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Hajime Ishinaga, Masako Kitano, Masaaki Toda, Corina N D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Esteban C Gabazza, Said Ahmad Shah, Kazuhiko Takeuchi
We investigated whether IL-33 is involved in mucus overproduction and goblet cell hyperplasia in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS). IL-33 mRNA was significantly higher in the eosinophilic CRS group than in the non-eosinophilic CRS group from human nasal polyps. IL-33 induced MUC5AC mRNA and MUC5AC protein, and also goblet cell hyperplasia at air liquid interface culture in human nasal epithelial cells. In addition to that, IL-33 induced MUC5B and FOXA3, and reduces FOXJmRNA. In conclusion, our present study demonstrated that the direct evidence of IL-33 which lead to increase mucin gene and protein expression, as well as goblet cell hyperplasia...
October 21, 2016: Cytokine
Justin P Ingram, Igor E Brodsky, Siddharth Balachandran
Salmonella enterica is a facultative intracellular bacterium that is the leading cause of food borne illnesses in humans. The cytokine IFN-γ has well-established antibacterial properties against Salmonella and other intracellular microbes, for example its capacity to activate macrophages, promote phagocytosis, and destroy phagocytosed microbes by free radical-driven toxification of phagosomes. But IFN-γ induces the expression of hundreds of uncharacterized genes, suggesting that this cytokine deploys additional antimicrobial strategies that await discovery...
October 20, 2016: Cytokine
I-Ting Tsai, Chao-Ping Wang, Teng-Hung Yu, Yung-Chuan Lu, Chih-Wen Lin, Li-Fen Lu, Cheng-Ching Wu, Fu-Mei Chung, Yau-Jiunn Lee, Wei-Chin Hung, Chia-Chang Hsu
Adipocytokines play an important role in adipose tissue homeostasis, especially in obesity-associated disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver and their complications including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although visfatin is an adipocytokine highly expressed in visceral fat that has been demonstrated to play a critical role in the progression of human malignancies, little is known about the role of visfatin in HCC associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection...
October 19, 2016: Cytokine
Yuanyuan Ji, Zhidong Wang, Zongfang Li, Na Huang, Haiyan Chen, Baohua Li, Bo Hui
Emerging evidence confirms that insulin-like growth factor -II (IGF-II), oncogenes C-myc and N-ras are an essential regulator for development and growth in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although our previous study also indicated that IGF-II might upregulate levels of oncogenes C-myc and N-ras in hepatoma carcinoma cells, the molecular mechanism had not been fully elucidated. Herein, we successfully silenced IGF-II expression in SMCC-7721 cells by small RNA interference. Functional analysis showed that knockdown of IGF-II significantly suppressed growth and proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells and decreased C-myc and N-ras mRNA and protein levels...
October 18, 2016: Cytokine
Kartik Ramakrishna, Kalpana Premkumar, Jayakanthan Kabeerdoss, K R John
BACKGROUND & AIM: Innate immune responses are important in susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). In order to test the hypothesis that Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 function would be abnormal in patients with active pulmonary TB we compared the cytokine responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to innate immune ligands in a case-control study. METHODS: PBMC from 19 untreated pulmonary TB patients, 17 healthy controls, and 11 treated pulmonary TB patients, were cultured for 24h with TLR 2 ligand (PAM-CSK) and other TLR ligands (muramyl dipeptide, flagellin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN))...
October 18, 2016: Cytokine
Sylwia Wrotek, Krzysztof Domagalski, Tomasz Jędrzejewski, Eliza Dec, Wiesław Kozak
PURPOSE: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) - a glutathione depletor - on a course of endotoxic fever and IL-1β and IL-6 production. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli (50μg/kg, ip) to provoke fever. The level of spleen glutathione, plasma interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and deep body temperature (Tb) were measured. RESULTS: The LPS administration provoked fever (the average Tb was 38...
October 17, 2016: Cytokine
Stefanie Luecke, Søren R Paludan
Nucleic acids sensors of the innate immune system recognize various RNA and DNA structures during infection to induce transcription of interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of inflammasomes. Cytosolic RNA is recognized by RIG-I and MDA5, while intracellular DNA is sensed among others by cGAS, AIM2, IFI16 and RNA polymerase III. The diversity of nucleic acid species produced during infection in the cytosol and nucleus and the limited chemical differences between self and non-self nucleic acids challenge the host's innate pattern recognition system to ensure reliable sensing while avoiding immune activation by self nucleic acids...
