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Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036854/functional-repertoire-of-interleukin-6-in-the-central-nervous-system-a-review
#1
Klaus Heese
In an aging society with dementia imposing an increasing threat to higher brain cognitive functions, understanding the molecular and cellular events of adult neurogenesis is imperative. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), along with its agonistic acting soluble receptor sIL-6R (the combined proteins are also known as Hyper-IL-6), is a promising cytokine that can support neurogenesis under conditions of neurodegeneration when neuron replacement is needed. In contrast to the previously reported gliogenic effects of activation of the IL-6-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) axis, this review summarizes recent studies showing that IL-6 activation can be neurogenic and has potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease...
October 9, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036853/smooth-leader-or-sharp-follower-playing-the-mirror-game-with-a-robot
#2
Shir Kashi, Shelly Levy-Tzedek
BACKGROUND: The increasing number of opportunities for human-robot interactions in various settings, from industry through home use to rehabilitation, creates a need to understand how to best personalize human-robot interactions to fit both the user and the task at hand. In the current experiment, we explored a human-robot collaborative task of joint movement, in the context of an interactive game. OBJECTIVE: We set out to test people's preferences when interacting with a robotic arm, playing a leader-follower imitation game (the mirror game)...
October 9, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036852/rehabilitation-modality-and-onset-differentially-influence-whisker-sensory-hypersensitivity-after-diffuse-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-rat
#3
Theresa Currier Thomas, Ellen Magee Stockhausen, L Matthew Law, Aida Khodadad, Jonathan Lifshitz
BACKGROUND: As rehabilitation strategies advance as therapeutic interventions, the modality and onset of rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are critical to optimize treatment. Our laboratory has detected and characterized a late-onset, long-lasting sensory hypersensitivity to whisker stimulation in diffuse brain-injured rats; a deficit that is comparable to visual or auditory sensory hypersensitivity in humans with an acquired brain injury. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that the modality and onset of rehabilitation therapies will differentially influence sensory hypersensitivity in response to the Whisker Nuisance Task (WNT) as well as WNT-induced corticosterone (CORT) stress response in diffuse brain-injured rats and shams...
October 9, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036851/a-novel-low-cost-approach-for-navigated-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#4
Jakob Rodseth, Edward P Washabaugh, Chandramouli Krishnan
BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is commonly used for assessing or modulating brain excitability. However, the credibility of TMS outcomes depends on accurate and reliable coil placement during stimulation. Navigated TMS systems can address this issue, but these systems are expensive for routine use in clinical and research environments. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to provide a high-quality open source framework for navigated TMS and test its reliability and accuracy using standard TMS procedures...
October 9, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968249/evaluating-the-relationship-between-white-matter-integrity-cognition-and-varieties-of%C3%A2-video-game-learning
#5
Nicholas R Ray, Margaret A O'Connell, Kaoru Nashiro, Evan T Smith, Shuo Qin, Chandramallika Basak
BACKGROUND: Many studies are currently researching the effects of video games, particularly in the domain of cognitive training. Great variability exists among video games however, and few studies have attempted to compare different types of video games. Little is known, for instance, about the cognitive processes or brain structures that underlie learning of different genres of video games. OBJECTIVE: To examine the cognitive and neural underpinnings of two different types of game learning in order to evaluate their common and separate correlates, with the hopes of informing future intervention research...
September 27, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854520/neuroplasticity-and-behavioral-effects-of%C3%A2-fluoxetine-after-experimental-stroke
#6
Yefei Sun, Xiaoyu Sun, Huiling Qu, Shanshan Zhao, Ting Xiao, Chuansheng Zhao
The brain can undergo self-repair and has the ability to compensate for functions lost after a stroke. The plasticity of the ischemic brain is influenced by several factors including aging and pharmacotherapy. Fluoxetine is an antidepressant which enhances serotonergic neurotransmission through selective inhibition of neuronal reuptake of serotonin. In clinical practice, fluoxetine alleviates the symptoms of post-stroke depression (PSD), helps motor recovery in stroke patients. In animal experiments, chronic administration of fluoxetine induces increased excitability of mature granule cells (GCs), enhancing axonal and dendritic reorganization, as well as promoting neurogenesis or angiogenesis in the dentate gurus (DG), but the effect of fluoxetine in the subventricular zone (SVZ) remains controversial...
