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Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN

Xiaoqing Chen, Cheng Chen, Jie Hao, Jiyun Zhang, Feng Zhang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event resulting in neuron degeneration and permanent paralysis through inflammatory cytokine overproduction and glial scar formation. Presently, the endogenous molecular mechanisms coordinating glial scar formation in the injured spinal cord remain elusive. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a well-known transcription factor particularly involving in cell proliferation and inflammation in the lesion site following SCI. Meanwhile, CAP-Gly domain containing linker protein 3(CLIP3), a vital cytoplasmic protein, has been confirmed to providing an optimal conduit for intracellular signal transduction and interacting with STAT3 with mass spectrometry analysis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Alma Genis-Mendoza, Ileana Gallegos-Silva, Carlos Alfonso Tovilla-Zarate, Lilia López-Narvaez, Thelma Beatriz González-Castro, Yazmín Hernández-Díaz, Mavil López-Casamichana, Humberto Nicolini, Sandra Morales-Mulia
In this study, we evaluated the expression profile changes of genes that intervene in the calcium signaling pathway, in young and adult Wistar rats, using the animal model of neonatal lesion in ventral hippocampus (NLVH) (a recognized animal model for schizophrenia) and compared to the group of control animals (Sham). Through microarray technology, gene expression profiles were obtained from the three brain areas (nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus) of young male Wistar rats (45 days) and adults (90 days) whether or not subjected to NLVH...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Lei An, Weiwei Li, Xinde Hu, Wei Zhang, Shanting Zhao
The process of neuronal migration is precisely regulated by different molecules during corticogenesis. The FAK (focal adhesion kinase) plays a critical role in embryogenesis and is involved in cell motility through focal adhesions, but the underlying mechanisms on inordinate expression are unclear. To investigate the effect of FAK overexpression on neuronal migration spatiotemporally, mice FAK was transfected into the neurons in vivo by electroporation. Results showed that exogenous FAK distributed in the cytoplasm (in vivo) and co-localized with vinculin (in vitro) and induced aberrant neuronal migration via phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr925 during cerebral cortex development...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Xiaofeng Bai, Xia Zhang, Qing Zhou
Recent clinical studies have revealed sex differences in response to transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonist-induced pain. However, the mechanism of these differences in TRPV1-related chronic pain remains unclear. In the present study, we investigate the effects of inflammation and gonadal hormones on TRPV1 expression in trigeminal ganglia. Inflammatory pain was modeled by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the left masseter muscle in rats. TRPV1 mRNA and protein levels in the trigeminal ganglia of male and female rats following CFA injection were assessed...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Yaojun Tai, Yujiao Qiu, Zhicheng Bao
Chronic inflammation in the brain plays a critical role in major neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Microglia, the resident macrophages and intrinsic components of the central nervous system (CNS), appear to be the main effectors in this pathological process. Magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) is one of the major bioactive components of Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, which has been documented to protect neurons against multiple types of neuronal injury...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Yi Liu, Xue-Fei Sun, Mei Ding, Yong-Ping Liu, Xi-Cen Zhang, Hao Pang, Jia-Xin Xing, Jin-Feng Xuan, Xi Xia, Bao-Jie Wang, Jun Yao
The aim of this study was to explore whether schizophrenia occurrence is associated with polymorphisms in the 5' regulatory region of GABRB3 (gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor beta 3, subunit gene). The study included 324 patients with schizophrenia and 327 unaffected participants; all individuals were northern Han Chinese. Genotype and haplotype frequency distributions were compared for the 2 groups by means of PCR amplification and direct sequencing of the promoter region of GABRB3. The genotype distribution among control participants was in accordance with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Min Liu, Meifang Jin, Xuqin Chen, Bo Wan, Yue Guo, Mao Sheng, Linqi Chen, Lei Zhao, Danping Huang, Yan Li
Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective function of the copper-transporting ATP7B protein. Symptoms are typically related to the brain and liver, while endocrinologic abnormalities are rare. Here, we reported a 12-year-old female patient that was initially presented with unusual skin darkening and low serum level of adrenocorticotropic hormone and diagnosed as having adrenocortical insufficiency. We further screened the mutation in ATP7B by direct DNA sequencing and found compound heterozygous mutations: a known pathogenic mutation in exon8:c...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Celia González-Castillo, Elizabeth Muñoz-Ortiz, Carolina Guzmán-Brambila, Argelia E Rojas-Mayorquín, Luis Beltran-Parrazal, Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún, Consuelo Morgado-Valle
