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Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience

Oda Hiroki, Ohta Souichi, Ikeguchi Ryosuke, Noguchi Takashi, Kaizawa Yukitoshi, Yurie Hirofumi, Takeuchi Hisataka, Mitsuzawa Sadaki, Matsuda Shuichi
BACKGROUND: Replantation of the avulsed nerve root has been proposed for the treatment of severe brachial plexus injury for several decades. However, due to the complexity of the technique and limited functional improvement, practical applications are yet to be implemented. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we investigated the effect of pretreatment with resveratrol on nerve autografts used for replantation surgery in a rat model of nerve root avulsion. METHODS: Resveratrol pretreatment was performed using an explant culture technique...
July 23, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Eun Kyoung Kang, Dabi Shin, Jeong-Yeon Yun, Wanjoo Park, Hee-Won Park
BACKGROUND: Specific investigation of dual task-interference (DTI) may help researchers to develop the optimal training exercise for enhancing the performance of daily activities. OBJECTIVES: To reveal the DTI by comparing the performances between personalized single tasks (cognitive or motor task) and dual task with serial decomposition in normal healthy adults. METHODS: After a preliminary period, healthy participants randomly (n = 46) performed three computerized experiments of cognitive (CT), motor (MT) and dual tasks (DT)...
July 23, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Yan Chen, Yiwei Hou, Ruli Ge, Jianmei Han, Jing Xu, Jinbo Chen, Hongcai Wang
BACKGROUND: Protective effect of roscovitine and deregulation of the p-RB/E2F1 have not been well studied in PD models generated by repeated oral administration of rotenone. OBJECTIVE: These experiments evaluated the effects of repeated oral gavage of rotenone on the activation of p-RB/E2F1 and the effects of roscovitine on the regulation of dopaminergic neuronal injury and the behavior of PD in mice. METHODS: Using 2.5% carboxymethylcellulose and 1...
July 23, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Lili Ma, Ying Mu, Zhaobo Zhang, Qiansan Sun
BACKGROUND: Eugenol, a natural phenolic compound found in essential oils, shows a variety of remedial properties, while its effect on spinal cord injury (SCI) is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of Eugenol on SCI-related impairments in rats. METHODS: Rats received SCI or sham surgery were administered by oral gavage with Eugenol or physiological saline 6 hours following SCI and once a day for seven consecutive weeks. Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) score and inclined plane test were used to assess locomotion function, while mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were used to evaluate the withdrawal response to painful stimuli...
July 18, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Naifu Jiang, Guangsheng Li, Jinsong Wei, Bo Wei, Frank F Zhu, Yong Hu
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on primary motor cortex (M1) provides a new way to relieve postoperative pain. Previous studies only found postoperative analgesia dosage significantly reduced in tDCS group while the patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) was applied. However, there lacks the study about the effect of M1-tDCS on pain intensity and brain activity while the analgesia dosage is the same for both groups. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether M1-tDCS can (1) reduce pain intensity and (2) change spontaneous electroencephalography (EEG) oscillations in prefrontal cortex, in patients with postoperative pain, after taking the constant dosage of analgesics...
July 18, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
L Chandler Walker, M Rena Meadows, Yansheng Du, L Keith March, J Kathryn Jones
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is devastating, leading to paralysis and death. Disease onset begins pre-symptomatically through spinal motor neuron (MN) axon die-back from musculature at ∼47 days of age in the mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (mSOD1G93A) transgenic ALS mouse model. This period may be optimal to assess potential therapies. We previously demonstrated that post-symptomatic adipose-derived stem cell conditioned medium (ASC-CM) treatment is neuroprotective in mSOD1G93A mice...
July 13, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Chen Li, Xuhua Cao, Zhizhao Ma, Xiaofeng Sun, Fuguang Hu, Liqun Wang
BACKGROUND: Extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery has been used to improve the conditions of cerebral ischemia symptoms for selected patients resulting from diverse complications such as stroke and atherosclerotic disease. However, several clinical trials showed EC-IC bypass surgery failed to prevent recurrent ischemic stroke in certain patients. OBJECTIVE: Our clinical trial aimed to investigate whether there is a correlation between pre-surgery assessments and prognosis of patients received EC-IC bypass operation...
