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Experimental Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117227/chronic-oral-rapamycin-decreases-adiposity-hepatic-triglycerides-and-insulin-resistance-in-male-mice-fed-a-diet-high-in-sucrose-and-saturated-fat
#1
Laura J den Hartigh, Leela Goodspeed, Shari A Wang, Heidi L Kenerson, Mohamed Omer, Kevin D O'Brien, Warren Ladiges, Raymond Yeung, Savitha Subramanian
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Whether chronic oral rapamycin promotes beneficial effects on glucose/lipid metabolism and energy balance when administered to mice with an obesogenic diet rich in saturated fat and sucrose has not been explored. What is the main finding and its importance? Chronic oral rapamycin reduces body weight and fat gain, improves insulin sensitivity, and reduces hepatic steatosis when administered to mice with a high fat high sucrose diet...
August 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110509/brief-periods-of-inactivity-reduce-leg-microvascular-but-not-macrovascular-function-in-healthy-young-men
#2
Jennifer R Vranish, Benjamin E Young, Brandi Y Stephens, Jasdeep Kaur, Jaume Padilla, Paul J Fadel
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? We aimed to examine leg vascular responses to brief periods of inactivity. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate that a mere 10 min of sitting is sufficient to impair leg microvascular function (reactive hyperaemia). However, conduit artery vasodilatation (flow-mediated dilatation) was unaffected, indicating maintained macrovascular function. Interestingly, immobile supine rest also resulted in a reduction in microvascular function alone that was prevented when calf muscle contractions were performed...
August 15, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105882/influence-of-food-texture-on-energy-metabolism-and-adiposity-in-male-rats
#3
Wanxin Han, Maiko Utoyoma, Sayaka Akieda-Asai, Ayano Hidaka, Chihiro Yamada, Kazuya Hasegawa, Hiroyuki Nunoi, Yukari Date
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this manuscript? What is the effect of food texture on fat accumulation, lipogenesis and proinflammatory factors in the adipose tissue and on energy balance in male rats? What is the main finding and its importance? Calorie intake and fat accumulation in rats fed soft pellets ad libitum increased, but their body weight did not. The data suggest that, even when BMI is normal, frequent consumption of soft food may contribute to the development of lifestyle-related diseases...
August 13, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091806/muscle-and-tendon-lengthening-behaviour-of-the-medial-gastrocnemius-during-ankle-joint-rotation-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#4
Barbara M Kalkman, Lynn Bar-On, Francesco Cenni, Constantinos N Maganaris, Alfie Bass, Gill Holmes, Kaat Desloovere, Gabor J Barton, Thomas D O'Brien
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Which structures of the medial gastrocnemius muscle tendon unit contribute to its lengthening during joint rotation and thus receive the stretching stimulus? What is the main finding and its importance? We show for the first time, that muscle and tendon lengthen differently between children with CP and TD children during a similar amount of muscle tendon unit lengthening or joint rotation. This indicates possible differences in mechanical muscle and tendon properties due to CP, which is not evident by assessment of muscle function on a joint level...
August 9, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091805/comparison-of-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-acute-kidney-injury-by-clamping-renal-arteries-veins-or-pedicles-in-anaesthetised-rats
#5
Seyed Mohammad Owji, Elahe Nikeghbal, Seyed Mostafa Shid Moosavi
NEW FINDINGS: What is central question of this study? Acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients is usually due to renal artery hypoperfusion or occasionally vein thrombosis, but murine model of ischemic AKI is mostly induced via pedicle-clamping. Hence, the traditional renal pedicle-clamping model was compared with models of occluding renal artery or vein alone in rats. What is main finding and its importance? During renal venous occlusion, transmission of high arterial pressure into renal capillaries likely caused rupture of their walls and occurrence of hemorrhagic congestion that led to higher kidney tissue damage and dysfunction than pedicle and artery clamping...
August 9, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30088840/two-months-sodium-nitrate-supplementation-alleviates-testicular-injury-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-male-rats
#6
Hajar Oghbaei, Mohammad Reza Alipour, Gholamreza Hamidian, Mahdi Ahmadi, Vajihe Ghorbanzadeh, Rana Keyhanmanesh
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Whether a low dose of inorganic nitrate supplementation can prevent the testicular functional and structural alterations in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic male rats? What is the main finding and it's important? Treatment with a low dose of inorganic nitrate for 2 months had protective effects on male reproductive system. Improved body weight loss, sperm and testis parameters, spermatogenesis index, and testis histology as well as increased serum testosterone levels in diabetic rats...
