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Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283332/diverse-signaling-pathways-and-current-status-of-molecular-targeted-treatments-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
Bushra Akhtar, Faqir Muhammad, Ali Sharif, Muhammad Furqan Akhtar, Wafa Majeed
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of death associated with cancer. Various molecular mechanisms are involved in HCC development. Alterations in these molecular mechanisms include chromosomal instability, gene mutations, and variations in protein expressions. A number of cell signaling pathways that are associated with the occurrence of apoptosis, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis provide new prospects for the development of HCC treatments. Newly designed, potential therapeutic regimens target specific receptors, kinases, and vital proteins...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283331/mechanism-of-hepatitis-c-virus-induced-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Usman Ali Ashfaq, Hina Khalid
The hepatitis C virus (HCV), the most predominant cause of liver failure worldwide, is associated with the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) and insulin resistance (IR), both in vivo and in vitro. DM and IR aggravate the rate of fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Most studies have revealed that patients with HCV are at a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), compared with controls or patients with hepatitis B. In the same way, patients with T2D are highly prone to severe HCV clinical outcomes and increased progression to fibrosis and cirrhosis, ultimately leading to HCC...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283330/mirna-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-pathogenesis-and-therapeutic-approaches
#3
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Samana Zahra Rizvi
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a worldwide disease. Because therapeutic measures are ineffective, HCC currently has a poor prognosis. The main causes of HCCs are alcoholism, hepatitis, and metabolic syndrome. Normally hygieinic studies revealed that there is lower survival rate of HCC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) consist of short noncoding sequences of RNA (20 to 24 nucleotides), which posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of the protein coding genes. MicroRNAs have been proposed to be prospective therapeutic molecules and targets...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283329/association-between-the-epithelial-cadherin-160c-a-polymorphism-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-evidence-from-a-meta-analysis
#4
Ningjie Sun, Jianfeng Chen, Gang Hu, Xiansheng Chen, Jiansong Jiang, Lei Zhang, Haiming Wu
The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the epithelial cadherin (CDH1) -160C/A polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC) using a meta-analysis. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases was performed for relevant studies. Statistical analyses were carried out using Stata 12.0 to combine all of the relevant studies. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) values were applied to evaluate the strength of the association. Eight studies with 7231 cases and 7080 controls were included...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283328/n-myc-downstream-regulated-gene-1-and-endometriosis-a-minireview
#5
Tong Lou, Chongdong Liu, Zhenyu Zhang
NDRG1 (N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1) was previously considered to be a differentiation-related gene. However, many other functions of NDRG1 have since been identified, including proliferation, migration, invasion, and vascularization of tumor cells. Currently regarded as a tumor suppressor in most studies, NDRG1 is abundant in prostate, brain, kidney, placental, and intestinal tissues. It is expressed in normal endometrium, with higher expression occurring in the secretory phase. NDRG1 was first identified as an inhibitor of signaling pathways associated with the pathology of endometriosis...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283327/genetically-modified-aedes-aegypti-to-control-dengue-a-review
#6
Muhammad Qsim, Usman Ali Ashfaq, Muhammad Zubair Yousaf, Muhammad Shareef Masoud, Ijaz Rasul, Namrah Noor, Azfar Hussain
Dengue is an acute infectious disease of viral etiology characterized by lymphadenopathy, leucopenia, headache, biphasic fever, pain in various parts of the body, rashes, and extreme physical weakness. It is a vector-borne disease caused by a positive-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Dengue inflicts a significant health, economic, and social burden on populations of endemic areas. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans by the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. Vaccines against dengue viruses have been claimed to be developed, but as yet no effective treatment is available...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283326/sirtuins-in-brain-aging-and-neurological-disorders
#7
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Sidra Anwar
