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Cytokine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919524/demystifying-the-cytokine-network-mathematical-models-point-the-way
#1
REVIEW
Penelope A Morel, Robin E C Lee, James R Faeder
Cytokines provide the means by which immune cells communicate with each other and with parenchymal cells. There are over one hundred cytokines and many exist in families that share receptor components and signal transduction pathways, creating complex networks. Reductionist approaches to understanding the role of specific cytokines, through the use of gene-targeted mice, have revealed further complexity in the form of redundancy and pleiotropy in cytokine function. Creating an understanding of the complex interactions between cytokines and their target cells is challenging experimentally...
December 2, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918955/defective-production-of-interleukin-1-beta-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-restoration-by-proper-glycemic-control
#2
Foteini Kousathana, Marianna Georgitsi, Vaia Lambadiari, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, George Dimitriadis, Maria Mouktaroudi
The underlying immune defect of susceptibility in diabetes mellitus type 2 to infections remains unknown. The qualitative changes in cytokine biosynthesis by circulating mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and its modulation by glycemic control were investigated. PBMCs were isolated from 39 patients and 25 controls. They were stimulated with purified ligands and heat-killed bacteria in the absence/presence of glucose and NLPR3 inflammasome ligands. Experiments were repeated after 3 and 6months. Cytokine production was measured in cell supernatants; pro-interleukin(IL)-1 β was measured in cell lysates...
December 2, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918954/interleukin-10-role-in-increasing-susceptibility-and-pathogenesis-of-rheumatic-fever-rheumatic-heart-disease
#3
REVIEW
Neha Sharma, Devinder Toor
Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) causes rheumatic fever (RF) which later progresses towards rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in the susceptible individuals. RF and RHD both contribute towards increasing global burden of disease, especially in developing countries. RHD is one of the most common acquired heart diseases causing permanent damage to heart valves which ultimately leads to heart failure. In RHD, heart valve lesions are formed which are mediated by autoimmune reaction between streptococcal antigens (M protein and group A carbohydrate epitope GlcNAc) and heart tissues...
December 2, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918953/cross-talk-between-innate-cytokines-and-the-pancreatic-polypeptide-family-in-acute-pancreatitis
#4
Sayali A Pendharkar, Ruma G Singh, Maxim S Petrov
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Low-grade inflammation persists in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) after hospital discharge, and is linked to metabolic disorders. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is well recognized as an important mediator of inflammation in these patients but the role of the other two structurally similar peptides, pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and peptide YY (PYY), in inflammation has been sparsely investigated. The aim was to investigate the association between PYY, PP, NPY and circulating levels of innate cytokines in patients after AP...
December 2, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918952/evaluation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-concentration-in-patients-with-tick-borne-encephalitis-neuroborreliosis-anaplasmosis-and-anaplasma-phagocythophilum-with-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-co-infection
#5
Anna Moniuszko-Malinowska, Piotr Czupryna, Justyna Dunaj, Renata Swierzbinska, Katarzyna Guziejko, Ryszard Rutkowski, Joanna Zajkowska, Sambor Grygorczuk, Maciej Kondrusik, Sławomir Pancewicz
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was the evaluation of NF-κB concentration in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with diagnosis of tick-borne diseases: tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), neuroborreliosis (NB), anaplasmosis (ANA) and patients co-infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus and Anaplasma phagocythophilum (TBE+ANA). Additionally NF-κB concentration during acute and convalescent period was compared. METHODS: Sixty-seven patients with diagnosis of tick-borne diseases were included in the study...
December 2, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916613/leptin-in-inflammation-and-autoimmunity
#6
REVIEW
Antonio La Cava
After its discovery as a key controller of metabolic function, leptin has been later extensively implicated in additional functions including important modulatory activities on the innate and adaptive immune response. This review analyzes the known implications of leptin in multiple inflammatory conditions, including autoimmune diseases, and how this knowledge could be instrumental in the design of leptin-based manipulation strategies to help restoration of abnormal immune responses.
December 1, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914933/differential-synthesis-and-release-of-il-18-and-il-18-binding-protein-from-human-platelets-and-their-implications-for-hiv-infection
#7
Ossama Allam, Suzanne Samarani, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Jean-Pierre Routy, Cecile Tremblay, Devendra Amre, Ali Ahmad
IL-18 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine belonging to the IL-1 family and is produced in the body from macrophages, epithelial and dendritic cells, keratinocytes, adrenal cortex etc. The cytokine is produced as an inactive precursor that is cleaved inside cells into its mature form by activated caspase 1, which exists as an inactive precursor in human cells and requires assembly of an inflammasomes for its activation. We show here for the first time that human platelets contain transcripts for the IL-18 gene. They synthesize the cytokine de novo, process and release it upon activation...
