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Human & Experimental Toxicology

L da Cunha Menezes Souza, L A da Cruz, E de Moraes Marcílio Cerqueira, Jrc Meireles
The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has grown among practitioners of recreational bodybuilding, with significant contributions of designer steroids, aiming muscle hypertrophy in healthy subjects. The abusive use of AAS in general is associated with adverse effects; one of the most worrisome is cancer development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) test in human lymphocytes in identifying risk groups for cancer development in users of AAS...
March 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Y Chen, L Huang, J Zhu, K Wu
The effects of short-term use of oral glucocorticoid (GC) on the skeleton are not well defined. To address this gap, the influences of 7 days, 21 days of GC administration on femurs of intact rats were investigated. Forty 4-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group (Cont) and prednisone-treated group (Pre) and administered either distilled water or prednisone acetate at doses of 3.5 mg/kg/day for 0, 7 and 21 days, respectively. All the femurs were harvested for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, biomechanical testing and micro computed tomography scan...
March 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Y Cui, S Lv, J Liu, S Nie, J Chen, Q Dong, C Huang, D Yang
Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), a ubiquitous contaminant, has been used in various industrial applications. Currently few studies have documented the effects of chronic PFOS exposure on lipid metabolism, especially in aquatic organisms. The present study defined the effects of chronic exposure to low level of PFOS on lipid metabolism in F0 adult zebrafish and F1 offspring. Our findings revealed a severe fatty degeneration in the liver of F0 males treated with 0.5 μM PFOS and significant ultrastructure changes associated with substance transport or metabolism in liver and intestines (abnormal mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, disordered arrangement of inner microvilli within intracellular canaliculus)...
March 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Ezel Taşdemir, Mukadder Atmaca, Yaşar Yıldırım, Hakkı Murat Bilgin, Berjan Demirtaş, Basra Deniz Obay, Mustafa Kelle, Hüda Diken Oflazoğlu
In the present study, coumarin and some coumarin derivatives (esculetin, scoparone, and 4-methylumbelliferone) were investigated for their lipid-lowering effect in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (150-200 g) were divided into six groups and each group comprised of five rats. Hepatic injury-dependent hyperlipidemia was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 1.25 ml/kg). Coumarin and coumarin derivatives esculetin (35 mg/kg), scoparone (35 mg/kg), 4-methylumbelliferone (35 mg/kg), or coumarin (30 mg/kg) were administered to experimental groups at 12-h intervals...
March 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Q Zhang, D Zhang, Kai-Yong Liu, Ye-Hao Liu, J Sheng, Zhong-Xiu Jin, Su-Fang Wang, Qing-Li Bo, Jia-Jia Wang, Hui-Fang Yin
Sulfamonomethoxine (SMM) is widely used in the veterinary field in China. Although some clinical surveys have revealed that sulfonamide antibiotics cause adverse nervous system symptoms, the related mechanisms of maternal SMM exposure on the neurobehavioral development of offspring remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of perinatal SMM exposure on the physiological and behavioral responses of pubertal offspring mice and the underlying mechanisms. We randomly allocated pregnant mice into the groups treated with SMM at different doses and the saline-treated groups...
March 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
A Ben Slima, Y Chtourou, M Barkallah, H Fetoui, T Boudawara, R Gdoura
Pesticide exposure may affect semen quality and male fertility in humans. The aim of the present work was to elucidate the adverse effects of deltamethrin (Delta), a synthetic pyrethroid, on exposed male mice and their offspring. Adult male Albino/Swiss mice received deltamethrin (5 mg/kg) daily for 35 days and mated with untreated females to produce offspring. Classical measurements of ejaculate and sperm quality and testicular histopathological changes were assessed. Deltamethrin treatment affects sperm quality and quantity in the ejaculated semen of mice that had also markedly impaired libido as measured by indices of mating and fertility and number of pregnant females housed with male mice exposed to this pesticide...
March 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
V K Saroj, U P Nakade, A Sharma, R S Yadav, S W Hajare, S K Garg
Modulation of myometrial spontaneity by cadmium (Cd) and its regulatory pathways was studied in rat uterus in the absence and presence of blockers of different signaling pathways. Isometric tension in myometrial strips, under a resting tension of 1 g, mounted in organ bath containing Ringer-Locke solution (RLS) continuously aerated with carbogen, was measured using data acquisition system-based physiograph and Lab Chart Pro V7.3.7 software. Mean integral tension was measured for 8 min. Cd (1 nM-0.1 mM) not only produced concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on rat myometrium but it (10 µM) also significantly ( p < 0...
March 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
S Arami, M R Rashidi, M Mahdavi, M Fathi, A A Entezami
The limited effectiveness of the conventional methods for cancer treatment makes the researchers to find novel safe and effective therapeutic strategies. One of these strategies is to use small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). A major challenge here is the siRNA delivery into the cells. The purpose of this study was to design and prepare a biocompatible, biodegradable, and safe nanosized particle for siRNA delivery into human breast cancer MCF-7 and leukemia K562 cells. Chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles containing polyethyleneglycol-lactate polymer (PEG-LAC), chitosan, and polyethyleneimine (PEI) were successfully prepared and used as a gene delivery vehicle...
March 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Marwa A Abass, Manar H Arafa, Amal S El-Shal, Hebatallah H Atteia
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of toxicity-related mortality and morbidity worldwide. Recent studies focused on CO-induced cardiovascular toxicity. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of CO toxicity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between cardiac damage biomarkers and oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with CO-induced cardiotoxicity. This study was carried out on 36 CO-poisoned patients admitted to Zagazig University Hospitals. Forty healthy individuals (age- and sex-matched) were selected as a control group...