The many ways of aging have been and continue to be investigated. For this reason, over many years, several studies have resolved some of the genetic details underlying aging processes. It resulted in the identification of a yeast gene known as Sir2, which is a longevity modulator. Sir2 and SIRT1 are the mammalian homologs of yeast genes. Sirtuins (including SIRT1) play an important role in aging of the brain and the metabolic regulation pathway in mammals. Aging in the brain is caused by the loss of neurophysiologic functions due to neurodegeneration...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283325/emerging-trends-in-non-interferon-based-genotype-specific-antiviral-agents-pharmaceutical-perspectives
#8
Tahir Farooq, Arruje Hameed, Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Ibrahim, Matloob Ahmed, Tahsin Gulzar, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) presents a serious global health threat. Initially, the health-care community mainly focused on interferon (IFN)-based therapeutic options to eradicate HCV, but with the passage of time, these applications became unsuitable due to some serious side effects related to the use of IFN. In recent years, research conducted on different phases of HCV's life cycle has opened a new gateway for the use of a direct-acting new generation of anti-HCV agents. Their safer and ultrarapid response has made possible the introduction of triple therapy and use of IFN-free therapeutic treatment strategies...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283324/association-between-hif1%C3%AE-1772-c-t-polymorphism-and-breast-cancer-susceptibility-a-systematic-review
#9
Ting Wang
Studies have reached conflicting conclusions about the association of the 1772 C/T polymorphism in the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) gene with breast cancer risk. To address this, we performed a meta-analysis of relevant studies in the included literature. Data were collected from the electronic databases PubMed and EMBase. The association was assessed by determination of the odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of seven articles involving 2343 cases and 2246 controls were analyzed in our meta-analysis...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283323/phage-therapy-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-modern-tool-to-control-pneumonia
#10
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Sahir Sajjad
Phage therapy is important for treatment of drug-resistant pathogens as compared to antibiotics in this modern era. Since 1966, bacteriophages have been used as antibacterial agents and played a very crucial role in the expansion of molecular biology. Bacteriophages have been used to treat infection in Western medicine along with antibiotics. Antibacterial agents against the antibiotic resistance strains have been discovered. The lytic bacteriophage used for treatment in conventional phage therapy have shown hopeful results in human clinical cases...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199612/involvement-of-different-genes-expressions-during-immunological-and-inflammatory-responses-in-vitiligo
#11
Chandra Kant Sharma, Monika Sharma, Kanika Prasad
Vitiligo is a condition of the skin distinguished by hypo-pigmentation. Etiology of this disorder is unknown, and several theories and mechanisms have been hypothesized. The inflammatory response in vitiligo is thought to be mediated by polymorphism in genes such as FOXP3, ACE, APE, GSTP1, TLR, SOD, CTLA-4, TAP/LMP gene cluster, etc. Theories including reactive oxygen species model, Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway, WNT pathway, tyrosinase activity, biochemical, molecular, and cellular alterations have been hypothesized to explain vitiligo pathogenesis...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199611/association-of-ercc1-polymorphisms-with-the-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#12
Jianfeng Chen, Ningjie Sun, Gang Hu, Xiansheng Chen, Jiansong Jiang, Haiming Wu, Gaojian Luo
The ERCC1 enzyme in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway plays a vital role in DNA repair. Numerous epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between ERCC1 polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), with conflicting results. To evaluate the potential associations, we conducted a meta-analysis. Eligible studies were identified by searching electronic databases. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to assess the associations between ERCC1 polymorphisms and CRC risk...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199610/potential-utility-of-n-acetylcysteine-for-treating-mustard-lung
#13
Yunes Panahi, Mostafa Ghanei, Mohammad Mozaffari Hashjin, Ramin Rezaee, Amirhossein Sahebkar
More than a century after the introduction of sulfur mustard (SM), as a chemical warfare agent, it has affected thousands of military and civilians on several occasions. The most notable toxic effects of this easily produced chemical, are lung damage ranges from necrotic, hemorrhagic, and infectious acute-lung injury to chronic conditions (i.e., mustard lung). While there is no definite treatment for individuals exposed to sulfur mustard, corticosteroids, mucolytics, bronchodilators, antibiotics, immunosuppressive medicines, and magnesium are being used to help victims...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199609/tsg101-tumor-susceptibility-gene-101-tsg101-product-role-in-therapy-against-hiv-aids
#14
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Maria Zafar
