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Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN

Marta Niwald, Monika Migdalska-Sęk, Ewa Brzeziańska-Lasota, Elżbieta Miller
Accumulating data suggests that miRNAs might play a major role in neuroinflammatory processes. Therefore, our study aimed to first estimate the levels of miR-155, miR-326, and miR-301a in serum of RR-MS patients in the remission phase and then compare the levels of the examined miRNAs at different times after relapse. In this study, 36 RR-MS patients in the remission phase took part. We analyzed two subgroups of RR-MS: one, 1 to 2 months after completing steroid treatment during relapse (post-acute; n = 13) and the other, over 2 years without any relapse (stable; n = 23)...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Zhong-Hong Kong, Xin Chen, Hui-Po Hua, Liang Liang, Long-Juan Liu
Neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's-related pathology play essential roles in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is well known as a pivotal mediator in neuroinflammation, and its associations with Alzheimer's-related pathology and POCD have been also revealed. Glycyrrhizin is a nature inhibitor of HMGB1 and is reported with neuroprotective effects through oral administration. Therefore, the present study aims to test the hypothesis that the oral pretreatment of glycyrrhizin prevents POCD by inhibiting HMGB1-induced neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's-related pathology in aged mice...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Zhiyun Lian, Ju Liu, Ziyan Shi, Hongxi Chen, Qin Zhang, Huiru Feng, Qin Du, Xiaohui Miao, Hongyu Zhou
The tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 4 (TNFSF4) gene encodes a vital co-stimulatory molecule of the immune system and has been identified as a susceptibility locus for systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and primary Sjögren's syndrome. However, the association of TNFSF4 polymorphisms with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), an inflammatory, demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, has not yet been investigated. To evaluate whether TNFSF4 polymorphisms contribute to risk of NMOSD, four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1234315, rs2205960, rs704840, and rs844648) were selected and genotyped in a cohort of 312 patients with NMOSD and 487 healthy controls...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Juntao Hu, Jie Luo, Hui Wang, Chaojia Wang, Xiaodong Sun, Anrong Li, Yi Zhou, Yuhang Liu, Qianxue Chen
Recent studies have demonstrated that cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysm (IA). Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is an important proinflammatory cytokine, which was shown to influence the development of IA, but there is no research data from China. Hence, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between TNF-α polymorphisms and IA in China. The association of genetic variants of TNF-α gene expression was investigated in a Chinese population with IA...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Lorena B Areal, Lorraine P Pereira, Fabiola M Ribeiro, Isabella G Olmo, Marcelo R Muniz, Maria do Carmo Rodrigues, Patrik F Costa, Cristina Martins-Silva, Stephen S G Ferguson, Daniela A M Guimarães, Rita G W Pires
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor dysfunction, cognitive deficits, and psychiatric symptoms. The primary genetic cause is an expansion of cytosine adenine guanine (CAG) nucleotides of the huntingtin gene, which codes an important protein involved with neuronal signaling. The severity of HD correlates with the number of CAG repeats and individuals with longer expansions have an earlier onset and more severe symptoms. A microarray study conducted by our research group showed alteration in DNAH6 gene (encoding dynein axonemal heavy chain 6)...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Kwame Ofori Affram, Kendall Mitchell, Aviva J Symes
Chronic inflammation mediated by persistent microglial activation is associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. The mechanisms underlying chronic microglial activation are poorly understood. We have previously shown that anti-inflammatory TGF-β signaling is inhibited in LPS-treated microglia. In this study, we assessed whether different disease-related microglial activators could downregulate TGF-β induction of gene expression. We examined the effects of amyloid β (Aβ) (1-42)- or heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKLM) on the TGF-β-regulated gene expression in primary rat microglia...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Mohammad Mahdi Eftekharian, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard, Mohammad Soudyab, Mir Davood Omrani, Mahnoosh Rahimi, Arezou Sayad, Alireza Komaki, Mehrdokht Mazdeh, Mohammad Taheri
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been recently reported to participate in the regulation of immune responses. Consequently, aberrant expression of lncRNAs has been suggested as an underlying cause of MS. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of three lncRNAs with putative roles in the regulation of immune response, namely TNF-α and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (THRIL), Fas cell surface death receptor- antisense 1 (FAS-AS1), and plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) in circulating blood cells of 50 Iranian relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients compared with healthy subjects by means of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Satrupa Das, Subhash Kaul, Akka Jyothy, Anjana Munshi
