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Human & Experimental Toxicology

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April 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
J Yang, H Zhang, H Zhang, B Pan, W Wang, Y Fan, Y Liu
Arrest of the cell cycle after DNA damage is believed to promote DNA repair. We aim to investigate the main factors affecting cell cycle arrest of lymphocytes in coke oven workers. A total of 600 workers were included in this study, and their urinary levels of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) metabolites, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and cell cycle distribution were determined. Urinary PAH metabolites were significantly increased in coke oven workers ( p < 0.01). It was found that only urinary 2-hydroxynaphthalene and 1-hydroxypyrene showed significant positive linear dose-response effects on 8-OHdG in this study population ( ptrend = 0...
March 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
M R Kumar, G R Reddy
This study was planned to determine arsenic (As) (10 mg/kg body weight given through oral gavage) induced behavioral and cholinergic perturbations in three different age groups of rats; young (postnatal day 21), adult (3 months), and aged (18 months) at 7 days post-acute exposure ( n = 6 for each of the four groups of all three age points). Further, we also evaluated the ameliorative effect of essential metal zinc (Zn; 0.02% through drinking water) and an antioxidant, α-tocopherol (vitamin E; 125 mg/kg body weight through oral gavage) against As-induced neurotoxicity...
March 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
R S Ferreira, L de Souza Morelini, Emc de Azeredo, Ecs Vieira, E B Ferreira, Vsn da Silva, O L Tavano, L Azevedo
Cereal-based diets formulated as semi-purified diets can provide flexibility for researchers, enabling open controlled formulas, besides being cheaper than purified diets. Seeking to widen the researchers' options in their experimental design developments, we aimed at assaying the chemical score, growth performance and protein utilization of nine semi-purified experimental chows. These diets were formulated at 17.8%, 12% and 8% protein contents, using three variations of ingredients for each one, as follows: casein (C), casein+soybean meal (C+S, 1:1 w/w protein) and casein+soybean meal+corn gluten meal (C+S+G, 1:1:1 w/w protein), without cysteine supplementation and setting casein 17...
March 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Aaa Salama, R E Mostafa, E A Omara
Cardiac arrhythmia is a common cause of mortality, and its progression may be due to abnormal sympathetic nerve activity and catecholamine release. Besides, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) downregulation and adiponectin expression play important roles in promoting coronary artery disease. The study aimed to examine the possible cardioprotective effect of members of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors in epinephrine-induced arrhythmia in rats. Arrhythmia was induced by cumulative boluses of epinephrine (4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and 128 mg/kg) given at 10-min intervals...
March 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Z H Huang, N Li, K F Rao, C T Liu, Y Huang, M Ma, Z J Wang
Genotoxicants can be identified as aneugens and clastogens through a micronucleus (MN) assay. The current high-content screening-based MN assays usually discriminate an aneugen from a clastogen based on only one parameter, such as the MN size, intensity, or morphology, which yields low accuracies (70-84%) because each of these parameters may contribute to the results. Therefore, the development of an algorithm that can synthesize high-dimensionality data to attain comparative results is important. To improve the automation and accuracy of detection using the current parameter-based mode of action (MoA), the MN MoA signatures of 20 chemicals were systematically recruited in this study to develop an algorithm...
March 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
A Elkama, O C Ulker, E Teker, A Karakaya, A E Karakaya
Exposure to chemicals in workplace settings leads to significant occupational diseases related to hypersensitivity reactions. In recent years, diacetyl which is used as a food additive is thought to be as an important hazard due to its sensitization potency for worker's health. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the sensitization potency of diacetyl for the purpose of its hazard evaluation. Nonradioactive ex vivo local lymph node assay: BrdU-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method with short-term and long-term exposure protocols were conducted based on animal welfare principles...
March 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
D H Lee, B K Lee
The performances of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II have previously been evaluated in acute organophosphate poisoning. We aimed to compare the performance of the SAPS III with those of the APACHE II and SAPS II, as well as to identify the best tool for predicting case fatality using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) in acute organophosphate poisoning. A retrospective analysis of organophosphate poisoning was conducted. The APACHE II, SAPS II, and SAPS III were calculated within 24 h of admission...
March 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
P Sengupta, E Borges, S Dutta, E Krajewska-Kulak
PURPOSE: To investigate whether the sperm concentration of European men is deteriorating over the past 50 years of time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed the data published in English language articles in the past 50 years in altering sperm concentration in European men. RESULTS: A time-dependent decline of sperm concentration ( r = -0.307, p = 0.02) in the last 50 years and an overall 32.5% decrease in mean sperm concentration was noted...
March 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
S Mahdavi, P Khodarahmi, N H Roodbari
To investigate the underlying mechanism of neurotoxicity of cadmium, we examined the effects of intraperitoneal injection of cadmium on messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) and Bax (Bcl2-associated x) genes and caspase-3/7 activation in rat hippocampus and frontal cortex. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into four groups. Control group received saline and three other groups received cadmium at doses of 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg (body weight) for 15 successive days...
