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Manish K Singh, Fauzia Jamal, Amit K Dubey, Pushkar Shivam, Sarita Kumari, Pushpanjali, Chayanika Bordoloi, S Narayan, V N R Das, K Pandey, P Das, Shubhankar K Singh
The shift of macrophage and T-cell repertoires towards proinflammatory cytokine signalling ensures the generation of host-protective machinery that is otherwise compromised in cases of the intracellular Leishmania parasite. Different groups have attempted to restore host protective immunity. These vaccine candidates showed good responses and protective effects in murine models, but they generally failed during human trials. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 97 kDa recombinant nucleoporin-93 of Leishmania donovani (rLd-NUP93) on mononuclear cells in healthy and treated visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients and on THP-1 cell lines...
July 9, 2018: Cytokine
Haleh Ashraf, Danesh Soltani, Amir Sobh-Rakhshankhah, Samira Jafari, Mohammad Ali Boroumand, Vina Goudarzi, Ali Vasheghani Farahani, Farzad Masoudkabir
Several studies have demonstrated the relationship between visfatin and increased risk of diseases caused by inflammation, however, the relationship between visfatin and coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is still unknown. The aim of our study is to investigate the association between serum visfatin with presence of coronary ectasia and its severity. We enrolled 85 individuals including 35 CAE patients (mean age: 58.40 ± 9.82 years) and 50 control persons (mean age: 53.24 ± 8.81 years). These participants underwent some biochemical tests including visfatin, fasting blood glucose and lipid profiles...
July 9, 2018: Cytokine
Qiuyue Peng, Aishu Luo, Zihao Zhou, Wenhua Xuan, Ming Qiu, Qin Wu, Lingxiao Xu, Xiangqing Kong, Miaojia Zhang, Wenfeng Tan, Meilang Xue, Fang Wang
Interleukin (IL)-29 is known to modulate immune functions of monocytes or macrophages. In this study, we investigated the effect and its underlying mechanism of IL-29 on receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis using murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells and bone-marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage precursor cells (BMMs), and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In response to human recombinant IL-29, cell viability and apoptosis were assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 and flow cytometry; the osteoclast formation and activity by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and pit formation assay, respectively; the expression and activation of molecules that associated with osteoclastogenesis by real time-PCR, immunoblotting or immunofluorescent analysis...
July 9, 2018: Cytokine
Sofia Björnfot Holmström, Ronaldo Lira-Junior, Stephanie Zwicker, Mirjam Majster, Anders Gustafsson, Sigvard Åkerman, Björn Klinge, Mattias Svensson, Elisabeth A Boström
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12, S100A8/A9, and S100A12 are involved in innate immune responses. We addressed whether different aspects of oral health and non-disease-related covariates influence their levels in saliva. 436 participants were clinically examined, completed a health questionnaire, and provided stimulated saliva. Salivary levels of MMP-12, S100A8/A9, and S100A12 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Lower MMP-12 levels were observed in individuals 40-64 years old (yo) compared to < 40 yo, and higher S100A8/A9 levels were found in individuals > 64 yo compared to 40-64 yo...
July 5, 2018: Cytokine
Ying Zhang, Rui-Min Chen, Xiang-Quan Lin, Xin Yuan, Xiao-Hong Yang
OBJECTIVE: The following study investigated the serum adiponectin, chemerin and vaspin levels and their relationship with body mass index (BMI), glucose and lipid metabolism in girls with Turner Syndrome (TS). METHODS: A total of 64 girls with TS (mean age, 12.22 ± 3.98 years; mean BMI, 18.90 ± 3.45 kg/m2 ) were ascertained by chromosome analysis. Height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference and blood pressure were measured, as well as the levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting plasma insulin, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride (TG)...
July 5, 2018: Cytokine
Abdelaziz Ghanemi, Jonny St-Amand
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a cytokine that is involved in divers immune responses and implicated in a number of diseases. However, this cytokine has other non-immune functions. Within this review, we highlight selected effects on metabolic pathways, which are mediated, controlled or modified by the IL-6. Importantly, putting spotlight on such concepts could allow us to classify IL-6 among the metabolic hormones and further study it to both deepen our knowledge on disorders involving metabolic or energy imbalances such as obesity and develop novel therapeutic strategies...
July 5, 2018: Cytokine
Aida S Hansen, Mette Biltoft, Bettina Bundgaard, Anja B Bohn, Bjarne K Møller, Per Höllsberg
CD46 is an important immune regulatory receptor with dual functions, however, the CD46 isoform distribution and the effect of CD46 activation on the cytokine production in monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) is unclear. Here, we show that CD46 activation of moDCs downregulates LPS-induced CXCL-10 expression, while the expression of CXCL-10 in monocytes is unaffected. Furthermore, the differentiation of moDCs induces a switch towards dominance of CYT-2 isoforms of CD46. These data indicate that CD46 activation exerts different functions in monocytes and moDCs and this correlates with a switch in CD46 isoform expression upon differentiation of moDCs...
