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Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854520/neuroplasticity-and-behavioral-effects-of%C3%A2-fluoxetine-after-experimental-stroke
#1
Yefei Sun, Xiaoyu Sun, Huiling Qu, Shanshan Zhao, Ting Xiao, Chuansheng Zhao
The brain can undergo self-repair and has the ability to compensate for functions lost after a stroke. The plasticity of the ischemic brain is influenced by several factors including aging and pharmacotherapy. Fluoxetine is an antidepressant which enhances serotonergic neurotransmission through selective inhibition of neuronal reuptake of serotonin. In clinical practice, fluoxetine alleviates the symptoms of post-stroke depression (PSD), helps motor recovery in stroke patients. In animal experiments, chronic administration of fluoxetine induces increased excitability of mature granule cells (GCs), enhancing axonal and dendritic reorganization, as well as promoting neurogenesis or angiogenesis in the dentate gurus (DG), but the effect of fluoxetine in the subventricular zone (SVZ) remains controversial...
August 24, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800341/robotic-assisted-gait-training-combined-with-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-chronic-stroke-patients-a-pilot-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Han Gil Seo, Woo Hyung Lee, Seung Hak Lee, Youbin Yi, Kwang Dong Kim, Byung-Mo Oh
BACKGROUND: Although robotic-assisted gait training (RAGT) is becoming a standard method in stroke rehabilitation, its effect on chronic stroke patients is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether anodal tDCS (transcranial direct current stimulation) enhances the effect of RAGT on functional ambulation in chronic stroke patients. METHODS: Chronic hemiplegic stroke patients with a Functional Ambulatory Category (FAC) score≤4 were randomly assigned to either the RAGT with anodal tDCS (Anodal) group or the sham tDCS (Sham) group...
August 11, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800340/reducing-the-rate-of-misdiagnosis-in%C3%A2-patients-with-chronic-disorders-of%C3%A2-consciousness-is-there-a-place-for-audiovisual-stimulation
#3
Antonino Naro, Antonino Leo, Rocco Bruno, Antonino Cannavò, Antonio Buda, Alfredo Manuli, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
BACKGROUND: The patients with chronic Disorders of Consciousness (DoC) mostly present with extremely challenging differential diagnosis. The advanced analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals induced by brain stimulation paradigms may provide an appropriate approach to differentiate patients with DoC, besides the clinical assessment. OBJECTIVE: This study was performed with an objective of identifying residual brain network perturbations following an innovative, non-invasive audiovisual stimulation protocol, which could be related to behavioral responsiveness in patients with DoC...
August 11, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800339/perceptual-learning-improves-contrast-sensitivity-visual-acuity-and-foveal-crowding-in-amblyopia
#4
Michele Barollo, Giulio Contemori, Luca Battaglini, Andrea Pavan, Clara Casco
BACKGROUND: Amblyopic observers present abnormal spatial interactions between a low-contrast sinusoidal target and high-contrast collinear flankers. It has been demonstrated that perceptual learning (PL) can modulate these low-level lateral interactions, resulting in improved visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. OBJECTIVE: We measured the extent and duration of generalization effects to various spatial tasks (i.e., visual acuity, Vernier acuity, and foveal crowding) through PL on the target's contrast detection...
August 11, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059804/bupivacaine-increases-the-rate-of%C3%A2-motoneuron-death-following-peripheral%C3%A2-nerve-injury
#5
Susanna C Byram, Scott W Byram, Nicholas M Miller, Keith N Fargo
BACKGROUND: Appropriate management of pain after an injury or surgical procedure has been shown to improve patient outcomes. While infrequent, nerve damage resulting from regional anesthesia can be devastating, however the mechanism remains unknown. Local anesthetics are neurotoxic yet are frequently applied to sites where peripheral nerves are regenerating. Therefore, understanding their effects on injured and growing neurons may have important implications for clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if local anesthetics exacerbate the rate of motoneuron death following axotomy...
January 4, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059800/twist-and-turn-into-chronic-disorders-of%C3%A2-consciousness-potential-role-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-auditory-stapedial-reflex
#6
Antonino Naro, Rocco Bruno, Antonino Leo, Margherita Russo, Carlo Salviera, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC), including minimally conscious state (MCS) and unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS), typically show an awareness impairment paralleled by a significant reflex hyper-excitability, which depend on the cortical deafferentation following brain-damage-induced thalamocortical system deterioration. Nonetheless, recent studies have shown a residual preservation of cortico-subcortical pathways that may sustain residual fragments of awareness in some DOC patients...