March 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
M T Makamure, P Reddy, A Chuturgoon, R N Naidoo, G Mentz, S Batterman, T G Robins
The objective of this study was to determine if the association between exposure to ambient air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxde (NO2), nitrous oxide (NO), and PM10, and variation in lung function measures was modified by genotype. A validated questionnaire was administered to 71 African children to evaluate prevalence of respiratory symptoms. Atopy was evaluated by skin-prick testing and bihourly measures of lung function (spirometry) were collected. Gaseous air pollutant concentrations were monitored continuously...
March 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
A Aghabiklooei, J Sangsefidi
AIM: Acute intentional benzodiazepine poisoning is marked by a significant loss of consciousness, aspiration pneumonia, and increased rates of mortality and morbidity, especially in older patients with underlying heart or lung disease. These patients may need flumazenil to reverse the respiratory effects of benzodiazepines. The positive effects of aminophylline on respiration and neonatal apnea improvement have been shown previously. However, its possible effects on increasing the level of consciousness have never been evaluated...
March 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
H Piotrowska, M Kujawska, M Nowicki, E Petzke, E Ignatowicz, V Krajka-Kuźniak, P Zawierucha, M Wierzchowski, M Murias, J Jodynis-Liebert
The aim of the study was to examine whether antioxidant properties of 3,4,4',5-tetramethoxystilbene (DMU-212) contribute to its anticarcinogenic activity and whether DMU-212 affects the expression of apoptosis-related genes. Two-stage model of hepatocarcinogenesis was used; male Wistar rats were challenged with N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intraperitoneal, then phenobarbital (PB) in drinking water (0.05%) was administered. Simultaneously, DMU-212 was given per os at a dose 20 or 50 mg/kg b...
February 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Ramazan Akçan, Aykut Lale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
T E Kastelein, R Duffield, S Crowcroft, F E Marino
This study examined the effects of acute tobacco smoking on cerebral oxygenation and autonomic function in 28 male, habitual smokers of shorter young smokers (YSM) or longer middle-aged smokers (MSM) smoking history. Following baseline testing, participants undertook a smoking protocol involving the consumption of two cigarettes within 15 min. Measures of cerebral oxygenation and autonomic function were collected before, during, and 0 min, 30 min, 1 h, and 4 h post-smoking. Tissue saturation index (TSI) for MSM was greater than YSM during cigarette consumption ( p < 0...
February 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
A Muhammad, M A Ibrahim, H A Mohammed, O L Erukainure, I Malami, A Suleiman, A Mansir, A Godwin, H A Khalil
This study was designed to investigate the alteration of redox status by commonly used antimalarials in Nigeria. Drugs used were artemisinin, artesunate, chloroquine, coartem and quinine at the final concentrations of 0.5-8.0 mg/mL. Blood samples were collected from malarial patients and apparently healthy humans for comparison. Reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, protein content and lipid peroxidation were determined. All drugs significantly ( p < 0.05) increases the protein level relative to control in normal blood, whereas in the infected, a significant ( p < 0...
February 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
J H Lee, M S Kim, B R Park
Sensorineural hearing loss, ataxia, pyramidal signs, and vestibular deficits characterize superficial siderosis of the central nervous system. This study investigated changes in vestibular function, free radical formation, and phosphorylated cJun expression in the vestibular end organs after middle ear treatment with a ferric chloride (FeCl3) solution. A single injection of 70% FeCl3 solution into the unilateral middle ear cavity caused static vestibular symptoms, such as spontaneous nystagmus and head tilt...
February 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
L Bahmanabadi, M Akhgari, F Jokar, H B Sadeghi
Methamphetamine abuse is one of the most medical and social problems many countries face. In spite of the ban on the use of methamphetamine, it is widely available in Iran's drug black market. There are many analytical methods for the detection of methamphetamine in biological specimen. Oral fluid has become a popular specimen to test for the presence of methamphetamine. The purpose of the present study was to develop a method for the extraction and detection of methamphetamine in oral fluid samples using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods...
February 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
M Turan, E Ciğer, S Arslanoğlu, H Börekci, K Önal
OBJECTIVES: Clinical application of gentamicin may cause nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Our study is the first study to investigate the protective effects of edaravone against the gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. We investigated the protective effect of intraperitoneal (i.p.) edaravone application against gentamicin-induced ototoxicity in guinea pigs. METHODS: Fourteen guinea pigs were divided into two equal groups consisting of a control group and a study group...
February 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
A Akyol, S Akdag, M Asker, H A Gumrukcuoglu, R Duz, K C Demirel, F Ozturk, M Yaman, M Sahin, H Simsek, M Tuncer, H Begenik
INTRODUCTION: Impaired diastolic flow is characterized by decreased left ventricular (LV) filling diastole, abnormal LV distensibility, or delayed relaxation. B-Type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is an indicator of various cardiovascular diseases and body volume status. The aim of this study was to determine whether the lowering of dialysate sodium (Na) levels is effective on LV systolic and diastolic parameters and BNP in the maintenance of hemodialysis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 49 chronic hemodialysis patients...
February 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
M Napierala, T A Merritt, J Mazela, K Jablecka, I Miechowicz, A Marszalek, E Florek
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a serious threat to life and health of society. Among the most vulnerable to the toxic effects of tobacco smoke are foetuses and newborns. The objective of the research was to assess the impact of tobacco smoke exposure on oxytocin levels and biochemical oxidative stress parameters during pregnancy and after birth in an experimental model. METHODS: In the experiment, exposure to tobacco smoke of gravid and non-gravid rats was monitored...
February 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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