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Experimental Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537411/postprandial-augmentation-index-is-reduced-in-adults-with-prediabetes-following-continuous-and-interval-exercise-training
#1
Natalie Z M Eichner, Julian M Gaitán, Nicole M Gilbertson, Mahnoor Khurshid, Arthur Weltman, Steven K Malin
Background People with prediabetes have elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in part due to low insulin sensitivity mediated arterial stiffness. However, the effect of short-term exercise training intensity, and/or amount (i.e. kcal/session), on fasting and postprandial arterial stiffness is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that increased exercise intensity and dose (i.e. amount) would correlate with reduced fasting and postprandial arterial stiffness in obese adults with prediabetes. Methods Following randomization, 31 adults (Age: 61...
December 11, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30536521/heat-acclimation-does-not-affect-maximal-aerobic-power-in-thermoneutral-normoxic-or-hypoxic-conditions
#2
Alexandros Sotiridis, Tadej Debevec, Urša Ciuha, Ola Eiken, Igor B Mekjavic
What is the central question of this study? Controlled-hyperthermia heat acclimation protocols induce an array of thermoregulatory and cardiovascular adaptations that facilitate exercise in hot conditions. We investigated whether this ergogenic potential can be transferred to thermoneutral normoxic or hypoxic exercising conditions. What is the main finding and its importance? We show that heat acclimation did not affect maximal cardiac output or maximal aerobic power in thermoneutral normoxic/hypoxic conditions...
December 11, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30485571/prolonged-depression-of-knee-extensor-torque-complexity-following-eccentric-exercise
#3
Jamie Pethick, Katherine Whiteaway, Samantha L Winter, Mark Burnley
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Does eccentric exercise leading to prolonged knee-extensor torque depression also result in a prolonged loss of knee-extensor torque complexity? What is the main finding and its importance? The recovery of the loss of torque complexity after eccentric exercise took 24 h, whereas after acute muscle fatigue it took 10 min. The depression of torque complexity after eccentric exercise was prolonged. ABSTRACT: Neuromuscular fatigue reduces the temporal structure, or complexity, of muscle torque output...
November 28, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30480848/messages-from-the-auricle-limiting-progression-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-through-transcutaneous-nerve-stimulation-of-nerves-in-the-external-ear
#4
Beatrice Bretherton, Susan Deuchars, Jim Deuchars
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30468691/the-magnitude-of-neuromuscular-fatigue-is-not-intensity-dependent-when-cycling-above-critical-power-but-relates-to-aerobic-and-anaerobic-capacities
#5
Lisa U Schäfer, Mark Hayes, Jeanne Dekerle
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Is the magnitude of neuromuscular fatigue dependent upon exercise intensity above critical power (CP) when W' (the curvature constant of the power-duration relationship) is depleted? What is the main finding and its importance? The magnitude of neuromuscular fatigue is the same following two bouts of supra-CP cycling (3 vs. 12 min) when controlling for W' depletion, but is larger for individuals of greater anaerobic capacity following the shorter, and smaller for individuals of greater aerobic capacity following the longer exercise...
November 23, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30468689/evidence-of-high-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-uptake-in-the-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-of-the-dorsocervical-area-in-young-adults
#6
Borja Martinez-Tellez, Guillermo Sanchez-Delgado, Juan M A Alcantara, Francisco M Acosta, Francisco J Amaro-Gahete, Francisco J Osuna-Prieto, Alejandro Perez-Bey, David Jimenez-Pavon, Jose M Llamas-Elvira, Angel Gil, Concepcion M Aguilera, Patrick C N Rensen, Jonatan R Ruiz
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study?Some studies have performed biopsies of the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in the abdomen and they failed to find browning markers. Is abdomen the right place to take biopsies? What is the main finding and its importance?For first time, we observed that the glucose uptake in the SAT is higher in comparison to other SAT parts. ABSTRACT: Newborns have subcutaneous brown adipose tissue (BAT) in the dorsocervical area, and it is thought that these depots gradually disappear with age...
November 23, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30462876/effect-of-increased-inspiratory-muscle-work-on-blood-flow-to-inactive-and-active-limbs-during-submaximal-dynamic-exercise
#7
Keisho Katayama, Kanako Goto, Kaori Shimizu, Mitsuru Saito, Koji Ishida, Luyu Zhang, Kana Shiozawa, A William Sheel
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Increased respiratory muscle activation is associated with neural and cardiovascular consequences via the respiratory muscle metaboreflex. Does increased sympathetic vasoconstriction originating from the respiratory musculature elicit a reduction in blood flow to an inactive limb in order to maintain blood flow to an active limb? What is the main finding and its importance? Arm blood flow was reduced while leg blood flow was preserved during mild leg exercise with inspiratory resistance...