January 3, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800343/microsaccade-dysfunction-and-adaptation-in-hemianopia-after-stroke
#7
Ying Gao, Bernhard A Sabel
BACKGROUND: Besides the reduction of visual field size, hemianopic patients may also experience other poorly understood symptoms such as blurred vision, diplopia, or reduced visual acuity, which may be related to microsaccade function. OBJECTIVE: To determine (i) if microsaccades are altered in hemianopia; (ii) how altered microsaccade features correlate with visual performances; and (iii) how their direction relates to visual field defect topography. METHODS: In this case-control study, microsaccades of hemianopic stroke patients (n = 14) were assessed with high-resolution eye-tracking technique, compared with those of healthy controls (n = 14), and correlated with visual performances, visual field defect parameters and lesion age...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800342/use-of-melatonin-versus-valproic-acid-in-prophylaxis-of-migraine-patients-a-double-blind-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Mohsen Ebrahimi-Monfared, Mojtaba Sharafkhah, Ali Abdolrazaghnejad, Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi, Fardin Faraji
BACKGROUND: Melatonin is known to be effective in curing migraine. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of melatonin versus sodium valproate in the prophylaxis of chronic migraine. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial included patients with chronic migraine who were divided into three equal sized groups, and baseline therapy with nortriptyline (10-25 mg) and propranolol (20-40 mg) was used...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697575/bimanual-coordination-a-missing-piece-of-arm-rehabilitation-after-stroke
#9
Shailesh Kantak, Steven Jax, George Wittenberg
Inability to use the arm in daily actions significantly lowers quality of life after stroke. Most contemporary post-stroke arm rehabilitation strategies that aspire to re-engage the weaker arm in functional activities have been greatly limited in their effectiveness. Most actions of daily life engage the two arms in a highly coordinated manner. In contrast, most rehabilitation approaches predominantly focus on restitution of the impairments and unilateral practice of the weaker hand alone. We present a perspective that this misalignment between real world requirements and intervention strategies may limit the transfer of unimanual capability to spontaneous arm use and functional recovery...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697574/tdcs-does-not-enhance-the-effects-of-robot-assisted-gait-training-in-patients-with-subacute-stroke
#10
Daniel Leon, Mar Cortes, Jessica Elder, Hatice Kumru, Sara Laxe, Dylan James Edwards, Josep Maria Tormos, Montserrat Bernabeu, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique, which can modulate cortical excitability and combined with rehabilitation therapies may improve motor recovery after stroke. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study the feasibility of a 4-week robotic gait training protocol combined with tDCS, and to study tDCS to the leg versus hand motor cortex or sham to improve walking ability in patients after a subacute stroke...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697573/dual-tasking-negatively-impacts-obstacle-avoidance-abilities-in-post-stroke-individuals-with-visuospatial-neglect-task-complexity-matters
#11
Gayatri Aravind, Anouk Lamontagne
BACKGROUND: Persons with perceptual-attentional deficits due to visuospatial neglect (VSN) after a stroke are at a risk of collisions while walking in the presence of moving obstacles. The attentional burden of performing a dual-task may further compromise their obstacle avoidance performance, putting them at a greater risk of collisions. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the ability of persons with (VSN+) and without VSN (VSN-) to dual task while negotiating moving obstacles...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671146/repetitive-dynamic-stereo-test-improved-processing-time-in-young-athletes
#12
Micha Daniel Schoemann, Matthias Lochmann, Jan Paulus, Georg Michelson
BACKGROUND: Current studies revealed the importance of perceptual training for the treatment of amblyopia. To improve stereo vision on a higher level, visual tasks have to be completed within a limited time window like in repetitive visual function tests. "Processing time" as the reaction time in which the absence or presence of depth was identified correctly, is of better predictive value for perceiving the depth than the stereo threshold only. OBJECTIVE: To examine the long-term effects of repetitive dynamic testing of stereopsis on processing time...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598859/the-role-of-the-dorsal-anterior-cingulate-cortex-dacc-in-a-cognitive-and-emotional-counting-stroop-task-two-cases
#13
Wing Ting To, Dirk De Ridder, Tomas Menovsky, John Hart, Sven Vanneste
BACKGROUND: The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been implicated in both cognitive and emotional processing, with cognitive information proposed to be processed through the dorsal/caudal ACC and emotional information through the rostral/ventral ACC. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the role of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in cognitive and emotional processing using a cognitive and emotional counting Stroop task in two patients in whom abnormalities in the dACC were identified and treated...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598858/effects-of-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-on-spasticity-after-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Raffaele Nardone, Patrick B Langthaler, Andrea Orioli, Peter Höller, Yvonne Höller, Vanessa N Frey, Francesco Brigo, Eugen Trinka
