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Human & Experimental Toxicology

W Ratajczak-Wrona, K Nowak, M Garley, M Tynecka, E Jablonska
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression by neutrophils with regard to sex and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway participation in this process. This study demonstrated that BPA intensifies the production of NO and the expression of iNOS in the cytoplasmic fraction of neutrophils of women as well as men. In addition, an enhanced expression of NF-κB in the cytoplasmic and nuclear fraction of neutrophils exposed to BPA was observed in the cells of both sexes...
August 16, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
W X Zhang, X Y Xiao, C G Peng, W L Chen, S Xie, D W Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic effect and mechanism of sodium tanshinone IIA sulfate (STS) on paraquat (PQ)-induced myocardial injuries in a rat model. METHODS: Healthy adult Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control, PQ, and PQ + STS groups. PQ group was given a single intragastric administration of PQ (80 mg/kg). PQ + STS group was intraperitoneally injected with STS (1 ml/kg) at 30 min following PQ exposure. Rats in control and PQ groups were injected with equal amount of saline...
August 16, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
V G Nielsen, N Frank
Venomous snake bite and subsequent coagulopathy is a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The gold standard to treat coagulopathy caused by these venoms is the administration of antivenom; however, despite this therapy, coagulopathy still occurs and recurs. Of interest, our laboratory has demonstrated in vitro and in vivo that coagulopathy-inducing venom exposed to carbon monoxide (CO) is inhibited, potentially by an attached heme. The present investigation sought to determine if venoms derived from snakes of the African genera Atheris, Atractaspis, Causus, Cerastes, Echis, and Macrovipera that have no or limited antivenoms available could be inhibited with CO or with the metheme-inducing agent, O-phenylhydroxylamine (PHA)...
August 8, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Y Jia, C Wu, B Zhang, Y Zhang, J Li
In the present investigation, the antitumor effect of ferruginol (FGL) in SK-Mel-28 human malignant melanoma cells was studied. To investigate the cytotoxic property of FGL, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used. Results revealed that prolonged treatment duration decreases the IC25 , IC50 , and IC75 concentrations of FGL. The cytotoxicity was further confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase assay. As evident from comet assay, FGL induces DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner...
August 8, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
B Yurdacan, U Egeli, G Guney Eskiler, I E Eryilmaz, G Cecener, B Tunca
Usnic acid (UA) is a multifunctional bioactive lichen secondary metabolite with potential anti-cancer properties. Although the promising therapeutic effects of UA have been investigated in different cancer cell lines, the mechanism driving UA-induced cell death has yet to be elucidated. As the type of cell death (apoptosis or autophagy) induced by UA may vary depending on the cancer cell type, we first studied the cytotoxic effects of UA in HEPG2 (HBV(-)) and SNU-449(HBV(+)) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines...
August 7, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
R Crossin, A J Lawrence, Z B Andrews, L Churilov, J R Duncan
Inhalant abuse is a significant public health issue, particularly for adolescents, the predominant group of inhalant users. Adolescence is a critical growth period, and inhalant abuse has been associated with growth impairments, including reduced body weight and height. However, the extent to which inhalant abuse affects growth remains unquantified, and potential moderators remain unknown. To address this knowledge gap, a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical human and preclinical animal studies utilizing toluene exposure (the primary solvent in abused products) was conducted...
July 31, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
A Muhammad, M A Ibrahim, H A Mohammed, O L Erukainure, I Malami, A Suleiman, A Mansir, A Godwin, H A Khalil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
M Mahdavi, S Asghari, M Rahnamay, G Dehghan, Mah Feizi, S Balalaie
Recent studies have reported the potential of pyrano-pyridine compounds in inhibiting cell growth and apoptosis induction in cancer cells. Here, we investigated the effect of new pyrano-pyridine derivatives on proliferation, oxidative damages, and apoptosis in K562 leukemia cells. Among different tested compounds, we found 8-(4-chlorobenzylidene)-2-amino-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-5, 6, 7, 8-tetrahydro-6-phenethyl-4H-pyrano-[3,2-c]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (4-CP.P) as the most effective compound with IC50 value of 20 μM...
October 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Y S Abulfadl, N N El-Maraghy, Aa Eissa Ahmed, S Nofal, Y Abdel-Mottaleb, O A Badary
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a robust inflammatory response elicited by the accumulation and deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) within the brain. Aβ induces detrimental inflammatory responses through toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling pathway. Thymoquinone (TQ), the main active constituent of Nigella sativa oil, has been reported by several previous studies for its potent anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of TQ in improving learning and memory, using a rat model of AD induced by a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCl3 ) and d-galactose (d-Gal)...
October 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
E Eluka-Okoludoh, A J Ewunkem, S Thorpe, A Blanchard, P Muganda
Diepoxybutane (DEB) is the most potent active metabolite of butadiene, a regulated air pollutant. We previously reported the occurrence of DEB-induced, p53-dependent, mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human lymphoblasts. The present study investigated the role of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathway in DEB-induced apoptotic signaling in exposed human lymphoblasts. Activated ERK1/2 and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase/ERK1/2 kinase (MEK) levels were significantly upregulated in DEB-exposed human lymphoblasts...