October 14, 2016: Cytokine
Hyun Sook Hong, Dae Yeon Hwang, Ju Hyeong Park, Suna Kim, Eun Jung Seo, Youngsook Son
Intestinal inflammation alters immune responses in the mucosa and destroys colon architecture, leading to serious diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Thus, regulation of inflammation is regarded as the ultimate therapy for intestinal disease. Substance-P (SP) is known to mediate proliferation, migration, and cellular senescence in a variety of cells. SP was found to mobilize stem cells from bone marrow to the site of injury and to suppress inflammatory responses by inducing regulatory T cells (Tregs) and M2 macrophages...
October 14, 2016: Cytokine
Christelle Pomares, Tyson H Holmes, Remy Estran, Cynthia J Press, Raymund Ramirez, Jeanne Talucod, Holden Maecker, Yael Rosenberg-Hasson, Jose G Montoya
INTRODUCTION: Majority of Toxoplasma gondii infections are benign and asymptomatic; however, some patients experience toxoplasmic lymphadenitis (TL). Factors associated as to whether infection will be symptomatic or not are unknown. METHODS: Dye test titers of patients with acute toxoplasmosis (pregnant and not pregnant) with TL (TL+) were compared with those in patients with asymptomatic acute infection (TL-). Additionally, mean levels of 62 serum cytokines were compared between TL+ and TL- pregnant women and between TL+ pregnant and non-pregnant women...
October 13, 2016: Cytokine
Ewa Obuchowicz, Marta Nowacka, Monika Paul-Samojedny, Anna M Bielecka-Wajdman, Andrzej Małecki
The present study was designed to evaluate, for the first time, the potential sex differences in BDNF and VEGF systems under normal conditions and in response to IL-1β given ip. Peripheral overproduction of this cytokine mediates the pathophysiology of various acute neuroinflammatory states. Until now, the effect of IL-1β on VEGF expression in rat brain structures and its serum level has not been examined. In male and female rats, the BDNF and VEGF mRNA expression, and BDNF level were evaluated in the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary gland...
October 12, 2016: Cytokine
Hector R Martínez, César E Escamilla-Ocañas, Juan Miguel Tenorio-Pedraza, David Gómez-Almaguer, Jose Carlos Jaime-Perez, Leticia A Olguín-Ramírez, Sergio Salazar-Marioni, María Teresa González-Garza
INTRODUCTION: Increased cytokine expression is a prominent finding in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Due to their interdependence and pleiotropism, interpretation of CSF concentrations of a single cytokine is challenging. We describe a cytokine analysis in ALS patients using a pathway-based statistical method to identify changes in the whole cytokine network. METHODS: We analyzed 19 cytokines in CSF of ALS patients and controls. An equality of concentration matrices was conducted that allowed us to evaluate disturbances in the relationship of cytokines between controls and ALS patients with less and more than 12months of disease length...
October 11, 2016: Cytokine
Erika van der Maten, Cynthia M de Bont, Ronald de Groot, Marien I de Jonge, Jeroen D Langereis, Michiel van der Flier
Bacterial pathogens not only stimulate innate immune receptors, but also activate the complement system. Crosstalk between complement C5a receptor (C5aR) and other innate immune receptors is known to enhance the proinflammatory cytokine response. An important determinant of the magnitude of complement activation is the activity of the alternative pathway, which serves as an amplification mechanism for complement activation. Both alternative pathway activity as well as plasma levels of factor H, a key inhibitor of the alternative pathway, show large variation within the human population...
October 6, 2016: Cytokine
Ashraf Kariminik
It has been demonstrated that IL-2 plays a dual role in induction/suppression of immune responses via activation of conventional and regulatory T lymphocytes, respectively. IL-2 contacts complete IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) which contains CD25 (α chain) on the antigen specific activated T helper and cytotoxic lymphocytes and also T regulatory cells. Additionally, previous investigations revealed that polyoma BK virus (PBK) reactivation and induction of PBK associated nephropathy (PBKAN) is a main complication following renal transplantation...