July 4, 2018: Cytokine
Debprasad Chattopadhyay, Aparna Mukhopadhyay, Durbadal Ojha, Provash Sadhukhan, Shanta Dutta
Recent evidences indicate that change in cellular metabolic pathways can alter immune response and function of the host; emphasizing the role of metabolome in health and diseases. Human Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and type-2 (HSV-2) causes diseases from asymptomatic to highly prevalent oral and genital herpes, recurrent blisters or neurological complications. Immune responses against HSV are complex with delicate interplay between innate signaling pathways and adaptive immune responses. The innate response involves the induction of protective IFN-1; while Natural Killer (NK) cells and plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells (pDC) confer in vivo adaptive anti-HSV response along with humoral and cellular components in controlling infection and latency...
June 27, 2018: Cytokine
Valentina Giudice, Zhijie Wu, Sachiko Kajigaya, Maria Del Pilar Fernandez Ibanez, Olga Rios, Foo Cheung, Sawa Ito, Neal S Young
The alarmin family members S100A8 and S100A9 are acute phase inflammation proteins, but they also have been proposed as biomarkers in many malignant and non-malignant diseases. In this study, circulating S100A8 and S100A9 homodimers and S100A8/A9 heterodimers in plasma were systematically investigated by ELISA in aplastic anemia (AA) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Plasma was obtained from 58 severe AA (SAA) and 30 MDS patients, and from 47 age- and sex-matched healthy donors. In 40 out of the 58 AA subjects, S100A protein levels were measured before and 6 months after immunosuppressive therapy (IST)...
June 26, 2018: Cytokine
Giovanni Lo Re, Francesco Lo Re, Paolo Doretto, Alessandro Del Conte, Maria Amadio, Cinzia Cozzi, Maria Maddalena Casarotto, Daniele Maruzzi, Wally Marus, Paolo Ubiali, Paolo Sandri
BACKGROUND: Immune tolerance seems to correlate with disease progression and T regulatory cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells play a relevant role in immunosuppression. Cyclophosphamide (Cyt) and Fluorouracil (FU) seem to reduce these cell populations. METHODS AND OBJECTIVE: Establishing safety, feasibility, activity and impact on the immune system (neutrophil/lymphocyte [N/L], platelet/L [Plt/L], monocyte [M] and lymphocyte subpopulation (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, HLADR/CD3, Tregs, cells count), CD8/Treg and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
June 26, 2018: Cytokine
Vikas Sud, Andrew Abboud, Samer Tohme, Yoram Vodovotz, Richard L Simmons, Allan Tsung
Acute inflammation following sterile injury is both inevitable and necessary to restore homeostasis and promote tissue repair. However, when excessive, inflammation can jeopardize the viability of organs and cause detrimental systemic effects. Identifying key-regulators of the immune cascade induced by surgery is vital to attenuating excessive inflammation and its subsequent effects. In this review, we describe the emerging role of IL-17A as a key-regulator in acute inflammation. The role of IL-17A in chronic disease states, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and cancer has been well documented, but its significance in acute inflammation following surgery, sepsis, or traumatic injury has not been well studied...
June 25, 2018: Cytokine
Shyamsundar Pal China, Sabyasachi Sanyal, Naibedya Chattopadhyay
Adiponectin, the most prevalent adipo-cytokine in plasma plays critical metabolic and anti-inflammatory roles is fast emerging as an important molecular target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Adiponectin action is critical in multiple organs including cardio-vascular system, muscle, liver, adipose tissue, brain and bone. Adiponectin signaling in bone has been a topic of active investigation lately. Human association studies and multiple mice models of gene deletion/modification failed to define a clear cause and effect of adiponectin signaling in bone...
June 21, 2018: Cytokine
Sindy Cornelia Nelwan, Ricardo Adrian Nugraha, Anang Endaryanto, Asti Meizarini, Udijanto Tedjosasongko, Seno Pradopo, Haryono Utomo
This study aims to explore a relationship between exposures of whole-cell Porphyromonas gingivalis in various doses with atopic inflammatory responses at experimental mice. A pretest-posttest controlled group design, with 16 Wistar rats (Rattus novergicus) randomized into four groups. Group 1 was the control group. Group 2 was given low-dose (9 × 107 colony-forming unit) of P. gingivalis. Group 3 was given medium-dose (9 × 109 colony-forming unit) of P. gingivalis. Group 4 was given high-dose (9 × 1011 colony-forming unit) of P...
