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Human & Experimental Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988497/s-allyl-cysteine-alleviates-inflammation-by-modulating-the-expression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-during-chromium-vi-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-rats
#1
S K Anandasadagopan, C Sundaramoorthy, A K Pandurangan, V Nagarajan, K Srinivasan, S Ganapasam
Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) is a common environmental pollutant. Cr (VI) exposure can lead to severe damage to the liver, but the preventive measures to diminish Cr (VI)-induced hepatotoxicity need further study. S-allyl cysteine (SAC) is a constituent of garlic ( Allium sativum) and has many beneficial effects to humans and rodents. In this study, we intended to analyze the mechanistic role of SAC during Cr (VI)-induced hepatotoxicity. Male Wistar albino rats were induced with 17 mg/kg body weight to damage the liver...
November 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988496/6-gingerol-prevents-mehp-induced-dna-damage-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelia-cells
#2
G Yang, X Gao, L Jiang, X Sun, X Liu, M Chen, X Yao, Q Sun, S Wang
Mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is the principal metabolite of di (2-etylhexyl) phthalate, which is widely used as a plasticizer, especially in medical devices. MEHP has toxic effects on cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility that 6-gingerol may inhibit the oxidative DNA damage of MEHP in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the potential mechanism. The comet assay was used to monitor DNA strand breaks. We have shown that 6-gingerol significantly reduced the DNA strand breaks caused by MEHP...
November 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988495/the-beneficial-effects-of-l-cysteine-on-brain-antioxidants-of-rats-affected-by-sodium-valproate
#3
R Z Hamza, N S El-Shenawy
Oxidative stress caused by sodium valproate (SV) is known to play a key role in the pathogenesis of brain tissue. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of l-cysteine (LC) on the antioxidants of brain tissue of rats. The animals were divided into six groups: control group 1 was treated with saline as vehicle, groups 2 and 3 were treated with low and high doses of SV (100 and 500 mg/kg, respectively), group 4 was treated with LC (100 mg/kg), and groups 5 and 6 were treated with low-dose SV + LC and high-dose SV + LC, respectively...
November 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838259/a-study-on-the-safety-evaluation-of-buphrenorphine-administered-through-an-autoinjector-compared-with-manual-injection-using-haematological-and-biochemical-variables-in-rats
#4
D Sheela, R Vijayaraghavan, S Senthilkumar
Buprenorphine drug cartridge was made for autoinjector device for use in emergency and critical situations to reduce the morbidity and mortality. Water-filled cartridges were prepared and buprenorphine was injected aseptically in the cartridge, to make 0.05 and 0.10 mg/mL. Rats were injected intraperitoneally, buprenorphine (0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg), repeatedly with the autoinjector and compared with manual injection (7 days and 14 days) using various haematological and biochemical parameters. No significant change was observed in the body weight, organ to body weight ratio and haematological variables in any of the experimental groups compared with the control group...
September 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838258/the-protective-effects-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-7-against-epithelial-injury-and-matrix-metalloproteases-upregulation-induced-by-silica-in-vitro
#5
D Liang, G An, Z Zhu, Y Wang, G Yang, X Li, P Niu, L Chen, L Tian
OBJECTIVE: We investigate the effects of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) on models with silica-induced and macrophage-mediated fibrosis and its possible mechanisms in vitro. METHODS: Rat alveolar II epithelial (RLE-6TN) cells were incubated with the supernatant of mouse macrophage-like cells (RAW264.7) and treated with 0, 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL silica. Using Western blotting, the epithelial markers (surfactant proteins-C and E-cadherin) and the mesenchymal markers (fibronectin (FN) and viminten (Vim)) were detected...
September 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703074/serum-ionic-dysequilibria-in-clinical-opioid-dependence-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-studies
#6
A S Reece, A Norman, G K Hulse
INTRODUCTION: Despite an increasing awareness that the activity of excitable membranes is determined by the underlying ionic gradients across them, and their importance in drug dependency, we were not able to identify any reports of comparing the electrolyte composition of opioid-dependent and non-addicted controls. METHODS: Linear regression was used to compare clinical pathology blood results taken from 2699 opioid-dependent patients (ODP) and 5307 medical control (MC) patients on a total of 21,734 occasions for the period 1995-2015...