August 24, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800341/robotic-assisted-gait-training-combined-with-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-chronic-stroke-patients-a-pilot-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Han Gil Seo, Woo Hyung Lee, Seung Hak Lee, Youbin Yi, Kwang Dong Kim, Byung-Mo Oh
BACKGROUND: Although robotic-assisted gait training (RAGT) is becoming a standard method in stroke rehabilitation, its effect on chronic stroke patients is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether anodal tDCS (transcranial direct current stimulation) enhances the effect of RAGT on functional ambulation in chronic stroke patients. METHODS: Chronic hemiplegic stroke patients with a Functional Ambulatory Category (FAC) score≤4 were randomly assigned to either the RAGT with anodal tDCS (Anodal) group or the sham tDCS (Sham) group...
August 11, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800340/reducing-the-rate-of-misdiagnosis-in%C3%A2-patients-with-chronic-disorders-of%C3%A2-consciousness-is-there-a-place-for-audiovisual-stimulation
#8
Antonino Naro, Antonino Leo, Rocco Bruno, Antonino Cannavò, Antonio Buda, Alfredo Manuli, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
BACKGROUND: The patients with chronic Disorders of Consciousness (DoC) mostly present with extremely challenging differential diagnosis. The advanced analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals induced by brain stimulation paradigms may provide an appropriate approach to differentiate patients with DoC, besides the clinical assessment. OBJECTIVE: This study was performed with an objective of identifying residual brain network perturbations following an innovative, non-invasive audiovisual stimulation protocol, which could be related to behavioral responsiveness in patients with DoC...
August 11, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800339/perceptual-learning-improves-contrast-sensitivity-visual-acuity-and-foveal-crowding-in-amblyopia
#9
Michele Barollo, Giulio Contemori, Luca Battaglini, Andrea Pavan, Clara Casco
BACKGROUND: Amblyopic observers present abnormal spatial interactions between a low-contrast sinusoidal target and high-contrast collinear flankers. It has been demonstrated that perceptual learning (PL) can modulate these low-level lateral interactions, resulting in improved visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. OBJECTIVE: We measured the extent and duration of generalization effects to various spatial tasks (i.e., visual acuity, Vernier acuity, and foveal crowding) through PL on the target's contrast detection...
August 11, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059804/bupivacaine-increases-the-rate-of%C3%A2-motoneuron-death-following-peripheral%C3%A2-nerve-injury
#10
Susanna C Byram, Scott W Byram, Nicholas M Miller, Keith N Fargo
BACKGROUND: Appropriate management of pain after an injury or surgical procedure has been shown to improve patient outcomes. While infrequent, nerve damage resulting from regional anesthesia can be devastating, however the mechanism remains unknown. Local anesthetics are neurotoxic yet are frequently applied to sites where peripheral nerves are regenerating. Therefore, understanding their effects on injured and growing neurons may have important implications for clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if local anesthetics exacerbate the rate of motoneuron death following axotomy...
January 4, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059800/twist-and-turn-into-chronic-disorders-of%C3%A2-consciousness-potential-role-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-auditory-stapedial-reflex
#11
Antonino Naro, Rocco Bruno, Antonino Leo, Margherita Russo, Carlo Salviera, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC), including minimally conscious state (MCS) and unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS), typically show an awareness impairment paralleled by a significant reflex hyper-excitability, which depend on the cortical deafferentation following brain-damage-induced thalamocortical system deterioration. Nonetheless, recent studies have shown a residual preservation of cortico-subcortical pathways that may sustain residual fragments of awareness in some DOC patients...
