion homeostasis, biofilm formation, primary and secondary metabolism, symbiosis, response to adverse condition, and virulence. Its N-terminus contains a winged helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain that can repress or activate transcription by binding to downstream target promoters. With the increasing number of members in this family identified over the past few decades, the ArsR family members have been intensively explored...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436328/potential-of-stem-cells-as-regenerative-medicine-from-preface-to-advancements
#8
Muhammad Shahid Javaid, Usman Ali Ashfaq, Muhammad Shareef Masoud
Regenerative medicine is an emerging field to find solutions to some of the most challenging medical problems of humans. Regenerative medicine has the potential to revolutionize the whole health care system, in dealing with conditions such as heart disease, emphysema, liver fibrosis, kidney disease, diabetes, and neurological disorders. Among the many challenges to bringing regenerative medicine to the clinic is the selection of the best cell types and reliable ways to expand the number of cells. Stem cells emerged as the best cell type for regeneration of different organs...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910750/antiretroviral-agents-looking-for-the-best-possible-chemotherapeutic-options-to-conquer-hiv
#9
Tahir Farooq, Arruje Hameed, Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Ibrahim, Muhammad Imran Qadir, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
For the last thirty years, ongoing efforts have revolutionized the antiretroviral therapy, which changed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections from terrifying lethal diseases to chronic conditions. However, many challenges, like emergence of drug resistance, limited the scope of activity of currently existing anti-HIV agents. Quite often severe side effects and lifelong dependency are the major concerns of present era. All these issues have compelled the scientists to reconsider and refine the current therapies and also contemplate the pivotal priorities for the developments of novel therapeutic paradigms...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910749/role-of-toll-like-receptors-in-hepatitis-c-virus-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#10
Usman Ali Ashfaq, Muhammad Sarfaraz Iqbal, Saba Khaliq
Viral infections are rising every day, and viruses appear to be the most dangerous pathogens in the world. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is accepted as one of the major destructive factors of promoting severe hepatic disorders by infecting more than 180 million individuals throughout the world. Chronic infection caused by HCV poses a serious global health emergency and appears to be a powerful threat to humanity. Almost 20 years have passed since the disclosure of HCV, but even now, treatment preferences remain limited...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910748/factors-influencing-the-amino-acid-and-peptide-transporter-proteins-mrna-expression-in-avian-species
#11
Bahman Navidshad, Seyed Ziaodin Mirhoseini
The commercial strains of broiler chickens have genetically selected to reach market weight at younger ages. In order to sustain increased growth rate requires an efficient assimilation of nutrients from the intestinal lumen, which is permitted through nutrient assimilation through the enterocytes that is facilitated by many nutrient transporter proteins. These trans-membrane proteins have specific action, well known kinetics and assist in the partitioning of nutrients among tissues. Amino acids are transported across the plasma membrane as free amino acids or short chain peptides through several independent systems encoded by various nutrient transporter gene products, and these systems may act on multiple substrates...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910747/effect-of-dietary-fat-on-gene-expression-in-poultry-a-review
#12
Bahman Navidshad, M Royan
Traditionally, poultry farmers aimed to produce birds with high body weight and feed conversion ratio. However, in line with current developments, there are other traits that must be taken into account as well. These include producing poultry meat with lower body fat content and improving the nutritional quality of the poultry meat to appeal to consumer requirements. The interrelated importance of human diet and health status is an ancient subject. Human foods as a lifestyle factor is involved in the incidence of many types of diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910746/nutrition-and-diabetes-mellitus-how-are-they-interlinked
#13
Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has risen exponentially, and the number of incidences increases every day. The purpose of this article is to summarize the experimental evidence supporting the important association between nutrition and diet-based therapy for the control and management of T2DM. Evidence from several in vitro, in vivo, and human studies broadly found that nutrition-based therapy enriched with several important phytochemical constituents modulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and it ameliorates glucolipotoxicity and insulin resistance...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910745/a-new-second-messenger-bacterial-c-di-amp
#14
Tiwei Fu, Yuzhong Zhao, Jianping Xi
Nucleotide-based second messengers transduce signals originating from both outside and inside the cell to adaptive responses accordingly. c-di-AMP is a newly established second messenger employed by many organisms. We summarize recent advances in bacterial c-di-AMP-mediated signaling, especially the interaction between c-di-AMP signaling and the host.
