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Human & Experimental Toxicology

M Chaâbane, I Ghorbel, A Elwej, H Mnif, T Boudawara, S Ellouze Chaâbouni, N Zeghal, N Soudani
Pesticides exposure causes usually harmful effects to the environment and human health. The present study aimed to investigate the potential toxic effects of penconazole, a triazole fungicide, on the cerebrum and cerebellum of adult rats. Penconazole was administered intraperitoneally to male Wistar rats at a dose of 67 mg kg(-1) body weight every 2 days during 9 days. Results showed that penconazole induced oxidative stress in rat cerebrum and cerebellum tissues. In fact, we have found a significant increase in malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and advanced oxidation protein product levels, as well as an alteration of the antioxidant status, enzymatic (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and nonenzymatic (glutathione), the cholinergic function, and membrane-bound ATPases (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase)...
October 12, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
I Gupta, A Goyal, N K Singh, H N Yadav, P L Sharma
BACKGROUND: Attenuated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) by reduced nitric oxide (NO) is a hallmark during diabetes mellitus (DM). Recently, we reported that the formation of caveolin-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) complex decreases the release of NO, which is responsible for attenuation of IPC-induced cardioprotection in DM rat heart. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) facilitates release of NO by disrupting caveolin-eNOS complex. The activity of HO-1 is decreased during DM...
October 12, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
T A Lewandowski
Carisoprodol is a widely prescribed muscle relaxant and is also a drug known to be a subject to abuse. Despite the fact that carisoprodol has been available for prescription since 1959, a number of gaps in our knowledge of the toxicokinetics of this common drug exist. For example, the volume of distribution (Vd) for carisoprodol in humans has not been reported. A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model describing carisoprodol metabolism and that of the primary metabolite, meprobamate, was developed to better understand the pharmacokinetics of this drug...
October 10, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
M Erdem, S Yalcin, U Gunduz
Conventional chemotherapy is the most valid method to cope with cancer; however, it has serious drawbacks such as decrease in production of blood cells or inflammation of the lining of the digestive tract. These side effects occur since generally the drugs used in chemotherapy are distributed evenly within the body of the patient and cannot distinguish the cancer cells from the healthy ones. In this study, folic acid (FA)-conjugated, polyethylene-coated magnetic nanoparticles (FA-MNPs), and doxorubicin (Dox)-loaded formulation (Dox-FA-MNPs) were prepared...
October 10, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
A Rahman, S M Vasenwala, M Iqbal
Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) has been used widely as a potent vasodilator to treat heart conditions, such as angina pectoris and chronic heart failure. This study aims to elucidate the effect of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) administration, using GTN, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in rats. The results obtained demonstrated that NO generated by the administration of GTN affords protection against CCl4-induced oxidative stress and liver injury. Administration of CCl4 resulted in a significant (p < 0...
October 10, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Rui Yang, Qingyun Bai, Jiaqi Zhang, Yuchen Sheng, Lili Ji
MicroRNA (miRNA) has been reported to play important roles in regulating drug-induced liver injury. Ethyl acetate extract isolated from rhizoma Dioscoreae bulbifera (EF) has been reported to induce hepatotoxicity in our previous studies. This study aims to observe the altered liver miRNA profile and its related signalling pathway involved in EF-induced hepatotoxicity. Serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferase assay showed that EF (450 mg/kg)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Results of miRNA chip analysis showed that the expression of eight miRNAs was up-regulated and of other nine miRNAs was down-regulated in livers from EF-treated mice...
September 7, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
M Tunçdemir, S P Ertürküner, D Özçelik
Several mechanisms for the pathogenesis of diabetic complications have been proposed, one of which is abnormal zinc (Zn) homeostasis. Zn is necessary for proper liver function since it has important antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. We aimed to investigate whether or not Zn has morphologically protective effect on diabetes-induced liver damage in rats. In addition, we have investigated the role of Zn supplementation on apoptosis, lipid peroxidation levels, and the distribution of metallothionein (MT) in diabetic liver tissue...
September 7, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
C Yavas, G Yavas, H Toy, O Ata
Postmenopausal patients with breast cancer have two options for adjuvant endocrine therapy, tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) as well as radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy. However, there is limited data regarding the optimal sequencing of RT and tamoxifen/AIs. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effects of tamoxifen and AIs on radiation-induced cardiotoxicity. Eighty ovariectomized rats were divided into eight groups (G). G1 was defined as a control group; G2, G3, G4, and G5 were RT, tamoxifen, anastrozle, and letrozole groups, respectively; G6, G7, and G8 were RT plus tamoxifen, anastrozle, and letrozole groups, respectively...
September 5, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
X H Chang, A Zhu, F F Liu, L Y Zou, L Su, S K Liu, H H Zhou, Y Y Sun, A J Han, Y F Sun, S Li, J Li, Y B Sun
Nano nickel oxide (NiO), widely used in industry, has recently been discovered to have pulmonary toxicity. However, no subchronic exposure studies about nano NiO-induced pulmonary fibrosis have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate pulmonary fibrosis induced by nano NiO and its potential mechanism in rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 40, 200-240 g) were randomized into control group, nano NiO groups (0.015, 0.06, and 0.24 mg/kg), and micro NiO group (0.024 mg/kg). All rats were killed to collect lung tissue after intratracheal instillation of NiO particles twice a week for 6 weeks...
September 5, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
M Dobrakowski, N Pawlas, A Kasperczyk, A Kozłowska, E Olewińska, A Machoń-Grecka, S Kasperczyk
There are many discrepancies among the results of studies on the genotoxicity of lead. The aim of the study was to explore lead-induced DNA damage, including oxidative damage, in relation to oxidative stress intensity parameters and the antioxidant defense system in human leukocytes. The study population consisted of 100 male workers exposed to lead. According to the blood lead (PbB) levels, they were divided into the following three subgroups: a group with PbB of 20-35 μg/dL (low exposure to lead (LE) group), a group with a PbB of 35-50 µg/dL (medium exposure to lead (ME) group), and a group with a PbB of >50 μg/dL (high exposure to lead (HE) group)...
