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Human & Experimental Toxicology

A S Shalkami, Mia Hassan, A G Bakr
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting colon. The primary symptoms of UC are diarrhoea with blood and mucus and sometimes associated with pain. AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diosmin (DIO) on UC. METHODS: UC was induced in rats by rectal administration of acetic acid (AA). The degree of mucosal ulceration and damage was determined by evaluating the disease activity index (DAI) and colon damage index scores. Inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptotic responses were determined by measuring the levels of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-II), malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in addition to myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and caspase-3 expression...
January 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Z Sun, Y Zhang, X Xue, R Niu, J Wang
Previous investigations demonstrated that high fluoride (F) exposure may adversely affect the neurodevelopment and learning and memory ability. However, whether maternal F exposure during gestation and lactation can influence the learning, memory ability, and glutamate receptor expressions of offspring has not yet been elucidated. Hence, in the present study, maternal mice were exposed to F (25, 50, or 100 mg/L sodium fluoride (NaF) in drinking water) during gestation and lactation. Results showed that exposure to 100 mg/L NaF significantly enhanced the number of total arm entries and working memory errors of offspring in the radial arm maze test compared to the control group...
January 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
S K Anandasadagopan, C Sundaramoorthy, A K Pandurangan, V Nagarajan, K Srinivasan, S Ganapasam
Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) is a common environmental pollutant. Cr (VI) exposure can lead to severe damage to the liver, but the preventive measures to diminish Cr (VI)-induced hepatotoxicity need further study. S-allyl cysteine (SAC) is a constituent of garlic ( Allium sativum) and has many beneficial effects to humans and rodents. In this study, we intended to analyze the mechanistic role of SAC during Cr (VI)-induced hepatotoxicity. Male Wistar albino rats were induced with 17 mg/kg body weight to damage the liver...
November 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
G Yang, X Gao, L Jiang, X Sun, X Liu, M Chen, X Yao, Q Sun, S Wang
Mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is the principal metabolite of di (2-etylhexyl) phthalate, which is widely used as a plasticizer, especially in medical devices. MEHP has toxic effects on cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility that 6-gingerol may inhibit the oxidative DNA damage of MEHP in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the potential mechanism. The comet assay was used to monitor DNA strand breaks. We have shown that 6-gingerol significantly reduced the DNA strand breaks caused by MEHP...
November 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
R Z Hamza, N S El-Shenawy
Oxidative stress caused by sodium valproate (SV) is known to play a key role in the pathogenesis of brain tissue. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of l-cysteine (LC) on the antioxidants of brain tissue of rats. The animals were divided into six groups: control group 1 was treated with saline as vehicle, groups 2 and 3 were treated with low and high doses of SV (100 and 500 mg/kg, respectively), group 4 was treated with LC (100 mg/kg), and groups 5 and 6 were treated with low-dose SV + LC and high-dose SV + LC, respectively...
November 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
P Pratte, S Cosandey, C Goujon Ginglinger
Combustion of biomass produces solid carbon particles, whereas their generation is highly unlikely when a biomass is heated instead of being burnt. For instance, in the Tobacco Heating System (THS2.2), the tobacco is heated below 350°C and no combustion takes place. Consequently, at this relatively low temperature, released compounds should form an aerosol consisting of suspended liquid droplets via a homogeneous nucleation process. To verify this assumption, mainstream aerosol generated by the heat-not-burn product, THS2...
November 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
D Sheela, R Vijayaraghavan, S Senthilkumar
Buprenorphine drug cartridge was made for autoinjector device for use in emergency and critical situations to reduce the morbidity and mortality. Water-filled cartridges were prepared and buprenorphine was injected aseptically in the cartridge, to make 0.05 and 0.10 mg/mL. Rats were injected intraperitoneally, buprenorphine (0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg), repeatedly with the autoinjector and compared with manual injection (7 days and 14 days) using various haematological and biochemical parameters. No significant change was observed in the body weight, organ to body weight ratio and haematological variables in any of the experimental groups compared with the control group...
September 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
D Liang, G An, Z Zhu, Y Wang, G Yang, X Li, P Niu, L Chen, L Tian
OBJECTIVE: We investigate the effects of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) on models with silica-induced and macrophage-mediated fibrosis and its possible mechanisms in vitro. METHODS: Rat alveolar II epithelial (RLE-6TN) cells were incubated with the supernatant of mouse macrophage-like cells (RAW264.7) and treated with 0, 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL silica. Using Western blotting, the epithelial markers (surfactant proteins-C and E-cadherin) and the mesenchymal markers (fibronectin (FN) and viminten (Vim)) were detected...
September 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
A S Reece, A Norman, G K Hulse
INTRODUCTION: Despite an increasing awareness that the activity of excitable membranes is determined by the underlying ionic gradients across them, and their importance in drug dependency, we were not able to identify any reports of comparing the electrolyte composition of opioid-dependent and non-addicted controls. METHODS: Linear regression was used to compare clinical pathology blood results taken from 2699 opioid-dependent patients (ODP) and 5307 medical control (MC) patients on a total of 21,734 occasions for the period 1995-2015...
