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Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience

Johanna Flygt, Fredrik Clausen, Niklas Marklund
BACKGROUND: Injury to the white matter may lead to impaired neuronal signaling and is commonly observed following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although endogenous repair of TBI-induced white matter pathology is limited, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) may be stimulated to proliferate and regenerate functionally myelinating oligodendrocytes. Even though OPCs are present throughout the adult brain, little is known about their proliferative activity following axonal injury caused by TBI...
October 17, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Nela V Ilić, Emilija Dubljanin-Raspopović, Una Nedeljković, Sanja Tomanović-Vujadinović, Sladjan D Milanović, Ivana Petronić-Marković, Tihomir V Ilić
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence supports the effectiveness of using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with chronic hand motor impairment resulting from stroke. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigate and compare the combined effects of anodal tDCS and occupational therapy (OT) to sham stimulation with OT (control) on fine motor skill deficits of chronic stroke patients. METHODS: A total of 26 stroke patients (at ≥ 9 months) were randomly assigned to an active treatment or a control group in a double-blinded, sham-controlled, parallel design study...
September 29, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Bo-Ram Kim, Hahn Young Kim, Young Il Chun, Yeo-Min Yun, Hyuntae Kim, Dong-Hee Choi, Jongmin Lee
BACKGROUND: The dopamine system plays a key role in motor learning and neuroplasticity. Several studies have studied the efficacy of dopaminergic drugs in enhancing motor recovery after stroke, but the effects are controversial. Although genetic variations in plasticity-related genes influence each individual's capacity for recovery after stroke, limited studies have investigated the effects of polymorphism of dopamine-related genes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between motor recovery in stroke patients and polymorphisms in the dopamine-related genes catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1), DRD2, and DRD3...
September 29, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Tae Gun Kwon, Eunhee Park, Chung Kang, Won Hyuk Chang, Yun-Hee Kim
BACKGROUND: Both transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), when provided to stroke patients in combination with motor training, enhance therapeutic efficacy and motor function. However, the majority of previous studies have only examined a single treatment modality. OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the modulating influence of combination dual-mode brain stimulation upon bihemispheric stimulation with motor training in stroke patients...
September 29, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Joachim Liepert, Imke Büsching, Aida Sehle, Mircea Ariel Schoenfeld
BACKGROUND: Motor imagery is used for treatment of motor deficits after stroke. Clinical observations suggested that motor imagery abilities might be reduced in patients with severe sensory deficits. This study investigated the influence of somatosensory deficits on temporal (mental chronometry, MC) and spatial aspects of motor imagery abilities. METHODS: Stroke patients (n = 70; <6 months after stroke) were subdivided into 3 groups according to their somatosensory functions...
September 29, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Eman Mohamed Khedr, Reda Badry, Anwer Mohamed Ali, Noha Abo El-Fetoh, Dina Hatem El-Hammady, Abeer Mohamed Ghandour, Ahmed Abdel-Haleem
BACKGROUND: A large number of patients with Bell's palsy fail to recover facial function completely after steroid therapy. Only a few small trials have been conducted to test whether outcomes can be improved by the addition of antiviral therapy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of treatment with steroid alone versus steroid + antiviral in a group of patients with moderately severe to severe acute Bell's palsy. METHODS: Fifty eligible patients out of a total of 65 with acute onset Bell's palsy were randomized to receive the two treatments...
September 29, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Shahid Bashir, Marine Varnet, Umer Najib, Jennifer Perez, Miguel Alonso-Alonso, Mark Knobel, Woo-Kyoung Yoo, Dylan Edwards, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
BACKGROUND: The net effect of altered interhemispheric interactions between homologous motor cortical areas after unilateral stroke has been previously reported to contribute to residual hemiparesis. Using this framework, we hypothesized that navigated 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the contralesional hemisphere would induce a stronger physiological and behavioural response in patients with residual motor deficit than in healthy subjects, because an imbalance in interhemispheric excitability may underlie motor dysfunction...
August 11, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Michiyuki Kawakami, Toshiyuki Fujiwara, Junichi Ushiba, Atsuko Nishimoto, Kaoru Abe, Kaoru Honaga, Atsuko Nishimura, Katsuhiro Mizuno, Mitsuhiko Kodama, Yoshihisa Masakado, Meigen Liu
BACKGROUND: Hybrid assistive neuromuscular dynamic stimulation (HANDS) therapy improved paretic upper extremity motor function in patients with severe to moderate hemiparesis. We hypothesized that brain machine interface (BMI) training would be able to increase paretic finger muscle activity enough to apply HANDS therapy in patients with severe hemiparesis, whose finger extensor was absent. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of BMI training followed by HANDS therapy in patients with severe hemiparesis...
September 21, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Zahra Jafari, Saeed Malayeri
BACKGROUND: Congenital visual deprivation underlies neural plasticity in different brain areas, and provides an outstanding opportunity to study the neuroplastic capabilities of the brain. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of congenital blindness on subcortical auditory processing using electrophysiological and behavioral assessments in children. METHODS: A total of 47 children aged 8-12 years, including 22 congenitally blind (CB) children and 25 normal-sighted (NS) control, were studied...