December 1, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914795/insulin-use-adipokine-profiles-and-breast-cancer-prognosis
#8
Zachary A P Wintrob, Jeffrey P Hammel, Thaer Khoury, George K Nimako, Hsin-Wei Fu, Zahra S Fayazi, Dan P Gaile, Alan Forrest, Alice C Ceacareanu
BACKGROUND: Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and breast cancer (BC) share common cytokine signaling changes resultant from adipose tissue dysfunction. This modified adipokine signaling was shown to be directly associated with changes in the body mass index (BMI) and diet and it is expected to also be influenced by T2DM pharmacotherapy. We evaluated the relationship between pre-existing diabetes treatment, circulating adipokine levels at cancer diagnosis, and long-term outcomes. METHODS: All incident BC cases were reviewed (01/01/2003-12/31/2009, N=2194)...
November 30, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907835/inhibition-of-the-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway-suppresses-the-apoptosis-and-expression-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-human-osteoarthritis-chondrocytes
#9
He-Yan Sun, Kong-Zu Hu, Zong-Sheng Yin
This study aims to investigate the effects of p38-MAPK signaling pathway on the apoptosis and expression of proinflammatory cytokines in human osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes. Human articular cartilage specimens were obtained from 57 OA patients and 31 patients with lower extremity traumatic amputations. The expressions of p38-MAPK pathway-related proteins in cartilage tissue were detected by immunochemistry. Cultured chondrocytes isolated from human OA cartilage were assigned into the blank group, the IL-1β group, the PD (PD980959, ERK pathway inhibitors)+IL-1β group, the SB (SB203580, p38 pathway inhibitors)+IL-1β group, and the SP (SP600125, JNK signaling pathway inhibitors)+IL-1β group...
November 28, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894807/cytokine-signaling-in-cancer-novel-players-and-pathways
#10
EDITORIAL
Dhan V Kalvakolanu
Cancer, like many others, is a disease due to dysfunction of cytokine-regulated networks. In this background, the 1st Aegean conference meeting focused on the Cytokine Signaling in Cancer was organized and held at Chania, Crete, Greece in May of 2015. A number of novel aspects of the cytokine signaling and their relevance to oncogenic processes were presented at that meeting. This special issue of Cytokine captures snap shots of this meeting in the form of reviews. In addition to these reviews, several other original research articles on the roles of cytokines and chemokines in various cancers are also present in this issue...
November 25, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865205/human-hepatic-stellate-cells-and-inflammation-a-regulated-cytokine-network-balance
#11
Mehdi Najar, Hussein Fayyad-Kazan, Wissam H Faour, Adil El Taghdouini, Gordana Raicevic, Mustapha Najimi, Michel Toungouz, Leo A van Grunsven, Etienne Sokal, Laurence Lagneaux
AIM: Uncertainty about the safety of cell therapy continues to be a major challenge to the medical community. Inflammation and the associated immune response represent a major safety concern hampering the development of long-term clinical therapy. In vivo interactions between the cell graft and the host immune system are mediated by functional environmental sensors and stressors that play significant roles in the immunobiology of the graft. Within this context, human liver stellate cells (HSC) demonstrated marked immunological plasticity that has main importance for future liver cell therapy application...
November 16, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865204/possible-role-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-in-tuberculous-meningitis
#12
J Kalita, U K Misra, S K Bhoi, P S Chauhan, Betai Sagar
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine and its role in hydrocephalus and stoke has been suggested. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is associated with exudates, stroke, hydrocephalus and tuberculoma, but the role of TGF-β has not been evaluated in relation to these changes. AIM: To evaluate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) TGF-β level in the patients with TBM, and correlate these with clinical findings, MRI changes, paradoxical response and outcome at 6months...
November 16, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865203/minocycline-prevents-cerebral-malaria-confers-neuroprotection-and-increases-survivability-of-mice-during-plasmodium-berghei-anka-infection
#13
Thittayil Suresh Apoorv, Phanithi Prakash Babu
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a neurological complication arising due to Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax infection. Minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline, has been earlier reported to have a neuroprotective role in several neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of minocycline treatment on the survivability of mice during experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). The currently accepted mouse model, C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA, was used for the study...
November 16, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863336/a-potentially-protective-role-of-il-18-binding-protein-in-hiv-infected-long-term-non-progressors
#14
Alexandre Iannello, Suzanne Samarani, Ossama Allam, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Vikram Mehraj, Devendra Amre, Jean-Pierre Routy, Cécile Tremblay, Ali Ahmad
An imbalance between IL-18 and its antagonist, IL-18 Binding Protein, occurs in the circulation of HIV-infected individuals. We show here for the first time that HIV-infected Long Term Non-Progressors (LTNPs) do not develop this imbalance, and maintain normal levels of IL-18BP in the circulation. Their circulating levels of the antagonist correlate negatively with viral loads and show a positive trend with CD4+ T cells counts. The maintenance of normal production of IL-18BP may contribute, at least in part, to the ability of LTNPs to delay AIDS progression...