In the present study, we evaluated the association of TLR4 and CD14 polymorphisms, i.e. C1196T and C-260T, respectively, with ischemic stroke (n = 700), its subtypes and hemorrhagic stroke (n = 300) in a South Indian population from Telangana. The genotypes were determined using PCR-RFLP, and the strength of association between genotypes and stroke was determined by odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) and chi-square analysis. The results revealed a lack of association for TLR4 variant with ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke, although a significant association was observed with the subtypes extracranial large artery (p = 0...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Sandra Kuehn, Cara Rodust, Gesa Stute, Pia Grotegut, Wilhelm Meißner, Sabrina Reinehr, H Burkhard Dick, Stephanie C Joachim
The intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), a glutamate analogue, is an established model for fast retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration. Yet, NMDA does not cause specific RGC damage. Now, the effects on the whole retina were analyzed. Additionally, the related effects for the structure and apoptotic levels of the optic nerve were investigated. Therefore, different NMDA concentrations were intravitreally injected in rats (20, 40, or 80 nmol NMDA or PBS). At days 3 and 14, Brn-3a(+) RGCs were degenerated...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Maryam Hassanlou, Bahram Mohammad Soltani, Seyed Javad Mowla
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate mRNA expression. hsa-miR-6165 which was previously discovered in our group is located in the forth intron of p75NTR gene and its function is still under investigation. As P75NTR has diverse cellular functions, some of the complexity of its function could be attributed to the internally located microRNA. Our analysis revealed that treatment of HCT116 cells with 5-azacytidine promoted differential expression of hsa-miR-6165 from its host gene which is consistent with the bioinformatic prediction of an independent promoter for hsa-miR-6165...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Xiao-Li Chen, Guo-Ping Zhang, Sheng-Long Guo, Jia-Qi Ding, Jia-Ji Lin, Qian Yang, Zhu-Yi Li
Disturbances in intracellular iron homeostasis are associated with neuronal injury after stroke. However, exposure of cells to classical chelators may interfere with physiological iron functions. BHAPI is an iron prochelator that exerts strong iron binding capacity only under oxidative stress conditions. This study investigated the protective effects of N'-(1-(2-((4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,2,3-dioxoborolan-2-yl)benzyl)oxy)phenyl)ethylidene (BHAPI) on an in vitro ischemia model mimicked by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in neuronal HT22 cells...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Hao Wang, Xiaoyu Hong, Shuiming Li, Yong Wang
Protein synthesis has been reported to be impaired in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, we found that oxygen supplementation improved cognitive function and reduced mitochondrial damage in AD model mice. In the present study, we examined the effects of supplemental oxygen treatment on protein synthesis and oxidative damage. The synthesis of numerous proteins involved in mRNA splicing, transcription regulation, and translation was found to be significantly upregulated in cortex tissues of AD model mice given a supplemental oxygen treatment (OT group), relative to those of non-treated control AD model mice (Ctrl group), suggesting that impairment in protein synthesis may be alleviated by increased oxygen inhalation...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Baoying Wang, Chenghu Hu, Xiaobei Yang, Fangying Du, Yan Feng, Hongbo Li, Chunhui Zhu, Xiaorui Yu
Retinal degenerative diseases are characterized by photoreceptor cell loss. Photoreceptor cell loss leading to retinal degeneration can be induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), which was widely used to mimic the pathology. However, the mechanism by which MNU induces photoreceptor cell loss is still largely unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (p-GSK-3β) is a potent mediator of MNU-induced retinal degeneration and how p-GSK-3β affects the process...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Nan Zhang, Chenchen Song, Baomin Zhao, Mengya Xing, Lanlan Luo, Marc L Gordon, Yan Cheng
Cerebral hypoperfusion is an important factor in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. We investigated the effects of memantine and rosuvastatin on both neovascularization and synaptic function in a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which was established by the bilateral common carotid occlusion (2VO) method. We tested learning and memory ability, synaptic function, circulating endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) number, expression of neurotrophic factors, and markers of neovasculogenesis and cell proliferation after memantine and/or rosuvastatin treatment...
