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DNA and Cell Biology

Jesse H Erasmus, Scott C Weaver
The coupling of viral and arthropod host diversity, with evolving methods of virus discovery, has resulted in the identification and classification of a growing number of novel insect-specific viruses (ISVs) that appear to be evolutionarily related to many human pathogens but have either lost or have yet to gain the ability to replicate in vertebrates. The discovery of ISVs has raised many questions as to the origin and evolution of many human pathogenic viruses and points to the role that arthropods may play in this evolutionary process...
November 21, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
Stanford Schor, Shirit Einav
The high cost of drug development and the narrow spectrum of coverage typically provided by direct-acting antivirals limit the scalability of this antiviral approach. This review summarizes progress and challenges in the repurposing of approved kinase inhibitors as host-targeted broad-spectrum antiviral therapies.
November 17, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
Yanni Wang, Man Jiang, Yongshan Yao, Zhengwei Cai
The scaffolding protein WW and C2 domain-containing protein 3 (WWC3) belonging to the WWC protein family plays important roles in regulating cell proliferation, cell migration, and synaptic signaling. The critical role of WWC3 in tumorigenesis has emerged recently; however, the expression and function of WWC3 in glioma remain largely unknown. Here, we found that WWC3 was significantly downregulated in glioma tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of WWC3 inhibited the glioma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion...
November 8, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
Yanmei Tan, Hai Zhang, Dongming Guo, Jiangbo Wang, Xu Yuan, Zhonghua Yuan
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, which is thought to be one of the most common causes of death globally. The functions of macrophage in the development of atherosclerosis inflammation still get more attention. Although lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can trigger inflammation in atherosclerosis, how LPS promotes atherogenesis through acting on macrophage is not very clear. Here, we study the role of adipophilin in LPS-induced inflammation. After RAW264.7 cells were treated with LPS of different concentrations, the protein level of adipophilin was increased dose-dependently, and cells treated with LPS for various time were observed the highest levels of TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6 at 12 h...
November 3, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
Chenfei Wang, Dan Lv, Xiaobin Zhang, Zhu-Ang Ni, Xiaofan Sun, Changqing Zhu
Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are life-threatening inflammatory conditions with no effective pharmacological treatment. Previous studies suggested that mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC) infusion resulted in better survival in mouse ALI models and presented low toxicity in human subjects. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the possibility of treating a murine model of ALI using MSCs with constant interleukin-10 overexpression (IL-10-MSC) by retroviral infection...
October 26, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
Li Yang, Caiqin Zhang, Yong Zhao, Ningning Zhao, Pengpeng Wu, Hai Zhang, Changhong Shi
Heat shock protein Hsp16.3 is closely related to latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection and plays an important role in sustained survival when MTB is dormant. In this study, the Hsp16.3 gene mutant MTB H37Rv strain (Hsp16.3ΔMTB) was obtained through gene recombination and infected into murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Western blotting and immunofluorescence showed increased expression of the autophagy-related protein LC3, and transmission electron microscopy showed significantly increased macrophage autophagosomes, suggesting that Hsp16...
October 25, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
Shuang-Lian Long, Yu-Kun Li, Yuan-Jie Xie, Zhi-Feng Long, Jin-Feng Shi, Zhong-Cheng Mo
Members of the reticulon protein family are predominantly distributed within the endoplasmic reticulum. The neurite outgrowth inhibitor (Nogo) has three subtypes, including Nogo-A (200 kDa), Nogo-B (55 kDa), and Nogo-C (25 kDa). Nogo-A and Nogo-C are potent Nogos that are predominantly expressed in the central nervous system. Nogo-B, the splice variant of reticulon-4, is expressed widely in multiple human organ systems, including the liver, lung, kidney, blood vessels, and inflammatory cells. Moreover, the Nogo-B receptor (NgBR) can interact with Nogo-B and can independently affect nervous system regeneration, the chemotaxis of endothelial cells, proliferation, and apoptosis...
October 23, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
Ya Zhang, Xiaoyan Fang, Hong Xu, Qian Shen
Dent's disease is an X-linked inherited renal disease. Patients with Dent's disease often carry mutations in genes encoding the Cl(-)/H(+) exchanger ClC-5 and/or inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (OCRL1). However, the mutations involved and the biochemical effects of these mutations are not fully understood. To characterize genetic changes in Dent's disease patients, in this study, samples from nine Chinese patients were subjected to genetic analysis. Among the nine patients, six were classified as having Dent-1 disease, one had Dent-2 disease, and two could not be classified...
October 23, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
Yiqun Huang, Yong Zou, Luhui Lin, Ruiji Zheng
Ginsenoside, a natural triterpenoid saponin, exhibits immunomodulatory and anticancer activities. In the present study, we demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg1 induced secretion of cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-1β, and chemokines such as IL-8 and IP-10 in a dose-dependent manner by human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived dendritic cells. Rg1 stimulated the expression of the surface molecules CD83, CD80, and human leukocyte antigen - antigen D related (HLA-DR) and decreased the expression of CD14...
October 23, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
Xiaoyuan Guo, Guilong Zhang, Lukui Chen, Ahsan Ali Khan, Bin Gu, Bingqian Li
With increasing applications of nanomaterials, including silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), unknown potential risks are present against humans and the environment, especially to the fetus and neonates, which are more sensitive to the cytotoxicity of such agents. This study focused on the effects of AgNP exposure on newborn neurons differentiated from neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro. We isolated NSCs from fetal rat hippocampus and incubated them in neural differentiation medium for 3-7 days to form newborn neurons and networks...
