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Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199612/involvement-of-different-genes-expressions-during-immunological-and-inflammatory-responses-in-vitiligo
#1
Chandra Kant Sharma, Monika Sharma, Kanika Prasad
Vitiligo is a condition of the skin distinguished by hypo-pigmentation. Etiology of this disorder is unknown, and several theories and mechanisms have been hypothesized. The inflammatory response in vitiligo is thought to be mediated by polymorphism in genes such as FOXP3, ACE, APE, GSTP1, TLR, SOD, CTLA-4, TAP/LMP gene cluster, etc. Theories including reactive oxygen species model, Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway, WNT pathway, tyrosinase activity, biochemical, molecular, and cellular alterations have been hypothesized to explain vitiligo pathogenesis...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199611/association-of-ercc1-polymorphisms-with-the-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#2
Jianfeng Chen, Ningjie Sun, Gang Hu, Xiansheng Chen, Jiansong Jiang, Haiming Wu, Gaojian Luo
The ERCC1 enzyme in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway plays a vital role in DNA repair. Numerous epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between ERCC1 polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), with conflicting results. To evaluate the potential associations, we conducted a meta-analysis. Eligible studies were identified by searching electronic databases. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to assess the associations between ERCC1 polymorphisms and CRC risk...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199610/potential-utility-of-n-acetylcysteine-for-treating-mustard-lung
#3
Yunes Panahi, Mostafa Ghanei, Mohammad Mozaffari Hashjin, Ramin Rezaee, Amirhossein Sahebkar
More than a century after the introduction of sulfur mustard (SM), as a chemical warfare agent, it has affected thousands of military and civilians on several occasions. The most notable toxic effects of this easily produced chemical, are lung damage ranges from necrotic, hemorrhagic, and infectious acute-lung injury to chronic conditions (i.e., mustard lung). While there is no definite treatment for individuals exposed to sulfur mustard, corticosteroids, mucolytics, bronchodilators, antibiotics, immunosuppressive medicines, and magnesium are being used to help victims...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199609/tsg101-tumor-susceptibility-gene-101-tsg101-product-role-in-therapy-against-hiv-aids
#4
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Maria Zafar
HIV infection presents a major community health hazard, partially because the HIV virus is capable of evading antiretroviral therapies. Most anti-HIV drugs were intended to target virus-encoded mechanisms; however, some host-encoded molecules comparatively execute a vital role in the life cycle of virus. Thus, these might be considered as target sites for antiviral agents. TSG101 is important among these antiviral therapies because, as a cytoplasmic molecule, it facilitates viral budding and release. In this review, HIV-infected cells have TSG101 on their surface and thus can be used in antibody-based therapies...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199608/role-of-interleukin-6-in-development-of-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash, Aamira Liaqat, Shagufta Kamal, Muhammad Imran Qadir, Akhtar Rasul
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a proinflammatory cytokine that decisively induces the development of insulin resistance and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) through the generation of inflammation by controlling differentiation, migration, proliferation, and cell apoptosis. The presence of IL-6 in tissues is a normal consequence, but its irregular production and long-term exposure leads to the development of inflammation, which induces insulin resistance and overt T2DM. There is a mechanistic relationship between the stimulation of IL-6 and insulin resistance...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199607/transposable-elements-human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-cancer
#6
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
Transposable elements (TEs) have shown a great significance in regulatory elements research, being responsible for different types of cancers. They are divided into three classes on the basis of their mode of transposition, structural properties, and their homology with DNA sequence. In evaluating their role in cancers and other pathologies, researchers have found extensive evidence of their involvement. TEs can also be used as genetic markers for cancers and help in identifying potential therapeutic targets...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199606/association-of-il-6-597-g-a-polymorphism-with-cancer-risk-evidence-from-a-meta-analysis
#7
Dingliang Qian, Shaorong Yan, Xiaowei Pan
Although it has been suggested that the interleukin-6(IL-6) gene -597G/A polymorphism may be a risk factor for cancer, the conclusions from previous studies are inconsistent. To clarify the precise interrelation, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of 6 case-control studies involving 1,605 subjects (706 cases and 899 controls). The overall results showed no significant association between the IL6 -597G/A polymorphism and cancer risk in the overall population (CC vs GG: OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 0.62-9.14; CG vs GG: OR = 1...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199605/modeling-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-tmj-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-osteoarthritis-therapy