October 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
M A Bani-Ahmad, A G Mustafa, Aab Ahmad, Ama Rahim
INTRODUCTION: Illicit drugs abuse is associated with several clinical life-threatening consequences that are primarily mediated by oxidative damage to multiple cellular components with a subsequent cellular dysfunction and death. Primarily, this study aimed to investigate oxidative stress to protein and lipid components of circulatory platelets among chronic heroin and hashish addicts. METHODS: Platelet lysates were prepared from 20 chronic intravenously administrated heroin addicts and 20 chronic smoked hashish addicts...
October 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
E Durmaz, A Asci, P Erkekoglu, A Balcı, I Bircan, B Koçer-Gumusel
There is a growing concern over the timing of pubertal breast development and its possible association with exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is abundantly used to harden plastics. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between premature thelarche (PT) and BPA by comparing the urinary BPA levels of PT girls with those of healthy subjects. Twenty-five newly diagnosed nonobese PT subjects (aged 4-8 years) who were admitted to the Pediatric Endocrinology Department at Akdeniz University were recruited...
October 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
V Leso, L Fontana, A Marinaccio, K Leopold, C Fanali, D Lucchetti, A Sgambato, I Iavicoli
The widespread industrial application of nanomaterials (NMs) has dramatically increased the likelihood of environmental and occupational exposure of humans to such xenobiotics. This issue, together with the increasing public health interest in understanding the effects of chemicals on endocrine system, encouraged to investigate the disruptive potential of NMs on the endocrine function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NPs) on the female reproductive system of Wistar rats, intravenously exposed to different doses (0...
October 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
B O Ajayi, I A Adedara, E O Farombi
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relapsing and remitting inflammatory disease of the colon, with an increasing incidence worldwide. 6-Gingerol (6G) is a bioactive constituent of Zingiber officinale, which has been reported to possess various biological activities. This study was designed to evaluate the role of 6G in chronic UC. Chronic UC was induced in mice by three cycles of 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water. Each cycle consisted of 7 days of 2.5% DSS followed by 14 days of normal drinking water...
October 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
S Babangida, S Ibrahim, A Muhammad, D E Arthur, A Uzairu, A Garba
Chrysin (CHR) is a food-based bioactive ingredient whereas, sodium arsenite (SA) is one of the major contaminant in drinking water. When ingested, SA contributes to tissue damage due to bioactivation by S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferase. Hence, the needs to nullify this effect by investigating the potentials of CHR on SA-induced genotoxicity in rats. The experiment was divided into two successive stages (ameliorative and preventive, curative studies) for 1 week. Rats were divided into four groups: distilled water, 10mg/kg SA, 10mg/kg CHR and co-administration...
October 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
G Liu, J Geng
BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between serum levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and stroke functional outcomes in a cohort of 286 patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: We prospectively studied 286 patients with AIS who were admitted within 24 h after the onset of symptoms. Serum levels of GFAP and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were measured at admission. The primary end point was stroke functional outcome among 1-year after stroke onset...
October 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Y-J Shin, K-A Kim, E-S Kim, J-H Kim, H-S Kim, M Ha, O-N Bae
The kidney is one of the main targets for toxicity induced by xenobiotics. Sensitive detection of early impairment is critical to assess chemical-associated renal toxicity. The aim of this study was to identify potential nephrotoxic biomarkers in rat kidney tissues after exposure to mercury (Hg), a representative nephrotoxicant, and to evaluate these new biomarkers employing in vivo and in vitro systems. Mercuric chloride was administered orally to Sprague-Dawley rats for 2 weeks. Proteomic analysis revealed that aldo-keto reductase (AKR7A1) and glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1) were significantly elevated in kidney after Hg exposure...
October 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
S Hadichegeni, B Goliaei, M Taghizadeh, S Davoodmanesh, F Taghavi, M Hashemi
Human serum albumin (HSA) is a soluble blood protein which binds to small molecules (such as drugs and toxins) and transfers them within the blood circulation. In this research, the interaction of diazinon, as a toxic organophosphate, with HSA was investigated. Various biophysical methods such as fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and molecular docking were utilized to characterize the binding properties of diazinon to HSA under physiological-like condition...
September 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
E J Calabrese
In 2006, Henschler disputed the claim of Calabrese and Baldwin that Hugo Schulz should be considered the originator of the hormesis concept. Henschler cited an 1854 paper by Rudolf Virchow on the effects of two agents on the beating of cilia, which showed a hormetic-biphasic dose response. The interpretation of Henschler became broadly accepted over the past decade based on citations in the literature. However, a recent translation of the Virchow paper from German into English reveals that the claims of Henschler are not supported by the article...
September 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
G Eraslan, M Kanbur, M Karabacak, K Arslan, Y Siliğ, Z Soyer Sarica, M Y Tekeli, A Taş
A total of 66 male Wistar rats were used and six groups (control: 10 animals and experimental: 12 animals) were formed. While a separate control group was established for each study period, mad honey application to the animals in the experimental group was carried out with a single dose (12.5 g kg-1 body weight (b.w.); acute stage), at a dose of 7.5 g kg-1 b.w. for 21 days (subacute stage), and at a dose of 5 g kg-1 b.w. for 60 days (chronic stage). Tissue and blood oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione (GSH) peroxidase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), hepatic chemical metabolizing parameters in the liver (cytochrome P450 2E1, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-cytochrome b5 reductase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-cytochrome c reductase (CYTC), GSH S-transferase (GST), and GSH), and micronucleus and comet test in some samples were examined...
September 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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