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Human & Experimental Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903879/the-analysis-of-qt-interval-and-repolarization-morphology-of-the-heart-in-chronic-exposure-to-lead
#1
J Kiełtucki, M Dobrakowski, N Pawlas, B Średniawa, M Boroń, S Kasperczyk
There are no common recommendations regarding electrocardiographic monitoring in occupationally exposed workers. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether exposure to lead results in an increase of selected electrocardiography (ECG) pathologies, such as QT interval prolongation and repolarization disorders, in occupationally exposed workers. The study group included 180 workers occupationally exposed to lead compounds. The exposed group was divided according to the median of the mean blood lead level (PbBmean) calculated based on a series of measurements performed during 5-year observation period (35 µg/dl) into two subgroups: low exposure (LE, PbBmean = 20...
November 30, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895099/new-thiazacridine-agents-synthesis-physical-and-chemical-characterization-and-in-vitro-anticancer-evaluation
#2
Mbo Chagas, Ncc Cordeiro, Kmr Marques, M G Rocha Pitta, Mjbm Rêgo, McA Lima, Mgr Pitta, I R Pitta
A series of new thiazacridine agents were synthesized and evaluated as antitumor agents, in terms of not only their cytotoxicity but also their selectivity. The cytotoxicity assay confirmed that all compounds showed cytotoxic activity and selectivity. The new compound, 3-acridin-9-ylmethyl-5-(5-bromo-1H-indol-3-ylmethylene)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (LPSF/AA29 - 7A: ), proved to be the most promising compound as it presents lower half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values (ranging from 0.25 to 68.03 µM) depending on cell lineage...
November 27, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895098/brain-aluminium-accumulation-and-oxidative-stress-in-the-presence-of-calcium-silicate-dental-cements
#3
K Demirkaya, B Can Demirdöğen, Z Öncel Torun, O Erdem, E Çırak, Y M Tunca
Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a calcium silicate dental cement used for various applications in dentistry. This study was undertaken to test whether the presence of three commercial brands of calcium silicate dental cements in the dental extraction socket of rats would affect the brain aluminium (Al) levels and oxidative stress parameters. Right upper incisor was extracted and polyethylene tubes filled with MTA Angelus, MTA Fillapex or Theracal LC, or left empty for the control group, were inserted into the extraction socket...
November 27, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885104/could-vitamin-c-and-zinc-chloride-protect-the-germ-cells-against-sodium-arsenite
#4
L S Altoé, I B Reis, Mlm Gomes, H Dolder, Jc Monteiro Pirovani
Arsenic (As) is commonly associated with natural and human processes such as volcanic emissions, mining and herbicides production, being an important pollutant. Several studies have associated As intake with male fertility reduction, thus the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether vitamin C and/or zinc would counteract As side effects within the testicles. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into six experimental groups: control, sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg/day), vitamin C (100 mg/kg/day), zinc chloride (ZnCl2; 20 mg/kg/day), sodium arsenite + vitamin C and sodium arsenite + ZnCl2 Testicles and epididymis were harvested and either frozen or routinely processed to be embedded in glycol methacrylate resin...
November 24, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885103/no-support-for-lipid-rescue-in-oral-poisoning-a-systematic-review-and-analysis-of-160-published-cases
#5
M Forsberg, S Forsberg, G Edman, J Höjer
Lipid rescue is used as treatment of various poisonings despite weak scientific evidence. Some experimental studies have indicated a positive effect, but others have not. Clinical studies are lacking, wherefore a systematic review of virtually all published human case reports is presented. The case reports were searched for in PubMed and Web of Science and examined by two experts according to an assessment form grading the probability for a causal connection between lipid rescue and improved symptoms. A total of 160 cases were finally included, of which 30 had no positive effect of lipid rescue...
November 24, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872163/role-of-autophagy-in-cadmium-induced-testicular-injury
#6
Y-J Wang, J Yan, F Yin, L Li, Y-G Qin, C-Y Meng, R-F Lu, L Guo
The testis is sensitive to cadmium, but studies investigating cadmium-induced testicular injury have not yet clearly revealed the underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the injurious effects of cadmium on rat testes and the role that autophagy plays in this process. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups and intraperitoneally injected with 0.2 (low), 0.4 (middle), and 0.8 mg/kg·body weight (high) cadmium chloride for 5 weeks, while the control rats were injected with equal volume of saline...
November 21, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852938/does-maternal-exposure-to-artificial-food-coloring-additives-increase-oxidative-stress-in-the-skin-of-rats
#7
K Başak, P Y Başak, D K Doğuç, F Aylak, S Oğuztüzün, B M Bozer, F Gültekin
Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) metabolize and detoxify carcinogens, drugs, environmental pollutants, and reactive oxygen species. Changes of GST expression in tissues and gene mutations have been reported in association with many neoplastic skin diseases and dermatoses. Widely used artificial food coloring additives (AFCAs) also reported to effect primarily behavioral and cognitive function and cause neoplastic diseases and several inflammatory skin diseases...
