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Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157111/waist-up-protection-for-blind-individuals-using-the-eyecane-as-a-primary-and-secondary-mobility-aid
#1
Galit Buchs, Noa Simon, Shachar Maidenbaum, Amir Amedi
BACKGROUND: One of the most stirring statistics in relation to the mobility of blind individuals is the high rate of upper body injuries, even when using the white-cane. OBJECTIVE: We here addressed a rehabilitation- oriented challenge of providing a reliable tool for blind people to avoid waist-up obstacles, namely one of the impediments to their successful mobility using currently available methods (e.g., white-cane). METHODS: We used the EyeCane, a device we developed which translates distances from several angles to haptic and auditory cues in an intuitive and unobtrusive manner, serving both as a primary and secondary mobility aid...
February 2, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157110/connexin40-correlated-with-oxidative-stress-in-brains-of-traumatic-brain-injury-rats
#2
Wei Chen, Yijun Guo, Wenjin Yang, Ping Zheng, Jinsong Zeng, Wusong Tong
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is an important factor in the pathophysiologic changes after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Connexin43 (Cx43) was reported to contribute to cerebral damage. However, the impacts of Cx40 have not been investigated in detail. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we hypothesized that Cx40 was involved in oxidative stress-induced brain injury after TBI. METHODS: The controlled cortical impact (CCI) model was introduced to Wistar rats as a TBI model...
February 2, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059804/bupivacaine-increases-the-rate-of%C3%A2-motoneuron-death-following-peripheral%C3%A2-nerve-injury
#3
Susanna C Byram, Scott W Byram, Nicholas M Miller, Keith N Fargo
BACKGROUND: Appropriate management of pain after an injury or surgical procedure has been shown to improve patient outcomes. While infrequent, nerve damage resulting from regional anesthesia can be devastating, however the mechanism remains unknown. Local anesthetics are neurotoxic yet are frequently applied to sites where peripheral nerves are regenerating. Therefore, understanding their effects on injured and growing neurons may have important implications for clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if local anesthetics exacerbate the rate of motoneuron death following axotomy...
January 4, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059803/whole-body-vibration-wbv-following-spinal-cord-injury-sci-in-rats-timing-of-intervention
#4
Marilena Manthou, Diana Saad Yousif Abdulla, Stoyan Pavlov Pavlov, Ramona Jansen, Habib Bendella, Klaus Nohroudi, Gregor Stein, Carolin Mmeyer, Ozlem Ozsoy, Umut Ozsoy, Yasemin Behram Kandemir, Levent Sarikcioglu, Oliver Semler, Eckhard Schoenau, Sarah Dunlop, Doychin Nikolov Angelov
BACKGROUND: Following spinal cord injury (SCI), exercise training provides a wide range of benefits and promotes activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Whole body vibration (WBV) in SCI patients improves walking and spasticity as well as bone and muscle mass. However, little is known about the effects of timing or frequency of intervention. OBJECTIVE: To determine which WBV-onset improves locomotor and bladder functions and influences synaptic plasticity beneficially...
January 4, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059801/repeated-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-induces-neural-plasticity-associated-gene-expression-in-the-rat-cortex-and-hippocampus
#5
Min Sun Kim, Ho Koo, Sang Who Han, Walter Paulus, Michael A Nitsche, Yun-Hee Kim, Jin A Yoon, Yong-Il Shin
BACKGROUND: Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (A-tDCS) induces a long-lasting increase in cortical excitability that can increase gene transcription in the brain. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of genes related to activity-dependent neuronal plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus of young Sprague-Dawley rats following A-tDCS. METHODS: We applied A-tDCS over the right sensorimotor cortex epicranially with a circular electrode (3 mm diameter) at 250 μA for 20 min per day for 7 consecutive days...
January 4, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059806/intrahemispheric-theta-rhythm-desynchronization-impairs-working-memory
#6
Ivan Alekseichuk, Stefanie Corinna Pabel, Andrea Antal, Walter Paulus
BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in large-scale connectivity as one of the crucial factors in working memory. Correlative evidence has revealed the anatomical and electrophysiological players in the working memory network, but understanding of the effective role of their connectivity remains elusive. OBJECTIVE: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study we aimed to identify the causal role of theta phase connectivity in visual-spatial working memory. METHODS: The frontoparietal network was over- or de-synchronized in the anterior-posterior direction by multi-electrode, 6 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS)...
January 3, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059800/twist-and-turn-into-chronic-disorders-of%C3%A2-consciousness-potential-role-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-auditory-stapedial-reflex
#7
Antonino Naro, Rocco Bruno, Antonino Leo, Margherita Russo, Carlo Salviera, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC), including minimally conscious state (MCS) and unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS), typically show an awareness impairment paralleled by a significant reflex hyper-excitability, which depend on the cortical deafferentation following brain-damage-induced thalamocortical system deterioration. Nonetheless, recent studies have shown a residual preservation of cortico-subcortical pathways that may sustain residual fragments of awareness in some DOC patients...