September 21, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Emanuele Spina, Antonio Carotenuto, Maria Gabriella Aceto, Ilaria Cerillo, Francesco Silvestre, Francesco Arace, Paolo Paone, Giuseppe Orefice, Rosa Iodice
BACKGROUND: Multiple Sclerosis is a heterogeneous disorders involving in early stage gait and balance. Together with immunomodulating therapies, rehabilitation had a crucial role in improving motor tasks and quality of life. Between the emerging techniques, Focal Vibrations (FV) could play a role, but they have been used in MS only to reduce muscle tone and fatigue alone or together with botulinum toxin. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether FV is effective on walking impairment in a cohort of MS patients...
September 21, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Ho Koo, Min Sun Kim, Sang Who Han, Walter Paulus, Michael A Nitche, Yun-Hee Kim, Hyoung-Ihl Kim, Sung-Hwa Ko, Yong-Il Shin
PURPOSE: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is increasingly seen as a useful tool for noninvasive cortical neuromodulation. A number of studies in humans have shown that when tDCS is applied to the motor cortex it can modulate cortical excitability. It is especially interesting to note that when applied with sufficient duration and intensity, tDCS can enable long-lasting neuroplastic effects. However, the mechanism by which tDCS exerts its effects on the cortex is not fully understood...
September 21, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Suk-Yu Yau, Ang Li, Jian-Bin Tong, Crystal Bostrom, Brian R Christie, Tatia M C Lee, Kwok-Fai So
BACKGROUND: Our previous work has shown that exposure to the stress hormone corticosterone (40 mg/kg CORT) for two weeks induces dendritic atrophy of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA3 region and behavioral deficits. However, it is unclear whether this treatment also affects the dentate gyrus (DG), a subregion of the hippocampus comprising a heterogeneous population of young and mature neurons. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of CORT treatment on the dendritic complexity of mature and young granule cells in the DG...
September 21, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Gabriele Fusco, Emmanuele Tidoni, Nicola Barone, Claudio Pilati, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
BACKGROUND: Studies in healthy people show that stimulation of muscle spindles through frequency-specific tendon vibration (TV) induces the illusory perception of movement. Following spinal cord injury (SCI), motor and sensory connections between the brain and parts of the body below-the-lesion level are partially or totally impaired. OBJECTIVE: The present investigation is a descriptive study aimed to investigate whether people living with SCI may experience movement illusions comparable to a control group...
September 21, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Heidi M Schambra, Isis E Martinez-Hernandez, Kevin J Slane, Amelia K Boehme, Randolph S Marshall, Ronald M Lazar
BACKGROUND: Reducing inhibitory neurotransmission with pharmacological agents is a potential approach for augmenting plasticity after stroke. Previous work in healthy subjects showed diminished intracortical inhibition after administration of theophylline. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of single-dose theophylline on intracortical and interhemispheric inhibition in patients with chronic stroke, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. METHODS: Eighteen subjects were randomly administered 300 mg of extended-release theophylline or placebo...
September 21, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Árni Kristjánsson, Alin Moldoveanu, Ómar I Jóhannesson, Oana Balan, Simone Spagnol, Vigdís Vala Valgeirsdóttir, Rúnar Unnthorsson
An exciting possibility for compensating for loss of sensory function is to augment deficient senses by conveying missing information through an intact sense. Here we present an overview of techniques that have been developed for sensory substitution (SS) for the blind, through both touch and audition, with special emphasis on the importance of training for the use of such devices, while highlighting potential pitfalls in their design. One example of a pitfall is how conveying extra information about the environment risks sensory overload...
September 21, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Marcello Maniglia, Andrea Pavan, Giovanni Sato, Giulio Contemori, Sonia Montemurro, Luca Battaglini, Clara Casco
BACKGROUND: Macular Degeneration (MD), a visual disease that produces central vision loss, is one of the main causes of visual disability in western countries. Patients with MD are forced to use a peripheral retinal locus (PRL) as a substitute of the fovea. However, the poor sensitivity of this region renders basic everyday tasks very hard for MD patients. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether perceptual learning (PL) with lateral masking in the PRL of MD patients, improved their residual visual functions...
September 21, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Tara L Moore, Monica A Pessina, Seth P Finklestein, Ronald J Killiany, Bethany Bowley, Larry Benowitz, Douglas L Rosene
BACKGROUND: Inosine, a naturally occurring purine nucleoside, has been shown to stimulate axonal growth in cell culture and promote corticospinal tract axons to sprout collateral branches after stroke, spinal cord injury and TBI in rodent models. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of inosine on the recovery of motor function following cortical injury in the rhesus monkey. METHODS: After being trained on a test of fine motor function of the hand, monkeys received a lesion limited to the area of the hand representation in primary motor cortex...
September 21, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Ilaria Arcolin, Fabrizio Pisano, Carmen Delconte, Marco Godi, Marco Schieppati, Alessandro Mezzani, Daniele Picco, Margherita Grasso, Antonio Nardone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Won Hyuk Chang, Kyeong Eun Uhm, Yong-Il Shin, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Yun-Hee Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) aids motor recovery in patients with subacute stroke. However, the response to high-frequency rTMS is highly variable between patients. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with improved motor function in response to high-frequency rTMS in subacute stroke patients with moderate to severe upper extremity motor involvement. METHODS: Sixty-two patients with subacute stroke were enrolled...
September 21, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
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