March 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
I Iavicoli, L Fontana, V Leso, M Corbi, A Marinaccio, K Leopold, R Schindl, D Lucchetti, F Calapà, A Sgambato
Recently, palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) have been increasingly used in many industrial sectors, and this has led to a significant release of nano-sized palladium particles into the environment. However, despite the increase in occupational and general population exposure, information on the potential adverse effects of these PdNPs is still limited and their impact on the immune system constitutes a major health concern. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential adverse effects induced by subchronic intravenous administration of PdNPs on the immune system of female Wistar rats by evaluating alterations in Interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), Interferon (INF)-γ, and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α serum levels...
March 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Y S Cha, H Kim, H H Do, H I Kim, O H Kim, K-C Cha, K H Lee, S O Hwang
Delayed onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms after apparent recovery from acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning has been described as delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS). To date, there have been no studies on the utility of serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a marker of neuronal cell damage, as a predictive marker of DNS in acute CO poisoning. This retrospective observational study was performed on adult patients with acute CO poisoning consecutively treated over a 9-month period. Serum NSE was measured after emergency department arrival, and patients were divided into two groups...
March 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
E Darchini-Maragheh, M Balali-Mood, M Malaknezhad, S R Mousavi
The most common delayed complication of sulfur mustard (SM) poisoning has been observed in the respiratory tracts. It was thus aimed to investigate the delayed respiratory complications in SM-exposed patients around 25 years before the study. Forty-three veterans with more than 25% disability of due to SM poisoning were investigated. Clinical examinations as well as pulmonary function test (PFT) were performed. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs was done as clinically indicated. Triad of chronic cough, dyspnea, and expectoration were the most common symptoms that were recorded in 88...
February 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
X Zhang, X Rong, Y Chen, L Su
The malignancy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) largely results from its invasive manner. Secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs) have been recently found to suppress the invasiveness of some cancers. On the other hand, the methylation of SFRPs increases protein degradation to reduce the activity of SFRPs, resulting in increased tumor cell invasion and cancer metastasis. However, the role of SFRPs in the invasion of NSCLC has not been reported. Here we analyzed the regulation of SFRPs in NSCLC cells and its effects on cell invasion...
February 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
C Ren, X Li, X Li, Y Xie, H Fu, Z Yan, Y Zhu
RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool to silence or minimize gene expression, and palate culture in vitro is an important technique for study of the palate development. Our previous study demonstrated that the gene expression of glucose-regulated protein-78 (Grp78) was downregulation in the all-trans retinoic acid-induced mouse models of cleft palate (CP) during embryogenesis. To find the role of Grp78, the small interfering RNA (siRNA) of this gene carried by fluorescent vector was injected with a microinjector, through which about 30 pmol siRNA was injected into the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse palate explants...
February 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
M Y Zhang, Y Y Yu, S F Wang, Q Zhang, H W Wu, J Y Wei, W Yang, S Y Li, H J Yang
PURPOSE: Alkaloids derived from Rhizoma Coptis (RC) has been widely applied to clinical treatments in China. However, the toxicity of RC and the alkaloids from RC remained controversial. The research is designed to clarify the cardiotoxic compounds found in RC. METHODS: In this study, the real-time cellular analysis cardio system and the high-content analysis were applied to monitor the function of cardiomyocytes (CMs) in the treatment of nine alkaloids in RC. Luciferase-coupled adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay was used to detect cell viability...
February 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
S B Lee, C Kang, D H Kim, T Kim, S H Lee, J H Jeong, S C Kim, D Y Rhee, D Lim
OBJECTIVE: Organophosphate insecticide (OPI) self-poisoning is a major medical problem in many countries. Several studies have demonstrated that the base deficit (BD) is a prognostic tool that is correlated with the severity of injury and predicted mortality, particularly in trauma patients. Here, we aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of BD in OPI poisoning. METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted between January 1, 2006, and January 31, 2015, at a single emergency department (ED)...
February 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
K M Sadek, E A Saleh, S M Nasr
BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is a noteworthy well-being issue that can prompt the progression of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Prominently, many antioxidants have been shown to have defensive impacts against liver fibrosis. AIM: Subsequently, in the present study, the viability of alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) in ensuring against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-actuated liver fibrosis and the mechanism(s) involved in this defensive impact were considered in rats...
February 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
M H Goharbari, F Taghaddosinejad, M Arefi, M Sharifzadeh, M Mojtahedzadeh, S Nikfar, M Baeeri, M Rahimifard, M Abdollahi
BACKGROUND: In aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning, death is mainly due to cardiovascular failure and refractory acute heart failure. There is a lot of evidence showing thyroid hormones have cardioprotective effects. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral liothyronine in the treatment of AlP poisoning. METHODS: Twenty-four patients from intensive care unit of Baharloo Hospital, Tehran, Iran, were included based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria...
February 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Y N Paudel, M R Ali, S Bawa, S Shah, M Adil, A Siddiqui, A S Basheer, M Q Hassan, M Sharma
4-Methyl-2-[(2-methylbenzyl) amino]-1,3-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid (bioactive compound (BAC)), a novel thiazole derivative, is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor and free radical scavenging agent. Effects of BAC on hyperglycemia, insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory mediators were evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced neonatal models of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) rats where NIDDM was induced in neonatal pups with single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (100 mg/kg). The effect of BAC (10 and 20 mg/kg, p...
February 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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