January 3, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059799/self-awareness-rehabilitation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-pilot-study-to%C3%A2-compare-two-group-therapies
#8
Jessica Rigon, Roberto Burro, Cecilia Guariglia, Manuela Maini, Dario Marin, Paola Ciurli, Umberto Bivona, Rita Formisano
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Deficits of self-awareness (SA) are very common after severe acquired brain injury (sABI), especially in traumatic brain injury (TBI), playing an important role in the efficacy of the rehabilitation process. This pilot study provides information regarding two structured group therapies for disorders of SA. METHODS: Nine patients with severe TBI were consecutively recruited and randomly assigned to one SA group therapy programme, according either to the model proposed by Ben-Yishay & Lakin (1989) (B&L Group), or by Sohlberg & Mateer (1989) (S&M Group)...
January 3, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157112/dual-mode-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-over-the-bilateral-primary-motor-cortices-in-stroke-patients
#9
Jae Yong Cho, Ahee Lee, Min Su Kim, Eunhee Park, Won Hyuk Chang, Yong-Il Shin, Yun-Hee Kim
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive brain stimulation (NBS) using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has recently been adopted for modulating motor function in stroke patients. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of simultaneous dual-mode stimulation using rTMS and tDCS over the bilateral primary motor cortices (M1) to assess its efficacy as compared to single stimulation using rTMS for the recovery of motor function in subacute stroke patients...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059805/crocin-protects-against-cerebral-ischemia-induced-damage-in-aged-rats-through-maintaining-the-integrity-of-blood-brain-barrier
#10
Xuan Zhang, Zhixin Fan, Ting Jin
BACKGROUND: A clear relationship exists between oxidative stress and disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) during cerebral ischemia, in which aging may exacerbate the extent of leakage. Here, we aim to examine the potential role of a water-soluble carotenoid-based antioxidant crocin on BBB damage in aged rats following cerebral ischemia. METHODS: A two months oral administration of crocin was applied to 24-month-old rats followed by an induction of brain ischemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059802/recent-progress-in-translational-research-on-neurovascular-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#11
Hans-Ulrich Demuth, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Tracy D Farr, Mathias Gelderblom, Karen Horsburgh, Costantino Iadecola, Damian D Mcleod, Dominik Michalski, Tim H Murphy, Josune Orbe, Willem M Otte, Gabor C Petzold, Nikolaus Plesnila, Georg Reiser, Klaus G Reymann, Maria A Rueger, Dorothee Saur, Sean I Savitz, Stephan Schilling, Neil J Spratt, Renée J Turner, Raghu Vemuganti, Denis Vivien, Manuel Yepes, Marietta Zille, Johannes Boltze
The already established and widely used intravenous application of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator as a re-opening strategy for acute vessel occlusion in ischemic stroke was recently added by mechanical thrombectomy, representing a fundamental progress in evidence-based medicine to improve the patient's outcome. This has been paralleled by a swift increase in our understanding of pathomechanisms underlying many neurovascular diseases and most prevalent forms of dementia. Taken together, these current advances offer the potential to overcome almost two decades of marginally successful translational research on stroke and dementia, thereby spurring the entire field of translational neuroscience...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689547/steroid-antiviral-for-the-treatment-of-bell-s-palsy-double-blind-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Eman Mohamed Khedr, Reda Badry, Anwer Mohamed Ali, Noha Abo El-Fetoh, Dina Hatem El-Hammady, Abeer Mohamed Ghandour, Ahmed Abdel-Haleem
BACKGROUND: A large number of patients with Bell's palsy fail to recover facial function completely after steroid therapy. Only a few small trials have been conducted to test whether outcomes can be improved by the addition of antiviral therapy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of treatment with steroid alone versus steroid + antiviral in a group of patients with moderately severe to severe acute Bell's palsy. METHODS: Fifty eligible patients out of a total of 65 with acute onset Bell's palsy were randomized to receive the two treatments...
November 22, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858724/the-effect-of-combined-therapies-on-recovery-after-acquired-brain-injury-systematic-review-of-preclinical-studies-combining-enriched-environment-exercise-or-task-specific-training-with-other-therapies
#13
Hana Malá, Camilla Pihl Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Acquired brain injuries (ABI) have devastating effects for the affected individual as well as society. Many studies have investigated the effect of different monotherapies. However, functional recovery is typically only partial. One possible strategy to promote a greater degree of recovery is to apply monotherapies in combination with one or more treatments. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review is to investigate if approaches combining enriched environment (EE), exercise, or task-specific training with other monotherapies, further enhance the degree of recovery after ABI...
