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Human & Experimental Toxicology

J Wang, W J Zhang, W Xiong, W H Lu, H Y Zheng, X Zhou, J Yuan
Previous studies indicated that exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) was related to pulmonary inflammatory diseases through activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway to trigger cytokine secretions in human lung carcinoma cells. To investigate the potential mechanisms underlying expression of cytokines via activated NF-κB by PM2.5 , human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells) were treated with PM2.5 extracts at different concentrations (6, 13, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 µg mL-1 ) for 6 and 24 h...
October 25, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
M Ba, W Ding, L Guan, Y Lv, M Kong
Abnormality in Src PSD-95 NR2B signaling complex assemble occurs in levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunit NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation mediated by Src family protein tyrosine kinases is closely associated with dyskinesia. Src autophosphorylation (p-Src) is an important part of Src-catalyzed phosphorylation of NR2B. In addition, the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-derived NO (nNOS/NO) signal which was also involved in dyskinesia recently was proved to participate in the regulation of Src function...
October 23, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Y Lee, S J Kim, Y S Kim, H Kim, D K Lee, J Lee, T H Go, Y S Cha
The rate of mortality from dapsone poisoning is high because of the long absorption half-life of dapsone. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) scoring systems for the early prediction of mortality in patients with dapsone poisoning. This is a retrospective and observational study of consecutive patients diagnosed with dapsone poisoning. The SOFA and APACHE II scores were obtained within the first 24 h of admission...
October 22, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
H Ramamoorthy, P Abraham, B Isaac, D Selvakumar
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is currently the only nucleotide analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitor that is approved by the Food and Drug administration (FDA), USA, for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In recent days, renal toxicity is becoming common i HIV patients treated with TDF. However, the mechanism of tenofovir nephrotoxicity is not clear. We hypothesized that mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase (PARP) overactivation and neutrophil infiltration may contribute to tenofovir-induced renal damage...
October 16, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
M Sözmen, A K Devrim, Y B Kabak, T Devrim
Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein from the fasciclin family that guides cellular trafficking and extracellular matrix organization. Periostin stimulates mature cardiomyocytes to reenter the cell cycle. The molecular mechanism behind such stimulation remains to be explored. A DNA microarray technology constituting 30,429 gene-level probe sets was utilized to investigate effects of recombinant murine periostin peptide on the gene expression pattern in a rat model of isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial injury...
October 10, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
A Muhammad, M A Ibrahim, H A Mohammed, O L Erukainure, I Malami, A Suleiman, A Mansir, A Godwin, H A Khalil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
M Mahdavi, S Asghari, M Rahnamay, G Dehghan, Mah Feizi, S Balalaie
Recent studies have reported the potential of pyrano-pyridine compounds in inhibiting cell growth and apoptosis induction in cancer cells. Here, we investigated the effect of new pyrano-pyridine derivatives on proliferation, oxidative damages, and apoptosis in K562 leukemia cells. Among different tested compounds, we found 8-(4-chlorobenzylidene)-2-amino-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-5, 6, 7, 8-tetrahydro-6-phenethyl-4H-pyrano-[3,2-c]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (4-CP.P) as the most effective compound with IC50 value of 20 μM...
October 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Y S Abulfadl, N N El-Maraghy, Aa Eissa Ahmed, S Nofal, Y Abdel-Mottaleb, O A Badary
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a robust inflammatory response elicited by the accumulation and deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) within the brain. Aβ induces detrimental inflammatory responses through toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling pathway. Thymoquinone (TQ), the main active constituent of Nigella sativa oil, has been reported by several previous studies for its potent anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of TQ in improving learning and memory, using a rat model of AD induced by a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCl3 ) and d-galactose (d-Gal)...
October 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
E Eluka-Okoludoh, A J Ewunkem, S Thorpe, A Blanchard, P Muganda
Diepoxybutane (DEB) is the most potent active metabolite of butadiene, a regulated air pollutant. We previously reported the occurrence of DEB-induced, p53-dependent, mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human lymphoblasts. The present study investigated the role of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathway in DEB-induced apoptotic signaling in exposed human lymphoblasts. Activated ERK1/2 and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase/ERK1/2 kinase (MEK) levels were significantly upregulated in DEB-exposed human lymphoblasts...
October 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
M A Bani-Ahmad, A G Mustafa, Aab Ahmad, Ama Rahim
INTRODUCTION: Illicit drugs abuse is associated with several clinical life-threatening consequences that are primarily mediated by oxidative damage to multiple cellular components with a subsequent cellular dysfunction and death. Primarily, this study aimed to investigate oxidative stress to protein and lipid components of circulatory platelets among chronic heroin and hashish addicts. METHODS: Platelet lysates were prepared from 20 chronic intravenously administrated heroin addicts and 20 chronic smoked hashish addicts...
October 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
E Durmaz, A Asci, P Erkekoglu, A Balcı, I Bircan, B Koçer-Gumusel
There is a growing concern over the timing of pubertal breast development and its possible association with exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is abundantly used to harden plastics. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between premature thelarche (PT) and BPA by comparing the urinary BPA levels of PT girls with those of healthy subjects. Twenty-five newly diagnosed nonobese PT subjects (aged 4-8 years) who were admitted to the Pediatric Endocrinology Department at Akdeniz University were recruited...