September 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Shay Ben-Shachar, Zaid Afawi, Rafik Masalha, Samih Badarny, Tova Neiman, Dina Pavzner, Anat Bar-Shira, Avi Orr-Urtreger
Early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) is less common than the typical adult-onset PD and may be associated with a genetic etiology. Mutations in several genes are known to cause autosomal recessive (AR) PD. This study aimed to detect the etiology of EOPD in consanguineous families or families living in a specific small geographic region in Israel. Six families with EOPD affecting more than a single individual were recruited. Homozygous mapping analysis using a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based array was performed in all families, followed by Sanger sequencing of related genes based on the mapping results...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Fatemeh Nouri Emamzadeh, David Allsop
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dopaminergic neural cell death in the substantia nigra of the brain and α-synuclein (α-syn) accumulation in Lewy bodies. α-Syn can be detected in blood and is a potential biomarker for PD. It has been shown recently that α-syn can pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but the mechanism is not yet understood. We hypothesized that α-syn could interact with lipoproteins, and in association with these particles, could pass through the BBB...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Franc Llorens, Katrin Thüne, Pol Andrés-Benito, Waqas Tahir, Belén Ansoleaga, Karina Hernández-Ortega, Eulàlia Martí, Inga Zerr, Isidro Ferrer
The present study analyzes by RT-qPCR the expression of microRNA (miRNA)-27a-3p, miRNA-124-3p, miRNA-132-3p, and miRNA-143-3p in the locus coeruleus (LC), entorhinal cortex (EC), CA1 region of the hippocampus (CA1), and dentate gyrus (DG) of middle-aged (MA) individuals with no brain lesions and of cases at Braak and Braak stages I-II and II-IV of neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology. The most affected region is the LC in which miRNA-27a-3p, miRNA-124-3p, and miRNA-143-3p show a trend to increase at stages I-II and are significantly up-regulated at stages III-IV when compared with MA...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Shafigheh Naseri, Seyed Mohammad Hossein Noori Moghahi, Tahmineh Mokhtari, Mehrdad Roghani, Ali Reza Shirazi, Fatemeh Malek, Tayebeh Rastegar
Neural stem cells are self-renewing, multipotent cells that can be found in subventricular (SVZ) and subgranular (SGZ) zones of the brain. These zones are susceptible to irradiation-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress. Melatonin (MLT) is a natural protector of neural cells against toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of MLT as a radio-protective material effective in reducing tissue lesions in the SVZ of the brain and changing local apoptotic potential in rats. Twenty-five Gray irradiation was applied on adult rat brain for this study...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Elizabeth M Ellison, Melissa A Bradley-Whitman, Mark A Lovell
Epigenetic modifications to cytosine have been shown to regulate transcription in cancer, embryonic development, and recently neurodegeneration. While cytosine methylation studies are now common in neurodegenerative research, hydroxymethylation studies are rare, particularly genome-wide mapping studies. As an initial study to analyze 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) genome, reduced representation hydroxymethylation profiling (RRHP) was used to analyze more than 2 million sites of possible modification in hippocampal DNA of sporadic AD and normal control subjects...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Qinggan Zeng, Rongyong Man, Yifeng Luo, Ling Zeng, Yushi Zhong, Bingxun Lu, Xiaofeng Wang
It is well known that extracellular deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and microglia-mediated neuroinflammation are major hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF-8), an important transcription factor of the IRF family, is highly restricted in microglia in brains. The expression pattern and function of IRF-8 in AD need to be elucidated in order to provide novel therapies for the treatment of AD. In this study, our results indicated that expression of IRF-8 is significantly elevated in the brains and microglia of AD transgenic model Tg2576 mice...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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