June 28, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Hongyan Chen, Yingli Tang, Hanyan Wang, Weibing Chen, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Curcumin exerts multiple functions including antioxidant and anti-inflammation, and has been shown protective potential on neurological disorders. Maternal or intrauterine infection/inflammation is one of the major factors underlying perinatal brain damage. This study aimed to determine whether maternal administration of curcumin has attenuation on neuroinflammation in fetal brain caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. METHODS: LPS was used to establish mouse fetal brain injury model, and we investigated the effects of curcumin (40 mg/kg) on the fetal mouse brain by evaluating the morphological change of the neuronal cells and the expression of different pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines at protein and mRNA levels in the fetal brains, the maternal serum and amniotic fluid...
June 28, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Diana M Sama, Shaun W Carlson, Binoy Joseph, Stefanie Saenger, Friedrich Metzger, Kathryn E Saatman
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury can result in lasting cognitive dysfunction due to degeneration of mature hippocampal neurons as well as the loss of immature neurons within the dentate gyrus. While endogenous neurogenesis affords a partial recovery of the immature neuron population, hippocampal neurogenesis may be enhanced through therapeutic intervention. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has the potential to improve cognitive function and promote neurogenesis after TBI, but its short half-life in the systemic circulation makes it difficult to maintain a therapeutic concentration...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Frank Berenpas, Sven Schiemanck, Anita Beelen, Frans Nollet, Vivian Weerdesteyn, Alexander Geurts
BACKGROUND: Contralesional 'drop foot' after stroke is usually treated with an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO). However, AFOs may hamper ankle motion during stance. Peroneal functional electrical stimulation (FES) is an alternative treatment that provides active dorsiflexion and allows normal ankle motion. Despite this theoretical advantage of FES, the kinematic and kinetic differences between AFO and FES have been scarcely investigated. OBJECTIVE: To test whether walking with implanted FES leads to improvements in stance stability, propulsion, and swing initiation compared to AFO...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Shelly Levy-Tzedek, Dan Arbelle, Dan Forman, Yair Zlotnik
BACKGROUND: The symptoms of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been shown to improve when they perform fast-paced rhythmic cycling movements with their lower limbs. OBJECTIVE: Our goal in this pilot experiment was to test the feasibility and the benefits of a short exercise program involving fast-paced rhythmic movements of the upper limb for patients with PD. METHODS: We used an experimental procedure that elicits large, fast-paced movements by the participants without the direct instructions to do so by the experimenter...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Chuansheng Zhao, Mervi Könönen, Ritva Vanninen, Kauko Pitkänen, Sinikka Hiekkala, Jukka Jolkkonen
Recent advances in basic research have revealed the complex structural plasticity associated with the spontaneous motor recovery after stroke. Various rehabilitative interventions seem to act through the same repair mechanisms to further enhance recovery processes. In this review, we first summarize the current understanding on brain plasticity and repair after stroke. We then outline experimental approaches for studying stroke rehabilitation in rodents and review current rehabilitative practices in stroke patients...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Jerzy P Szaflarski, Joseph Griffis, Jennifer Vannest, Jane B Allendorfer, Rodolphe Nenert, Amy W Amara, Victor Sung, Harrison C Walker, Amber N Martin, Victor W Mark, Xiaohua Zhou
PURPOSE: The purpose of this feasibility study was to assess whether combined intermittent theta burst suppression (iTBS) applied to the ipsilesional hemisphere and modified constraint-induced aphasia therapy (mCIAT) are safe and logistically feasible within the time interval associated with iTBS induced long-term potentiation in patients with post-stroke aphasia. We also wanted to determine whether combining priming with iTBS and CIAT improves language functions after treatment. METHODS: Twelve participants received fMRI (semantic decision/tone decision task) and neuropsychological testing of language skills at three time points - before starting the iTBS/mCIAT intervention (T1), immediately after completing 2-week long course of intervention (T2), and at 3-months follow-up (T3)...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Liz Matthiesen, Ivette Bañuelos-Cabrera, Cátia Alexandra Pêgas Palminha, Asla Pitkänen