November 16, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852937/occupational-phthalate-exposure-and-health-outcomes-among-hairdressing-apprentices
#8
B Kolena, I Petrovičová, M Šidlovská, T Pilka, M Neuschlová, I Valentová, L' Rybanský, T Trnovec
We studied occupational exposure to phthalates from first-morning-void urine sample of hairdressing apprentices by HPLC-MS/MS analyses and association with health status. Metabolites of mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP) were detected in all urine samples, followed by metabolites mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono(2-etylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) occurring in 97.06% and 86.76% of samples, respectively...
November 16, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852936/the-vasorelaxant-mechanisms-of-methanol-on-isolated-rat-aortic-rings-involvement-of-ion-channels-and-signal-transduction-pathways
#9
Y Bai, Q Zhang, Z Yang, Z Meng, Q Zhao
It is reported that methanol is generally used as an industrial solvent, antifreeze, windshield washer fluid, cooking fuel and perfume. Methanol ingestion can lead to severe metabolic disturbances, blindness, or even death. So far, few studies about its negative effects on cardiovascular system have been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the vasoactive effect of methanol and roles of ion channels and signal transduction pathways on isolated rat aorta. The results suggested that the mechanism of methanol-induced vasorelaxation at low concentrations (<500 mM) was mediated by ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) and L-type Ca(2+) channels, but the mechanism at high concentrations (>600 mM) was related to KATP, voltage-dependent K(+), big-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+), L-type Ca(2+) channels as well as prostacyclin, protein kinase C, β-adrenoceptors pathways...
November 16, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837179/protective-effects-of-curcumin-against-mercury-induced-hepatic-injuries-in-rats-involvement-of-oxidative-stress-antagonism-and-nrf2-are-pathway-activation
#10
W Liu, Z Xu, H Li, M Guo, T Yang, S Feng, B Xu, Yu Deng
Mercury (Hg) represents a ubiquitous environmental heavy metal that could lead to severe toxic effects in a variety of organs usually at a low level. The present study focused on the liver oxidative stress, one of the most important roles playing in Hg hepatotoxicity, by evaluation of different concentrations of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) administration. Moreover, the protective potential of curcumin against Hg hepatotoxic effects was also investigated. Eighty-four rats were randomly divided into six groups for a three-days experiment: control, dimethyl sulfoxide control, HgCl2 treatment (0...
November 11, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837178/global-research-production-in-glyphosate-intoxication-from-1978-to-2015-a-bibliometric-analysis
#11
S H Zyoud, W S Waring, S W Al-Jabi, W M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) has been used as a broad-spectrum herbicide that has been widely used in the agricultural industry and also available for home use. The main aim of this study is to present a general overview of glyphosate intoxication-related publications from its introducing since the early 1970s using bibliometric technique. METHODS: On June 23, 2016, a literature search of the Scopus database was performed. We then extracted and analyzed the data using well-established qualitative and quantitative bibliometric indices: Publication year, affiliation, document type, country name, subject category, journal name, publishing language, and collaboration and citation patterns...
November 11, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837177/protection-of-resveratrol-on-acute-kidney-injury-in-septic-rats
#12
Y Gan, S Tao, D Cao, H Xie, Q Zeng
AIM: The aim of the study is to investigate protective effect of resveratrol (Res) on acute kidney injury (AKI) in sepsis. METHODS: Rats in sham group received sham operation; in sham + Res received sham operation and Res (3 mg/kg); in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) established as sepsis; in CLP + Res (3 mg/kg) with sepsis and Res (3 mg/kg); and in CLP + Res (10 mg/kg) with sepsis and Res (10 mg/kg). Survival rate, serum indexes, inflammatory factors, NF-κB-P65, and SIRT1 were detected...
November 11, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837176/chondrocyte-proliferation-viability-and-differentiation-is-declined-following-administration-of-methylphenidate-utilized-for-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#13
F Gumustas, I Yilmaz, D Y Sirin, S A Gumustas, A G Batmaz, M Isyar, S Akkaya, M Mahirogullari
PURPOSE: Methylphenidate (MPH) derivative drugs are used because of psychostimulants effects on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults. As far as we know, toxic or anti-proliferative effects of MPH against cartilage tissue were not studied in the literature. The present study was carried out to investigate the possible effects of MPH on the proliferation, viability and differentiation of primary human chondrocytes, in vitro. METHODS: Monolayer primary chondrocyte cultures were prepared using osteochondral tissue obtained from patients who underwent a total knee prosthesis operation...
November 11, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827802/the-potential-protective-effect-of-%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-against-nanocopper-particle-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-male-rats
#14
A A Khalaf, A R Zaki, M K Galal, H A Ogaly, M A Ibrahim, A Hassan
The present research task is aimed to evaluate the role of exogenous α-lipoic acid (ALA) (100 mg/kg body weight) as hepatoprotective and potent antioxidant in amelioration of copper nanoparticle (CNP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Forty male rats were randomly assigned into four equal groups: group I (control), group II received CNPs, group III received CNPs + ALA, and finally group IV received ALA for 2 months. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were decapitated, and blood and liver tissue samples were collected for measurement of liver function tests, antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation (LPO), copper content, expression of some apoptotic genes, and histopathological analysis...
