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Human & Experimental Toxicology

A Santovito, E Cannarsa, D Schleicherova, P Cervella
Bisphenol A is an endocrine disrupting compound widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. It is ubiquitously present in the environment, mostly in aquatic environments, with consequent risks to the health of aquatic organisms and humans. In the present study, we analysed the cytogenetic effects of bisphenol A on human lymphocytes using in vitro chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei assays. Lymphocyte cultures were exposed to five different concentrations of BP-A (0.20, 0.10, 0...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
E I Akogwu, S A Saganuwan, P A Onyeyili
Cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome have been increasingly reported in Nigeria by individuals who consumed meat products of animals especially goats injected sulfonamides. Hence, tissue distribution and residues of intramuscular sulfadimidine were studied in West African Dwarf (WAD) goats. Twenty goats divided into two groups of 10 each (five males; five females) weighing 10.4 ± 1.63 kg were administered intramuscular sulfadimidine (100 mg/kg body weight), and the second group was coadministered 5 mg/kg of piroxicam via right and left thigh muscle, respectively...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
D S El-Agamy, A M Shebl, A A Shaaban
This investigation was undertaken to test the effect of nilotinib against d-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). Male Swiss albino mice were orally treated with nilotinib for 3 days prior to GalN/LPS challenge. The results revealed that administration of GalN/LPS caused elevation in the mortality rate. GalN/LPS-induced severe hepatic injury was manifested by increased serum transaminases and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels as well as histopathological hepatic necrosis and inflammation...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
N Najafi, A Van de Velde, J Poelaert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
R Miao, B Ding, Y Zhang, R Zhao, Y Li, B Zhu
1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is an increasingly used chemical solvent for cleaning metals and gradually replacing spraying adhesives. Workers exposed to 1-BP (WBP) showed nervous system dysfunction and other symptoms. This study focused on the proteomic change between healthy individuals (HIs), WBP and poisoned patients with 1-BP (PBP). Total proteins from serum samples were isolated, and high-abundance proteins were filtered out. Large-scale label-free proteomics platform was utilized for protein identification and quantitative comparison, followed by biological function analysis by bioinformatics tools...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
S Y Feng, J Gao, J Wang, Y Li
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate prolonged methylprednisolone (MP) treatment after pulse therapy for paraquat (PQ)-intoxicated rats. METHOD: Acute PQ toxicity was induced by intraperitoneally injecting single toxic dose of 25 mg/kg of body weight. Rats were divided into four groups: control group (saline solution for 15 days), PQ group (saline solution for 15 days after PQ toxicity), pulse group (15 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) MP for 3 days after PQ toxicity and then saline solution for 12 days) and pulse + prolonged group (15 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) MP for 3 days after PQ toxicity; dosage was subsequently reduced by half every 2 days, and MP was terminated until 0...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
R S Abdelrahman
Gentamicin (GNT) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used for treatment of serious infections, and the nephrotoxic adverse effect is one of the main therapeutic limitations. This study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of apocynin (APO) on nephrotoxicity induced by GNT in rats. Twenty-four rats were allocated into three groups: control, GNT (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)), and GNT plus APO (10 mg/kg, i.p.). All rats were killed at the end of the experiment, and then the blood, urine, and kidneys samples were taken...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
H H Mansour, M Eid, M B El-Arnaouty
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)embedded poly ( N-vinylpyrrolidone/dextran) hydrogels were prepared by gamma radiation. Highly stable and uniformly distributed AgNPs have been obtained within hydrogel networks as nanoreactors via in situ reduction of silver nitrate using sodium borohydride as reducing agent. The formation of AgNPs has been confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy measurements show a distinct characteristic absorption peaks around 420 nm, indicating the formation of AgNPs...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
S L Kanis, J E Kreijne, C J van der Woude
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Eya Qaid, R Zakaria, S F Sulaiman, Na Mohd Yusof, N Shafin, Z Othman, A H Ahmad, Cb Abd Aziz
Impairment of memory is one of the most frequently reported symptoms during sudden hypoxia exposure in human. Cortical atrophy has been linked to the impaired memory function and is suggested to occur with chronic high-altitude exposure. However, the precise molecular mechanism(s) of hypoxia-induced memory impairment remains an enigma. In this work, we review hypoxia-induced learning and memory deficit in human and rat studies. Based on data from rat studies using different protocols of continuous hypoxia, we try to elicit potential mechanisms of hypobaric hypoxia-induced memory deficit...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
A Koul, S K Abraham
Crocin (CRO) and safranal (SAF) are bioactive constituents of saffron (dried stigma of Crocus sativus flower), an expensive spice with medicinal properties. Aqueous extract of saffron is known for its antigenotoxic effect against environmental genotoxins/carcinogens. However, there is need to identify saffron constituents responsible for this antigenotoxic effect. The aim of our investigation was to ascertain the role of CRO and SAF as inhibitors of in vivo genotoxic stress. For this purpose, Swiss albino mice were pretreated with CRO (50-mg/kg body weight (bw))/SAF (0...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