BACKGROUND: T-lymphocyte (T-cell) invasion into the brain parenchyma is a major consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the role of T-cells in the post-TBI functional outcome and secondary inflammatory processes is unknown. We explored the dynamics of T-cell infiltration into the cortex after TBI to establish whether the infiltration relates to post-injury functional impairment/recovery and progression of the secondary injury. METHOD: TBI was induced in rats by lateral fluid-percussion injury, and the acute functional impairment was assessed using the neuroscore...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Rong Li, Sudhanshu Sahu, Melitta Schachner
BACKGROUND: Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 contributes to nervous system development and maintenance by promoting neuronal survival, neuritogenesis, axonal regrowth/sprouting, myelination, and synapse formation and plasticity. L1 also enhances recovery after spinal cord injury and ameliorates neurodegenerative processes in experimental rodent models. Aiming for clinical translation of L1 into therapy we screened for and functionally characterized in vitro the small organic molecule phenelzine, which mimics characteristic L1 functions...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Giti Kalantarian, Nasrin Ziamajidi, Reza Mahjub, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Massoud Saidijam, Sara Soleimani Asl, Roghayeh Abbasalipourkabir
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous injection of insulin can lead to problems such as hypoglycemia and edema. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of oral insulin-coated trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles on control of glycemic status, IGF-1 and IGF-2 levels, and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Insulin-coated trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by the polyelectrolyte complex method (PEC) method...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Simona Portaro, Antonino Naro, Alessia Bramanti, Antonino Leo, Alfredo Manuli, Tina Balletta, Antonia Trinchera, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
BACKGROUND: The central nervous system involvement, in terms of a maladaptive sensory-motor plasticity, is well known in patients with dystrophic myotonias (DMs). To date, there are no data suggesting a central nervous system involvement in non-dystrophic myotonias (NDMs). OBJECTIVE: To investigate sensory-motor plasticity in patients with Myotonia Congenita (MC) and Paramyotonia Congenita (PMC) with or without mexiletine. METHODS: Twelve patients with a clinical, genetic, and electromyographic evidence of MC, fifteen with PMC, and 25 healthy controls (HC) were included in the study...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Diya Su, Dezhi Li, Shiwei Wang, Hui Qiao, Ping Li, Binbin Wang, Hong Wan, Michael Schumacher, Song Liu
BACKGROUND: Closed temporal bone fractures due to cranial trauma often result in facial nerve injury, frequently inducing incomplete facial paralysis. Conventional hypoglossal-facial nerve end-to-end neurorrhaphy may not be suitable for these injuries because sacrifice of the lesioned facial nerve for neurorrhaphy destroys the remnant axons and/or potential spontaneous innervation. OBJECTIVE: we modified the classical method by hypoglossal-facial nerve "side-to-side" neurorrhaphy using an interpositional predegenerated nerve graft to treat these injuries...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Rodolphe Nenert, Jane B Allendorfer, Amber M Martin, Christi Banks, Jennifer Vannest, Scott K Holland, Kimberly W Hart, Christopher J Lindsell, Jerzy P Szaflarski
BACKGROUND: Recovery from stroke-induced aphasia is typically protracted and involves complex functional reorganization. The relative contributions of the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres to this process have been examined in several cross-sectional studies but longitudinal studies involving several time-points and large numbers of subjects are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to address the gaps in the literature by longitudinally studying the evolution of post-stroke lateralization and localization of language-related fMRI activation in the first year after single left hemispheric ischemic stroke...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Tatiana Ogourtsova, Philippe S Archambault, Anouk Lamontagne
BACKGROUND: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN), a highly prevalent and disabling post-stroke deficit, has been shown to affect the recovery of locomotion. However, our current understanding of USN role in goal-directed locomotion control, and this, in different cognitive/perceptual conditions tapping into daily life demands, is limited. OBJECTIVES: To examine goal-directed locomotion abilities in individuals with and without post-stroke USN vs. healthy controls. METHODS: Participants (n = 45, n = 15 per group) performed goal-directed locomotion trials to actual, remembered and shifting targets located 7 m away at 0° and 15° right/left while immersed in a 3-D virtual environment...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
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