PURPOSE: Spasticity is a common disorder in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this study was to investigate whether intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), a safe, non-invasive and well-tolerated protocol of excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), is effective in modulating spasticity in SCI patients. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, crossover, sham-controlled study, ten subjects with incomplete cervical or thoracic SCI received 10 days of daily sessions of real or sham iTBS...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598857/sdf-1-overexpression-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells-enhances-gap-43-positive-axonal-growth-following-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Andrew Nathaniel Stewart, Jessica Jane Matyas, Ryan Matthew Welchko, Alison Delanie Goldsmith, Sarah Elizabeth Zeiler, Ute Hochgeschwender, Ming Lu, Zhenhong Nan, Julien Rossignol, Gary Leo Dunbar
PURPOSE: Utilizing genetic overexpression of trophic molecules in cell populations has been a promising strategy to develop cell replacement therapies for spinal cord injury (SCI). Over-expressing the chemokine, stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1α), which has chemotactic effects on many cells of the nervous system, offers a promising strategy to promote axonal regrowth following SCI. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of human SDF-1α, when overexpressed by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), on axonal growth and motor behavior in a contusive rat model of SCI...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506003/synergy-effects-of-combined-multichannel-emg-triggered-electrical-stimulation-and-mirror-therapy-in-subacute-stroke-patients-with-severe-or-very-severe-arm-hand-paresis
#16
Thomas Schick, Hans-Peter Schlake, Juliane Kallusky, Günter Hohlfeld, Maria Steinmetz, Florian Tripp, Karsten Krakow, Michaela Pinter, Christian Dohle
BACKGROUND: Neurorehabilitation requires the development of severity-dependent and successful therapies for arm/hand rehabilitation in stroke patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of adding mirror therapy to bilateral EMG-triggered multi-channel electrostimulation for the treatment of severe arm/hand paresis in stroke patients. METHODS: The subjects of this randomized, controlled, multicentre study were stroke patients who had suffered their first insult between 1 and 6 months before study start and had severe or very severe arm/hand paresis, as classified by Fugl-Meyer-Assessment...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506002/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-combined-with-visuo-motor-training-as-treatment-for-chronic-stroke-patients
#17
Elena L Pavlova, Påvel Lindberg, Amirah Khan, Sigurd Ruschkowski, Michael A Nitsche, Jörgen Borg
BACKGROUND: Recent studies exploring the combined effect of motor learning and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for stroke rehabilitation have shown partially conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of an optimized hand training approach combined with tDCS in stroke patients. METHODS: In the present pilot study we investigated motor effects of four-week training with a visuomotor grip force tracking task combined with tDCS in 11 chronic stroke patients...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506001/motor-cortex-stimulation-does-not-lead-to%C3%A2-functional-recovery-after-experimental-cortical-injury-in-rats
#18
Lisa-Maria Schönfeld, Ali Jahanshahi, Evi Lemmens, Matthias Bauwens, Sarah-Anna Hescham, Sandra Schipper, Melanie Lagiere, Sven Hendrix, Yasin Temel
BACKGROUND: Motor impairments are among the major complications that develop after cortical damage caused by either stroke or traumatic brain injury. Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) can improve motor functions in animal models of stroke by inducing neuroplasticity. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, the therapeutic effect of chronic MCS was assessed in a rat model of severe cortical damage. METHODS: A controlled cortical impact (CCI) was applied to the forelimb area of the motor cortex followed by implantation of a flat electrode covering the lesioned area...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506000/therapeutic-effects-of-oral-dimethyl-fumarate-on-stroke-induced-by-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-an-animal-experimental-study
#19
Anahid Safari, Mehdi Fazeli, Mohammad Reza Namavar, Nader Tanideh, Peyman Jafari, Afshin Borhani-Haghighi
BACKGROUND: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has immune-modulatory and neuro-protective characteristics that can be used for treatment of acute ischemic stroke. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic effects of DMF on histological and functional recovery of rats after transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. METHODS: 22 Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 275-300 g were randomized into three groups by block randomization. In the sham group (n = 7), the neck was opened, but neither MCA was occluded, nor any drug was administered...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339414/update-on-the-application-of-optic-nerve-sheath-fenestration
#20
Hui Chen, Qian Zhang, Song Tan, Huazhu Fu, Bradley K Farris, Zhenglin Yang
BACKGROUND: With the ongoing development of surgical procedures and instruments, the safety of optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) has been improved. OBJECTIVE: Through the past three decades, progress has been made in preventing visual loss from chronic optic nerve swelling in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), secondary intracranial hypertension and local optic nerve diseases. We now review the updated application of ONSF in those diseases. METHODS: The application of ONSF in papilledema due to IIH, secondary intracranial hypertension to cerebral venous sinus occlusion, Cryptococcal meningitis, and intracranial mass or tumors is reviewed...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
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