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Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience

Bernhard A Sabel, Josef Flammer, Lotfi B Merabet
Vision loss due to ocular diseases such as glaucoma, optic neuropathy, macular degeneration, or diabetic retinopathy, are generally considered an exclusive affair of the retina and/or optic nerve. However, the brain, through multiple indirect influences, has also a major impact on functional visual impairment. Such indirect influences include intracerebral pressure, eye movements, top-down modulation (attention, cognition), and emotionally triggered stress hormone release affecting blood vessel dysregulation...
November 8, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
M Tramontano, A M Cinnera, L Manzari, F Tozzi, C Caltagirone, G Morone, A Pompa, M G Grasso
BACKGROUND: Balance disorders are present in patients with Multiple Sclerosis and part of these disorders could be of vestibular origin. Vestibular Rehabilitation was found to be effective in improving balance in patients with central vestibular dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical effects of vestibular rehabilitation on balance skills and secondly on fatigue and activity of daily living in highly disabled multiple sclerosis people. METHODS: Thirty hospitalized participants with severe multiple sclerosis (EDSS 6-7) were randomly assigned to the experimental group (15 patients -9F-; mean age 50...
November 8, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Reinhard Werth
BACKGROUND: Reading disability is termed "dyslexia" if it is much lower than other cognitive abilities according to the intelligence quotient (IQ). This means that dyslexia is caused by an impairment of abilities other than those which the IQ requires. Therefore, reading performance should improve immediately if these impairments are either eliminated or compensated. OBJECTIVE: The experiments explore conditions under which these impairments are compensated and dyslexic children's poor reading ability immediately improve...
November 8, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Laurence Dumont, Sofia El Mouderrib, Hugo Théoret
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique commonly used to modulate cognitive functions; so-called "anodal" stimulation is considered to increase cortical excitability while "cathodal" is presumed to have the opposite result. Yet, a growing number of recent studies question the robustness of this polarity-dependent effect, namely because of the important inter-individual variability with regards to tDCS modulatory effects...
November 3, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Edward P Washabaugh, Emma Treadway, R Brent Gillespie, Christian D Remy, Chandramouli Krishnan
BACKGROUND: Robotic rehabilitation is a highly promising approach to recover lost functions after stroke or other neurological disorders. Unfortunately, robotic rehabilitation currently suffers from "motor slacking", a phenomenon in which the human motor system reduces muscle activation levels and movement excursions, ostensibly to minimize metabolic- and movement-related costs. Consequently, the patient remains passive and is not fully engaged during therapy. To overcome this limitation, we envision a new class of body-powered robots and hypothesize that motor slacking could be reduced if individuals must provide the power to move their impaired limbs via their own body (i...
October 31, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Ge Dang, Xinran Chen, Yuhui Zhao, Yicong Chen, Fubing Ouyang, Jiahui Liang, Yi Guo, Jinsheng Zeng
BACKGROUNDS: Cerebral infarction does not only cause focal injury in the ischemic site, but also secondary non-ischemic damage at the remote areas of nervous system associated with the primary focus. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the changes in the spinal cord and ventral root after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). METHODS: Adult male cynonolgus monkeys (4-5 years, 5.5-7.5 kg) were subjected to MCAO (n = 6) or sham surgery (n = 4)...
October 30, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Meghal Gagrani, Muneeb A Faiq, Talvir Sidhu, Rima Dada, Raj K Yadav, Ramanjit Sihota, Kanwal P Kochhar, Rohit Verma, Tanuj Dada
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma (POAG) is a kind of neurodegenerative disease known to be closely associated with stress and adverse quality of life (QOL). Stress has also been shown to be involved in etiopathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Complementary treatment in form of Meditation has been reported to improve QOL, brain oxygenation and decrease markers of stress. With this premise, a randomized controlled trial was carried out to assess the effect of Meditation on intraocular pressure, subjective QOL and objective markers of stress and brain oxygenation in patients with POAG...
October 29, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Rizwana Qadri, Manju Namdeo, Madhuri Behari, Vinay Goyal, Subhadra Sharma, Asok Kumar Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Progressive apoptosis in the dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra lead to Parkinson's disease. Since neurons require substantially higher supply of energy, their mitochondria have a pivotal status in neuronal survival. These organelles have a key role to play in apoptosis and any impairment thereof may lead to apoptosis mediated cell death. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ) in Parkinson's disease patients and healthy controls...
September 28, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
M Kusch, C C Schmidt, L Göden, C Tscherpel, J Stahl, J Saliger, H Karbe, G R Fink, P H Weiss
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Apraxia is a deficit of motor cognition leading to difficulties in actual tool use, imitation of gestures, and pantomiming object use. To date, little data exist regarding the recovery from apraxic deficits after stroke, and no statistical lesion mapping study investigated the neural correlate of recovery from apraxia. Accordingly, we here examined recovery from apraxic deficits, differential associations of apraxia task (imitation vs. pantomime) and effector (bucco-facial vs...
