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Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN

Naeim Ehtesham, Fariborz Khorvash, Majid Kheirollahi
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial to the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The mechanism of action of interferon beta (IFN-β) in relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients is largely unknown. miR-145 and miR-20a-5p previously reported as diagnosis biomarker in treatment naïve RRMS patients and their expression after IFN-β therapy might be indicative of molecular mechanism of IFN-β. Cross-talking between JAK/STAT pathway and complementary pathways like MAPK is important in IFN-β signaling. Here, in order to clarify the ambiguous molecular mechanism of IFN-β and evaluate the potential use of them as a biomarker for monitoring of therapy, we investigated the expression of miR-145 and miR-20a-5p in blood sample of 15 treatment naïve RRMS patients, 15 IFN-β-treated RRMS patients, and 15 healthy volunteers (HVs)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
M Gálfi, M Radács, Zs Molnár, I Budai, G Tóth, A Pósa, K Kupai, Z Szalai, R Szabó, H A Molnár, J Gardi, Ferenc A László, Cs Varga
The effects of ghrelin on vasopressin and oxytocin secretion were studied in 13-14-day cell cultures of isolated rat neurohypophyseal tissue. The vasopressin and oxytocin contents of the supernatant were determined by radioimmunoassay after a 1- or 2-h incubation. Significantly increased levels of vasopressin and oxytocin production were detected in the cell culture media following ghrelin administration, depending on the ghrelin doses. The oxytocin level proved to be more elevated than that of vasopressin...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Vesna Bryn, Hans Christian Dalsbotten Aass, Ola H Skjeldal, Jørn Isaksen, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Heidi Ormstad
The pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is not completely understood, but there is evidence of associations with altered immune responses. The aim of this study was to determine the serum levels of various cytokines in children with ASD and in healthy controls, in order to determine their role in ASD and its diagnostic subgroups. Sixty-five ASD patients were enrolled from an epidemiological survey in Norway, of which 30 were diagnosed with childhood autism, 16 with Asperger syndrome, 12 with atypical autism, 1 with Rett syndrome, and 6 with another ASD diagnosis...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Lei Du, Jianhua Ma, Xiaoning Zhang
Higher levels of serum uric acid tend to increase the diabetes-related complications. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate whether the higher serum uric acid levels were associated with cerebral infarction in type 2 diabetes patients. We searched for relevant studies in the PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China BioMedicine, and VIP database until August 2015. All observational studies comparing serum uric acid levels in type 2 diabetic patients with and without cerebral infarction were included...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Wenjie Wei, Zhiyuan Yu, Minjie Xie, Wei Wang, Xiang Luo
Growing evidence has revealed that brain pericytes are multifunctional and contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of neurological disorders. However, the role of pericytes in cerebral ischemia, and especially the pathophysiological alterations in pericytes, remains unclear. In the present study, our aim was to determine whether the proliferation of pericytes is affected by cerebral ischemia and, if so, to identify the underlying mechanism(s). Cultured brain pericytes subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) were used as our model of cerebral ischemia; the protein expression levels of cyclin D1, cyclin E, cdk4, and cyclin B1 were determined by Western blot analysis, and cell cycle analysis was assessed by flow cytometry...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Susmita Sil, Tusharkanti Ghosh, Pritha Gupta, Rupsa Ghosh, Syed N Kabir, Avishek Roy
The neurodegeneration in colchicine induced AD rats (cAD) is mediated by cox-2 linked neuroinflammation. The importance of ROS in the inflammatory process in cAD has not been identified, which may be deciphered by blocking oxidative stress in this model by a well-known anti-oxidant vitamin C. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the role of vitamin C on colchicine induced oxidative stress linked neuroinflammation mediated neurodegeneration and memory impairments along with peripheral immune responses in cAD...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Farinoosh Fakharnia, Fariba Khodagholi, Leila Dargahi, Abolhassan Ahmadiani
