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Human & Experimental Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027485/concentration-dependent-effect-of-fumonisin-b-1-on-apoptosis-in-oesophageal-cancer-cells
#1
R B Khan, A Phulukdaree, A A Chuturgoon
The geographical distribution of oesophageal cancer is linked to the exposure of fumonisin B1 (FB1 ), a mycotoxin produced by fungi that contaminates staple food worldwide. Non-genotoxic carcinogens like FB1 disturb homeostasis through increased cell proliferation or suppression of apoptosis. This study investigated the involvement of FB1 (0-20 μM) in spindle-shaped N-cadherin (+) CD45 (-) osteoblastic (SNO) cell death. Cell viability and death were assessed using the MTS and Annexin V-Fluos assays, respectively...
July 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019276/benzo-a-pyrene-induces-lung-toxicity-and-inflammation-in-mice-prevention-by-carvacrol
#2
P Barnwal, A Vafa, S M Afzal, A Shahid, S K Hasan, Alpashree, S Sultana
Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) is an environmental pollutant which causes various lung toxicities. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol against B(a)P-induced lung toxicity. In this study, Swiss albino mice were pretreated with carvacrol (25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) orally for 7 consecutive days before administering oral B(a)P (125 mg/kg). Preventive efficacy of carvacrol was assessed in terms of membrane oxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, histopathological changes, and inflammatory (iNOS, NF-κB, and COX-2) markers...
July 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984147/celastrol-ameliorates-acetaminophen-induced-oxidative-stress-and-cytotoxicity-in-hepg2-cells
#3
A T Jannuzzi, M Kara, B Alpertunga
Acetaminophen (APAP) is the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic drug in the world. However, hepatotoxicity caused by APAP overdose is the most frequent cause of acute liver failure worldwide and oxidative stress involved in the pathogenesis of APAP hepatotoxicity. Celastrol is a natural triterpenoid derived from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. that exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential ameliorative effects of celastrol against APAP-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress...
July 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920465/fish-oil-derived-eicosapentaenoic-acid-decreases-survivin-expression-and-induces-wt-p53-accumulation-with-caspase-3-activation-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cells
#4
M R Sam, M Esmaeillou, S Sam, M A Shokrgozar
BACKGROUND: Defects in modulating wild-type (wt) p53 and survivin are associated with a resistant disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Yet, no wt-p53 and survivin modulating drugs have been approved for clinical application in ALL. Here, we investigated if in vitro eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentrations equal to human plasma levels are able to target wt-p53 and survivin. METHODS: Wt-p53 Molt-4 cells (ALL cell line) were treated with 50, 100, 150, and 200 µM of EPA after which cell number, viability, proliferation rate, survivin expression, wt-p53 accumulation, caspase-3 activation, and apoptosis were evaluated...
July 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920463/evaluation-of-genotoxicity-and-subchronic-toxicity-of-standardized-rose-hip-extract
#5
A Nagatomo, M Oguri, N Nishida, M Ogawa, A Ichikawa, Y Tanaka-Azuma
Rose hip is the fruit of the rose plant, which is widely used in food, cosmetics and as a traditional medicine. Therefore, rose hip is considered safe and has a sufficient history of consumption as food. However, few studies have reported on the safety of rose hip extracts in toxicological analyses. Thus, to evaluate the safety of rosehip polyphenol MJ (RHPMJ), an aqueous ethanol extract standardized with the trans-tiliroside content, we performed genotoxicity and 90-day repeated oral dose toxicity studies in compliance with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development-Good Laboratory Practice...
July 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920462/involvement-of-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-in-abrogated-cardioprotective-effect-of-ischemic-preconditioning-in-ovariectomized-rat-heart
#6
V K Vishwakarma, A Goyal, J K Gupta, P K Upadhyay, H N Yadav
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is an effective mediator of ischemic preconditioning (IPC)-induced cardioprotection. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is downregulated after ovariectomy, which results in reduction in the level of NO. The present study deals with the investigation of the role of ANP in abrogated cardioprotective effect of IPC in the ovariectomized rat heart. METHODS: Heart was isolated from ovariectomized rat and mounted on Langendorff's apparatus, subjected to 30 min of ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion...
July 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905663/epidemiology-and-clinics-of-mushroom-poisoning-in-northern-italy-a-21-year-retrospective-analysis
#7
G Cervellin, I Comelli, G Rastelli, F Sanchis-Gomar, F Negri, C De Luca, G Lippi
BACKGROUND: Limited information exists about epidemiology and management of mushroom poisoning. We analyzed and described epidemiology, clinical presentation, and clinical course of mushroom-poisoned patients admitted to emergency departments (EDs) of the Province of Parma, Italy. METHODS: Data from the database of mycological service were matched with clinical information retrieved from hospitals' database, from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2016. RESULTS: Mycologist consultation was obtained in 379/443 identified mushroom poisonings...