November 21, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30457682/effects-of-intermittent-hyperbaric-exposure-on-endurance-and-interval-exercise-performance-in-well-trained-mice
#8
Junichi Suzuki
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Intermittent hyperbaric exposure (1.3 ATA with 20.9% O2 ) has been shown to facilitate endurance capacity by facilitating oxidative and glycolytic capacities in skeletal muscle. It currently remains unclear whether this strategy enhances endurance performance in well-trained individuals. What is the main finding and its importance? Hyperbaric exposure (1.3 ATA with 20.9% O2 ) with endurance training enhanced oxidative and glycolytic capacities and protein levels of mitochondrial transcription factor A, dynamin-related protein-1, and heat shock protein 70...
November 20, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30456914/evidence-for-protein-kinase-involvement-in-the-5-ht-ca-2-i-pannexin-1-signalling-pathway-in-type-ii-glial-cells-of-the-rat-carotid-body
#9
Erin M Leonard, Min Zhang, Colin A Nurse
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The mammalian carotid body (CB) is a peripheral chemoreceptor organ involved in O2 and CO2 /H+ homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that 5-HT, released from CB receptor cells, can stimulate adjacent glial-like type II cells, leading to a rise in intracellular Ca2+ ([ΔCa2+ i ]) and activation of ATP-permeable pannexin-1 (Panx-1) channels. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of protein kinases in the 5-HT-[Ca2+ ]i -Panx-1 signalling pathway...
November 20, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30444291/endocrine-regulation-of-gut-function-a-role-for-glucagon-like-peptide-1-in-the-pathophysiology-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Dervla O'Malley
NEW FINDINGS: Pathophysiological changes linked to Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) include stress and immune activation, changes in gastrointestinal microbial and bile acids profiles and sensitisation of extrinsic and intrinsic gut neurons. This review explores the potential role for L-cells in these pathophysiological changes. L-cells, which secrete glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in response to nutrients, microbial factors, bile acids and short-chain fatty acids, may sense IBS-related changes in the luminal environment...
November 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30427561/firing-properties-of-ventral-medullary-respiratory-neurons-in-sino-aortic-denervated-rats
#11
Mateus R Amorim, Rodrigo F O Pena, George M P R Souza, Leni G H Bonagamba, Antônio C Roque, Benedito H Machado
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? After sino-aortic denervation (SAD) rats present normal levels of mean arterial pressure (MAP), high MAP variability and changes in breathing. However, mechanisms involved in SAD-induced respiratory changes and their impact on the modulation of sympathetic activity remain unclear. Herein, we characterized the firing frequency of medullary respiratory neurons after SAD. What is the main finding and its importance? SAD-induced prolonged inspiration was associated with a reduced interburst frequency of Pre-I/I and an increased long-term variability of Late-I neurons, but no changes were observed in the Ramp-I and Post-I neurons...
November 14, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30421831/metabolomics-for-the-mountains-bring-on-the-biomarkers
#12
Damian M Bailey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414341/down-regulation-of-lncrna-xist-ameliorates-podocytes-apoptosis-in-membranous-nephropathy-via-mir-217-tlr4-pathway
#13
Ling-Wei Jin, Min Pan, Han-Yang Ye, Yu Zheng, Yan Chen, Wen-Wen Huang, Xiao-Yan Xu, Shu-Bei Zheng
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Up-regulation of lncRNA XIST in injured podocytes and membranous nephropathy has been noted, but its implication in membranous nephropathy pathogenesis has not been elucidated in detail. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrated that XIST was up-regulated in kidney tissue of membranous nephropathy and in injured podocytes. Down-regulation of XIST inhibited podocytes apoptosis. XIST negatively regulated miR-217, and miR-217 controlled TLR4...
November 10, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30398289/low-level-transcutaneous-vagus-nerve-stimulation-attenuates-cardiac-remodelling-in-a-rat-model-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#14
Liping Zhou, Adrian Filiberti, Mary Beth Humphrey, Christian D Fleming, Benjamin J Scherlag, Sunny S Po, Stavros Stavrakis
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? What is the effect of chronic intermittent low-level transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation on cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction in a rat model of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction? What is the main finding and its importance? In salt-sensitive rats fed with high salt diet, low-level transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation significantly attenuated blood pressure elevation, ameliorated diastolic function, and attenuated left ventricular inflammation and fibrosis compared to the sham group...