In mammals, the neural control of breathing is attributed to circuits distributed along the ventral respiratory column (VRC) in the ventrolateral medulla. The VRC contains the kernel for generation of the inspiratory phase of respiratory rhythm and nuclei involved in central chemoreception. During development, the respiratory rhythm, as well as central chemosensitivity, adjusts to meet the changing physiological requirements associated with increased body weight and size. Gene expression in VRC ontogeny is well characterized...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Marco Calabrò, Stefano Porcelli, Concetta Crisafulli, Sheng-Min Wang, Soo-Jung Lee, Changsu Han, Ashwin A Patkar, Prakash S Masand, Diego Albani, Ilaria Raimondi, Gianluigi Forloni, Sofia Bin, Carlotta Cristalli, Vilma Mantovani, Chi-Un Pae, Alessandro Serretti
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a common and severe mental disorder. Genetic factors likely play a role in its pathophysiology as well as in treatment response. In the present study, we investigated the effects of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 9 genes involved with antipsychotic (AP) mechanisms of action. Two independent samples were recruited. The Korean sample included 176 subjects diagnosed with SCZ and 326 healthy controls, while the Italian sample included 83 subjects and 194 controls. AP response as measured by the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) was the primary outcome, while the secondary outcome was the SCZ risk...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Yeu-Shiuan Su, Yu-Fen Huang, Jen Wong, Chia-Wei Lee, Wei-Shan Hsieh, Wei-Hsin Sun
Tissue injury, pathogen infection, and diseases are often accompanied by inflammation to release mediators that sensitize nociceptors and further recruit immune cells, which can lead to chronic hyperalgesia and inflammation. Tissue acidosis, occurring at the inflammatory site, is a major factor contributing to pain and hyperalgesia. The receptor G2 accumulation (G2A), expressed in neurons and immune cells, responds to protons or oxidized free fatty acids such as 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid produced by injured cells or oxidative stresses...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Guangcheng Qin, Bei Gui, Jingmei Xie, Lixue Chen, Lianlian Chen, Zhiwei Cui, Jiying Zhou, Ge Tan
Sensitization and activation of the trigeminal ganglia have been implicated in the pathology of migraine. Satellite glial cells (SGCs), a specialized type of glial cells that ensheathe trigeminal neurons, may be critical for peripheral nociceptive sensitization. Tetrandrine (TET), an alkaloid extracted from a traditional Chinese herb, exerts an inhibitory effect on glial activation in vitro and has been used in various neurologic diseases. The current study investigated the effect of TET on nitroglycerin (NTG)-induced trigeminal sensitization and examined potential signaling pathways related to SGC activation in the model of migraine...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Casper Schwartz Riedel, Birgitte Georg, Henrik L Jørgensen, Jens Hannibal, Jan Fahrenkrug
Early growth response transcription factor 1 (EGR1) is expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) after light stimulation. We used EGR1-deficient mice to address the role of EGR1 in the clock function and light-induced resetting of the clock. The diurnal rhythms of expression of the clock genes BMAL1 and PER1 in the SCN were evaluated by semi-quantitative in situ hybridization. We found no difference in the expression of PER1 mRNA between wildtype and EGR1-deficient mice; however, the daily rhythm of BMAL1 mRNA was completely abolished in the EGR1-deficient mice...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Man Xu, Yongle Li, Jinfeng Du, Hengrong Lin, Sixian Cao, Zuming Mao, Ronghua Wu, Mei Liu, Yan Liu, Qiyou Yin
Neural crest (NC) cells are a multipotent cell population with powerful migration ability during development. C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is a chemokine receptor implicated to mediate NC migration in various species, whereas the underlying mechanism is not well documented yet. PAX3 is a critical transcription factor for the formation of neural crest and the migration and differentiation of NCs. In this study, we retrieved a potential PAX3 binding element in the promoter of the CXCR4 gene, and we further found that PAX3 could promote the expression of CXCR4 and facilitate the migration of NCs...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Jingyu Zhang, Yongwei Shu, Yang Qu, Lina Zhang, Tingting Chu, Yonghui Zheng, Hong Zhao