September 5, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Salvatore Chirumbolo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
H-S Bae, I-G Kang, S-G Lee, S-Y Eom, Y-D Kim, S-Y Oh, H-J Kwon, K-S Park, H Kim, B-S Choi, I-J Yu, J D Park
Arsenic (As) is widely distributed in the environment, and humans can be exposed to As from various sources such as air, water, soil, and food. This study was performed to evaluate the As exposure levels in Korean adults by measuring total As in urine and its relation with the consumption of seafood, a favorite food in Korea. A total of 2077 adults were the study subjects; they ranged in age from 19 to 83, and they were recruited by probability sampling stratified by area, sex, and age. None of the subjects had been exposed to As occupationally...
September 5, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
D H El-Kashef, A E El-Kenawi, G M Suddek, H A Salem
Cyclosporine-A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive drug which has been used to prevent rejection after organ transplantation and to treat certain autoimmune diseases. However, its therapeutic use is limited by nephrotoxicity. In this study, the modulator effect of allicin on the oxidative nephrotoxicity of CsA in rats was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of allicin on CsA-induced hypersensitivity of urinary bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh) was estimated. Rats were divided into three groups, control, CsA (15 mg/kg, subcutaneously), and CsA/allicin (50 mg/kg, orally)...
September 5, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
W-Y Fan, D-P Wang, Q Wen, T-J Fan
Oxybuprocaine (OBPC) is a widely used topical anesthetic in eye clinic, and prolonged and repeated usage of OBPC might be cytotoxic to the cornea, especially to the outmost corneal epithelium. In this study, we characterized the cytotoxic effect of OBPC on human corneal epithelial (HCEP) cells and investigated its possible cellular and molecular mechanisms using an in vitro model of non-transfected HCEP cells. Our results showed that OBPC at concentrations ranging from 0.025% to 0.4% had a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity to HCEP cells...
September 1, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
D W Sullivan, R C Peterson, C V Mujer, S C Gad
Pyridorin(®), a naturally occurring metabolite of vitamin B6 that inhibits and scavenges reactive oxygen species, is being developed as a potential therapeutic for acute kidney injury. An investigational new drug application (IND) was opened for Pyridorin in support of its ongoing oral drug clinical development program. Currently, a Pyridorin intravenous (IV) formulation is being developed for use in surgical patients. To support the IND for Pyridorin, a full battery of nonclinical Good Laboratory Practice compliant studies was performed with no neurological or behavioral signs of toxicity seen following oral or IV administration of pyridoxine dihydrochloride (the active ingredient in Pyridorin)...
August 9, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
H Malekinejad, M Fani, S Kh Shafiee-Roodbari, F Delkhosh-Kasmaie, A Rezaei-Golmisheh
Previous histopathological studies have shown the hepatotoxicity of paclitaxel (TXL). However, there is little known about the molecular pathway(s) of TXL-induced hepatotoxicity. Therefore, this study aimed to uncover the role of two transcription factors in the TXL-induced hepatotoxicity. Moreover, the hepato-protective effect of royal jelly (RJ) on TXL-induced toxicity was investigated. Wistar rats were divided into control and test groups. The test groups along with TXL received various doses of RJ (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg, body weight)...
August 5, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
A T Gotardo, V V Dipe, I M Hueza, S L Górniak
Studies have revealed that impairment of the pregnant body weight reduces the fetal body weight and causes minor changes in skeletal development. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of maternal feed restriction during pregnancy in offspring immune system development. Pregnant Wistar rats were distributed into 5 groups: 1 control in which dams received food ad libitum and 4 experimental groups in which dams were fed restricted amounts of rodent ration (16, 12, 9, or 6 g/rat/day) from the 6th to 17th gestation day...
August 5, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
E M Hafez, M A Hamad, M Fouad, A Abdel-Lateff
Endogenous alcohol has been applied for spontaneous ethanol production via different metabolic pathways of the human body. Auto-brewery syndrome describes the patients with alcohol intoxication after ingesting carbohydrate-rich meals. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM), liver cirrhosis (LC) and presence of both (DM and LC) on blood alcohol concentration (BAC) especially after carbohydrate ingestion. BAC has been measured by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in three groups of humans namely control, DM, LC and both (DM and LC) groups...
August 4, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
G E Adeleke, O A Adaramoye
N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a toxicant found in foods and drinking water. Several synthetic agents used in alleviation of NDMA toxicity have been associated with serious side effects. Therefore, a safe and less toxic agent is desirable. In this study, betulinic acid (BA), a triterpenoid antioxidant, is proposed as a better and alternative agent to modulate NDMA-induced toxicity. Twenty-four Wistar rats were assigned into four groups of six rats each and treated with normal saline (control), BA (25 mg/kg), NDMA (5 mg/kg) and (BA + NDMA)...
August 4, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
V G Nielsen, R W Matika
Hypofibrinogenemia is an important clinical consequence following envenomation by Lachesis muta muta, usually attenuated or prevented by administration of antivenom. The venom of L. m. muta contains both a metalloproteinase fibrinogenase and a serine protease thrombin-like enzyme, and exposure of fibrinogen to iron (Fe) and carbon monoxide (CO) has been demonstrated to decrease its catalysis by such enzymes. Using thrombelastographic analytical techniques, it was determined that this venom displayed weak procoagulant effects combined with fibrinogenolytic effects, and pretreatment of plasma with Fe and CO markedly attenuated venom-mediated effects...
August 3, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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