HIV infection presents a major community health hazard, partially because the HIV virus is capable of evading antiretroviral therapies. Most anti-HIV drugs were intended to target virus-encoded mechanisms; however, some host-encoded molecules comparatively execute a vital role in the life cycle of virus. Thus, these might be considered as target sites for antiviral agents. TSG101 is important among these antiviral therapies because, as a cytoplasmic molecule, it facilitates viral budding and release. In this review, HIV-infected cells have TSG101 on their surface and thus can be used in antibody-based therapies...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199608/role-of-interleukin-6-in-development-of-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash, Aamira Liaqat, Shagufta Kamal, Muhammad Imran Qadir, Akhtar Rasul
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a proinflammatory cytokine that decisively induces the development of insulin resistance and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) through the generation of inflammation by controlling differentiation, migration, proliferation, and cell apoptosis. The presence of IL-6 in tissues is a normal consequence, but its irregular production and long-term exposure leads to the development of inflammation, which induces insulin resistance and overt T2DM. There is a mechanistic relationship between the stimulation of IL-6 and insulin resistance...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199607/transposable-elements-human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-cancer
#16
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
Transposable elements (TEs) have shown a great significance in regulatory elements research, being responsible for different types of cancers. They are divided into three classes on the basis of their mode of transposition, structural properties, and their homology with DNA sequence. In evaluating their role in cancers and other pathologies, researchers have found extensive evidence of their involvement. TEs can also be used as genetic markers for cancers and help in identifying potential therapeutic targets...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199606/association-of-il-6-597-g-a-polymorphism-with-cancer-risk-evidence-from-a-meta-analysis
#17
Dingliang Qian, Shaorong Yan, Xiaowei Pan
Although it has been suggested that the interleukin-6(IL-6) gene -597G/A polymorphism may be a risk factor for cancer, the conclusions from previous studies are inconsistent. To clarify the precise interrelation, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of 6 case-control studies involving 1,605 subjects (706 cases and 899 controls). The overall results showed no significant association between the IL6 -597G/A polymorphism and cancer risk in the overall population (CC vs GG: OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 0.62-9.14; CG vs GG: OR = 1...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199605/modeling-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-tmj-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-osteoarthritis-therapy
#18
Nedime Serakinci, Gokce Savtekin
Stem cells have self-renewal capacity and an ability to differentiate into particular cell types generating mature cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a significant role in tissue homeostasis, which leads into tissue regeneration. MSCs are rare pluripotent cells supporting hematopoietic and mesenchymal cell lineages. MSCs are also believed to have therapeutic power over temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders (TMDs). The most common type of TMD is articular disc displacement, which induces progressive degenerative changes...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199604/mirna-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-tool-for-pancreatic-cancer
#19
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Arooj Faheem
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is fatal disease and one of the major causes of death among cancer patients. Diagnosis of PDAC during the early stages of cancer using ultrasounds and blood tests is difficult and chemotherapies alone for treating cancers are not very effective. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs that alter the expression of genes in many processes, have been identified to play a significant role in pancreatic cancer regulation. miRNAs are classified as oncomiRs (tumor inducers) and tumor suppressor miRNAs...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845767/role-of-lncrnas-as-novel-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets-in-ovarian-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Lu-Lu Fu, Chun-Jin Li, Ying Xu, Ling-Yun Li, Xu Zhou, Dan-Dan Li, Shu-Xiong Chen, Feng-Ge Wang, Xue-Ying Zhang, Lian-Wen Zheng
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death among all gynecological malignancies in the world and its underlying mechanism is still unclear. Compared with research on microRNAs, research on long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is still in its infancy. Studies in recent years have demonstrated that lncRNAs exhibit multiple biological functions in various stages of OC development. In this review, we conclude that lncRNAs are closely involved in the pathogenesis of OC. The expression of lncRNAs indicates the early diagnosis, prognosis, and response to chemotherapy of OC...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
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