November 15, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863335/il-6-trans-signaling-is-another-pathway-to-upregulate-osteopontin
#15
Takaaki Uchibori, Kazuyuki Matsuda, Takahiro Shimodaira, Mitsutoshi Sugano, Takeshi Uehara, Takayuki Honda
BACKGROUND: Osteopontin (OPN) is a pro-fibrotic molecule upregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-6 functions downstream of IL-1β and has unique signal pathways: classic- or trans-signaling via membrane-bound IL-6R or soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R). We investigated the effect of IL-6 trans-signaling on the upregulation of OPN. METHODS: We used THP-1 cells and THP-1 macrophages differentiated from THP-1 cells using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)...
November 15, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863334/modulation-of-the-cytokine-profile-in-caco-2-cells-by-faecal-lactobacilli-and-bifidobacteria-from-individuals-with-distinct-dietary-habits
#16
Diomira Luongo, Annachiara Coppola, Lucia Treppiccione, Paolo Bergamo, Alida Sorrentino, Ilario Ferrocino, Silvia Turroni, Erasmo Neviani, Raffaella Di Cagno, Luca Cocolin, Mauro Rossi
Enterocytes are actively involved in the defense against pathogens and they limit penetration of commensal microbes into tissues. They also have an important role in gut immunity as enterocytes confer mucosal dendritic cell specialisation. On the other hand, the microbiota is directly involved in the development and modulation of the intestinal immune system. Particularly, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria play a primary role in shaping the immune response. We further explored this issue by evaluating whether functional differences in Caco-2 cells could characterise faecal populations of lactobacilli (155 samples) and bifidobacteria (110 samples) isolated from three dietary cohorts (omnivores, ovo-lacto-vegetarians and vegans) recruited at four Italian centres (Turin, Parma, Bologna and Bari)...
November 15, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863333/serum-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-muscle-strength-among-women-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#17
James S Andrews, Laura Trupin, Catherine L Hough, David I Daikh, Edward H Yelin, Patricia P Katz
OBJECTIVES: Muscle strength is an important determinant of physical function in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Serum biomarkers of inflammation, including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-Reactive Protein (CRP), are associated with differences in muscle strength among individuals without rheumatologic disease. We examined whether serum levels of IL-6 and CRP are associated with upper and lower extremity muscle strength among adult women with SLE. METHODS: One hundred thirty-six women with SLE participated in this cross-sectional study...
November 15, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863332/combined-effect-of-aerobic-interval-training-and-selenium-nanoparticles-on-expression-of-il-15-and-il-10-tnf-%C3%AE-ratio-in-skeletal-muscle-of-4t1-breast-cancer-mice-with-cachexia
#18
M Molanouri Shamsi, S Chekachak, S Soudi, L S Quinn, K Rangbar, J Chenari, M H Yazdi, M Mahdavi
Cancer cachexia is characterized by inflammation, loss of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue mass, and functional impairment. Oxidative stress and inflammation are believed to regulate pathways controlling skeletal muscle wasting. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic interval training and the purported antioxidant treatment, selenium nanoparticle supplementation, on expression of IL-15 and inflammatory cytokines in 4T1 breast cancer-bearing mice with cachexia. Selenium nanoparticle supplementation accelerated cachexia symptoms in tumor-bearing mice, while exercise training prevented muscle wasting in tumor-bearing mice...
November 15, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816795/cytokine-correlation-analysis-based-on-drug-perturbation
#19
Fredrik K Wallner, Malin Hultqvist Hopkins, Therese Lindvall, Peter Olofsson, Andreas Tilevik
Cytokines and chemokines play a crucial role in regulating the immune system. Understanding how these molecules are co-regulated is important to understand general immunology, and particularly their role in clinical applications such as development and evaluation of novel drug therapies. Cytokines are today widely used as therapeutic targets and as biomarkers to monitor effects of drug therapies and for prognosis and diagnosis of diseases. Therapies that target a specific cytokine are also likely to affect the production of other cytokines due to their cross-regulatory functions and because the cytokines are produced by common cell types...
November 2, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816383/role-of-interleukin-22-in-chronic-liver-injury
#20
REVIEW
Rodrigo F Carmo, Maria S M Cavalcanti, Patrícia Moura
Liver fibrosis is the result of an exacerbated wound-healing response associated with chronic liver injury. Advanced liver fibrosis results in cirrhosis, liver failure, and portal hypertension and frequently requires liver transplantation. The host immune response has an important role driving fibrosis deposition by activating hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a cytokine that plays a key role in promoting antimicrobial immunity and tissue repair at barrier surfaces. Data from literature suggest that IL-22 has a protective role in the liver by reducing fibrosis in some pathological conditions, however the results are contradictory...
November 2, 2016: Cytokine
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