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Human & Experimental Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539089/simulating-real-life-exposures-to-uncover-possible-risks-to-human-health-a-proposed-consensus-for-a-novel-methodological-approach
#1
A M Tsatsakis, D Kouretas, M N Tzatzarakis, P Stivaktakis, K Tsarouhas, K S Golokhvast, V N Rakitskii, V A Tutelyan, A F Hernandez, R Rezaee, G Chung, C Fenga, A B Engin, M Neagu, A L Arsene, A O Docea, E Gofita, D Calina, I Taitzoglou, J Liesivuori, A W Hayes, S Gutnikov, C Tsitsimpikou
In real life, consumers are exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals via food, water and commercial products consumption. Since risk assessment usually focuses on individual compounds, the current regulatory approach doesn't assess the overall risk of chemicals present in a mixture. This study will evaluate the cumulative toxicity of mixtures of different classes of pesticides and mixtures of different classes of pesticides together with food additives (FAs) and common consumer product chemicals using realistic doses after long-term exposure...
June 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395533/the-influence-of-occupational-chronic-lead-exposure-on-the-levels-of-selected-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-and-angiogenic-factors
#2
A Machoń-Grecka, M Dobrakowski, M Boroń, G Lisowska, A Kasperczyk, S Kasperczyk
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of occupational exposure to lead on the blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and selected factors that influence angiogenesis. The study population was divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 56 male workers chronically exposed to lead. The second group (control) was comprised of 24 male administrative workers. The serum levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were significantly higher in the group of workers chronically exposed to lead compared to control values by 38%, 68%, and 57%, respectively...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359168/building-the-evidence-for-lipid-resuscitation-therapy
#3
G Weinberg, M Fettiplace
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885103/no-support-for-lipid-rescue-in-oral-poisoning-a-systematic-review-and-analysis-of-160-published-cases
#4
M Forsberg, S Forsberg, G Edman, J Höjer
Lipid rescue is used as treatment of various poisonings despite weak scientific evidence. Some experimental studies have indicated a positive effect, but others have not. Clinical studies are lacking, wherefore a systematic review of virtually all published human case reports is presented. The case reports were searched for in PubMed and Web of Science and examined by two experts according to an assessment form grading the probability for a causal connection between lipid rescue and improved symptoms. A total of 160 cases were finally included, of which 30 had no positive effect of lipid rescue...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596068/arsenic-exposure-and-seafood-intake-in-korean-adults
#5
H-S Bae, I-G Kang, S-G Lee, S-Y Eom, Y-D Kim, S-Y Oh, H-J Kwon, K-S Park, H Kim, B-S Choi, I-J Yu, J D Park
Arsenic (As) is widely distributed in the environment, and humans can be exposed to As from various sources such as air, water, soil, and food. This study was performed to evaluate the As exposure levels in Korean adults by measuring total As in urine and its relation with the consumption of seafood, a favorite food in Korea. A total of 2077 adults were the study subjects; they ranged in age from 19 to 83, and they were recruited by probability sampling stratified by area, sex, and age. None of the subjects had been exposed to As occupationally...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492480/auto-brewery-syndrome-ethanol-pseudo-toxicity-in-diabetic-and-hepatic-patients
#6
E M Hafez, M A Hamad, M Fouad, A Abdel-Lateff
Endogenous alcohol has been applied for spontaneous ethanol production via different metabolic pathways of the human body. Auto-brewery syndrome describes the patients with alcohol intoxication after ingesting carbohydrate-rich meals. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM), liver cirrhosis (LC) and presence of both (DM and LC) on blood alcohol concentration (BAC) especially after carbohydrate ingestion. BAC has been measured by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in three groups of humans namely control, DM, LC and both (DM and LC) groups...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417637/human-health-risk-assessment-of-organophosphorus-pesticide-in-rice-crop-from-selected-districts-of-anzali-international-wetland-basin-iran
#7
F Ghanbari, F Moattar, S M Monavari, R Arjmandi
Low fertility in rice caused by Chilo suppressalis has led to the use of diazinon to control this pest. Residue of pesticide could penetrate products and also food which can affect public health. The aim of this research was to determine health risk assessment of organophosphorus (OP) pesticide in rice, a strategic crop in Iran. Ninety rice samples were collected from 30 points during harvesting seasons from Rasht Area, Guilan Province, Iran from which 30 samples were prepared. The concentration of diazinon, the most common pesticide used in the study area, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387349/effectiveness-of-the-sequential-organ-failure-assessment-acute-physiology-and-chronic-health-evaluation-ii-and-simplified-acute-physiology-score-ii-prognostic-scoring-systems-in-paraquat-poisoned-patients-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#8
Jun Ho Lee, Seong Youn Hwang, Hye Ran Kim, Yang Won Kim, Mun Ju Kang, Kwang Won Cho, Dong Woo Lee, Yong Hwan Kim