August 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
A M Tsatsakis, D Kouretas, M N Tzatzarakis, P Stivaktakis, K Tsarouhas, K S Golokhvast, V N Rakitskii, V A Tutelyan, A F Hernandez, R Rezaee, G Chung, C Fenga, A B Engin, M Neagu, A L Arsene, A O Docea, E Gofita, D Calina, I Taitzoglou, J Liesivuori, A W Hayes, S Gutnikov, C Tsitsimpikou
In real life, consumers are exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals via food, water and commercial products consumption. Since risk assessment usually focuses on individual compounds, the current regulatory approach doesn't assess the overall risk of chemicals present in a mixture. This study will evaluate the cumulative toxicity of mixtures of different classes of pesticides and mixtures of different classes of pesticides together with food additives (FAs) and common consumer product chemicals using realistic doses after long-term exposure...
June 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
E Elmorsy, S M Attalla, E Fikry, A Kocon, R Turner, D Christie, A Warren, L L Nwidu, W G Carter
Tuberculosis (TB) is an intractable chronic infection. Disease treatment with anti-TB drugs remains challenging due to drug-induced hepatotoxicity. The toxicity of the anti-TB drugs rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA) either alone or in combination was investigated in HepG2 cells. Assays of intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels at 4-, 24- and 48-h post-exposure to gradient concentrations of RIF, INH and PZA were conducted. Drug-induced effects on mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial complex I and complex III activity, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) levels and cellular lactate production were assessed...
June 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
A Machoń-Grecka, M Dobrakowski, M Boroń, G Lisowska, A Kasperczyk, S Kasperczyk
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of occupational exposure to lead on the blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and selected factors that influence angiogenesis. The study population was divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 56 male workers chronically exposed to lead. The second group (control) was comprised of 24 male administrative workers. The serum levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were significantly higher in the group of workers chronically exposed to lead compared to control values by 38%, 68%, and 57%, respectively...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
G Weinberg, M Fettiplace
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
M Forsberg, S Forsberg, G Edman, J Höjer
Lipid rescue is used as treatment of various poisonings despite weak scientific evidence. Some experimental studies have indicated a positive effect, but others have not. Clinical studies are lacking, wherefore a systematic review of virtually all published human case reports is presented. The case reports were searched for in PubMed and Web of Science and examined by two experts according to an assessment form grading the probability for a causal connection between lipid rescue and improved symptoms. A total of 160 cases were finally included, of which 30 had no positive effect of lipid rescue...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
H-S Bae, I-G Kang, S-G Lee, S-Y Eom, Y-D Kim, S-Y Oh, H-J Kwon, K-S Park, H Kim, B-S Choi, I-J Yu, J D Park
Arsenic (As) is widely distributed in the environment, and humans can be exposed to As from various sources such as air, water, soil, and food. This study was performed to evaluate the As exposure levels in Korean adults by measuring total As in urine and its relation with the consumption of seafood, a favorite food in Korea. A total of 2077 adults were the study subjects; they ranged in age from 19 to 83, and they were recruited by probability sampling stratified by area, sex, and age. None of the subjects had been exposed to As occupationally...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
E M Hafez, M A Hamad, M Fouad, A Abdel-Lateff
Endogenous alcohol has been applied for spontaneous ethanol production via different metabolic pathways of the human body. Auto-brewery syndrome describes the patients with alcohol intoxication after ingesting carbohydrate-rich meals. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM), liver cirrhosis (LC) and presence of both (DM and LC) on blood alcohol concentration (BAC) especially after carbohydrate ingestion. BAC has been measured by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in three groups of humans namely control, DM, LC and both (DM and LC) groups...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
F Ghanbari, F Moattar, S M Monavari, R Arjmandi
Low fertility in rice caused by Chilo suppressalis has led to the use of diazinon to control this pest. Residue of pesticide could penetrate products and also food which can affect public health. The aim of this research was to determine health risk assessment of organophosphorus (OP) pesticide in rice, a strategic crop in Iran. Ninety rice samples were collected from 30 points during harvesting seasons from Rasht Area, Guilan Province, Iran from which 30 samples were prepared. The concentration of diazinon, the most common pesticide used in the study area, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Jun Ho Lee, Seong Youn Hwang, Hye Ran Kim, Yang Won Kim, Mun Ju Kang, Kwang Won Cho, Dong Woo Lee, Yong Hwan Kim
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the ability of the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scoring systems, as well as the simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II method to predict group mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients who were poisoned with paraquat. This will assist physicians with risk stratification. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of 244 paraquat-poisoned patients admitted to the ICU from January 2010 to April 2015 were examined retrospectively...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
P C Badgujar, N A Selkar, G A Chandratre, N N Pawar, V D Dighe, S T Bhagat, A G Telang, G R Vanage
Fipronil, an insecticide of the phenylpyrazole class has been classified as a carcinogen by United States Environmental Protection Agency, yet very limited information is available about its genotoxic effects. Adult male and female animals were gavaged with various doses of fipronil (2.5, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg body weight (bw)) to evaluate micronucleus test (mice), chromosome aberration (CA), and comet assay (rats), respectively. Cyclophosphamide (40 mg/kg bw; intraperitoneal) was used as positive control. Another group of animals were pretreated with vitamin E orally (400 mg/kg bw) for 5 days prior to administration of fipronil (12...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
S-P Hu, J-J Zhao, W-X Wang, Y Liu, H-F Wu, C Chen, L Yu, J-B Gui
Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist with sedation, anesthetic sparing, analgesia, sympatholytic, and neuroprotective properties. This study evaluated neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine on dopamine neurons correlated to histone acetylation via extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathway. Animals were randomly assigned to four groups and treatments were given as onetime doses: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; n = 6), dexmedetomidine 1 mg/kg ( n = 6), 10 mg/kg ( n = 6), and 100 mg/kg ( n = 6)...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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