October 5, 2016: Cytokine
Malgorzata Krzystek-Korpacka, Sabina Gorska, Dorota Diakowska, Bartosz Kapturkiewicz, Magdalena Podkowik, Andrzej Gamian, Iwona Bednarz-Misa
Midkine is a multifunctional cytokine and growth factor displaying proinflammatory and pro-tumorigenic activity. Its association with bowel diseases has not been fully elucidated. Our purpose was to delineate midkine expression pattern by RT-qPCR in inflamed/cancerous bowel (n=208) and whole blood (n=150) in colorectal cancer (CRC), Crohn's disease (CD), and ulcerative colitis (UC) and to evaluate midkine dynamics in early postoperative period following colorectal surgery. The expression of midkine was significantly up-regulated in stage III CRC and independently associated with lymph node metastasis...
September 28, 2016: Cytokine
Yuehong Chen, Marcia Friedman, Gang Liu, Atul Deodhar, Cong-Qiu Chu
Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activity has profoundly changed the management of several immune-mediated inflammatory diseases with great benefit for patients. The application of TNF inhibitors (TNFi), however, also brings a new concern, malignancy. We performed a systemic review to collect the studies reporting cancer incidences and risks in TNFi users regardless of indications. TNFi were most frequently used in treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)...
September 26, 2016: Cytokine
Zhonghua Zhao, Xi Chen, Shengnan Hao, Rui Jia, Nana Wang, Shaoshui Chen, Mianli Li, Chuanxin Wang, Haiting Mao
Interleukin-35 (IL-35) is a recently discovered inhibitory cytokine, which is firstly discovered to be produced by regulatory T cells (Tregs) and proposed as a key effector molecule of Treg function. This study aims to analyze the correlation between IL-35 expression in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) of breast cancer tissue and patients' clinical characteristics. Plasma IL-35 was also determined in 60 patients with breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and 30 healthy women by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
September 24, 2016: Cytokine
Bing Li, Huiting Su, Ju Cao, Liping Zhang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the expression and role of serum CXC chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) and cytokine IL-31 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. METHODS: A case-control study including preoperative serum samples of 78 patients with HCC, 78 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 36 healthy controls (HCs) was conducted. The levels of serum CXCL13 and IL-31 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The correlation of serum cytokines and clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters were analyzed retrospectively...
September 20, 2016: Cytokine
Jonas Bystrom, F I Clanchy, Taher E Taher, Pam Mangat, Ali S Jawad, Richard O Williams, Rizgar A Mageed
TNFα is a principal pro-inflammatory cytokine vital for immunity to infections. However, its excessive production is involved in chronic inflammation and disease pathology in autoimmune diseases. Evidence for its pathogenic role is validated by the fact that its neutralisation by therapeutic agents in vivo is beneficial in ameliorating disease and controlling symptoms. Paradoxically, however, treatment with TNFα inhibitors can either have no clinical effects, or even exacerbate disease in some patients. The explanation for such contradictory outcomes may lay in how and which downstream signalling pathways are activated and drive disease...
September 14, 2016: Cytokine
Cong-Qiu Chu
Therapy by blocking tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activity is highly efficacious and profoundly changed the paradigm of several inflammatory diseases. However, a significant proportion of patients with inflammatory diseases do not respond to TNF inhibitors (TNFi). Prediction of therapeutic response is required for TNFi therapy. Isotope labeled anti-TNF antibodies or TNF receptor have been investigated to localize TNF production at inflammatory tissue in animal models and in patients with inflammatory diseases...
September 12, 2016: Cytokine
Marina S Drutskaya, Grigory A Efimov, Irina V Astrakhantseva, Andrei A Kruglov, Sergei A Nedospasov
Cytokines are involved in a wide range of functions shaping the normal immune response, yet inflammatory changes in the immune system due to dysregulated cytokine signaling may lead to the induction of autoimmunity. Cytokine inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment of many autoimmune diseases in recent years. Systemic cytokine ablation, however, is often associated with the development of adverse side effects and some patients simply do not respond to therapy. TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 are the best characterized proinflammatory cytokines considered as the main therapeutic targets for the treatment of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases...
September 10, 2016: Cytokine
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