August 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539089/simulating-real-life-exposures-to-uncover-possible-risks-to-human-health-a-proposed-consensus-for-a-novel-methodological-approach
#7
A M Tsatsakis, D Kouretas, M N Tzatzarakis, P Stivaktakis, K Tsarouhas, K S Golokhvast, V N Rakitskii, V A Tutelyan, A F Hernandez, R Rezaee, G Chung, C Fenga, A B Engin, M Neagu, A L Arsene, A O Docea, E Gofita, D Calina, I Taitzoglou, J Liesivuori, A W Hayes, S Gutnikov, C Tsitsimpikou
In real life, consumers are exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals via food, water and commercial products consumption. Since risk assessment usually focuses on individual compounds, the current regulatory approach doesn't assess the overall risk of chemicals present in a mixture. This study will evaluate the cumulative toxicity of mixtures of different classes of pesticides and mixtures of different classes of pesticides together with food additives (FAs) and common consumer product chemicals using realistic doses after long-term exposure...
June 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395533/the-influence-of-occupational-chronic-lead-exposure-on-the-levels-of-selected-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-and-angiogenic-factors
#8
A Machoń-Grecka, M Dobrakowski, M Boroń, G Lisowska, A Kasperczyk, S Kasperczyk
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of occupational exposure to lead on the blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and selected factors that influence angiogenesis. The study population was divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 56 male workers chronically exposed to lead. The second group (control) was comprised of 24 male administrative workers. The serum levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were significantly higher in the group of workers chronically exposed to lead compared to control values by 38%, 68%, and 57%, respectively...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359168/building-the-evidence-for-lipid-resuscitation-therapy
#9
G Weinberg, M Fettiplace
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885103/no-support-for-lipid-rescue-in-oral-poisoning-a-systematic-review-and-analysis-of-160-published-cases
#10
M Forsberg, S Forsberg, G Edman, J Höjer
Lipid rescue is used as treatment of various poisonings despite weak scientific evidence. Some experimental studies have indicated a positive effect, but others have not. Clinical studies are lacking, wherefore a systematic review of virtually all published human case reports is presented. The case reports were searched for in PubMed and Web of Science and examined by two experts according to an assessment form grading the probability for a causal connection between lipid rescue and improved symptoms. A total of 160 cases were finally included, of which 30 had no positive effect of lipid rescue...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596068/arsenic-exposure-and-seafood-intake-in-korean-adults
#11
H-S Bae, I-G Kang, S-G Lee, S-Y Eom, Y-D Kim, S-Y Oh, H-J Kwon, K-S Park, H Kim, B-S Choi, I-J Yu, J D Park
Arsenic (As) is widely distributed in the environment, and humans can be exposed to As from various sources such as air, water, soil, and food. This study was performed to evaluate the As exposure levels in Korean adults by measuring total As in urine and its relation with the consumption of seafood, a favorite food in Korea. A total of 2077 adults were the study subjects; they ranged in age from 19 to 83, and they were recruited by probability sampling stratified by area, sex, and age. None of the subjects had been exposed to As occupationally...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492480/auto-brewery-syndrome-ethanol-pseudo-toxicity-in-diabetic-and-hepatic-patients
#12
E M Hafez, M A Hamad, M Fouad, A Abdel-Lateff
Endogenous alcohol has been applied for spontaneous ethanol production via different metabolic pathways of the human body. Auto-brewery syndrome describes the patients with alcohol intoxication after ingesting carbohydrate-rich meals. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM), liver cirrhosis (LC) and presence of both (DM and LC) on blood alcohol concentration (BAC) especially after carbohydrate ingestion. BAC has been measured by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in three groups of humans namely control, DM, LC and both (DM and LC) groups...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417637/human-health-risk-assessment-of-organophosphorus-pesticide-in-rice-crop-from-selected-districts-of-anzali-international-wetland-basin-iran
#13
F Ghanbari, F Moattar, S M Monavari, R Arjmandi
Low fertility in rice caused by Chilo suppressalis has led to the use of diazinon to control this pest. Residue of pesticide could penetrate products and also food which can affect public health. The aim of this research was to determine health risk assessment of organophosphorus (OP) pesticide in rice, a strategic crop in Iran. Ninety rice samples were collected from 30 points during harvesting seasons from Rasht Area, Guilan Province, Iran from which 30 samples were prepared. The concentration of diazinon, the most common pesticide used in the study area, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387349/effectiveness-of-the-sequential-organ-failure-assessment-acute-physiology-and-chronic-health-evaluation-ii-and-simplified-acute-physiology-score-ii-prognostic-scoring-systems-in-paraquat-poisoned-patients-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#14
Jun Ho Lee, Seong Youn Hwang, Hye Ran Kim, Yang Won Kim, Mun Ju Kang, Kwang Won Cho, Dong Woo Lee, Yong Hwan Kim