July 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895434/genetic-variation-and-risk-of-dna-damage-in-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-of-iranian-formaldehyde-exposed-workers
#8
Rezvan Zendehdel, Parviz Abdolmaleki, Fatemeh Javani Jouni, Mohammad Mazinani
Formaldehyde (FA) has given positive results for the genetic damage evaluated in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Polymorphism plays a special role in the toxicity of chemicals. DNA damage in blood cells was evaluated in workers who were occupationally exposed to FA. This study tested the association of alcohol dehydrogenase III (ADH3) and manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) gene polymorphism, with DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Gene polymorphisms were evaluated in 54 workers from melamine dinnerware workshops and 34 workers from dairy production workshops...
July 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875725/il-1%C3%AE-haplotype-influences-the-effect-of-no-x-exposure-on-gestational-age-in-the-south-african-mace-birth-cohort
#9
P Nansook, R N Naidoo, P Ramkaran, A Phulukdaree, S Muttoo, K Asharam, A A Chuturgoon
OBJECTIVE: Cytokines, molecules within the immune system that affect either a pro- or anti-inflammatory response, have previously been shown to influence birth outcomes. The maternal cytokine gene-environment interactions are thought to alter their expression, potentially influencing susceptibility to adverse birth outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the maternal interleukin-1β (IL-1β) haplotype and expression variation with oxides of nitrogen (NOx ) levels, and thereafter investigate the IL-1β haplotype-specific effects of NOx exposure levels, IL-1β mRNA expression and other variables on gestational age...
July 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830233/investigating-and-analyzing-three-cohorts-of-mushroom-poisoning-caused-by-amanita-exitialis-in-yunnan-china
#10
J Sun, H-J Li, H-S Zhang, Y-Z Zhang, J-W Xie, P-B Ma, C Guo, C Y Sun
Amanita exitialis is a lethal mushroom found in China. Knowledge regarding taxonomic characterization, toxin detection, general poisoning conditions, clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, and clinical treatments for this species is currently lacking. We investigated three A. exitialis mushroom poisoning cohorts in Yunnan Province in 2014 and 2015, involving 10 patients. Mushroom samples were identified by morphological and molecular studies. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was used to detect the peptide toxins in the mushroom samples...
July 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812367/the-usefulness-of-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-performed-in-the-acute-phase-as-an-early-predictor-of-delayed-neuropsychiatric-sequelae-in-acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#11
Y S Kim, Y S Cha, M S Kim, H J Kim, Y S Lee, H Youk, H I Kim, O H Kim, K-C Cha, H Kim, K H Lee, S O Hwang
Delayed onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms after apparent recovery from acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning has been described as delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS). No previous study has determined whether early use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) can predict which patients will develop DNS in the acute CO poisoning. This retrospective observational study was performed on adult patients with acute CO poisoning consecutively treated over a 17-month period. All included patients with acute CO poisoning underwent DWI to evaluate brain injury within 72 h after CO exposure...
June 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776390/value-of-troponin-levels-in-the-diagnosis-of-cardiac-dysfunction-in-moderate-scorpion-envenomation
#12
O Chakroun-Walha, R Karray, M Jerbi, A Ben Rebeh, C Jammeli, M Bahloul, R Ammar, I Chabchoub, M Bouaziz, A Nasri, N Rekik
CONTEXT: Cardiac dysfunction is one of the most serious consequences of scorpion envenomation. The best tool to evaluate cardiac function is echocardiography, but it is not available at all emergency departments. Many studies aimed to describe biological predictive factors of cardiac dysfunction in scorpion envenomation. Troponin is one of these biomarkers but its correlation with myocarditis is not well established. The aim of this study was to evaluate correlation between troponin levels and cardiac dysfunction in moderate scorpion envenomation...
June 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741381/the-relationship-between-serum-ammonia-level-and-neurologic-complications-in-patients-with-acute-glufosinate-ammonium-poisoning-a-prospective-observational-study
#13
Y S Cha, H Kim, Y Lee, E H Choi, H I Kim, O H Kim, K-C Cha, K H Lee, S O Hwang
Glufosinate ammonium poisoning can cause neurological complications even after a symptom-free period. We prospectively investigated the predictors of neurologic complications in acute glufosinate ammonium poisoning and the change of serum ammonia level as a predictor of patient's presence and recovery of neurologic complication. This prospective observational study collected data from consecutive patients diagnosed with acute glufosinate ammonium poisoning between September 2014 and June 2016. Serum ammonia was serially measured...