October 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
V Leso, L Fontana, A Marinaccio, K Leopold, C Fanali, D Lucchetti, A Sgambato, I Iavicoli
The widespread industrial application of nanomaterials (NMs) has dramatically increased the likelihood of environmental and occupational exposure of humans to such xenobiotics. This issue, together with the increasing public health interest in understanding the effects of chemicals on endocrine system, encouraged to investigate the disruptive potential of NMs on the endocrine function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NPs) on the female reproductive system of Wistar rats, intravenously exposed to different doses (0...
October 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
B O Ajayi, I A Adedara, E O Farombi
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relapsing and remitting inflammatory disease of the colon, with an increasing incidence worldwide. 6-Gingerol (6G) is a bioactive constituent of Zingiber officinale, which has been reported to possess various biological activities. This study was designed to evaluate the role of 6G in chronic UC. Chronic UC was induced in mice by three cycles of 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water. Each cycle consisted of 7 days of 2.5% DSS followed by 14 days of normal drinking water...
October 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
S Babangida, S Ibrahim, A Muhammad, D E Arthur, A Uzairu, A Garba
Chrysin (CHR) is a food-based bioactive ingredient whereas, sodium arsenite (SA) is one of the major contaminant in drinking water. When ingested, SA contributes to tissue damage due to bioactivation by S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferase. Hence, the needs to nullify this effect by investigating the potentials of CHR on SA-induced genotoxicity in rats. The experiment was divided into two successive stages (ameliorative and preventive, curative studies) for 1 week. Rats were divided into four groups: distilled water, 10mg/kg SA, 10mg/kg CHR and co-administration...
October 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
G Liu, J Geng
BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between serum levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and stroke functional outcomes in a cohort of 286 patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: We prospectively studied 286 patients with AIS who were admitted within 24 h after the onset of symptoms. Serum levels of GFAP and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were measured at admission. The primary end point was stroke functional outcome among 1-year after stroke onset...
October 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Y-J Shin, K-A Kim, E-S Kim, J-H Kim, H-S Kim, M Ha, O-N Bae
The kidney is one of the main targets for toxicity induced by xenobiotics. Sensitive detection of early impairment is critical to assess chemical-associated renal toxicity. The aim of this study was to identify potential nephrotoxic biomarkers in rat kidney tissues after exposure to mercury (Hg), a representative nephrotoxicant, and to evaluate these new biomarkers employing in vivo and in vitro systems. Mercuric chloride was administered orally to Sprague-Dawley rats for 2 weeks. Proteomic analysis revealed that aldo-keto reductase (AKR7A1) and glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1) were significantly elevated in kidney after Hg exposure...
October 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
S Hadichegeni, B Goliaei, M Taghizadeh, S Davoodmanesh, F Taghavi, M Hashemi
Human serum albumin (HSA) is a soluble blood protein which binds to small molecules (such as drugs and toxins) and transfers them within the blood circulation. In this research, the interaction of diazinon, as a toxic organophosphate, with HSA was investigated. Various biophysical methods such as fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and molecular docking were utilized to characterize the binding properties of diazinon to HSA under physiological-like condition...
September 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
E J Calabrese
In 2006, Henschler disputed the claim of Calabrese and Baldwin that Hugo Schulz should be considered the originator of the hormesis concept. Henschler cited an 1854 paper by Rudolf Virchow on the effects of two agents on the beating of cilia, which showed a hormetic-biphasic dose response. The interpretation of Henschler became broadly accepted over the past decade based on citations in the literature. However, a recent translation of the Virchow paper from German into English reveals that the claims of Henschler are not supported by the article...
September 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
G Eraslan, M Kanbur, M Karabacak, K Arslan, Y Siliğ, Z Soyer Sarica, M Y Tekeli, A Taş
A total of 66 male Wistar rats were used and six groups (control: 10 animals and experimental: 12 animals) were formed. While a separate control group was established for each study period, mad honey application to the animals in the experimental group was carried out with a single dose (12.5 g kg-1 body weight (b.w.); acute stage), at a dose of 7.5 g kg-1 b.w. for 21 days (subacute stage), and at a dose of 5 g kg-1 b.w. for 60 days (chronic stage). Tissue and blood oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione (GSH) peroxidase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), hepatic chemical metabolizing parameters in the liver (cytochrome P450 2E1, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-cytochrome b5 reductase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-cytochrome c reductase (CYTC), GSH S-transferase (GST), and GSH), and micronucleus and comet test in some samples were examined...
September 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
M G Helal, S E Ayoub, W F Elkashefand, T M Ibrahim
The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered a risk factor for hepatic fibrosis. Therefore, there is critical need to develop novel cheap and effective therapeutic approaches to prevent and reverse NAFLD. Caffeine is commonly consumed beverage and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study examined whether caffeine can ameliorate liver injury induced by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Four groups of rats were used and treated for 16 weeks as follows: control group, rats were fed a standard diet; HFD group, rats were fed HFD; and caffeine 20 and caffeine 30 groups, rats were fed HFD for 16 weeks in addition to different doses of caffeine (20 or 30 mg/kg, respectively) for last 8 weeks...
September 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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