November 8, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815378/comparison-of-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-human-cervix-and-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#15
K Juarez-Moreno, E B Gonzalez, N Girón-Vazquez, R A Chávez-Santoscoy, J D Mota-Morales, L L Perez-Mozqueda, M R Garcia-Garcia, A Pestryakov, N Bogdanchikova
The wide application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has pointed out the need to evaluate their potential risk and toxic effects on human health. Herein, the cytotoxic effects of Argovit™ AgNPs were evaluated on eight cancer cell lines. Further cytotoxic studies were performed in gynecological cancer cell lines from cervical (HeLa) and breast (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7) cancer. In both cases, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of AgNPs produced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 24 h of incubation, but it was not statistically significant compared with untreated cells...
November 4, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777322/the-potential-toxicological-insights-about-the-anti-hiv-drug-azidothymidine-derived-monoselenides-in-human-leukocytes-toxicological-insights-of-new-selenium-azidothymidine-analogs
#16
Doc Mariano, D de Souza, D F Meinerz, J Allebrandt, A F de Bem, W Hassan, Oed Rodrigues, Jbt da Rocha
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a worldwide disease characterized by impairments of immune function. AIDS can be associated with oxidative stress (OS) that can be linked to selenium (Se) deficiency. Se is fundamental for the synthesis of selenoproteins, such as glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase. These enzymes catalyze the decomposition of reactive oxygen species and contribute to maintain equilibrium in cell redox status. Literature data indicate that organoselenium compounds, such as ebselen and diphenyl diselenide, have antioxidant properties in vitro and in vivo models associated with OS...
October 24, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738198/penconazole-alters-redox-status-cholinergic-function-and-membrane-bound-atpases-in-the-cerebrum-and-cerebellum-of-adult-rats
#17
M Chaâbane, I Ghorbel, A Elwej, H Mnif, T Boudawara, S Ellouze Chaâbouni, N Zeghal, N Soudani
Pesticides exposure causes usually harmful effects to the environment and human health. The present study aimed to investigate the potential toxic effects of penconazole, a triazole fungicide, on the cerebrum and cerebellum of adult rats. Penconazole was administered intraperitoneally to male Wistar rats at a dose of 67 mg kg(-1) body weight every 2 days during 9 days. Results showed that penconazole induced oxidative stress in rat cerebrum and cerebellum tissues. In fact, we have found a significant increase in malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and advanced oxidation protein product levels, as well as an alteration of the antioxidant status, enzymatic (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and nonenzymatic (glutathione), the cholinergic function, and membrane-bound ATPases (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase)...
October 12, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738197/hemin-a-heme-oxygenase-1-inducer-restores-the-attenuated-cardioprotective-effect-of-ischemic-preconditioning-in-isolated-diabetic-rat-heart
#18
I Gupta, A Goyal, N K Singh, H N Yadav, P L Sharma
BACKGROUND: Attenuated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) by reduced nitric oxide (NO) is a hallmark during diabetes mellitus (DM). Recently, we reported that the formation of caveolin-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) complex decreases the release of NO, which is responsible for attenuation of IPC-induced cardioprotection in DM rat heart. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) facilitates release of NO by disrupting caveolin-eNOS complex. The activity of HO-1 is decreased during DM...
October 12, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758843/pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-carisoprodol-and-meprobamate-disposition-in-adults
#19
T A Lewandowski
Carisoprodol is a widely prescribed muscle relaxant and is also a drug known to be a subject to abuse. Despite the fact that carisoprodol has been available for prescription since 1959, a number of gaps in our knowledge of the toxicokinetics of this common drug exist. For example, the volume of distribution (Vd) for carisoprodol in humans has not been reported. A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model describing carisoprodol metabolism and that of the primary metabolite, meprobamate, was developed to better understand the pharmacokinetics of this drug...
October 10, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758842/folic-acid-conjugated-polyethylene-glycol-coated-magnetic-nanoparticles-for-doxorubicin-delivery-in-cancer-chemotherapy-preparation-characterization-and-cytotoxicity-on-hela-cell-line
#20
M Erdem, S Yalcin, U Gunduz
Conventional chemotherapy is the most valid method to cope with cancer; however, it has serious drawbacks such as decrease in production of blood cells or inflammation of the lining of the digestive tract. These side effects occur since generally the drugs used in chemotherapy are distributed evenly within the body of the patient and cannot distinguish the cancer cells from the healthy ones. In this study, folic acid (FA)-conjugated, polyethylene-coated magnetic nanoparticles (FA-MNPs), and doxorubicin (Dox)-loaded formulation (Dox-FA-MNPs) were prepared...
October 10, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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