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Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758953/electroacupunture-contributes-to-recovery-of-neurological-deficits-in-experimental-stroke-by-activating-astrocytes
#1
Haijun Zhao, Yan Lu, Yuan Wang, Xiaochun Han, Yanan Zhang, Bingbing Han, Tong Wang, Yan Li, Shijun Wang
BACKGROUND: Neurological deficits is one of the most prevalent clinical manifestation after stroke. The effects of astrocytes activated by electroacupunture (EA) after stroke on the neurological recovery in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats was not clear and definite. OBJECTIVE: Our previous study showed that treatment with EA for 7 days contributed to the activation of astrocytes in MCAO rats. The purposes of this study were to 1) confirm the effects of EA for 14 days on activation of astrocytes in MCAO rats, and 2) test the relationships between activation of astrocytes and neurological functional recovery induced by EA in MCAO rats...
May 6, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758954/the-use-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-evaluate-cortical-excitability-of-lower-limb-musculature-challenges-and-opportunities
#2
Trisha M Kesar, James W Stinear, Steven L Wolf
Neuroplasticity is a fundamental yet relatively unexplored process that can impact rehabilitation of lower extremity (LE) movements. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has gained widespread application as a non-invasive brain stimulation technique for evaluating neuroplasticity of the corticospinal pathway. However, a majority of TMS studies have been performed on hand muscles, with a paucity of TMS investigations focused on LE muscles. This perspective review paper proposes that there are unique methodological challenges associated with using TMS to evaluate corticospinal excitability of lower limb muscles...
May 5, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614706/yoga-and-meditation-based-lifestyle-intervention-increases-neuroplasticity-and-reduces-severity-of-major-depressive-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Madhuri R Tolahunase, Rajesh Sagar, Muneeb Faiq, Rima Dada
BACKGROUND: Current interventions for major depressive disorder (MDD) are suboptimal, and only one third respond to them on initial treatment. Neuroplasticity theories are the basis for several emerging treatments. Evidence on the impact of yoga, a well-known mind-body intervention, on neuroplasticity in MDD is limited. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of 12-week yoga- and meditation- based lifestyle intervention (YMLI) on depression severity and systemic biomarkers of neuroplasticity in adult MDD patients on routine drug treatment...
March 25, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614705/identification-of-a-resilient-mouse-facial-motoneuron-population-following-target-disconnection-by-injury-or-disease
#4
Deborah O Setter, Melissa M Haulcomb, Taylor Beahrs, Rena M Meadows, Nicole D Schartz, Sara K Custer, Virginia M Sanders, Kathryn J Jones
BACKGROUND: When nerve transection is performed on adult rodents, a substantial population of neurons survives short-term disconnection from target, and the immune system supports this neuronal survival, however long-term survival remains unknown. Understanding the effects of permanent axotomy on cell body survival is important as target disconnection is the first pathological occurrence in fatal motoneuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)...
March 25, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614704/constitutively-reduced-sensory-capacity-promotes-better-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-sci-in-blind-rats-of-the-dystrophic-rcs-strain
#5
Svenja Rink, Habib Bendella, Kurdin Alsolivany, Carolin Meyer, Aliona Woehler, Ramona Jansen, Zeynep Isik, Gregor Stein, Sina Wennmachers, Makoto Nakamura, Doychin N Angelov
BACKGROUND: We compared functional, electrophysiological and morphological parameters after SCI in two groups of rats Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with normal vision and blind rats from a SD-substrain "Royal College of Surgeons" (SD/RCS) who lose their photoreceptor cells after birth due to a genetic defect in the retinal pigment epithelium. For these animals skin-, intramuscular-, and tendon receptors are major available means to resolve spatial information. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to check whether increased sensitivity in SD/RCS rats would promote an improved recovery after SCI...
March 25, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614703/potential-risk-of-clonally-expanded-amnion-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplants-in-contused-spinal-cords
#6
Sankar Venkatachalam, Sridharan Neelamegan, Tetsuhito Okuda, Akiva Marcus, Dale Woodbury, Martin Grumet
OBJECTIVE: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) promote recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) using adult bone marrow MSC (BM-MSC). Newborn tissues are a convenient source of MSC that does not involve an invasive procedure for cell collection. In this study the authors tested the effects of rat amnion MSC clone (rAM-MSC) in SCI. METHODS: We tested intra-parenchymal injection of a GFP+ rat rAM-MSC clone derived from E18.5 rats in rat SCI and measured behavioral recovery (BBB scores), histology and X-ray opacity...
