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A C C Gouveia, F G Braga, M Mota, F M C Silva, A S S Brugiolo, E E Oliveira, M C Ayupe, H C Teixeira, A P Ferreira
Accumulating evidence indicates that the exposure to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) prevents the development of allergy and the airway dendritic cells (DCs) may be involved in this protective effect. However, studies to better characterize the specific interactions between BCG and DCs and their role in this mycobacteria-mediated Th2 cell suppression are still ongoing. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the neonatal BCG vaccination in the innate immune response in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation...
September 14, 2017: Cytokine
Gil R Diogo, Adam Sparrow, Matthew J Paul, Alastair Copland, Peter J Hart, Szymon Stelter, Craig van Dolleweerd, Pascal M W Drake, Derek C Macallan, Rajko Reljic
IL-4 is a pleiotropic cytokine that is highly Th2 polarizing. The ratio of IL-4 and its splice variant IL-4Δ2 observed in human health and disease suggests a role for both isoforms. In the present study, the biological function of murine IL-4Δ2 and the potential mechanism of action were studied. We report for the first time the generation of a functional, recombinant murine IL-4Δ2 form which is suggestive of its possible biological role in this species. Recombinant murine IL-4Δ2 inhibited IL-4 mediated cellular processes in macrophages and lymphocytes...
September 13, 2017: Cytokine
Roland Baumgartner, Maria J Forteza, Daniel F J Ketelhuth
The kynurenine pathway (KP) is the major metabolic route of tryptophan (Trp) metabolism. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1), the enzyme responsible for the first and rate-limiting step in the pathway, as well as other enzymes in the pathway, have been shown to be highly regulated by cytokines. Hence, the KP has been implicated in several pathologic conditions, including infectious diseases, psychiatric disorders, malignancies, and autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Additionally, recent studies have linked the KP with atherosclerosis, suggesting that Trp metabolism could play an essential role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the vascular wall...
September 9, 2017: Cytokine
Gabriele Domschke, Christian A Gleissner
Atherosclerosis is considered an inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. Monocytes and monocyte-derived cells (most often termed macrophages) play an essential role in the formation of atherosclerotic lesions, as they take up lipids leading to subsequent foam cell formation accompanied by release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Similarly, platelets have been discovered to represent an important cell type mediating inflammatory and immune processes in atherogenesis, mainly by secreting chemokines, which are stored in the platelets' alpha granules, upon platelet activation...
September 9, 2017: Cytokine
O V Pirogova, I S Moiseev, E A Surkova, S V Lapin, S N Bondarenko, A D Kulagin, B V Afanasyev
Large number of studies was published about predictive value of cytokines for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Recently, there has been a growing interest in GVHD prophylaxis with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy). Clinical data on the dynamics of proinflammatory cytokines with this prophylaxis is lacking. In this study, we have measured the levels of IL-17, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ and TNF-α in plasma on days -7, 0, +7, +14 and after engraftment in 20 patients with acute GVHD and 40 matched control patients with PTCy-based prophylaxis...
September 9, 2017: Cytokine
Oana N Ursu, Tina Beyer, Martina Sauter, Annunziata Fragasso, Sandra Bundschuh, Karin Klingel, Barbara Munz
Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is an important inducer of myocarditis, which, in susceptible individuals, can chronify and eventually lead to the development of dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. The respective mechanisms are not completely understood. Here, we analyzed expression of the TRAF6 gene, encoding TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), a signal transduction scaffold protein that acts downstream of cytokine receptors, in heart tissue of susceptible and non-susceptible mouse strains. We found that after infection, TRAF6 expression was upregulated in both non-susceptible C57BL/6 wildtype and susceptible A...
September 5, 2017: Cytokine
Muhammad Baghdadi, Hiraku Endo, Yoshino Tanaka, Haruka Wada, Ken-Ichiro Seino
Interleukin-34 (IL-34) is a hematopoietic cytokine that was described for the first time in 2008 as a second ligand of CSF1R in addition to M-CSF. IL-34 and M-CSF share no sequence homology, but have similar functions, affecting the biology of myeloid cell lineage. In contrast to M-CSF, IL-34 shows unique signaling and expression patterns. Physiologically, IL-34 expression is restricted to epidermis and CNS, acting as a regulator of Langerhans cells and microglia, respectively. However, IL-34 expression can be induced and regulated by NF-κB under pathological conditions...
