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Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN

J Strnadel, H Wang, C Carromeu, A Miyanohara, K Fujimura, E Blahovcova, V Nosal, H Skovierova, R Klemke, E Halasova
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) generated from somatic cells through reprogramming hold great promises for regenerative medicine. However, how reprogrammed cells survive, behave in vivo, and interact with host cells after transplantation still remains to be addressed. There is a significant need for animal models that allow in vivo tracking of transplanted cells in real time. In this regard, the zebrafish, a tropical freshwater fish, provides significant advantage as it is optically transparent and can be imaged in high resolution using confocal microscopy...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Arezou Sayad, Fatemeh Ranjbaran, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard, Shahram Arsang-Jang, Mohammad Taheri
Schizophrenia and epilepsy are two prevalent neurological disorders with high global burden to the society. Genome-wide studies have identified potential underlying causes for these neurological diseases. In the present case-control study, we have assessed expression of CYFIP1 and CAMKK2 genes in the blood samples of epileptic and schizophrenic patients compared with healthy subjects. A total of 180 subjects including 40 epileptic patients, 50 schizophrenic patients, and 90 healthy individuals participated in the study...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Ying-Qin Li, Fa-Huan Song, Ke Zhong, Guang-Yin Yu, Prince Last Mudenda Zilundu, Ying-Ying Zhou, Rao Fu, Ying Tang, Ze-Min Ling, Xiaoying Xu, Li-Hua Zhou
Brachial plexus injury is a common clinical peripheral nerve trauma. A series of genes in motoneurons were activated in the corresponding segments of the spinal cord after brachial plexus roots axotomy. The spatial and temporal expression of these genes directly affects the speed of motoneuron axon regeneration and precise target organ reinnervation. In a previous study, we observed the overexpression of c-Jun in motoneurons of the spinal cord ventral horn after brachial plexus injury in rats. However, the relevance of c-Jun expression with respect to the fate of axotomy-induced branchial plexus injury in adult mice remains unknown...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Kedarlal Sharma, Juhi Singh, Prakash P Pillai
MeCP2 (methyl-CpG binding protein 2), an epigenetic regulator, has been shown to regulate the function of neurons and glial cells. Our previous study has demonstrated that MeCP2 repress the myelin gene expression in rat oligodendrocytes but whether MeCP2 bind to myelin gene MBP and PLP is not yet known. Besides oligodendrocytes, C6 glioma also expresses myelin genes and could be used as a model system to study myelin gene expression. In the present study, we determined that MeCP2 directly bind to MBP, PLP, and BDNF promoter in oligodendrocytes...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Daemon L Cline, Landon I Short, Maeghan A M Forster, Sarah L Gray
Obesity arises from disrupted energy balance and is caused by chronically higher energy intake compared to expenditure via basal metabolic rate, exercise, and thermogenesis. The brown adipose tissue (BAT), the primary thermogenic organ, has received considerable attention as a potential therapeutic target due to its ability to burn lipids in the production of heat. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been identified as a key regulator of the physiological stress response both centrally and peripherally...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Shweta Kishor Sonawane, Subashchandrabose Chinnathambi
The microtubule-associated protein Tau plays a key role in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease by forming intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Tau in the normal physiological condition helps stabilize microtubules and transport. Tau aggregates due to various gene mutations, intracellular insults and abnormal post-translational modifications, phosphorylation being the most important one. Other modifications which alter the function of Tau protein are glycation, nitration, acetylation, methylation, oxidation, etc...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Ruoxi Sun, Yichen Song, Shanshan Li, Zhanqiang Ma, Xueyang Deng, Qiang Fu, Rong Qu, Shiping Ma
Ischemic stroke is one of the most dangerous acute diseases which causes death or deformity. Apoptosis has been shown to play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R injury), but the related mechanism is unclear. Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (L-THP), a bioactive ingredient extracted from the Chinese herb Corydalis, can penetrate the blood-brain barrier and exert various pharmacological effects on neural tissues. The present study examined the neuroprotective effect of L-THP on neuronal apoptosis induced by cerebral I/R injury...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