January 3, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172014/author-index
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172013/the-association-between-brain-activity-and-motor-imagery-during-motor-illusion-induction-by-vibratory-stimulation
#13
Takayuki Kodama, Hideki Nakano, Osamu Katayama, Shin Murata
BACKGROUND: The association between motor imagery ability and brain neural activity that leads to the manifestation of a motor illusion remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined the association between the ability to generate motor imagery and brain neural activity leading to the induction of a motor illusion by vibratory stimulation. METHODS: The sample consisted of 20 healthy individuals who did not have movement or sensory disorders...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172012/do-whole-body-vibration-exercises-affect-lower-limbs-neuromuscular-activity-in-populations-with-a-medical-condition-a-systematic-review
#14
Carla Fontoura Dionello, Patrícia Lopes de Souza, Danubia Sá-Caputo, Danielle Soares Morel, Eloá Moreira-Marconi, Laisa Liane Paineiras-Domingos, Eric Heleno Freire Ferreira Frederico, Eliane Guedes-Aguiar, Patricia de Castro Paiva, Redha Taiar, Xavier Chiementin, Pedro J Marín, Mario Bernardo-Filho
BACKGROUND: The use of surface electromyography (sEMG) to evaluate muscle activation when executing whole body vibration exercises (WBVE) in studies provide neuromuscular findings, in healthy and diseased populations. OBJECTIVES: Perform a systematic review of the effects of WBVE by sEMG of lower limbs in non-healthy populations. METHODS: The search using the defined keywords was performed in PubMed, PEDRo and EMBASE databases by three independent researchers...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172011/therapy-and-rehabilitation-of-mild-brain-injury-concussion-systematic-review
#15
Roger E Thomas, Jorge Alves, Marcus M Vaska Mlis, Rosana Magalhaes
BACKGROUND: Assessment of therapies for the key consequences of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)/concussion is required. OBJECTIVE: Identify all RCTs of mTBI/concussion therapy, risks of bias, and therapies with significant positive results. METHODS: 17 electronic, 9 grey-literature databases searched without language/date restrictions; independent assessment of 1450 Abstracts/titles, 141 fulltext articles, 14 included RCTs. RESULTS: Four RCTs used American Congress of Rehabilitation TBI definition, others used unique definitions...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172010/extended-multiple-field-high-definition-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-hd-tdcs-is-well-tolerated-and-safe-in-healthy-adults
#16
Christopher A Turski, Alanna Kessler-Jones, Clara Chow, Bruce Hermann, David Hsu, Jana Jones, Susanne K Seeger, Rick Chappell, Melanie Boly, Chrysanthy Ikonomidou
BACKGROUND: High definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) has been administered over single brain regions for small numbers of sessions. Safety, feasibility and tolerability of HD-tDCS over multiple brain regions, multiple daily stimulations and long periods are not established. OBJECTIVE: We studied safety, feasibility and tolerability of daily HD-tDCS over 2-4 brain regions for 20 sessions in healthy adults. METHODS: Five healthy adults underwent physical and neurological examination, electrocardiogram (EKG), electroencephalogram (EEG) and cognitive screening (ImpACT) before, during and after HD-tDCS...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172009/epo-releasing-neural-precursor-cells-promote-axonal-regeneration-and-recovery-of-function-in-spinal-cord-traumatic-injury
#17
S Carelli, T Giallongo, Z Gombalova, D Merli, A M Di Giulio, A Gorio
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating condition characterized by a complex of neurological dysfunctions ranging from loss of sensation to partial or complete limb paralysis. Recently, we reported that intravenous administration of neural precursors physiologically releasing erythropoietin (namely Er-NPCs) enhances functional recovery in animals following contusive spinal cord injury through the counteraction of secondary degeneration. Er-NPCs reached and accumulated at the lesion edges, where they survived throughout the prolonged period of observation and differentiated mostly into cholinergic neuron-like cells...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172008/effects-of-cerebrolysin-on-nerve-growth-factor-system-in-the-aging-rat-brain
#18
Mikhail Stepanichev, Mikhail Onufriev, Viktor Aniol, Sofia Freiman, Hemma Brandstaetter, Stefan Winter, Natalia Lazareva, Alla Guekht, Natalia Gulyaeva
BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with some cognitive decline and enhanced risk of development of neurodegenerative diseases. It is assumed that altered metabolism and functions of neurotrophin systems may underlie these age-related functional and structural modifications. CerebrolysinTM (CBL) is a neuropeptide mixture with neurotrophic effects, which is widely used for the treatment of stroke and traumatic brain injury patients. It is also evident that CBL has an overall beneficial effect and a favorable benefit-risk ratio in patients with dementia...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172007/frequency-specific-effects-of-repetitive-magnetic-stimulation-on-primary-astrocyte-cultures
#19
Darren Clarke, Marissa A Penrose, Tamasin Penstone, Paula I Fuller-Carter, Livia C Hool, Alan R Harvey, Jennifer Rodger, Kristyn A Bates
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive technique that uses magnetic pulses over the cranium to induce electrical currents in underlying cortical tissue. Although rTMS has shown clinical utility for a number of neurological conditions, we have only limited understanding of how rTMS influences cellular function and cell-cell interactions. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to investigate whether repeated magnetic stimulation (rMS) can influence astrocyte biology in vitro...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984621/the-effects-of-exercise-on-cognitive-function-and-brain-plasticity-a-feasibility-trial
#20
Joyce Gomes-Osman, Danylo F Cabral, Carrie Hinchman, Ali Jannati, Timothy P Morris, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
BACKGROUND: Exercise-mediated cognitive improvements can be at least partly attributed to neuroplastic changes in the nervous system, and may be influenced by the Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to assess mechanisms of plasticity in humans noninvasively. OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of evaluating the effects of short-term regular exercise on cognitive performance, and to evaluate the relationship between these effects, TMS measures of plasticity, and BDNF Met carrier status in young healthy sedentary adults...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
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