March 25, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782329/longitudinal-fmri-study-of-language-recovery-after-a-left-hemispheric-ischemic-stroke
#7
Rodolphe Nenert, Jane B Allendorfer, Amber M Martin, Christi Banks, Jennifer Vannest, Scott K Holland, Kimberly W Hart, Christopher J Lindsell, Jerzy P Szaflarski
BACKGROUND: Recovery from stroke-induced aphasia is typically protracted and involves complex functional reorganization. The relative contributions of the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres to this process have been examined in several cross-sectional studies but longitudinal studies involving several time-points and large numbers of subjects are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to address the gaps in the literature by longitudinally studying the evolution of post-stroke lateralization and localization of language-related fMRI activation in the first year after single left hemispheric ischemic stroke...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782328/post-stroke-visual-neglect-affects-goal-directed-locomotion-in-different-perceptuo-cognitive-conditions-and-on-a-wide-visual-spectrum
#8
Tatiana Ogourtsova, Philippe S Archambault, Anouk Lamontagne
BACKGROUND: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN), a highly prevalent and disabling post-stroke deficit, has been shown to affect the recovery of locomotion. However, our current understanding of USN role in goal-directed locomotion control, and this, in different cognitive/perceptual conditions tapping into daily life demands, is limited. OBJECTIVES: To examine goal-directed locomotion abilities in individuals with and without post-stroke USN vs. healthy controls. METHODS: Participants (n = 45, n = 15 per group) performed goal-directed locomotion trials to actual, remembered and shifting targets located 7 m away at 0° and 15° right/left while immersed in a 3-D virtual environment...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782327/relation-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-and-motor-deficits-in-chronic-stroke
#9
Jarrod M Hicks, Edward Taub, Brent Womble, Ameen Barghi, Tyler Rickards, Victor W Mark, Gitendra Uswatte
BACKGROUND: Infarct size and location account for only a relatively small portion of post-stroke motor impairment, suggesting that other less obvious factors may be involved. OBJECTIVE: Examine the relationship between white matter hyperintensity (WMH) load among other factors and upper extremity motor deficit in patients with mild to moderate chronic stroke. METHODS: The magnetic resonance images of 28 patients were studied. WMH load was assessed as total WMH volume and WMH overlap with the corticospinal tract in the centrum semiovale...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526862/robotic-gaming-prototype-for-upper-limb-exercise-effects-of-age-and-embodiment-on-user-preferences-and-movement
#10
Danny Eizicovits, Yael Edan, Iris Tabak, Shelly Levy-Tzedek
BACKGROUND: Effective human-robot interactions in rehabilitation necessitates an understanding of how these should be tailored to the needs of the human. We report on a robotic system developed as a partner on a 3-D everyday task, using a gamified approach. OBJECTIVES: To: (1) design and test a prototype system, to be ultimately used for upper-limb rehabilitation; (2) evaluate how age affects the response to such a robotic system; and (3) identify whether the robot's physical embodiment is an important aspect in motivating users to complete a set of repetitive tasks...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526861/clinical-features-of-patients-who-might-benefit-more-from-walking-robotic-training
#11
Giovanni Morone, Stefano Masiero, Paola Coiro, Domenico De Angelis, Vincenzo Venturiero, Stefano Paolucci, Marco Iosa
BACKGROUND: Robotic walking training improves probability to reach an autonomous walking in non-ambulant patients affected by subacute stroke. However, little information is available regarding the prognostic factors for identifying best responder patients. The purpose of the present study is therefore to investigate the clinical features of patients with subacute stroke that might benefit more from robotic walking therapy. METHODS: One hundred subacute inpatients randomized in robotic or conventional gait training were assessed at baseline and after 4 weeks of training performed 5 times per week...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526860/rehabilitation-of-stroke-patients-with-plegic-hands-randomized-controlled-trial-of-expanded-constraint-induced-movement-therapy
#12
Gitendra Uswatte, Edward Taub, Mary H Bowman, Adriana Delgado, Camille Bryson, David M Morris, Staci Mckay, Joydip Barman, Victor W Mark
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of an expanded form of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (eCIMT) that renders CIMT, originally designed for treating mild-to-moderate upper-extremity hemiparesis, suitable for treating severe hemiparesis. METHODS: Twenty-one adults ≥1 year after stroke with severe upper-extremity hemiparesis (with little or no capacity to make movements with the more-affected hand) were randomly assigned to eCIMT (n = 10), a placebo-control procedure (n = 4), or usual care (n = 7)...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526859/sensorimotor-integration-in-chronic-stroke-baseline-differences-and-response-to-sensory-training
#13
Katlyn E Brown, Jason L Neva, Samantha J Feldman, W Richard Staines, Lara A Boyd
BACKGROUND: The integration of somatosensory information from the environment into the motor cortex to inform movement is essential for motor function. As motor deficits commonly persist into the chronic phase of stroke recovery, it is important to understand potential contributing factors to these deficits, as well as their relationship with motor function. To date the impact of chronic stroke on sensorimotor integration has not been thoroughly investigated. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to comprehensively examine the influence of chronic stroke on sensorimotor integration, and determine whether sensorimotor integration can be modified with an intervention...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526858/paired-associative-stimulation-modulates-corticomotor-excitability-in-chronic-stroke-a-preliminary-investigation