October 23, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
Xiaoyu Duan, Ye Lin, He Lv, Yang Yang, Hongtao Jiao, Xiaoming Hou
Methionine is the limiting amino acid for milk protein synthesis in dairy cows. The effect of methionine availability on milk protein synthesis is dependent on its active transport into cells through amino acid transporters. L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), which induces the transport of neutral amino acids, is highly expressed in lactating mammary gland. However, the effect of methionine on LAT1 expression and the mechanism governing this process in dairy cow mammary gland are poorly understood. In this study, we show that treatment of dairy cow mammary epithelial cells with increasing concentrations of methionine for 24 h resulted in increased expression of LAT1 and its associated protein 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc)...
October 17, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
Takamichi Nijo, Yutaro Neriya, Hiroaki Koinuma, Nozomu Iwabuchi, Yugo Kitazawa, Kazuyuki Tanno, Yukari Okano, Kensaku Maejima, Yasuyuki Yamaji, Kenro Oshima, Shigetou Namba
Phytoplasmas are obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria that infect both plants and insects. We previously identified the sigma factor RpoD-dependent consensus promoter sequence of phytoplasma. However, the genome-wide landscape of RNA transcripts, including non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and RpoD-independent promoter elements, was still unknown. In this study, we performed an improved RNA sequencing analysis for genome-wide identification of the transcription start sites (TSSs) and the consensus promoter sequences...
October 17, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
Weizhen Li, Hongqiang Zhang, Shuai Qi, Jian Qin, Hong Guan, Jianwei Li, Xiaorong An, Rong Du
Musclin is a bioactive factor that functions in regulating the muscle growth and metabolism. To investigate the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of the gene, the 1.4 kb musclin promoter in sheep was cloned (GenBank accession: JX966391) and the sequence was analyzed to predict the motifs associated with muscle growth. Next the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was selected as the reporter gene and various wild-type and motif-mutant vectors were constructed. The transcriptional regulatory activities were compared by observing the fluorescence strength and detecting the EGFP mRNA expression in C2C12 myoblasts transfected with the vectors...
October 5, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
Su-Ling Ma, Xiao-Yu Tian, Ya-Qi Wang, Hui-Feng Zhang, Lei Zhang
Maternal vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia. Vascular endothelial dysfunction is a major phenotype of pregnancies with preeclampsia, contributing to increased maternal hypertension and proteinuria. We sought to determine whether vitamin D supplementation would alleviate preeclampsia associated endothelial dysfunction and explore the underlying mechanism using the reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) rat model. RUPP operated rats were supplemented with 1,25(OH)2D (RUPP+VD) on day 1, 7, and 14 of pregnancy by subcutaneous injection...
October 5, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
Jiang Li, Quan-Min Wu, Xiao-Qing Wang, Cheng-Qiang Zhang
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been illustrated to function as important regulator in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. However, roles of lncRNA miR210HG (miR210 host gene) in osteosarcoma remain unclear. In this study, miR210HG expression level was significantly upregulated in 55 cases of osteosarcoma tissue samples compared to adjacent normal tissue. Besides, the aberrantly enhanced miR210HG expression predicted poor prognosis and lower survival rate. In vitro, miR210HG knockdown suppressed the osteosarcoma cell proliferation, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related marker (N-cadherin and vimentin) expression...
October 3, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
Liping Shao, Zongji Shen, Hua Qian, Sufang Zhou, Youguo Chen
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most lethal gynecological cancer. The molecular mechanism of it is complicated, and numerous researches suggest that microRNAs are key regulators for it. This study was to investigate the pivotal role of miR-629 in the progression of OC and to reveal the possible molecular mechanism of its action. Testis-specific Y-like protein 5 (TSPYL5) is a tumor suppressor gene in various cancers, but there is little for its role in OC. OC OVCAR3 cells were transfected with the miR-629 vector, miR-629 inhibitor, and/or small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting TSPYL5 (si-TSPYL5), respectively...
October 3, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
Lu Yang, Ya-Zhe Wang, Hong-Hu Zhu, Yan Chang, Ling-Di Li, Wen-Min Chen, Ling-Yu Long, Yan-Huan Zhang, Yan-Rong Liu, Jin Lu, Ya-Zhen Qin
Multiple myeloma (MM) patients commonly present abnormal expression of cancer-testis antigens, which may serve as immunotherapeutic targets and prognostic factors. We previously reported that preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) overexpression in bone marrow mononuclear cells is related to progression in MM patients treated with non-bortezomib-containing regimens. The mechanism underlying variations in PRAME expression remains unknown. To investigate the impact of gene copy number variation (CNV) on PRAME expression, plasma cells were sorted from 50 newly diagnosed patients and 8 healthy volunteers to measure PRAME transcript levels and gene copy numbers by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
September 27, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
Anbo Gao, Francisco S Cayabyab, Xi Chen, Jing Yang, Li Wang, Tianhong Peng, Yuncheng Lv
The present review provides a summary of recent evidence of sortilin expression, function, and regulation and its implications in lipid metabolism and development of lipid disorder diseases. As a member of the vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein (Vps10p) receptor family, sortilin mediates intracellular trafficking of diverse endogenous or exogenous protein substrates between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and plasma membrane compartments. Recent studies reveal that sortilin regulates the expression of lipid genes, plasma lipid level, and the development of lipid disorder diseases...
September 25, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
Gang Wang, Feng Guo, Hefeng Wang, Wei Liu, Lijuan Zhang, Mingyu Cui, Xiangyu Wu
Recent studies have suggested the critical roles of miRNAs for disease progression. miRNA-483-5p (miR-483-5p) was previously found to have a relationship with tumor cell behavior, but its biological function in Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) remains undefined. Thus, we explored the role of miR-483-5p in the pathogenesis of HSCR. Histological changes of colonic tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were used to determine relative expression levels of miRNA, mRNA, and proteins in 20 HSCR patients and 20 normal colon tissues...
November 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
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