June 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741378/procainamide-induced-autoimmunity-relationship-to-t-helper-2-type-t-cell-activation
#14
Y Huang, Z Lin, Y Huo, X Geng, M Li, Y Yang, B Li
Drug-induced autoimmunity (DIA) refers to a group of adverse drug reactions, and they remain unpredictable largely due to the limited understanding of the mechanisms involved. There is evidence that procainamide can cause autoimmune reactions in humans but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. To examine the cellular and genetic factors involved in the procainamide-induced autoimmune response, we compared rats that are genetically T-helper (Th)2-predisposed (Brown Norway (BN)), Th1-predisposed (Lewis (LEW)) or not genetically predisposed (Sprague Dawley (SD))...
June 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741374/lipid-emulsion-alleviates-the-vasodilation-and-mean-blood-pressure-decrease-induced-by-a-toxic-dose-of-verapamil-in-isolated-rat-aortae-and-an-in-vivo-rat-model
#15
S-H Ok, I-W Shin, S H Lee, J Park, M S Woo, J-M Hong, J Kim, J-T Sohn
This study aimed to examine the effects of lipid emulsion on the vasodilation and cardiovascular depression induced by toxic doses of calcium channel blockers. The effects of lipid emulsion on the vasodilation induced by bepridil, verapamil, nifedipine, and diltiazem were investigated in isolated endothelium-denuded rat aortae. The effect of lipid emulsion on the comparable hemodynamic depression induced by the continuous infusion of a toxic dose of either verapamil or diltiazem was examined in an in vivo rat model...
June 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741371/dexamethasone-ameliorates-h-2-s-induced-acute-lung-injury-by-increasing-claudin-5-expression-via-the-pi3k-pathway
#16
P Geng, T Ma, J Xing, L Jiang, H Sun, B Zhu, H Zhang, H Xiao, J Wang, J Zhang
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major outcome of exposure to high levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S). Dexamethasone (DXM) has been used to treat ALI. However, the mechanisms involved in H2 S-induced ALI and the protective mechanisms of DXM in treating ALI are still nebulous. To explore the mechanisms involved, we evaluated the role of claudin-5 in the protective effect of DXM against H2 S-induced ALI. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to H2 S to establish the ALI model. In parallel with the animal model, a cell model was also established by incubating human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with NaHS...
June 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741370/non-health-care-facility-anticonvulsant-medication-errors-in-the-united-states
#17
Emily A DeDonato, Henry A Spiller, Marcel J Casavant, Thitphalak Chounthirath, Nichole L Hodges, Gary A Smith
INTRODUCTION: This study provides an epidemiological description of non-health care facility medication errors involving anticonvulsant drugs. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of National Poison Data System data was conducted on non-health care facility medication errors involving anticonvulsant drugs reported to US Poison Control Centers from 2000 through 2012. RESULTS: During the study period, 108,446 non-health care facility medication errors involving anticonvulsant pharmaceuticals were reported to US Poison Control Centers, averaging 8342 exposures annually...
June 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681665/stimulatory-effects-of-curcumin-and-quercetin-on-posttranslational-modifications-of-p53-during-lung-carcinogenesis
#18
P Zhang, Xy Zhang
Lung cancer is responsible for increase in mortality due to cancer-related deaths, and new approaches are being explored for the betterment of the situation. In the present study, chemopreventive efficacy of curcumin and quercetin was investigated against benzo(a)pyrene (BP)-induced lung carcinogenesis. The mice were segregated into five groups, which included normal control, BP-treated, BP + curcumin-treated, BP + quercetin-treated, and BP + curcumin + quercetin-treated groups. The morphological and histological analyses of tumor nodules confirmed lung carcinogenesis22 weeks after weeks single intraperitoneal injection of BP at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight to mice...
June 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681618/regulation-of-p53-and-survivin-by-prodigiosin-compound-derived-from-serratia-marcescens-contribute-to-caspase-3-dependent-apoptosis-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cells
#19
M R Sam, R S Pourpak
Tumor suppressor p53 and proto-oncogene survivin are challenging targets for anticancer drugs in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) which are associated with chemoresistance. Yet, no p53 and survivin-modulating drug with low toxicity and high efficacy has been approved for clinical application in ALL. Consequently, the search for novel compounds which target p53 or survivin is needed to further advance ALL treatment. Prodigiosin, a secondary metabolite of Serratia marcescens induces apoptosis in cancer cells with no toxicity on normal cells...
June 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673093/di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-suppresses-il-12p40-production-by-gm-csf-dependent-macrophages-via-the-ppar%C3%AE-tnfaip3-traf6-axis-after-lipopolysaccharide-stimulation
#20
R Yamaguchi, A Sakamoto, T Yamamoto, S Narahara, H Sugiuchi, A Hisada, T Katoh, Y Yamaguchi
Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has an anti-inflammatory effect. This study investigated the potential combined influence of PPARα, tumor necrosis factor α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3/A20), and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) on interleukin (IL)-12p40 production by macrophages exposed to DEHP and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS upregulated IL-12p40 expression by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent macrophages (on day 9 of culture), whereas adding DEHP to cultures significantly attenuated the response of IL-12p40 to LPS stimulation...
June 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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