#14
Jacqueline A Palmer, Steven L Wolf, Michael R Borich
BACKGROUND: Paired associative stimulation (PAS) combining repeated pairing of electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) can induce neuroplastic adaptations in the human brain and enhance motor learning in neurologically-intact individuals. However, the extent to which PAS is an effective technique for inducing associative plasticity and improving motor function in individuals post-stroke is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of a single session of PAS to modulate corticomotor excitability and motor skill performance in individuals post-stroke...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526857/combined-effects-of-cerebellar-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-and-transcutaneous-spinal-direct-current-stimulation-on-robot-assisted-gait-training-in-patients-with-chronic-brain-stroke-a-pilot-single-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Alessandro Picelli, Elena Chemello, Paola Castellazzi, Mirko Filippetti, Annalisa Brugnera, Marialuisa Gandolfi, Andreas Waldner, Leopold Saltuari, Nicola Smania
BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence showed additional effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the damaged cerebral hemisphere combined with cathodal transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation during robot-assisted gait training in chronic stroke patients. This is consistent with the neural organization of locomotion involving cortical and spinal control. The cerebellum is crucial for locomotor control, in particular for avoidance of obstacles, and adaptation to novel conditions during walking...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526856/a-wearable-resistive-robot-facilitates-locomotor-adaptations-during-gait
#16
Edward P Washabaugh, Chandramouli Krishnan
BACKGROUND: Robotic-resisted treadmill walking is a form of task-specific training that has been used to improve gait function in individuals with neurological injury, such as stroke, spinal cord injury, or cerebral palsy. Traditionally, these devices use active elements (e.g., motors or actuators) to provide resistance during walking, making them bulky, expensive, and less suitable for overground or in-home rehabilitation. We recently developed a low-cost, wearable robotic brace that generates resistive torques across the knee joint using a simple magnetic brake...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526855/potential-benefits-of-a-cognitive-training-program-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci
#17
Nuria Mendoza Laiz, Sagrario Del Valle Díaz, Natalia Rioja Collado, Javier Gomez-Pilar, Roberto Hornero
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a disease that is constantly evolving in older people. Its diverse symptoms appear with varying degrees of severity affecting the daily life of those who suffer from it. The rate in which dementia progresses depends on different aspects of the treatment, chosen to try to control and slow down the development of the illness. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of cognitive training through a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) and the NeuronUp platform in two age groups whose MMSE is between 18-23 MCI (mild dementia)...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526854/neural-restoration-training-improves-visual-functions-and-expands-visual-field-of-patients-with-homonymous-visual-field-defects
#18
Clara Casco, Michele Barollo, Giulio Contemori, Luca Battaglini
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the introduction of visual rehabilitation for patients with homonymous visual field defects has been met with both enthusiasm and caution. Despite the evidence that restitutive training results in expansion of the visual field, several concerns have been raised. OBJECTIVE: We tested the effectiveness of a new rehabilitative protocol called "Neuro Restoration Training" (NRT) in reducing visual field defects and in restituting visual functions in the restored hemianopic area...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526853/axial-diffusivity-changes-in-the-motor-pathway-above-stroke-foci-and-functional-recovery-after-subcortical-infarction
#19
Gang Liu, Kangqiang Peng, Chao Dang, Shuangquan Tan, Hongbing Chen, Chuanmiao Xie, Shihui Xing, Jinsheng Zeng
BACKGROUND: Secondary degeneration of the fiber tract of the motor pathway below infarct foci and functional recovery after stroke have been well demonstrated, but the role of the fiber tract above stroke foci remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate diffusion changes in motor fibers above the lesion and identify predictors of motor improvement within 12 weeks after subcortical infarction. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging and the Fugl-Meyer (FM) scale were conducted 1, 4, and 12 weeks (W) after a subcortical infarct...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526852/plantar-stimulation-in-parkinsonians-from-biomarkers-to-mobility-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Aline Souza Pagnussat, Ana F R Kleiner, Carlos R M Rieder, Anapaula Frantz, Jaira Ehlers, Camila Pinto, Gilson Dorneles, Carlos Alexandre Netto, Alessandra Peres, Manuela Galli
BACKGROUND: The decrease of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) serum levels has been related to the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases as well as to neural plasticity and rehabilitation. Automated Mechanical Peripheral Stimulation (AMPS) has been investigated as a complementary therapy for Parkinson Disease (PD). OBJECTIVES: (1) to investigate the effects of AMPS on BDNF and Cortisol serum levels of subjects with PD; (2) to evidence the interplay between BDNF and Cortisol serum levels and the functional mobility improvement after AMPS treatment...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
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