September 5, 2017: Cytokine
Mohammad Bashashati, Maryam Moradi, Irene Sarosiek
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder which presents with abdominal pain and alterations of the bowel habits. The pathophysiology of IBS is not well-recognized. Low grade inflammation has been suggested as one of the underlying mechanisms of IBS. Variations in the circulating pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and IL-6 gene polymorphisms have been demonstrated in IBS. However, the results of published studies are not consistent, probably due to their small sample sizes...
September 5, 2017: Cytokine
Yating Hao, Yang Li, Huiyuan Li, Mingen Lyu, Donglei Zhang, Rongfeng Fu, Yue Guan, Shixuan Wang, Boyang Sun, Xueqing Dou, Lei Zhang, Renchi Yang
Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a disease of autoimmunity in which there are Th1/Th2 imbalance and disordered cytokine profiles. CXC chemokine ligand 16 (CXCL16) was proved to implicate in some autoimmune diseases. Our research aimed to determine plasma soluble CXCL16 (sCXCL16) levels and its effects in ITP. We used ELISA to measure plasma sCXCL16, IFN-γ and IL-4 and flow cytometry to determine expression of CXCR6 on lymphocyte subsets. We used real-time PCR to detect the CXCL16 and CXCR6 mRNA expression...
September 5, 2017: Cytokine
Juan Zhang, Yibing Yin, Xue Lin, Xingxing Yan, Yun Xia, Liping Zhang, Ju Cao
IL-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ are cytokine members of IL-1 family. Although IL-36 expression was observed in human lung during pulmonary infections, it remains unknown whether IL-36 could act directly on lung tissue cells during pulmonary inflammatory responses. In this study, we showed that IL-36 receptor was expressed in human lung fibroblasts and bronchial epithelial cells. Correspondingly, IL-36α, IL-36β or IL-36γ up-regulated gene expression of cytokine IL-6 and chemokine CXCL8 in human lung fibroblasts and bronchial epithelial cells, and promoted IL-6 and CXCL8 release from human lung fibroblasts and bronchial epithelial cells...
September 1, 2017: Cytokine
Alfonso J Rodríguez-Morales, Ángela María Hernández-Moncada, Karol Liceth Hoyos-Guapacha, Sara Lucia Vargas-Zapata, Johan Felipe Sánchez-Zapata, Yamid Vicente Mejia-Bernal, Sabina Ocampo-Serna, Oscar Mauricio Meneses-Quintero, Julio César Gutiérrez-Segura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2017: Cytokine
Stamatoula Tsikrika, Katerina Dimakou, Andriana I Papaioannou, Georgios Hillas, Loukas Thanos, Kostantinos Kostikas, Stelios Loukides, Spyros Papiris, Nickolaos Koulouris, Petros Bakakos
INTRODUCTION: Bronchiectasis is a heterogeneous entity, taking into account clinical characteristics, inflammatory response, effectiveness of treatment and frequency of exacerbations. In stable state non-cystic fibrosis (non-CF) bronchiectasis, little is known about non-invasive techniques used for evaluating airway inflammation in obstructive airway diseases. OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the associations between induced sputum and clinical/radiologic characteristics, and the differences between biomarkers expressing Th1 and Th2 response in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis and to compare our findings with a previously studied population of patients with asthma and COPD...
August 29, 2017: Cytokine
Danial Jahantigh, Mahdieh Mousavi, Forough Forghani, Mohammad Reza Javan, Samaneh Movahedinia, Mahnaz Rezaei
In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum level of IL-27 with preeclampsia and its severity. Fifty-six preeclamptic, 21 health pregnant and 20 health nonpregnant women formed the study group. The levels of IL-27 in maternal circulation were determined by ELISA. IL-27 serum levels were found to be elevated in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic groups as compared to non-pregnant women, this increase was significant in preeclamptic cases (p=0.0004). Moreover, a significant difference of IL-27 serum level was observed between groups and the healthy pregnant controls, (p=0...
