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Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773017/gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-a-review-of-symptomatic-management
#1
Elsa S Tabrez, Azhar Hussain, Seetharama Rao, Ashraya Jagadeesh, Jagannadha Rao Peela, Shams S M Tabrez
Considered as a chronic illness, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has manifested itself as a widespread condition throughout the adult population. As a growing epidemic, GERD has reached a staggering prevalence of 10% to 20% in the Western world, by affecting up to 30 million people in the United States alone. Sixty percent of individuals in an adult population will experience symptoms and the impact of GERD over a period of 12 months, whereas a remarkable 20% to 30% of individuals will have weekly symptoms...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773016/is-cannabidiol-a-promising-substance-for-new-drug-development-a-review-of-its-potential-therapeutic-applications
#2
Nida Noreen, Faqir Muhammad, Bushra Akhtar, Farooq Azam, Muhammad Irfan Anwar
The pharmacological importance of cannabidiol (CBD) has been in study for several years. CBD is the major nonpsychoactive constituent of plant Cannabis sativa and its administration is associated with reduced side effects. Currently, CBD is undergoing a lot of research which suggests that it has no addictive effects, good safety profile and has exhibited powerful therapeutic potential in several vital areas. It has wide spectrum of action because it acts through endocannabinoid receptors; CB1 and CB2 and it also acts on other receptors, such as GPR18, GPR55, GPR 119, 5HT1A, and TRPV2...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773015/caffeine-a-potential-protective-agent-against-cognitive-decline-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Azhar Hussain, Elsa S Tabrez, Volodymyr Mavrych, Olena Bolgova, Jagannadha Rao Peela
Over the past few decades, caffeine has been well recognized as a stimulant whose effects can be detected particularly in the central nervous system. A stimulating effect of caffeine has been found useful in treating patients with many neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is reported to be a rapidly increasing public health problem with lack of a remedial treatment. However, the assumed protective effects of caffeine against AD are of huge interest. This study substantiates caffeine's role as a potential prevention agent against AD through several epidemiological studies...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773014/investigations-of-phytochemical-constituents-and-their-pharmacological-properties-isolated-from-the-genus-urtica-critical-review-and-analysis
#4
Muhammad Ibrahim, Kanwal Rehman, Aneeza Razzaq, Iqbal Hussain, Tahir Farooq, Amjad Hussain, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
The genus Urtica belongs to the family Urticaceae. The plants of this genus are known as nettles or, quite often, as stinging nettles. These plants can be easily identified by the presence of stinging hairs. Urtica species have previously been used for various medicinal purposes. The history for the use of these plants for medicinal purposes starts from the Bronze Age (3000-2000 BC). Medicinally, the genus Urtica has been used to treat several disorders, such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, bronchitis, diarrhea, sprains, kidney stones, urinary tract infection, high blood pressure, hemorrhoids, flu, cough, fever, and ulcers...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773013/critical-review-on-curcumin-as-a-therapeutic-agent-from-traditional-herbal-medicine-to-an-ideal-therapeutic-agent
#5
Muhammad Usman Akbar, Kanwal Rehman, Khalid Mahmood Zia, Muhammad Imran Qadir, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash, Muhammad Ibrahim
Traditionally, many natural medicinal plants have been used to treat a variety of diseases since ancient times and are considered a potential source of phytochemicals for the development of new drugs. One of these is curcumin, which is an easily accessible, inexpensive, and nontoxic bioactive compound. Curcumin is a very important, naturally occurring, and highly lipophilic and phenolic substance derived from the rhizomes of plant Curcuma longa, a member of the Zingiberaceae (ginger) family, which is mostly used as a curry spice, flavoring agent, insect repellent, coloring agent in food, traditional drug, and ingredient in cosmetics...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773012/qadir-theory-of-cancer-etiology
#6
Muhammad Imran Qadir
The idea that viruses may cause some cancers was first proposed almost a century ago. At the end of the last century, it was estimated that 15% of all human cancers were due to viruses. But it is postulated that "Viruses are the causative agents of cancer: 100% of cancer patients contain virus/es in their body which are responsible for the cancer." Cancer may be caused by viruses through one or more of three mechanisms. Some studies have opposed the idea, but in these studies, laboratory methods were not used to detect viruses...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773011/antibacterial-activity-of-novel-strains-of-bacteriophages-an-experimental-approach
#7
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Zunera Chauhdary
The evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria has increased research in the development of alternative therapies to conventional drugs. In this study, isolated phages were characterized and antibacterial activity was determined by standard agar disc diffusion method. The phages showed maximum propagation at 37°C to 40°C and highest viability at pH 7. Sugars influenced the bacteriophage viability. Sodium chloride decreased the phage propagation. Calcium chloride and magnesium chloride increased the phage propagation up to a certain limit...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283332/diverse-signaling-pathways-and-current-status-of-molecular-targeted-treatments-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
Bushra Akhtar, Faqir Muhammad, Ali Sharif, Muhammad Furqan Akhtar, Wafa Majeed
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of death associated with cancer. Various molecular mechanisms are involved in HCC development. Alterations in these molecular mechanisms include chromosomal instability, gene mutations, and variations in protein expressions. A number of cell signaling pathways that are associated with the occurrence of apoptosis, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis provide new prospects for the development of HCC treatments. Newly designed, potential therapeutic regimens target specific receptors, kinases, and vital proteins...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283331/mechanism-of-hepatitis-c-virus-induced-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Usman Ali Ashfaq, Hina Khalid
The hepatitis C virus (HCV), the most predominant cause of liver failure worldwide, is associated with the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) and insulin resistance (IR), both in vivo and in vitro. DM and IR aggravate the rate of fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Most studies have revealed that patients with HCV are at a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), compared with controls or patients with hepatitis B. In the same way, patients with T2D are highly prone to severe HCV clinical outcomes and increased progression to fibrosis and cirrhosis, ultimately leading to HCC...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283330/mirna-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-pathogenesis-and-therapeutic-approaches
#10
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Samana Zahra Rizvi
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a worldwide disease. Because therapeutic measures are ineffective, HCC currently has a poor prognosis. The main causes of HCCs are alcoholism, hepatitis, and metabolic syndrome. Normally hygieinic studies revealed that there is lower survival rate of HCC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) consist of short noncoding sequences of RNA (20 to 24 nucleotides), which posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of the protein coding genes. MicroRNAs have been proposed to be prospective therapeutic molecules and targets...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283329/association-between-the-epithelial-cadherin-160c-a-polymorphism-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-evidence-from-a-meta-analysis
#11
Ningjie Sun, Jianfeng Chen, Gang Hu, Xiansheng Chen, Jiansong Jiang, Lei Zhang, Haiming Wu
The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the epithelial cadherin (CDH1) -160C/A polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC) using a meta-analysis. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases was performed for relevant studies. Statistical analyses were carried out using Stata 12.0 to combine all of the relevant studies. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) values were applied to evaluate the strength of the association. Eight studies with 7231 cases and 7080 controls were included...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283328/n-myc-downstream-regulated-gene-1-and-endometriosis-a-minireview
#12
Tong Lou, Chongdong Liu, Zhenyu Zhang
NDRG1 (N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1) was previously considered to be a differentiation-related gene. However, many other functions of NDRG1 have since been identified, including proliferation, migration, invasion, and vascularization of tumor cells. Currently regarded as a tumor suppressor in most studies, NDRG1 is abundant in prostate, brain, kidney, placental, and intestinal tissues. It is expressed in normal endometrium, with higher expression occurring in the secretory phase. NDRG1 was first identified as an inhibitor of signaling pathways associated with the pathology of endometriosis...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283327/genetically-modified-aedes-aegypti-to-control-dengue-a-review
#13
Muhammad Qsim, Usman Ali Ashfaq, Muhammad Zubair Yousaf, Muhammad Shareef Masoud, Ijaz Rasul, Namrah Noor, Azfar Hussain
Dengue is an acute infectious disease of viral etiology characterized by lymphadenopathy, leucopenia, headache, biphasic fever, pain in various parts of the body, rashes, and extreme physical weakness. It is a vector-borne disease caused by a positive-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Dengue inflicts a significant health, economic, and social burden on populations of endemic areas. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans by the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. Vaccines against dengue viruses have been claimed to be developed, but as yet no effective treatment is available...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283326/sirtuins-in-brain-aging-and-neurological-disorders
#14