November 6, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30379382/artesunate-attenuates-airway-resistance-in-vivo-and-relaxes-airway-smooth-muscle-cells-in-vitro-via-bitter-taste-receptor-dependent-calcium-signaling
#15
Yue Wang, Aili Wang, Ming Zhang, Huilong Zeng, Yun Lu, Lei Liu, Jingjing Li, Linhong Deng
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? This study aims to evaluate artesunate for its usage as a bronchodilator drug agent in asthma treatment. What is the main finding and its importance? We find that artesunate reduces airway resistance in both normal and ovalbumin-treated Balb/c mice in vivo, and reduces traction force while inducing Ca2+ influx of the cultured airway smooth muscle cells in vitro most likely via bitter taste receptor. This finding provides important evidence at both animal and cellular level that artesunate may be a potential alternative bronchodilator for treating obstructive airway diseases such as asthma...
October 31, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30379374/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-type-ii-and-type-iii-pi-transporters-in-the-opossum-kidney-cell-line
#16
Natalia Guillén, Yupanqui A Caldas, Moshe Levi, Víctor Sorribas
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The Opossum Kidney (OK) cell line is the main in vitro model of proximal tubular Pi transport, but it is incomplete because only the NaPiIIa Pi transporter has been identified. What is the main finding and its importance? We have cloned and characterized the Pi transporters NaPiIIc, PiT1 and PiT2 from OK cells and have analysed the relevance of the four transporters in Pi transport. All four transporters are involved in the up-regulated Pi transport of cells incubated using a low Pi medium, and only PiT1 is not involved in basal transport...
October 31, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30375081/organ-blood-flow-and-o-2-transport-during-hypothermia-27%C3%A2-c-and-rewarming-in-a-pig-model
#17
Sergei Valkov, Rizwan Mohyuddin, Jan Harald Nilsen, Torstein Schanche, Timofey Kondratiev, Gary C Sieck, Torkjel Tveita
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Absence of hypothermia-induced cardiac arrest is a strong predictor for a favorable outcome after rewarming. Nevertheless, detailed knowledge of preferences in organ blood flow during rewarming with spontaneous circulation is largely unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? In a porcine model of accidental hypothermia, we find, despite a significantly reduced cardiac output during rewarming, normal blood flow and O2 supply in vital organs due to patency of adequate physiologic compensatory responses...
October 29, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370945/carotid-bodies-contribute-to-sympathoexcitation-induced-by-acute-salt-overload
#18
Elaine Fernanda da Silva, Mirian Bassi, José Vanderlei Menani, Débora Simões Almeida Colombari, Daniel Breseghello Zoccal, Gustavo Rodrigues Pedrino, Eduardo Colombari
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Does carotid body input contribute to the hyperosmotic responses? What is the main finding and its importance? The response to NaCl overload is sympathorespiratory excitation. Eliminating the carotid body input reduced sympathoexcitation but did not affect the increase in phrenic burst frequency, whereas eliminating the hypothalamus prevented the tachypnoea and sympathoexcitation. We conclude that the carotid body inputs are essential for the full expression of the sympathetic activity during acute NaCl overload, whereas the tachypnoea depends on hypothalamic mechanisms...
October 29, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367746/simultaneous-monitoring-of-ca-2-responses-and-salivary-secretion-in-live-animals-reveals-a-threshold-intracellular-ca-2-concentration-for-salivation
#19
Akihiro Nezu, Takao Morita, Takeharu Nagai, Akihiko Tanimura
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The effects of Ca2+ responses on salivary fluid secretion have been studied indirectly by monitoring ion channel activities and other indices. Therefore, Ca2+ responses during salivary secretion remain poorly understood. What is the main finding and its importance? Herein, we developed a simultaneous monitoring system for Ca2+ responses and salivary secretion in live animals using a YC-Nano50-expressing submandibular gland (SMG) and a fiber-optic pressure sensor...
October 27, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30362197/mitochondrial-atp-synthase-beta-subunit-production-rate-and-atp-synthase-specific-activity-are-reduced-in-skeletal-muscle-of-humans-with-obesity
#20
Lee Tran, Paul R Langlais, Nyssa Hoffman, Lori Roust, Christos S Katsanos
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Humans with obesity have lower ATP synthesis in muscle along with lower content of the beta subunit of the ATP synthase (β-F1-ATPase), the catalytic component of the ATP synthase. Does lower synthesis rate of β-F1-ATPase in muscle contribute to these responses in humans with obesity? What is the main finding and its importance? Humans with obesity have lower synthesis rate of β-F1-ATPase and ATP synthase specific activity in muscle...
October 25, 2018: Experimental Physiology
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