F Crosta, U Occhiuzzi, G Passalacqua, E Occhiuzzi, A Cimini, D Grassi, C Ferri, C Marini, C Borghi, G Desideri
Increasing evidence suggests that uric acid (UA) is a relevant risk factor for arteriolosclerosis and recent studies have demonstrated the positive relationship between UA concentrations and the severity of leukoaraiosis. However, the association between lacunar infarcts (LI) and UA levels has seldom been reported in the literature. The aim of our study was to assess whether serum UA levels may be related to the presence of LI. We recruited 242 patients (113 males and 129 females, aged 82.83 ± 6.49 years) from our Geriatric Department for whom CAT scans (CT) were available...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Martha-Spyridoula Katsarou, Maria Papasavva, Rozana Latsi, Ioanna Toliza, Alfrent-Pantelis Gkaros, Stylianos Papakonstantinou, Stylianos Gatzonis, Dimos-Dimitrios Mitsikostas, Leda Kovatsi, Boris N Isotov, Aristides M Tsatsakis, Nikolaos Drakoulis
Cluster headache is a disorder with increased hereditary risk. Associations between cluster headache and polymorphism rs2653349 of the HCRTR2 gene have been demonstrated. The less common allele (A) seems to reduce disease susceptibility. The polymorphism rs5443 of the GNB3 gene positively influences triptan treatment response. Carriers of the mutated T allele are more likely to respond positively compared to C:C homozygotes, when treated with triptans. DNA was extracted from buccal swabs obtained from 636 non-related Southeastern European Caucasian individuals and was analyzed by real-time PCR...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Sohaila Erfani, Ali Moghimi, Nahid Aboutaleb, Mehdi Khaksari
Nesfatin-1, a recently discovered peptide, is involved in important functions such as food intake regulation and energy homeostasis. Previous studies have demonstrated that it has protective effects following myocardial injury and also protects dopaminergic cells against neurotoxicity with the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to assay the neuroprotective effects of Nesfatin-1 after brain ischemia/reperfusion. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly selected and allocated in the form of four groups (sham, Nesfatin-1, ischemia, ischemia+Nesfatin-1)...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Yang Du, Huan-Tong Wu, Xiao-Yan Qin, Chang Cao, Yi Liu, Zong-Ze Cao, Yong Cheng
Accumulating evidence suggest that aberrations of neurotrophic factors are involved in the etiology and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but clinical data were inconsistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis on neurotrophic factor levels in AD is necessary. We performed a systematic review of blood, CSF, and post-mortem brain neurotrophic factor levels in patients with AD compared with controls and quantitatively summarized the clinical data in blood and CSF with a meta-analytical technique. A systematic search of PubMed and Web of Science identified 98 articles in this study (with samples more than 9000)...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
May Al-Osaimi, Afaf El-Ansary, Sooad Al-Daihan, Ramesa Shafi Bhat, Abir Ben Bacha
MeHg is a widely distributed environmental toxicant with harmful effects on the developing and adult nervous system. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic and protective efficacy of pollen grain in improving the toxic effects of MeHg, through the measurement of selected biochemical parameters linked to oxidative stress, energy metabolism, and neurotransmission in brain homogenates of male pups' neonates. Forty healthy pregnant female rats were randomly divided into five groups, and after delivery, each group was consisting of 10 male neonates: (1) neonates delivered by control mothers, (2) neonates delivered by bee pollen treated mothers who received bee pollen at the dose of 200-mg/kg body weight from postnatal day 0 for 4 weeks, (3) neonates delivered by MeHg-treated mothers who received MeHg at the dose of 0...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Roksana SoukhakLari, Leila Moezi, Fatema Pirsalami, Maryam Moosavi
Although high rate of curcumin consumption has been suggested to decrease the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), its administration has no effect on the progression of AD in humans and this has been attributed to its poor bioavailability. Using nanotechnology to break down curcumin increases its bioavailability and improves its effect on the brain. BSA, as a non-toxic protein with high binding capacity, was used to break curcumin to nanosize and to explore the effect of nanocurcumin on passive avoidance memory and hippocampal MMP-2 and -9 and MAPKs...