September 27, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Hiroki Oda, Souichi Ohta, Ryosuke Ikeguchi, Takashi Noguchi, Yukitoshi Kaizawa, Hirofumi Yurie, Hisataka Takeuchi, Sadaki Mitsuzawa, Shuichi Matsuda
BACKGROUND: Replantation of the avulsed nerve root has been proposed for the treatment of severe brachial plexus injury for several decades. However, due to the complexity of the technique and limited functional improvement, practical applications are yet to be implemented. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we investigated the effect of pretreatment with resveratrol on nerve autografts used for replantation surgery in a rat model of nerve root avulsion. METHODS: Resveratrol pretreatment was performed using an explant culture technique...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Eun Kyoung Kang, Dabi Shin, Jeong-Yeon Yun, Wanjoo Park, Hee-Won Park
BACKGROUND: Specific investigation of dual task-interference (DTI) may help researchers to develop the optimal training exercise for enhancing the performance of daily activities. OBJECTIVES: To reveal the DTI by comparing the performances between personalized single tasks (cognitive or motor task) and dual task with serial decomposition in normal healthy adults. METHODS: After a preliminary period, healthy participants randomly (n = 46) performed three computerized experiments of cognitive (CT), motor (MT) and dual tasks (DT)...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Yan Chen, Yiwei Hou, Ruli Ge, Jianmei Han, Jing Xu, Jinbo Chen, Hongcai Wang
BACKGROUND: Protective effect of roscovitine and deregulation of the p-RB/E2F1 have not been well studied in PD models generated by repeated oral administration of rotenone. OBJECTIVE: These experiments evaluated the effects of repeated oral gavage of rotenone on the activation of p-RB/E2F1 and the effects of roscovitine on the regulation of dopaminergic neuronal injury and the behavior of PD in mice. METHODS: Using 2.5% carboxymethylcellulose and 1...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Lili Ma, Ying Mu, Zhaobo Zhang, Qiansan Sun
BACKGROUND: Eugenol, a natural phenolic compound found in essential oils, shows a variety of remedial properties, while its effect on spinal cord injury (SCI) is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of Eugenol on SCI-related impairments in rats. METHODS: Rats received SCI or sham surgery were administered by oral gavage with Eugenol or physiological saline 6 hours following SCI and once a day for seven consecutive weeks. Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) score and inclined plane test were used to assess locomotion function, while mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were used to evaluate the withdrawal response to painful stimuli...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Naifu Jiang, Guangsheng Li, Jinsong Wei, Bo Wei, Frank F Zhu, Yong Hu
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on primary motor cortex (M1) provides a new way to relieve postoperative pain. Previous studies only found postoperative analgesia dosage significantly reduced in tDCS group while the patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) was applied. However, there lacks the study about the effect of M1-tDCS on pain intensity and brain activity while the analgesia dosage is the same for both groups. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether M1-tDCS can (1) reduce pain intensity and (2) change spontaneous electroencephalography (EEG) oscillations in prefrontal cortex, in patients with postoperative pain, after taking the constant dosage of analgesics...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Chen Li, Xuhua Cao, Zhizhao Ma, Xiaofeng Sun, Fuguang Hu, Liqun Wang
BACKGROUND: Extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery has been used to improve the conditions of cerebral ischemia symptoms for selected patients resulting from diverse complications such as stroke and atherosclerotic disease. However, several clinical trials showed EC-IC bypass surgery failed to prevent recurrent ischemic stroke in certain patients. OBJECTIVE: Our clinical trial aimed to investigate whether there is a correlation between pre-surgery assessments and prognosis of patients received EC-IC bypass operation...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Hongyan Chen, Yingli Tang, Hanyan Wang, Weibing Chen, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Curcumin exerts multiple functions including antioxidant and anti-inflammation, and has been shown protective potential on neurological disorders. Maternal or intrauterine infection/inflammation is one of the major factors underlying perinatal brain damage. This study aimed to determine whether maternal administration of curcumin has attenuation on neuroinflammation in fetal brain caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. METHODS: LPS was used to establish mouse fetal brain injury model, and we investigated the effects of curcumin (40 mg/kg) on the fetal mouse brain by evaluating the morphological change of the neuronal cells and the expression of different pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines at protein and mRNA levels in the fetal brains, the maternal serum and amniotic fluid...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Chandler L Walker, Rena M Meadows, Stephanie Merfeld-Clauss, Yansheng Du, Keith L March, Kathryn J Jones
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is devastating, leading to paralysis and death. Disease onset begins pre-symptomatically through spinal motor neuron (MN) axon die-back from musculature at ∼47 days of age in the mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (mSOD1G93A) transgenic ALS mouse model. This period may be optimal to assess potential therapies. We previously demonstrated that post-symptomatic adipose-derived stem cell conditioned medium (ASC-CM) treatment is neuroprotective in mSOD1G93A mice...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Diana M Sama, Shaun W Carlson, Binoy Joseph, Stefanie Saenger, Friedrich Metzger, Kathryn E Saatman
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury can result in lasting cognitive dysfunction due to degeneration of mature hippocampal neurons as well as the loss of immature neurons within the dentate gyrus. While endogenous neurogenesis affords a partial recovery of the immature neuron population, hippocampal neurogenesis may be enhanced through therapeutic intervention. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has the potential to improve cognitive function and promote neurogenesis after TBI, but its short half-life in the systemic circulation makes it difficult to maintain a therapeutic concentration...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Frank Berenpas, Sven Schiemanck, Anita Beelen, Frans Nollet, Vivian Weerdesteyn, Alexander Geurts
BACKGROUND: Contralesional 'drop foot' after stroke is usually treated with an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO). However, AFOs may hamper ankle motion during stance. Peroneal functional electrical stimulation (FES) is an alternative treatment that provides active dorsiflexion and allows normal ankle motion. Despite this theoretical advantage of FES, the kinematic and kinetic differences between AFO and FES have been scarcely investigated. OBJECTIVE: To test whether walking with implanted FES leads to improvements in stance stability, propulsion, and swing initiation compared to AFO...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Shelly Levy-Tzedek, Dan Arbelle, Dan Forman, Yair Zlotnik
BACKGROUND: The symptoms of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been shown to improve when they perform fast-paced rhythmic cycling movements with their lower limbs. OBJECTIVE: Our goal in this pilot experiment was to test the feasibility and the benefits of a short exercise program involving fast-paced rhythmic movements of the upper limb for patients with PD. METHODS: We used an experimental procedure that elicits large, fast-paced movements by the participants without the direct instructions to do so by the experimenter...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
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