R M Satpute, P P Pawar, S Puttewar, S D Sawale, P D Ambhore
Paraquat (PQ) is a nonselective bipyridyl herbicide widely used in agriculture to control weeds, but its accidental, occupational, or intentional exposure in humans is known to cause pneumo- and neurotoxicity which may proves fatal. Oxidative stress is reported as an underlined mechanism of PQ-induced toxicity in alveolar cells, neurons, and astroglia. PQ generates superoxides both through electron transport reaction (ETC) with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent oxidoreductase and by the redox cycling via reaction with molecular oxygen...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
L Liang, Z Ma, M Dong, J Ma, A Jiang, X Sun
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction, which is associated with a wide range of cognitive functions including working memory, long-term memory, information processing, attention, and cognitive flexibility, is a major clinical issue in geriatric surgical patients. The aim of the current study was to determine the protective role and possible mechanisms of salidroside against isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups and were treated with or without salidroside before isoflurane exposure...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
J Yu, H Wu, Z Lin, K Su, J Zhang, F Sun, X Wang, C Wen, H Cao, L Hu
Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) exerts marked anticancer effects via promotion of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and prevention of oncogene expression. In this study, serum metabolomics and artificial intelligence recognition were used to investigate SAHA toxicity. Forty rats (220 ± 20 g) were randomly divided into control and three SAHA groups (low, medium, and high); the experimental groups were treated with 12.3, 24.5, or 49.0 mg kg(-1) SAHA once a day via intragastric administration. After 7 days, blood samples from the four groups were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and pathological changes in the liver were examined using microscopy...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
P Kumar, D Swami, D P Nagar, K P Singh, J Acharya, H N Karade, R Yadav
The study reports antidotal efficacy of three HNK [ bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino)-N-(pyridin-3yl) acetamide derivatives] and pralidoxime (2-PAM), against soman and tabun poisoning in Swiss albino mice. Protection index (PI) was determined (treatment doses: HNK oximes, ×0.20 of their median lethal dose (LD50) and 2-PAM, 30 mg/kg, intramuscularly (im)) together with atropine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Probit log doses with difference of 0.301 log of LD50 of the nerve agents administered and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by 50% (IC50) was calculated at optimized time in brain and serum...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Aaa Al-Tikriti, E Al-Khateeb, M A Abbas
Teucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae) is a commonly used medicinal plant in folk medicine. Among several uses, T. polium is used to treat male fertility problems. This research was conducted to study the effect of T. polium on spermatogenesis, testosterone level, androgen receptor expression, and fertility in male rats. Administration of hexane extract for 6 days to aging rats increased testosterone level. When administered for 60 days, T. polium hexane extract downregulated androgen receptors, decreased sperm count without producing histological changes in different stages of spermatogenesis...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Wafa Kharroubi, Thomas Nury, Samia Haj Ahmed, Pierre Andreoletti, Rachid Sakly, Mohamed Hammami, Gérard Lizard
The aim of the study was to compare the effect of sodium arsenate (AsV) on two different cell types: 158N murine oligodendrocytes and HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Exposure of 158N cells to AsV (0.1-400 µM; 48 h) induced a biphasic cytoxic effect defined as hormesis. Thus, low concentrations of AsV stimulate cell proliferation, as shown by phase-contrast microscopy, cell counting with trypan blue, and crystal violet assay, whereas high concentrations induce cell death associated with a loss of cell adhesion...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
H Piotrowska, M Kujawska, M Nowicki, E Petzke, E Ignatowicz, V Krajka-Kuźniak, P Zawierucha, M Wierzchowski, M Murias, J Jodynis-Liebert
The aim of the study was to examine whether antioxidant properties of 3,4,4',5-tetramethoxystilbene (DMU-212) contribute to its anticarcinogenic activity and whether DMU-212 affects the expression of apoptosis-related genes. Two-stage model of hepatocarcinogenesis was used; male Wistar rats were challenged with N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intraperitoneal, then phenobarbital (PB) in drinking water (0.05%) was administered. Simultaneously, DMU-212 was given per os at a dose 20 or 50 mg/kg b...
February 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Ramazan Akçan, Aykut Lale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
T E Kastelein, R Duffield, S Crowcroft, F E Marino
This study examined the effects of acute tobacco smoking on cerebral oxygenation and autonomic function in 28 male, habitual smokers of shorter young smokers (YSM) or longer middle-aged smokers (MSM) smoking history. Following baseline testing, participants undertook a smoking protocol involving the consumption of two cigarettes within 15 min. Measures of cerebral oxygenation and autonomic function were collected before, during, and 0 min, 30 min, 1 h, and 4 h post-smoking. Tissue saturation index (TSI) for MSM was greater than YSM during cigarette consumption ( p < 0...
February 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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