June 24, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Yi Cai, Shaofang Wu, Chaosheng Zeng, Qingjie Su, Jingxia Zhou, Pengxiang Li, Mingming Dai, Desheng Wang, Faqing Long
Ischemic stroke (IS) is the main cause of mortality and disability in China; thus, this study aimed to examine the association between six variants and their haplotypes within the transferrin (TF) gene and the risk of IS in the Southern Chinese Han population. Genotyping was performed using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform for 249 IS patients and 249 age- and sex-matched controls. The association between polymorphisms and IS risk was tested by Chi squared test and haplotype and stratification analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression analysis...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Yanxia Fan, Shuping Xiao
Parkinson disease (PD) is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of this study was to identify blood biomarkers capable to discriminate PD patients with different progression rates. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were acquired by comparing the expression profiles of PD patients with rapid and slow progression rates, using an expression dataset from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) under accession code of GSE80599. Altered biological processes and pathways were revealed by functional annotation...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Seiji Shioda, Fumiko Takenoya, Takahiro Hirabayashi, Nobuhiro Wada, Tamotsu Seki, Naoko Nonaka, Tomoya Nakamachi
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a 27- or 38-amino acid neuropeptide, which belongs to the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/glucagon/secretin family of peptides. PACAP and its three receptor subtypes are expressed in neural tissues and in the eye, including the retina, cornea, and lacrimal gland. PACAP is known to exert pleiotropic effects on the central nervous system and in eye tissues where it plays important roles in protecting against dry eye. This review provides an overview of current knowledge regarding dry eye symptoms in aged animals and humans and the protective effects, mechanisms of action...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Afaf El-Ansary, Geir Bjørklund, Asma M Khemakhem, Laila Al-Ayadhi, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Abir Ben Bacha
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neuro-behavioral syndrome with a broad spectrum of different mechanisms and etiologies that are caused by abnormal brain development. To date, no highly reliable and effective diagnostic biomarker to assess ASD is available so far. The present study investigated the predictivity potential of some suggested markers in ASD diagnosis focusing onto the relative ratios of several plasma biomarkers of electron transport chain function, and mitochondrial metabolism in 41 patients with ASD evaluated for behavior deficits measured using Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS)...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Melisa C Monteleone, María Eugenia Pallarés, Silvia C Billi, Marta C Antonelli, Marcela A Brocco
Prenatal stress (PS) induces molecular changes that alter neural connectivity, increasing the risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we analyzed -in the hippocampus of adult rats exposed to PS- the epigenetic signature mediating the PS-induced neuroplasticity changes. Furthermore, using cultured hippocampal neurons, we investigated the effects on neuroplasticity of an epigenetic modulator. PS induced significant modifications in the mRNA levels of stress-related transcription factor MEF2A, SUV39H1 histone methyltransferase, and TET1 hydroxylase, indicating that PS modifies gene expression through chromatin remodeling...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Patricia C Swart, Vivienne A Russell, Nicolaas M Vlok, Jacqueline J Dimatelis
In utero exposure to alcohol has been shown to cause a spectrum of cognitive and behavioral deficits. This study aimed to explore the long-term effects of early-ethanol exposure on proteins in the brain. Male Sprague-Dawley rat pups were exposed to 12% ethanol (4 g/kg/day i.p.) or volume-controlled saline during the third human trimester equivalent (P4-P9). At P31, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) proteins were analyzed by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS)...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Sajad Hassanzadeh, Seyed Behnamedin Jameie, Maryam Soleimani, Mona Farhadi, Mahdieh Kerdari, Navid Danaei
The roles of the immune response and apoptosis as potential mediators of secondary damage in spinal cord injury (SCI) are being investigated. Research is also being done to determine the effects of female gonadal steroids, which decrease during menopause, and antioxidants, such as coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on SCI. We hypothesized that in the absence of female gonadal steroids, which provide protection following an SCI, CoQ10 could modulate the expression of cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-10, besides aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels in the CNS, which participate in neuroinflammation, as well as the Bax and Bcl2 proteins that are involved in apoptosis at the site of injury...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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