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the ability of the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scoring systems, as well as the simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II method to predict group mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients who were poisoned with paraquat. This will assist physicians with risk stratification. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of 244 paraquat-poisoned patients admitted to the ICU from January 2010 to April 2015 were examined retrospectively...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27371222/fipronil-induced-genotoxicity-and-dna-damage-in-vivo-protective-effect-of-vitamin-e
#15
P C Badgujar, N A Selkar, G A Chandratre, N N Pawar, V D Dighe, S T Bhagat, A G Telang, G R Vanage
Fipronil, an insecticide of the phenylpyrazole class has been classified as a carcinogen by United States Environmental Protection Agency, yet very limited information is available about its genotoxic effects. Adult male and female animals were gavaged with various doses of fipronil (2.5, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg body weight (bw)) to evaluate micronucleus test (mice), chromosome aberration (CA), and comet assay (rats), respectively. Cyclophosphamide (40 mg/kg bw; intraperitoneal) was used as positive control. Another group of animals were pretreated with vitamin E orally (400 mg/kg bw) for 5 days prior to administration of fipronil (12...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334975/dexmedetomidine-increases-acetylation-level-of-histone-through-erk1-2-pathway-in-dopamine-neuron
#16
S-P Hu, J-J Zhao, W-X Wang, Y Liu, H-F Wu, C Chen, L Yu, J-B Gui
Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist with sedation, anesthetic sparing, analgesia, sympatholytic, and neuroprotective properties. This study evaluated neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine on dopamine neurons correlated to histone acetylation via extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathway. Animals were randomly assigned to four groups and treatments were given as onetime doses: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; n = 6), dexmedetomidine 1 mg/kg ( n = 6), 10 mg/kg ( n = 6), and 100 mg/kg ( n = 6)...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334974/repeated-administration-of-ethambutol-in-therapeutic-dose-causes-testes-alteration-and-spermatogenesis-disruption-in-wistar-rats
#17
G M Shayakhmetova, L B Bondarenko, A K Voronina, A V Matvienko, V Kitam, V M Kovalenko
Ethambutol (EMB) is conventionally used to treat tuberculosis and atypical Mycobacterium infections in combination with other antimycobacterial drugs. Eventually, EMB testicular toxicity has not been explored extensively yet. The aim of the study is to evaluate testicular toxicity of EMB. We explored the impact of EMB on male rats' fertility, testosterone level and germ cells state, testicular pro- and anti-oxidant status and DNA damage, as well as identified EMB effects on cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) both with computer simulation and in vivo...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27268782/insecticide-chlorpyrifos-and-fungicide-carbendazim-common-food-contaminants-mixture-induce-hepatic-renal-and-splenic-oxidative-damage-in-female-rats
#18
A O Abolaji, I O Awogbindin, I A Adedara, E O Farombi
The fungicide carbendazim (CBZ) and insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) are currently applied together by farmers for the control of pests. Here, we investigated the impacts of 7 days oral co-exposure to 10 mg/kg body weight of CPF and 50 mg/kg body weight of CBZ on selected oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers in the liver, kidney, and spleen of female rats. The results showed that while the body weight gain and relative organ weights were not significantly affected after separate exposure to CPF and CBZ, there was a significant decrease in the body weight gain with concomitant increases in the relative kidney and spleen weights of rats treated with the mixture...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251765/metabonomic-analysis-of-the-protective-effect-of-quercetin-on-the-toxicity-induced-by-mixture-of-organophosphate-pesticides-in-rat-urine
#19
L Qi, C Cao, L Hu, S Chen, X Zhao, C Sun
The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of quercetin against the joint toxic action induced by the mixture of four organophosphate pesticides (mixture-OPs) (dimethoate, acephate, dichlorvos, and phorate) at their corresponding no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) using metabonomics. Rats were randomly divided into control, quercetin-treated, mixture-OPs-treated, and quercetin plus mixture-OPs-treated groups. Mixture-OPs and quercetin were given to the rats daily through drinking water and intragastric administration, respectively, for 90 days...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334973/targeting-survivin-with-prodigiosin-isolated-from-cell-wall-of-serratia-marcescens-induces-apoptosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#20
R A Yenkejeh, M R Sam, M Esmaeillou
BACKGROUND: Abnormal activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway increases survivin expression that is involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. Therefore, downregulation of survivin may provide an attractive strategy for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this regard, little is known about the anticancer effects of prodigiosin isolated from cell wall of Serratia marcescens on the survivin expression and induction of apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. METHODS: Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were treated with 100-, 200-, 400-, and 600-nM prodigiosin after which morphology of cells, cell number, growth inhibition, survivin expression, caspase-3 activation, and apoptotic rate were evaluated by inverted microscope, hemocytometer, MTT assay, RT-PCR, fluorometric immunosorbent enzyme assay, and flow cytometric analysis, respectively...
April 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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