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the ability of the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scoring systems, as well as the simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II method to predict group mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients who were poisoned with paraquat. This will assist physicians with risk stratification. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of 244 paraquat-poisoned patients admitted to the ICU from January 2010 to April 2015 were examined retrospectively...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27371222/fipronil-induced-genotoxicity-and-dna-damage-in-vivo-protective-effect-of-vitamin-e
#9
P C Badgujar, N A Selkar, G A Chandratre, N N Pawar, V D Dighe, S T Bhagat, A G Telang, G R Vanage
Fipronil, an insecticide of the phenylpyrazole class has been classified as a carcinogen by United States Environmental Protection Agency, yet very limited information is available about its genotoxic effects. Adult male and female animals were gavaged with various doses of fipronil (2.5, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg body weight (bw)) to evaluate micronucleus test (mice), chromosome aberration (CA), and comet assay (rats), respectively. Cyclophosphamide (40 mg/kg bw; intraperitoneal) was used as positive control. Another group of animals were pretreated with vitamin E orally (400 mg/kg bw) for 5 days prior to administration of fipronil (12...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334975/dexmedetomidine-increases-acetylation-level-of-histone-through-erk1-2-pathway-in-dopamine-neuron
#10
S-P Hu, J-J Zhao, W-X Wang, Y Liu, H-F Wu, C Chen, L Yu, J-B Gui
Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist with sedation, anesthetic sparing, analgesia, sympatholytic, and neuroprotective properties. This study evaluated neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine on dopamine neurons correlated to histone acetylation via extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathway. Animals were randomly assigned to four groups and treatments were given as onetime doses: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; n = 6), dexmedetomidine 1 mg/kg ( n = 6), 10 mg/kg ( n = 6), and 100 mg/kg ( n = 6)...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334974/repeated-administration-of-ethambutol-in-therapeutic-dose-causes-testes-alteration-and-spermatogenesis-disruption-in-wistar-rats
#11
G M Shayakhmetova, L B Bondarenko, A K Voronina, A V Matvienko, V Kitam, V M Kovalenko
Ethambutol (EMB) is conventionally used to treat tuberculosis and atypical Mycobacterium infections in combination with other antimycobacterial drugs. Eventually, EMB testicular toxicity has not been explored extensively yet. The aim of the study is to evaluate testicular toxicity of EMB. We explored the impact of EMB on male rats' fertility, testosterone level and germ cells state, testicular pro- and anti-oxidant status and DNA damage, as well as identified EMB effects on cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) both with computer simulation and in vivo...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27268782/insecticide-chlorpyrifos-and-fungicide-carbendazim-common-food-contaminants-mixture-induce-hepatic-renal-and-splenic-oxidative-damage-in-female-rats
#12
A O Abolaji, I O Awogbindin, I A Adedara, E O Farombi
The fungicide carbendazim (CBZ) and insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) are currently applied together by farmers for the control of pests. Here, we investigated the impacts of 7 days oral co-exposure to 10 mg/kg body weight of CPF and 50 mg/kg body weight of CBZ on selected oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers in the liver, kidney, and spleen of female rats. The results showed that while the body weight gain and relative organ weights were not significantly affected after separate exposure to CPF and CBZ, there was a significant decrease in the body weight gain with concomitant increases in the relative kidney and spleen weights of rats treated with the mixture...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251765/metabonomic-analysis-of-the-protective-effect-of-quercetin-on-the-toxicity-induced-by-mixture-of-organophosphate-pesticides-in-rat-urine
#13
L Qi, C Cao, L Hu, S Chen, X Zhao, C Sun
The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of quercetin against the joint toxic action induced by the mixture of four organophosphate pesticides (mixture-OPs) (dimethoate, acephate, dichlorvos, and phorate) at their corresponding no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) using metabonomics. Rats were randomly divided into control, quercetin-treated, mixture-OPs-treated, and quercetin plus mixture-OPs-treated groups. Mixture-OPs and quercetin were given to the rats daily through drinking water and intragastric administration, respectively, for 90 days...
May 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27222493/the-effects-of-intravenous-lipid-emulsion-on-hemodynamic-recovery-and-myocardial-cell-mitochondrial-function-after-bupivacaine-toxicity-in-anesthetized-pigs
#14
J A Heinonen, A A Schramko, M B Skrifvars, E Litonius, J T Backman, E Mervaala, P H Rosenberg
Local anesthetic toxicity is thought to be mediated partly by inhibition of cardiac mitochondrial function. Intravenous (i.v.) lipid emulsion may overcome this energy depletion, but doses larger than currently recommended may be needed for rescue effect. In this randomized study with anesthetized pigs, we compared the effect of a large dose, 4 mL/kg, of i.v. 20% Intralipid(®) ( n = 7) with Ringer's acetate ( n = 6) on cardiovascular recovery after a cardiotoxic dose of bupivacaine. We also examined mitochondrial respiratory function in myocardial cell homogenates analyzed promptly after needle biopsies from the animals...
