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Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

Qiushi Wang, Chongdong Liu, Zhenyu Zhang
Since transthyretin (TTR) was discovered, it has been regarded as a serum protein carrier of thyroid hormones and retinol. However, many other important functions of TTR have been found recently, and current evidence suggests that it plays a role in human receptivity and normal pregnancy. TTR is abundant in the uterine cavity, uterine secretion, placenta, and serum of pregnant females in the peri-implantation uterus and the first trimester of pregnancy. It may be involved in the delivery of maternal thyroid hormones to the fetus...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Amna Parveen, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash, Kanwal Rehman, Whang Wan Kyunn
For the treatment of several types of cancers, tumors and malignancies, scientists are investigating natural sources to discover novel therapeutic agents from medicinal plants having diverse anticancer properties. Research on natural products is being conducted to identify unexplored phytochemical constituents that have been proven to have diverse pharmacological activities. Several medicinal plants have been reported to regulate the progression of different types of cancers, tumors, and malignancies. In this article, we briefly summarize the recent progress in exploring the anticancer properties of various medicinal plants reported to modulate the expression of p53 and the induction of apoptosis...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Jonathan D Ravid, David I Mostofsky
The interface of receptor-mediated regulation of cellular signaling and neurological outputs remains an active field of investigation. The metabotropic G protein-coupled glutamate receptors, and in particular, the group II cyclic adenosine mono-phosphate (cAMP)-lowering metabotropic glutamate receptors 2 and 3 (mGlu2/3 glutamate receptors), have gained interest as therapeutic targets in different forms of neurological disorders. This review explores mGlu2/3 glutamate receptors expression, pharmacological activation, and signaling links to anxiety, as assessed in animal models and in clinical trials...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Lingbao Gao, Keyu Yuan, Wei Ding, Mei Lin
Notch signaling is a well-conserved cell-fate determining factor in embryo development, and the dyregulation of this signaling is frequently observed in many types of cancers, including hematological malignancies. In this review, we briefly describe the Notch signaling pathway, and we primarily focus on the relationship between Notch and hematological malignancies. We also discuss the clinical development of promising agents including γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Complete response has been observed among patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) when treated with GSIs...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Mutong Zhao, Zhenyu Zhang
Cancer cells are characterized by increased energy demand and glucose uptake. Glucose transporters (GLUTs) are regarded as one of the most important proteins controlling glycolytic flux. At the protein level, GLUTs are regulated both by expression and by translocation from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane. Many oncogenic pathways, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, mTOR, hypoxia-inducible factor as well as mutations of p53 and RAS, are involved in the regulation of GLUT function...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Samuel Rubin, Nir Qvit
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) represent a significant portion of functionally relevant biological interactions, and therefore potential therapeutic targets. Small molecules were traditionally used to target PPIs. However, many PPI surfaces lack binding pockets due to their large and flat structures. Antibodies can also be used to modulate PPIs, but they are expensive and not cell permeable. Linear peptides are less expensive to produce than antibodies and are generally more selective than small molecules, but they are limited by decreased stability and poor permeability...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Alexandre Abilio de Souza Teixeira, Fábio Santos Lira, Gustavo D Pimentel, Camila Oliveira de Souza, Helena Batatinha, Luana A Biondo, Alex S Yamashita, Edson A Lima Junior, José Cesar Rosa Neto
White adipose tissue (WAT) is no longer considered a tissue whose main function is the storage of TAG. Since the discovery of leptin in 1994, several studies have elucidated the important role of WAT as an endocrine organ, the source of the adipokines. The low-grade inflammation observed in obese and cancer cachexia patients is explained, at least partially, by the exacerbated release of proinflammatory adipokines. Despite of the recent progress in the characterization of the various adipokines and lipokines produced by WAT, little is known about the mechanisms regulating the secretion of these molecules in different physiological and pathological circumstances...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Michail R Ponizovskiy
Interactions between nucleus and mitochondria functions induce the mechanism of maintenance stability of cellular internal energy according to the first law of thermodynamics in able-bodied cells and changes the mechanisms of maintenance stability of cellular internal energy creating a transition stationary state of ablebodied cells into quasi-stationary pathologic states of acute inflammation transiting then into chronic inflammation and then transmuting into cancer metabolism. The mechanisms' influences of intruding etiologic pathologic agents (microbe, virus, etc...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Srishti Kotiyal, Susinjan Bhattacharya
EMT is the process by which epithelial cells, characterized by well-developed intercellular contacts, transdifferentiate into motile and invasive mesenchymal cells. This process is associated with the loss of transmembrane intercellular adhesion molecule E-cadherin and disruption of cell-cell junctions along with acquisition of migratory properties. EMT is integral in embryonic development, wound healing, and stem cell behavior; however, its aberrant activation by micro-environmental alterations and abnormal stimuli can lead to cancer progression...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Carolina N Franca, Jonatas B Amaral, Izabela D Tuleta, Fábio Siviero, Carlos E S Ferreira, Maria C O Izar, Francisco A H Fonseca
The paper summarizes the difficulties to study the rare population of endothelial progenitor cells in clinical trials, based on the experience of our group in many publications in this area.