The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is a complex channel of the inner membrane, the opening of which leads to mitochondrial swelling and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Here, we aimed to evaluate the role of the cyclophilin D (CypD) as a prominent mediator of mPTP, on necroptosis and autophagy as well as apoptosis, beyond the global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We showed that while cerebral I/R injury is accompanied by loss of MMP, mitochondrial swelling and programmed cell death, pretreatment with cyclosporine-A (CsA) as a potent inhibitor of CypD, led to partial but significant reduction in necroptosis markers, RIP1 and RIP3 as well as activity of glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL) and glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GLUD1), downstream enzymes of RIP3...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Willyan Franco Hilario, Alice Laschuk Herlinger, Lorena Bianchine Areal, Lívia Silveira de Moraes, Tamara Andrea Alarcon Ferreira, Tassiane Emanuelle Servane Andrade, Cristina Martins-Silva, Rita Gomes Wanderley Pires
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world, being characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration of substantia nigra pars compacta. PD pharmacotherapy has been based on dopamine replacement in the striatum with the dopaminergic precursor 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and/or with dopaminergic agonists, alongside anticholinergic drugs in order to mitigate the motor abnormalities. However, these practices neither prevent nor stop the progression of the disease...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Chenlong Yang, Jizong Zhao, Bingquan Wu, Haohao Zhong, Yan Li, Yulun Xu
Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a congenital vascular anomaly predominantly located within the central nervous system. Its familial forms (familial cerebral cavernous malformation (FCCM)), inherited in an autosomal dominant manner with incomplete penetrance, are attributed to mutations in CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2/MGC4607, and CCM3/PDCD10 genes. To date, little is known about the genetic alterations leading to FCCM in the Chinese population. We aimed to investigate the genetic defect of FCCM by DNA sequencing in Chinese families...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Qiao Zhao, Jing Lu, Zitong Yao, Shubo Wang, Liming Zhu, Ju Wang, Baian Chen
The cerebral accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) is one of the key pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ is also found in bodily fluids such as the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma. However, the significance of Aβ accumulation in the brain and different bodily pools, as well as its correlation with aging and cerebral amyloid pathology, is not completely understood. To better understand this question, we selected the rhesus monkey, which is phylogenetically and physiologically highly similar to the human, as a model to study...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Hai Jie Yang, Shuang Ping Ma, Fei Ju, Ya Ping Zhang, Zhi Chao Li, Bin Bin Zhang, Jun Jiang Lian, Lei Wang, Bin Feng Cheng, Mian Wang, Zhi Wei Feng
NG2-expressing neural progenitors can produce neurons in the central nervous system, providing a potential cell resource of therapy for neurological disorders. However, the mechanism underlying neuronal differentiation of NG2 cells remains largely unknown. In this report, we found that a thrombospondin (TSP) family member, TSP4, is involved in the neuronal differentiation of NG2 cells. When TSP4 was overexpressed, NG2 cells underwent spontaneous neuronal differentiation, as demonstrated by the induction of various neuronal differentiation markers such as NeuN, Tuj1, and NF200, at the messenger RNA and protein levels...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Mohammad Reza Shiri-Shahsavar, Abbas Mirshafiee, Karim Parastouei, Abbas Ebrahimi-Kalan, Saeed Yekaninejad, Farid Soleymani, Reza Chahardoli, Ramin Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Ali Akbar Saboor-Yaraghi
Vitamins are immunologically interesting due to their significant immunomodulatory activities. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is one of the most commonly used experimental models for studying autoimmune disorder in multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective and ameliorative effects of novel combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (D3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on EAE-specific determinants and target gene expressions. Mice were randomly categorized into three groups before EAE induction [non-treated EAE (Group E), treated EAE (Group T), and healthy mice (Group H)]...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Elena Gatta, Aroldo Cupello, Mario Di Braccio, Giancarlo Grossi, Mauro Robello, Francesca Scicchitano, Emilio Russo, Giovambattista De Sarro
Herein, we tested in a model of generalized reflex epilepsy in mice different 1,4-benzodiazepines and 1,5-benzodiazepines with agonistic activity at the GABAA receptor population contributing to the peak component of the chloride current elicited by GABA in cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) in culture. The substances have all higher lipophilia than clobazam, an antiepileptic drug well known and used in human therapy. This ensures that they all can pass relatively easily the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The benzodiazepines were administered intraperitoneally (i...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