April 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27198677/micronucleus-as-biomarkers-of-cancer-risk-in-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-users
#15
L da Cunha Menezes Souza, L A da Cruz, E de Moraes Marcílio Cerqueira, Jrc Meireles
The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has grown among practitioners of recreational bodybuilding, with significant contributions of designer steroids, aiming muscle hypertrophy in healthy subjects. The abusive use of AAS in general is associated with adverse effects; one of the most worrisome is cancer development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) test in human lymphocytes in identifying risk groups for cancer development in users of AAS...
March 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193967/effects-of-short-term-glucocorticoid-administration-on-bone-mineral-density-biomechanics-and-microstructure-in-rats-femur
#16
Y Chen, L Huang, J Zhu, K Wu
The effects of short-term use of oral glucocorticoid (GC) on the skeleton are not well defined. To address this gap, the influences of 7 days, 21 days of GC administration on femurs of intact rats were investigated. Forty 4-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group (Cont) and prednisone-treated group (Pre) and administered either distilled water or prednisone acetate at doses of 3.5 mg/kg/day for 0, 7 and 21 days, respectively. All the femurs were harvested for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, biomechanical testing and micro computed tomography scan...
March 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193966/chronic-perfluorooctanesulfonic-acid-exposure-disrupts-lipid-metabolism-in-zebrafish
#17
Y Cui, S Lv, J Liu, S Nie, J Chen, Q Dong, C Huang, D Yang
Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), a ubiquitous contaminant, has been used in various industrial applications. Currently few studies have documented the effects of chronic PFOS exposure on lipid metabolism, especially in aquatic organisms. The present study defined the effects of chronic exposure to low level of PFOS on lipid metabolism in F0 adult zebrafish and F1 offspring. Our findings revealed a severe fatty degeneration in the liver of F0 males treated with 0.5 μM PFOS and significant ultrastructure changes associated with substance transport or metabolism in liver and intestines (abnormal mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, disordered arrangement of inner microvilli within intracellular canaliculus)...
March 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27185181/influence-of-coumarin-and-some-coumarin-derivatives-on-serum-lipid-profiles-in-carbontetrachloride-exposed-rats
#18
Ezel Taşdemir, Mukadder Atmaca, Yaşar Yıldırım, Hakkı Murat Bilgin, Berjan Demirtaş, Basra Deniz Obay, Mustafa Kelle, Hüda Diken Oflazoğlu
In the present study, coumarin and some coumarin derivatives (esculetin, scoparone, and 4-methylumbelliferone) were investigated for their lipid-lowering effect in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (150-200 g) were divided into six groups and each group comprised of five rats. Hepatic injury-dependent hyperlipidemia was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 1.25 ml/kg). Coumarin and coumarin derivatives esculetin (35 mg/kg), scoparone (35 mg/kg), 4-methylumbelliferone (35 mg/kg), or coumarin (30 mg/kg) were administered to experimental groups at 12-h intervals...
March 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164927/perinatal-sulfamonomethoxine-exposure-influences-physiological-and-behavioral-responses-and-the-brain-mtor-pathway-in-mouse-offspring
#19
Q Zhang, D Zhang, Kai-Yong Liu, Ye-Hao Liu, J Sheng, Zhong-Xiu Jin, Su-Fang Wang, Qing-Li Bo, Jia-Jia Wang, Hui-Fang Yin
Sulfamonomethoxine (SMM) is widely used in the veterinary field in China. Although some clinical surveys have revealed that sulfonamide antibiotics cause adverse nervous system symptoms, the related mechanisms of maternal SMM exposure on the neurobehavioral development of offspring remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of perinatal SMM exposure on the physiological and behavioral responses of pubertal offspring mice and the underlying mechanisms. We randomly allocated pregnant mice into the groups treated with SMM at different doses and the saline-treated groups...
March 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164926/endocrine-disrupting-potential-and-reproductive-dysfunction-in-male-mice-exposed-to-deltamethrin
#20
A Ben Slima, Y Chtourou, M Barkallah, H Fetoui, T Boudawara, R Gdoura
Pesticide exposure may affect semen quality and male fertility in humans. The aim of the present work was to elucidate the adverse effects of deltamethrin (Delta), a synthetic pyrethroid, on exposed male mice and their offspring. Adult male Albino/Swiss mice received deltamethrin (5 mg/kg) daily for 35 days and mated with untreated females to produce offspring. Classical measurements of ejaculate and sperm quality and testicular histopathological changes were assessed. Deltamethrin treatment affects sperm quality and quantity in the ejaculated semen of mice that had also markedly impaired libido as measured by indices of mating and fertility and number of pregnant females housed with male mice exposed to this pesticide...
March 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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