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Amna Parveen, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash, Kanwal Rehman, Whang Wan Kyunn
In the biological system, reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the defense mechanisms of the body. ROS is responsible for the initiation of several cellular responses that can impart the harmful effects on the body, initiating biomolecular damage. Therefore, it is essential to counteract the dangerous effects produced by ROS, which is only possible through the use of antioxidants. Researchers are evaluating medicinal plants to discover and investigate the new antioxidant sources. Using natural antioxidants, beneficial effects on human health can be achieved...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Rasime Kalkan, Emine İkbal Atli
miRNAs are short noncoding RNA sequences that cause translational repression or mRNA degradation. A growing number of studies have sought new biomarkers in GBM that will be important in disease progression and prognosis and as potential therapeutic targets. miRNA-profiling studies in glioblastoma patients have found that aberrant miRNA expression can be used as a target to develop new biomarkers for disease detection and for determining prognosis or therapeutic response. In evaluating the tumor or its therapeutic response, genetic abnormalities such as mutations, epigenetic abnormalities, and aberrant miRNA expressions can be useful markers...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Pinar Tulay
Oocyte donations have increased with improvements in oocyte cryopreservation procedures in recent years. Women with medical conditions that require chemotherapy or radiotherapy have begun to opt for oocyte cryo¬preservation prior to their treatment or to enroll in an oocyte donation program. Alternatively, some women apply for "third-party" oocyte donation programs for nonmedical reasons such as delayed childbearing. Although society seems to accept oocyte donations for medical reasons, it appears that there are still some moral issues surrounding nonmedical oocyte donations...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Loreana Sanches Silveira, Barbara de Moura Mello Antunes, Andre Luis Araujo Minari, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli Dos Santos, José Cesar Rosa Neto, Fábio Santos Lira
Macrophages are cells of the innate immune response that trigger inflammation resolution. The phenotype of "classically activated macrophages" (M1) has anti-tumoricidal and anti-bactericidal activities. On the other hand, "alternatively activated macrophages" (M2) are involved in tissue remodeling and immunomodulatory functions. The change in the polarization of macrophages varies according to the diversity of cytokines present in the microenvironment or by the stimuli of an antigen. It involves such factors as interferon-regulatory factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs)...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Priyanka Vijay, Alexa B R McIntyre, Christopher E Mason, Jeffrey P Greenfield, Sheng Li
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches are highly applicable to clinical studies. We review recent advances in sequencing technologies, as well as their benefits and tradeoffs, to provide an overview of clinical genomics from study design to computational analysis. Sequencing technologies enable genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic evaluations. Studies that use a combination of whole genome, exome, mRNA, and bisulfite sequencing are now feasible due to decreasing sequencing costs. Single-molecule sequencing increases read length, with the MinIONTM nanopore sequencer, which offers a uniquely portable option at a lower cost...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Yuri L Lyubchenko, Luda S Shlyakhtenko
This article reviews atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of DNA structure and dynamics and protein-DNA complexes, including recent advances in the visualization of protein-DNA complexes with the use of cutting-edge, high-speed AFM. Special emphasis is given to direct nanoscale visualization of dynamics of protein-DNA complexes. In the area of DNA structure and dynamics, structural studies of local non-B conformations of DNA and the interplay of local and global DNA conformations are reviewed. The application of time-lapse AFM nanoscale imaging of DNA dynamics is illustrated by studies of Holliday junction branch migration...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Amna Parveen, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash, Kanwal Rehman, Whang Wan Kyunn
Cancer develops due to an imbalance between cell proliferation and cell death. Various mechanisms of carcinogenesis as well as of novel anticancer agents that could be targeted for the treatment of cancer have been proposed by different studies. Among these, p21 is recognized as a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that facilitates cell-cycle arrest by interacting with different stimuli such as p53, DNA repair process, CDK, E2F1, MYC, PCNA, STAT3 AP4, proteasomes, K1F, CDX2, and ER-α. p21 acts both as a tumor-suppressor gene and an inhibitor of apoptosis by interacting with various molecules and transition factors...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Rasime Kalkan, Nedime Serakinci
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have the ability to differentiate into several tissue types. Their use in cancer therapeutics or as therapeutic delivery vehicles has significant potential, particularly in their exosome/microvesicle-mediated tissue regeneration abilities. In this review, the potential use of hMSCs in cancer therapy is discussed.
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Pinar Tulay, Nedime Serakinci
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs)-small, nonenveloped viruses with double-stranded circular DNA-are believed to have a role in the progression of cancer. However, the exact mechanisms are not well established. The interference of HPV proteins, especially E6 and E7, in the cell cycle is considered to be the main pathway. It is still questioned whether the expression of these proteins or the viral load is more important in neoplastic transformation. Furthermore, HPV is believed to adapt mechanisms to evade the host cell immune system; persistent HPV infection may also play a role in oncogenic transformation by causing genomic instability and local immune suppression...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Rasime Kalkan
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor, providing few effective therapeutic options, given the tumor heterogeneity and the accumulation of different genetic abnormalities that cause treatment failure. The many different genetic and epigenetic alterations present in GBM lead to modification of several major signaling pathways resulting in brain tumor growth, progression, and therapeutic resistance. Many functionally important mutations have been discovered, known as neutral passengers...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
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