R Barzilay, F Ventorp, H Segal-Gavish, I Aharony, A Bieber, S Dar, M Vescan, R Globus, A Weizman, D Naor, J Lipton, S Janelidze, L Brundin, D Offen
CD44 is a cell surface adhesion molecule and its principal ligand is hyaluronic acid (HA), a key component of the brain's extracellular matrix. CD44 levels are decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of depressed individuals, and the CD44 gene has been identified in genome wide association study as a possible risk gene in suicidal behavior. In order to define the pathobiological mechanisms by which CD44 may affect behavior, we investigated the role of CD44 using male CD44 knockout (CD44KO) and wild-type mice that underwent chronic mild stress (CMS)...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Chao Ping Yang, Zhen Hua Zhang, Li Hua Zhang, Han Chen Rui
Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder with only symptomatic treatment available, is characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. Ample evidence indicated that microRNAs (miRs) could regulate post-transcriptional gene expression and neuronal disease. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects and mechanism of miR-22 in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells treated with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to mimic PD. RT-PCR results showed that the expression of miR-22 is downregulated in 6-OHDA-treated PC12 cells, and the overexpression of miR-22 significantly promoted the survival and proliferation of 6-OHDA-induced PC12 cells, whereas miR-22 inhibitor reversed these effects...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Mohammad Ejaz Ahmed, Yan Dong, Yujiao Lu, Donovan Tucker, Ruimin Wang, Quanguang Zhang
Aberrant calcium influx is a common feature following ischemic reperfusion (I/R) in transient global cerebral ischemia (GCI) and causes delayed neuronal cell death in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Activation of calcium-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) is a key event in calcium signaling in ischemic injury. The present study examined the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of tatCN21 in ischemic rats 3 h after GCI reperfusion. Cresyl violet and NeuN staining revealed that tatCN21 exerted neuroprotective effects against delayed neuronal cell death of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons 10 days post-GCI...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Shuyong Wei, Jie Tong, Qiang Xue, Yang Liu, Xiaoyu Xu
This present paper focus on transcriptome changes of astrocytes before and after oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) injury. Cortical astrocytes of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were cultured in OGD condition for 6 h, and the damage of cells was analyzed by cell's activity detection, lactate dehydrogenase leakage rate detection, annexin V-FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate)/PI (propidium iodide) apoptosis detection, and transcriptome change detection through Affymetrix GeneChip Rat Genome 230 2.0 Array; some regulated genes were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Ke-Sheng Wang, Xuefeng Liu, Changchun Xie, Ying Liu, Chun Xu
Non-parametric methods such as Wilcoxon test have the advantages of no assumptions for the underlying survival distributions. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease while the ectopic P-granules autophagy protein 5 homolog (EPG5 gene) is highly expressed in human brain and may implicate in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. The present study explored the associations of 26 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the EPG5 gene with the age at onset (AAO) of AD using a family-based association test (FBAT)-Wilcoxon statistic in a family-based study...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Jing-Wen Yu, Yan-Hua Li, Guo-Bin Song, Jie-Zhong Yu, Chun-Yun Liu, Jian-Chun Liu, Hai-Fei Zhang, Wan-Fang Yang, Qing Wang, Ya-Ping Yan, Bao-Guo Xiao, Cun-Gen Ma
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the ideal transplanted cells of cellular therapy for promoting neuroprotection and neurorestoration. However, the optimization of transplanted cells and the improvement of microenvironment around implanted cells are still two critical challenges for enhancing therapeutic effect. In the current study, we observed the therapeutic potential of MSCs combined with Fasudil in mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and explored possible mechanisms of action...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Juan Yang, Xin Zhang, Xiaofan Xiong, Qiuhua Wu, Lingyu Zhao, Liying Liu, Yannan Qin, Tusheng Song, Chen Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 26, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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