#8
Nedime Serakinci, Gokce Savtekin
Stem cells have self-renewal capacity and an ability to differentiate into particular cell types generating mature cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a significant role in tissue homeostasis, which leads into tissue regeneration. MSCs are rare pluripotent cells supporting hematopoietic and mesenchymal cell lineages. MSCs are also believed to have therapeutic power over temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders (TMDs). The most common type of TMD is articular disc displacement, which induces progressive degenerative changes...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199604/mirna-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-tool-for-pancreatic-cancer
#9
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Arooj Faheem
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is fatal disease and one of the major causes of death among cancer patients. Diagnosis of PDAC during the early stages of cancer using ultrasounds and blood tests is difficult and chemotherapies alone for treating cancers are not very effective. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs that alter the expression of genes in many processes, have been identified to play a significant role in pancreatic cancer regulation. miRNAs are classified as oncomiRs (tumor inducers) and tumor suppressor miRNAs...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845767/role-of-lncrnas-as-novel-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets-in-ovarian-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Lu-Lu Fu, Chun-Jin Li, Ying Xu, Ling-Yun Li, Xu Zhou, Dan-Dan Li, Shu-Xiong Chen, Feng-Ge Wang, Xue-Ying Zhang, Lian-Wen Zheng
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death among all gynecological malignancies in the world and its underlying mechanism is still unclear. Compared with research on microRNAs, research on long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is still in its infancy. Studies in recent years have demonstrated that lncRNAs exhibit multiple biological functions in various stages of OC development. In this review, we conclude that lncRNAs are closely involved in the pathogenesis of OC. The expression of lncRNAs indicates the early diagnosis, prognosis, and response to chemotherapy of OC...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845766/abcb1-polymorphisms-and-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-risk-a-meta-analysis
#11
Lu Zhan, Junlan Lian, Haili Jin, Sunyao Wang, Jiajun Ding, Zhengyang Shao
The association between ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) C3435T and C1236T polymorphisms and the risk for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is inconclusive. We conducted a meta-analysis of all published studies to determine the association of ABCB1 C3435T and C1236T polymorphisms and pediatric ALL risk. A systematic retrieval of relevant publications from the PubMed and Web of Science databases was performed. Data were calculated and statistical analysis was performed using STATA version 12...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845765/role-of-green-tea-flavonoids-and-other-related-contents-in-cancer-prevention
#12
REVIEW
Muhammad Imran Qadir
Green tea is made from Camellia sinensis and leaves through the oxidation process. It mainly originates in China and has been used traditionally throughout Asia. In the West, black tea has been used mostly, but green tea has become the most popular beverage throughout the world. It is also used as a raw material in cosmetics, health foods, and as an added ingredient in various beverages. Different varieties of green tea are available. The main differences between the varieties are due to harvesting time, production procedures, and horticulture...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845764/mini-review-on-cachexia-related-mirna
#13
REVIEW
Fábio Sousa Nunes, Daniel Moreira-Gonçalves, Tiago Henriques-Coelho
Cachexia, or muscle wasting, is a complex metabolic syndrome associated with an underlying illness and characterized by loss of muscle mass. It is a rather prevalent condition, with impacts on patient survival, response to treatment, and quality of life. Treatment options are sparse because of cachexia's multifactorial pathogenesis. Recently, attention has focused on microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential therapeutic targets of several diseases. miRNAs are small, 18- to 25-base-long constructs that regulate gene expression on a post-transcriptional level, selectively activating or repressing elements of specific signaling pathways...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845763/ethnopharmacological-investigations-of-phytochemical-constituents-isolated-from-the-genus-cuscuta
#14
REVIEW
Muhammad Ibrahim, Kanwal Rehman, Iqbal Hussain, Tahir Farooq, Bisharat Ali, Irum Majeed, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