November 16, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858723/safety-and-improvement-of-movement-function-after-stroke-with-atomoxetine-a%C3%A2-pilot-randomized-trial
#14
Andrea Ward, Cheryl Carrico, Elizabeth Powell, Philip M Westgate, Laurie Nichols, Anne Fleischer, Lumy Sawaki
BACKGROUND: Intensive, task-oriented motor training has been associated with neuroplastic reorganization and improved upper extremity movement function after stroke. However, to optimize such training for people with moderate-to-severe movement impairment, pharmacological modulation of neuroplasticity may be needed as an adjuvant intervention. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate safety, as well as improvement in movement function, associated with motor training paired with a drug to upregulate neuroplasticity after stroke...
November 16, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858722/defective-chromatic-and-achromatic-visual-pathways-in-developmental-dyslexia-cues-for-an-integrated-intervention-programme
#15
Luca Bonfiglio, Tommaso Bocci, Fabrizio Minichilli, Alessandra Crecchi, Davide Barloscio, Donata Maria Spina, Bruno Rossi, Ferdinando Sartucci
PURPOSE: As well as obtaining confirmation of the magnocellular system involvement in Developmental dyslexia (DD); the aim was primarily to search for a possible involvement of the parvocellular system; and, furthermore, to complete the assessment of the visual chromatic axis by also analysing the koniocellular system. METHODS: Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in response to achromatic stimuli with low luminance contrast and low spatial frequency, and isoluminant red/green and blue/yellow stimuli with high spatial frequency were recorded in 10 dyslexic children and 10 age- and sex-matched, healthy subjects...
November 16, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858721/axon-guidance-molecule-expression-after-cell-therapy-in-a-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Joanna Kalaani, Rochea Joëlle, Eva Hamade, Bassam Badran, Mohamed Jaber, Afsaneh Gaillard, Laetitia Prestoz
BACKGROUND: Cell therapy is a promising approach for Parkinson's disease (PD). Others and we have previously shown that transplantation of ventral mesencephalic fetal cells into substantia nigra (SN) in an animal model of PD enables anatomical and functional repair of the degenerated pathway. However, the molecular basis of this repair is still largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: In this work, we studied the expression of several axon guidance molecules that may be implicated in the repair of the degenerated nigrostriatal pathway...
November 16, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834788/the-role-of-physical-exercise-in-cognitive-recovery-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#17
Timothy Morris, Joyce Gomes-Osman, David Costa-Miserachs, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of evidence revealing exercise-induced effects on brain structure and cognitive function across the lifespan. Animal models of traumatic brain injury also suggest exercise is capable of modulating not only the pathophysiological changes following trauma but also the associated cognitive deficits. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of physical exercise on cognitive impairment following traumatic brain injury in humans. METHODS: A systematic search of the PubMed database was performed using the search terms "cognition" and "executive function, memory or attention", "traumatic brain injury" and "physical exercise"...
November 8, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834787/cocaine-promotes-primary-human-astrocyte-proliferation-via-jnk-dependent-up-regulation-of-cyclin-a2
#18
Chun-Ting Lee, Kristen L Boeshore, Chun Wu, Kevin G Becker, Stacie L Errico, Deborah C Mash, William J Freed
PURPOSE: Astrocytes perform a plethora of important functions in the central nervous system (CNS) and are involved in cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity. Previously, we showed that while cocaine decreased cyclin A2 expression in primary human neural progenitor cells, it increased cyclin A2 expression in human astrocytes. Since cyclin A2 is an essential regulator of the cell cycle, the aim of the present study is to clarify the effect of cocaine on proliferation of human astrocytes and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms...
November 8, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768001/diffuse-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-mouse-induces-a-transient-proliferation-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-in-injured-white-matter-tracts
#19
Johanna Flygt, Fredrik Clausen, Niklas Marklund
BACKGROUND: Injury to the white matter may lead to impaired neuronal signaling and is commonly observed following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although endogenous repair of TBI-induced white matter pathology is limited, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) may be stimulated to proliferate and regenerate functionally myelinating oligodendrocytes. Even though OPCs are present throughout the adult brain, little is known about their proliferative activity following axonal injury caused by TBI...
October 17, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802245/progesterone-treatment-shows-greater-protection-in-brain-vs-retina-in-a-rat-model%C3%A2-of-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-progesterone-receptor-levels-may-play-an-important-role
#20
Rachael S Allen, Iqbal Sayeed, Yuliya Oumarbaeva, Katherine C Morrison, Paul H Choi, Machelle T Pardue, Donald G Stein
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To determine whether inflammation increases in retina as it does in brain following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and whether the neurosteroid progesterone, shown to have protective effects in both retina and brain after MCAO, reduces inflammation in retina as well as brain. METHODS: MCAO rats treated systemically with progesterone or vehicle were compared with shams. Protein levels of cytosolic NF-κB, nuclear NF-κB, phosphorylated NF-κB, IL-6, TNF-α, CD11b, progesterone receptor A and B, and pregnane X receptor were assessed in retinas and brains at 24 and 48 h using western blots...
October 13, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
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