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910744/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-ppar%C3%AE-a-key-regulator-of-lipid-metabolism-in-avians
#15
Bahman Navidshad, M Royan
Dietary fatty acids have various effects on cellular metabolism, and many of these effects are carried out through the alteration of the gene expression. Fatty acids upregulate or downregulate the expression of different genes by acting both as agonists or antagonists for nuclear hormone receptors. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. To date, three PPAR subtypes, α, β, and γ, have been recognized. PPARs regulate various target genes with a role in intracellular and extracellular lipid metabolism, mainly those involved in peroxisomal β-oxidation...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910743/decoding-the-polyphyletic-flexibility-of-allosteric-modular-networks-progress-and-perspectives
#16
Yanan Yu, Zhong Wang, Yongyan Wang
Advances in identifying architecture of modules and elucidating their modes of action are gradually improving the decoding of complex relationships between phenotypic robustness and genotypic networks. However, approaches to detecting modules have largely focused on identifying modules in static graphs. In this review, we attempt to reveal the mechanism of polyphyletic architectural transformation based on modular boundary evolutions and different oscillating factors. With the rapid progress in probing into the detailed structural model of modular networks, flexible modular organization manifests a key adaptive balancing ability of allosterically regulating or reconstructing intermodular and intramodular states to uncover the novel biological alterations beyond engineering properties...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650990/transthyretin-and-normal-human-pregnancy-mini-review
#17
Qiushi Wang, Chongdong Liu, Zhenyu Zhang
Since transthyretin (TTR) was discovered, it has been regarded as a serum protein carrier of thyroid hormones and retinol. However, many other important functions of TTR have been found recently, and current evidence suggests that it plays a role in human receptivity and normal pregnancy. TTR is abundant in the uterine cavity, uterine secretion, placenta, and serum of pregnant females in the peri-implantation uterus and the first trimester of pregnancy. It may be involved in the delivery of maternal thyroid hormones to the fetus...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650989/anticancer-activities-of-medicinal-plants-modulation-of-p53-expression-and-induction-of-apoptosis
#18
Amna Parveen, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash, Kanwal Rehman, Whang Wan Kyunn
For the treatment of several types of cancers, tumors and malignancies, scientists are investigating natural sources to discover novel therapeutic agents from medicinal plants having diverse anticancer properties. Research on natural products is being conducted to identify unexplored phytochemical constituents that have been proven to have diverse pharmacological activities. Several medicinal plants have been reported to regulate the progression of different types of cancers, tumors, and malignancies. In this article, we briefly summarize the recent progress in exploring the anticancer properties of various medicinal plants reported to modulate the expression of p53 and the induction of apoptosis...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650988/the-relevance-of-group-ii-glutamate-receptors-expression-to-anxiety
#19
Jonathan D Ravid, David I Mostofsky
The interface of receptor-mediated regulation of cellular signaling and neurological outputs remains an active field of investigation. The metabotropic G protein-coupled glutamate receptors, and in particular, the group II cyclic adenosine mono-phosphate (cAMP)-lowering metabotropic glutamate receptors 2 and 3 (mGlu2/3 glutamate receptors), have gained interest as therapeutic targets in different forms of neurological disorders. This review explores mGlu2/3 glutamate receptors expression, pharmacological activation, and signaling links to anxiety, as assessed in animal models and in clinical trials...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650987/notch-signaling-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-hematologic-malignancies
#20
Lingbao Gao, Keyu Yuan, Wei Ding, Mei Lin
Notch signaling is a well-conserved cell-fate determining factor in embryo development, and the dyregulation of this signaling is frequently observed in many types of cancers, including hematological malignancies. In this review, we briefly describe the Notch signaling pathway, and we primarily focus on the relationship between Notch and hematological malignancies. We also discuss the clinical development of promising agents including γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Complete response has been observed among patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) when treated with GSIs...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
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