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Sidra Anwar
The many ways of aging have been and continue to be investigated. For this reason, over many years, several studies have resolved some of the genetic details underlying aging processes. It resulted in the identification of a yeast gene known as Sir2, which is a longevity modulator. Sir2 and SIRT1 are the mammalian homologs of yeast genes. Sirtuins (including SIRT1) play an important role in aging of the brain and the metabolic regulation pathway in mammals. Aging in the brain is caused by the loss of neurophysiologic functions due to neurodegeneration...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283325/emerging-trends-in-non-interferon-based-genotype-specific-antiviral-agents-pharmaceutical-perspectives
#15
Tahir Farooq, Arruje Hameed, Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Ibrahim, Matloob Ahmed, Tahsin Gulzar, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) presents a serious global health threat. Initially, the health-care community mainly focused on interferon (IFN)-based therapeutic options to eradicate HCV, but with the passage of time, these applications became unsuitable due to some serious side effects related to the use of IFN. In recent years, research conducted on different phases of HCV's life cycle has opened a new gateway for the use of a direct-acting new generation of anti-HCV agents. Their safer and ultrarapid response has made possible the introduction of triple therapy and use of IFN-free therapeutic treatment strategies...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283324/association-between-hif1%C3%AE-1772-c-t-polymorphism-and-breast-cancer-susceptibility-a-systematic-review
#16
Ting Wang
Studies have reached conflicting conclusions about the association of the 1772 C/T polymorphism in the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) gene with breast cancer risk. To address this, we performed a meta-analysis of relevant studies in the included literature. Data were collected from the electronic databases PubMed and EMBase. The association was assessed by determination of the odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of seven articles involving 2343 cases and 2246 controls were analyzed in our meta-analysis...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283323/phage-therapy-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-modern-tool-to-control-pneumonia
#17
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Sahir Sajjad
Phage therapy is important for treatment of drug-resistant pathogens as compared to antibiotics in this modern era. Since 1966, bacteriophages have been used as antibacterial agents and played a very crucial role in the expansion of molecular biology. Bacteriophages have been used to treat infection in Western medicine along with antibiotics. Antibacterial agents against the antibiotic resistance strains have been discovered. The lytic bacteriophage used for treatment in conventional phage therapy have shown hopeful results in human clinical cases...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199612/involvement-of-different-genes-expressions-during-immunological-and-inflammatory-responses-in-vitiligo
#18
Chandra Kant Sharma, Monika Sharma, Kanika Prasad
Vitiligo is a condition of the skin distinguished by hypo-pigmentation. Etiology of this disorder is unknown, and several theories and mechanisms have been hypothesized. The inflammatory response in vitiligo is thought to be mediated by polymorphism in genes such as FOXP3, ACE, APE, GSTP1, TLR, SOD, CTLA-4, TAP/LMP gene cluster, etc. Theories including reactive oxygen species model, Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway, WNT pathway, tyrosinase activity, biochemical, molecular, and cellular alterations have been hypothesized to explain vitiligo pathogenesis...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199611/association-of-ercc1-polymorphisms-with-the-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#19
Jianfeng Chen, Ningjie Sun, Gang Hu, Xiansheng Chen, Jiansong Jiang, Haiming Wu, Gaojian Luo
The ERCC1 enzyme in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway plays a vital role in DNA repair. Numerous epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between ERCC1 polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), with conflicting results. To evaluate the potential associations, we conducted a meta-analysis. Eligible studies were identified by searching electronic databases. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to assess the associations between ERCC1 polymorphisms and CRC risk...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199610/potential-utility-of-n-acetylcysteine-for-treating-mustard-lung
#20
Yunes Panahi, Mostafa Ghanei, Mohammad Mozaffari Hashjin, Ramin Rezaee, Amirhossein Sahebkar
More than a century after the introduction of sulfur mustard (SM), as a chemical warfare agent, it has affected thousands of military and civilians on several occasions. The most notable toxic effects of this easily produced chemical, are lung damage ranges from necrotic, hemorrhagic, and infectious acute-lung injury to chronic conditions (i.e., mustard lung). While there is no definite treatment for individuals exposed to sulfur mustard, corticosteroids, mucolytics, bronchodilators, antibiotics, immunosuppressive medicines, and magnesium are being used to help victims...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
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