August 29, 2017: Cytokine
Rui Yamaguchi, Arisa Sakamoto, Takatoshi Yamamoto, Shinji Narahara, Hiroyuki Sugiuchi, Yasuo Yamaguchi
Cross-talks between toll-like receptors (TLRs) including various negative regulatory mechanisms are many unknown. We investigated the differential mechanism of IL-23 production in M1 macrophages by single immunoglobulin interleukin-1 receptor-related (SIGIRR) molecule through TLR4 or TLR7/8. IL-12p40 production by M1 macrophages pretreated with human neutrophil elastase (HNE) was synergistically enhanced IL-12p40, but not IL-23 production, after exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS (a TLR4 agonist) induced a slight increase of IL-23 production, while Resiquimod (a TLR7/8 agonist) significantly enhanced IL-23 production...
August 28, 2017: Cytokine
Ziwei Zhu, Chunshu Yang, Jianing Wang, Qianhui Feng, Qi Chen, Pingting Yang
OBJECTIVE: To examine the expression of chemokine receptors in different peripheral blood T-cell subsets in patients with polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM). METHODS: We used flow cytometry to measure the frequencies of chemokinereceptors CXCR3 and CCR4 expression in the CD4(+) or CD8(+) lymphocytes. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays were also used to measure the concentrations of C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC) and macrophage derived chemokine (MDC)...
August 28, 2017: Cytokine
Jonathan Florentin, Partha Dutta
Myeloid cells, including monocytes and macrophages participate in steady state immune homeostasis and help mount the adaptive immune response during infection. The function and production of these cells in sterile inflammation, such as pulmonary hypertension (PH), is understudied. Emerging data indicate that pulmonary inflammation mediated by lung perivascular macrophages is a key pathogenic driver of pulmonary remodeling leading to increased right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP). However, the origin of these macrophages in pulmonary inflammation is unknown...
August 28, 2017: Cytokine
Yasuhiro Shimojima, Dai Kishida, Yoshiki Sekijima
Hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP) is an inflammatory disorder involving intracranial or spinal thickened dura mater. It has been recognized that anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis may lead to HP; however, the immune-mediated pathogenesis of ANCA-related HP (ANCA-HP) remains elusive. In the present study, we analyzed B-cell activation factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) expression in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of patients with ANCA-HP, multiple sclerosis (MS), and non-inflammatory neurological disorders (NIND)...
August 25, 2017: Cytokine
Spyros A Papiris, Ioannis P Tomos, Anna Karakatsani, Aris Spathis, Ioanna Korbila, Antonis Analitis, Likurgos Kolilekas, Konstantinos Kagouridis, Stylianos Loukides, Petros Karakitsos, Effrosyni D Manali
INTRODUCTION: Controversy exists about the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis acute exacerbations (IPF-AEs). According to one hypothesis IPF-AEs represent the development of any etiology diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) upon usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), whilst other researchers argue that an accelerated phase of the intrinsic fibrotic process of unknown etiology prevails, leading to ARDS. Different cytokines might be involved in both processes. The aim of this study was to assess pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines in the peripheral blood from stable and exacerbated IPF patients...
August 25, 2017: Cytokine
Xinhong Wang, Yinghua Tang, Rui Shen, Jirong Chen, Guanying Chen, Gang Luo, Linhu Ge
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of overexpression HGF on the healing of traumatic ulcer of oral mucosa of mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mice were divided into two groups: wild type C57BL6(WT) and HGF high expression transgenic (HGF-Tg) mice. Traumatic ulcer of all mice were made by number 15 scalpel blade. Mice were sacrificed after 5days and the inflammation score and expression of TNFα, IFNγ, c-Met, apoptosis (TUNEL) and 40 serum inflammation cytokines were estimated...
August 19, 2017: Cytokine
Anna Bieńkowska, Ewelina Kiernozek, Ewa Kozlowska, Łukasz Bugajski, Nadzieja Drela
Thymus-derived regulatory T cells of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ phenotype develop as a functional, mature population playing an essential role in self-tolerance and immune homeostasis, and exhibiting therapeutic potential to inhibit adverse immune response. Despite intensive research on thymus-derived Tregs, the knowledge about agents involved in their generation, survival, proliferation, and biological functions is still insufficient. In this research we have focused on the role of selected cytokines in previously developed in vitro model based on the application of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies...
August 18, 2017: Cytokine
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