The genus Cuscuta, of the family Cuscutaceae, is present in plants and has been traditionally used medicinally against many diseases and conditions, notably depression, mental illness, headache, spleen disease, jaundice, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Large numbers of phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, lignins, oxygen heterocyclic compounds, steroids, fatty acids, phenolic acids, resin glycosides, and polysaccharides have been isolated from different species of Cuscuta. Ethnopharmacological studies conducted on such constituents have also been shown Cuscuta to possess anticancer, antiviral, antispasmodic, antihypertensive, anticonvulsant, antibacterial, antioxidant, diuretic, and hair-growth activity...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845762/phytoestrogens-and-related-food-components-in-the-prevention-of-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Bushra Nawaz Cheema
Great progress has been made in the fight against disease in many different fields of medicine, especially in the field of natural medicine. Phytoestrogens and related compounds play a major role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Chemoprevention, a narrative approach for controlling cancer, involves the use of specific natural products or synthetic chemical agents to overturn, repress, or prevent pre-malignancy before the development of invasive cancer. Several natural products confer protective effects against a wide range of cancers; examples include grains, nuts, cereals, spices, fruits, vegetables, beverages, medicinal plants, herbs, and their various phytochemical constituents including phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and nitrogen-containing and organosulfur compounds...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436335/localization-of-the-werner-protein-together-with-h2ax-in-%C3%AE-irradiation-induced-neoplastic-transformed-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#16
Nedime Serakinci, Tufan Cankaya, Steen Kølvraa
The H2A histone family, member X (H2AX), and Werner (WRN) are important proteins for genome and telomere maintenance. WRN has a major role in genome stability, particularly during DNA replication, transcription, recombination, and repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) via base excision repair, homologous recombination, or nonhomologous end joining. H2AX plays a part in the rapid, sensitive, cellular response to the ionizing radiation or DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents that cause DSBs. This occurs when radiation-induced DSBs trigger the activation of H2AX and begin the damage-repair process...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436334/acute-hiv-infection-advances-in-mechanisms-and-prophylactic-therapeutic-management
#17
REVIEW
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Amman Abid
Human infection by HIV is spreading rapidly. The spread of the virus is generally organized and transmission can be rectal, oral, or penile. Several types of cells are susceptible to viral invasion. The appearance of symptoms during infection can vary, but the presence of the virus can be confirmed by testing for the antigen p24. The ELISA test is used to detect viral p24 antigen and antiviral antibodies. This technique is approved for the purposes of clinical practice. Highly active antiretroviral therapy is usually a costly and lengthy treatment for HIV infection...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436333/epidemiology-of-hepatitis-c-infection-in-pakistan-current-estimate-and-major-risk-factors
#18
REVIEW
Aiman Arshad, Usman Ali Ashfaq
In Pakistan, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major healthcare problem, with acute and chronic infections responsible for liver damage, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Under the Human Development Index of the United Nations, Pakistan is ranked 134th of 174 countries due to its poor educational and health standards. This study was designed to study HCV and its genotype prevalence in different cities and provinces of Pakistan and describe the major routes of HCV transmission. Literature searches were performed in PubMed, Mendeley, and Google Scholar...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436332/applications-of-three-dimensional-cell-cultures-in-the-early-stages-of-drug-discovery-focusing-on-gene-expressions-drug-metabolism-and-susceptibility
#19
REVIEW
Maddaly Ravi
Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures represent advances in the way in which cells are grown in vitro, and they are gaining ground for a variety of applications. Advantages of 3D systems include reliable and realistic study endpoints. Cells grown in 3D conditions mimic in vivo conditions to an extent that is not possible with traditional 2D cell-culture methods. One major area in which 3D cell cultures have proven to make a difference is with drug discovery. The facets taken advantage of for drug discovery are the cells' complex microenvironment, including the production of extracellular matrices, altered gene expressions and their protein products, drug metabolism, and susceptibility to drugs when compared to 2D cultures...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436331/lep-expression-and-its-role-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Zara Ahmed
Obesity is metabolic disorder that increases the risk of diabetes, heart disease, and other metabolic syndromes in human beings. One sign of diabetes is increased blood glucose levels in the body. Glucose levels increase due to problems with insulin secretion or insulin resistance. Maturity onset of diabetes of the young is more common in adults and occurs due to insulin resistance. Both diabetes and obesity are major problems that are responsible for the death of millions of individuals every year, worldwide...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
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