There have been numerous reports about neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Nevertheless, the molecules responsible for the neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease are basically unknown. Recent findings indicate that the cellular myeloblastosis (c-myb) regulates neural progenitor cell proliferation. In the current study, the function of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) against cell toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells induced by β-amyloid 25-35 (Aβ25-35) and its molecular mechanism were investigated...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Denis A P Moura, Roberta R Lemos, João R M Oliveira
Data of mice with PDGF-B-truncating mutation (Pdgfb (ret/ret)) from different research groups indicate that the malfunction of this protein leads to reduced pericyte recruitment, loss of Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) integrity and bilateral brain calcification. This makes these mice important models for Primary Brain Calcification and pericyte-BBB correlation studies. The global brain pericyte count is reduced in Pdgfb (ret/ret) mice, with higher BBB permeability. We have overlapped the data from other research groups into a figure to further analyze the findings...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Sungjae Yoo, Seung-In Choi, Seul Lee, Jiho Song, Chungmi Yang, Sangsu Bang, Seung Up Kim, Kyung Hoon Min, Sun Wook Hwang
Primary sensory afferent neurons detect environmental and painful stimuli at their peripheral termini. A group of transient receptor potential ion channels (TRPs) are expressed in these neurons and constitute sensor molecules for the stimuli such as thermal, mechanical, and chemical insults. We examined whether a mouse sensory neuronal line, N18D3, shows the sensory TRP expressions and their functionality. In Ca(2+) imaging and electrophysiology with these cells, putative TRPV4-mediated responses were observed...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Li Li, Hui Liu, Haijing Song, Yingsong Qin, Ying Wang, Ming Xu, Chaoxia Liu, Jin Gao, Shen Sun
Parkinson's disease (PD) mainly results from the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), and the exact underlying mechanisms of the loss of DA neurons in PD remains largely unclear. The results of our previous work showed that let-7d was significantly downregulated in a 6-OHDA-induced cellular model of PD. However, the exact effect of let-7d on DA neural cells was unclear. In MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells, we used a let-7d mimic and inhibitor to upregulate and downregulate the expression of let-7d, respectively, a cell counting kit to assess cell viability, and a TUNEL staining assay and flow cytometry to examine the cell death rate, and we found that let-7d could negatively regulate 6-OHDA-induced cell injury...
October 29, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Lucie Hejnova, Jitka Skrabalova, Jiri Novotny
β-Adrenergic signaling plays an important role in regulating diverse brain functions and alterations in this signaling have been observed in different neuropathological conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of a 10-day treatment with high doses of morphine (10 mg/kg per day) on major components and functional state of the β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling system in the rat cerebral cortex. β-ARs were characterized by radioligand binding assays and amounts of various G protein subunits, adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms, G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), and β-arrestin were examined by Western blot analysis...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Dominika Ksiazek-Winiarek, Piotr Szpakowski, Malgorzata Turniak, Janusz Szemraj, Andrzej Glabinski
Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune, neurodegenerative disease, affecting mostly young adults and resulting in progressive disability. It is a multifactorial disorder, with important involvement of both cellular and epigenetic components. Among the epigenetic factors, microRNAs are currently intensively investigated in the context of multiple sclerosis. It has been shown that their biogenesis and function may be regulated by various cytokines. IL-17, a hallmark cytokine of Th17 cells, has been thought to function predominantly as a pro-inflammatory factor, leading to increased disease symptoms...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Arturo Reyes-Vaca, Lizbeth de la Cruz, Julieta Garduño, Isabel Arenas, David E Garcia
Voltage-dependent regulation of CaV2.2 channels by G-proteins is performed by the β (Gβ) subunit. Most studies of regulation by G-proteins have focused on channel activation; however, little is known regarding channel inactivation. This study investigated inactivation of CaV2.2 channels in superior cervical ganglion neurons that overexpressed Gβ subunits. CaV2.2 currents were recorded by whole-cell patch clamping configuration. We found that the Gβ1 subunit reduced inactivation, while Gβ5 subunit did not alter at all inactivation kinetics compared to control recordings...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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