June 21, 2018: Cytokine
Bárbara Simas Chagas, Rita de Cássia Pereira de Lima, Sérgio de Sá Leitão Paiva Júnior, Ruany Cristyne de Oliveira Silva, Marcelo Nazário Cordeiro, Jacinto da Costa Silva Neto, Marcus Vinicius de Aragão Batista, Anna Jéssica Duarte Silva, Ana Pavla Almeida Diniz Gurgel, Antonio Carlos de Freitas
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for high-grade cervical lesions and cervical cancer. The inflammation plays a key role in cervical cancer progression. In this context, studies propose an association between TNFα and IL10 SNPs and susceptibility to HPV infection. The present work aimed to investigate the possible association between IL10 and TNFα promoter polymorphisms and HPV infection in the cervical carcinogenesis risk in women from Brazil. A total of 654 samples was evaluated in this study. HPV detection was performed by PCR and HPV genotyping was performed by PCR and sequencing of positive MY09/11 PCR product...
June 20, 2018: Cytokine
A S Justo-Junior, L M Villarejos, X T V Lima, W Nadruz, A C Sposito, R L Mamoni, R Abdalla, J L Fernandes, R T D Oliveira, M H S L Blotta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Macrophages derived from monocytes play an important role in atherosclerosis progression. Subpopulations of circulating classical, intermediate, and non-classical monocytes possess distinct functions and phenotypes, and participate in the pathogenesis of disease. The aim of this study was to compare the quantity and phenotypes of circulating monocyte subpopulations in patients with established atherosclerosis and healthy control individuals. Additionally, the study aimed to provide insight into the functional activity of monocytes against a heat shock protein (HSP60)...
June 20, 2018: Cytokine
Xiulong Niu, Yumeng Chen, Lin Qi, Guoqing Liang, Yue Wang, Lipeng Zhang, Ye Qu, Wenliang Wang
Inappropriate angiogenesis and osteogenesis are considered as the crucial factors of osteoporotic fracture. Hypoxia is a primary driving force for regulating the angiogenic-osteogenic coupling process. Our recent results indicated that hypoxia could improve angiogenesis as well as differentiation and activity of osteoblastic cells via up-regulating VEGF through HIF-1α pathway. Here we demonstrated that in human osteoblastic MG-63, U2-OS and Saos-2 cells, besides VEGF, the other two pro-angiogenic factors IL-6 and IL-8 were also up-regulated by hypoxia and CoCl2 (a mimic of hypoxia)...
June 19, 2018: Cytokine
Marc T Cantwell, Jared S Farrar, Joseph C Lownik, Jeremy A Meier, Moonjung Hyun, Vidisha Raje, Michael R Waters, Francesco S Celi, Daniel H Conrad, Thurl E Harris, Andrew C Larner
Thermogenic fat is a promising target for new therapies in diabetes and obesity. Understanding how thermogenic fat develops is important to develop rational strategies to treat obesity. Previously, we have shown that Tyk2 and STAT3, part of the JAK-STAT pathway, are necessary for proper development of classical brown fat. Using primary preadipocytes isolated from newborn mice we demonstrate that STAT3 is required for differentiation and robust expression of Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1). We also confirm that STAT3 is necessary during the early induction stage of differentiation and is dispensable during the later terminal differentiation stage...
June 19, 2018: Cytokine
Thomas Southworth, Manminder Kaur, Lynsey Hodgson, Fabrizio Facchinetti, Gino Villetti, Maurizio Civelli, Dave Singh
BACKGROUND: Lymphocytes play a key role in asthma pathophysiology, secreting various cytokines involved in chronic inflammation. CHF6001 is a highly potent and selective phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) inhibitor designed for inhaled administration and has been shown to reduce the late asthmatic response. However, the effect of PDE4 inhibition on the different cytokines produced by lung lymphocytes from asthma patients has not been examined. METHODS: This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of CHF6001 and the corticosteroid, 17-BMP, on T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulated Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine release from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from mild (n = 12) and moderate asthma (n = 12) patients...
June 19, 2018: Cytokine
F Neuschäfer-Rube, A Pathe-Neuschäfer-Rube, S Hippenstiel, G P Püschel
BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: Recent studies suggested a role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) in the expression of the chemokine IL-8 by monocytes. The function of EP4 receptor for TNFα-induced IL-8 expression was studied in monocytic cell lines. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: IL-8 mRNA and protein induction as well as IL-8 promoter activity and transcription factor activation were assessed in monocytic cell lines, primary blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and transgenic HEK293 cells expressing the EP4 receptor...
June 18, 2018: Cytokine
Felicitas Bucher, Jungho Lee, Sanghee Shin, Minseok M Kim, Yong-Seok Oh, Sanghoon Ha, Hongkai Zhang, Kyungmoo Yea
Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is best known as key regulator in eosinophil-associated diseases such as asthma. While a connection to vascular changes in eosinophil-associated lung diseases is still elusive, recent evidence suggests that IL-5 may have an atheroprotective role. Here, we report an unexpected anti-angiogenic potential of IL-5 on vascular endothelial cells in vitro. IL-5 significantly inhibited fundamental functions of human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-L) in vessel formation including VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation...
June 16, 2018: Cytokine
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