August 8, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30088302/reduced-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-production-in-peripheral-nerves-of-mice-fed-a-ketogenic-diet
#7
Michael A Cooper, Colin McCoin, Dong Pei, John P Thyfault, Devin Koestler, Douglas E Wright
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Do peripheral sensory neurons metabolize fat-based fuel sources, and does a ketogenic diet modify these processes? What is the main finding and its importance We show that peripheral axons from mice fed a ketogenic diet respond to fat-based fuel sources with reduced respiration and H2 O2 emission compared with mice fed a control diet. These results add to our understanding of the responses of sensory neurons to neuropathy associated with poor diet, obesity and metabolic syndrome...
August 8, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079983/including-women-in-research-it-s-necessary-and-really-not-so-hard-to-do
#8
Nina S Stachenfeld
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 6, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30070749/establishment-and-evaluation-of-copd-model-by-chronic-exposure-to-mve-combined-with-lps-instillation
#9
Jiaze Shu, Wenju Lu, Kai Yang, Qiuyu Zheng, Defu Li, Yi Li, Meidan Kuang, Hanwei Liu, Ziying Li, Yuqin Chen, Chenting Zhang, Xiaoyun Luo, Junyi Huang, Xiongting Wu, Haiyang Tang, Jian Wang
NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this paper? In this study, by using the MVE exposure combining with/without LPS instillation, we established, evaluated and compared solo MVE, LPS with MVE+LPS treatment-induced COPD models in mice. What advances does it highlight? Our study demonstrated a novel paradigm that combining chronic exposure to MVE with early LPS instillation can establish a mouse model with some features of COPD, which allows researchers to further investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms between air pollution and COPD pathogenesis...
August 2, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30070746/correlation-between-neuroanatomical-and-functional-respiratory-changes-observed-in-an-experimental-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Silvio A Fernandes-Junior, Kárin S Carvalho, Thiago S Moreira, Ana C Takakura
NEW FINDINGS: Parkinson's Disease (PD) is the most prevalent movement disorder and the estimation is that the diagnosis will increase to approximately 9 million in 2030. Respiratory problems may be responsible for much of the mortality and morbidity associated with PD but data related to central respiratory changes are still lacking in the literature. In this study, 60 days after induction of model, there are decreases in baseline breathing and in the number of neurons, density of neurokinin-1 receptor and astrocytes in the ventrolateral respiratory region...
August 2, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30070742/gastric-cooling-and-menthol-cause-an-increase-in-cardiac-parasympathetic-efferent-activity-in-healthy-adult-human-volunteers
#11
Lubobo-Claude Kazadi, Janine Fletcher, Paul A Barrow
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? How do gastric stretch and gastric cooling stimuli affect cardiac autonomic control? What is the main finding and its importance? Gastric stretch causes a rise in cardiac sympathetic activity. Stretch combined with cold stimulation results in an elimination of the sympathetic response to stretch and an increase in cardiac parasympathetic activity resulting in a reduction in heart rate. Gastric cold stimulation causes a shift in sympathovagal balance towards parasympathetic dominance...
August 2, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30070403/caffeine-therapy-for-apnoea-of-prematurity-wake-up-to-the-fact-that-sex-matters
#12
Fiona B McDonald, Eugene M Dempsey, Ken D O'Halloran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30063099/reply-to-the-letter-to-the-editor-comments-on-doguet-et-al-2017-muscle-length-effect-on-corticospinal-excitability-during-maximal-concentric-isometric-and-eccentric-contractions-of-the-knee-extensors
#13
LETTER
Valentin Doguet, Kazunori Nosaka, Arnaud Guével, Marc Jubeau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062787/type-2-diabetes-and-older-age-contribute-to-elevated-plasma-microparticle-concentrations-independent-of-chronic-stroke
#14
Rian Q Landers-Ramos, Monica C Serra, Jacob B Blumenthal, Alice S Ryan, Charlene E Hafer-Macko, Steven J Prior
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? What is the effect of chronic stroke on circulating microparticle populations, accounting for potential effects of age and type 2 diabetes? What is the main finding and its importance? Elevated concentrations of CD31+/CD42b- and CD62E+ microparticles appear to be driven by type 2 diabetes but not chronic stroke and are associated with fasting glucose and triglyceride levels. Older age results in elevations in CD62E+ and CD34+ microparticle concentrations...
July 30, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055062/right-ventricular-dyssynchrony-during-hypoxic-breathing-but-not-during-exercise-in-healthy-subjects-a-speckle-tracking-echocardiography-study
#15
Beatrice Pezzuto, Kevin Forton, Roberto Badagliacca, Yoshiki Motoji, Vitalie Faoro, Robert Naeije
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Right ventricular dyssynchrony in severe pulmonary hypertension is associated with a poor prognosis. However, it has recently be observed in patients with lung or connective tissue disease and pulmonary artery pressure at the upper limits of normal. The mechanisms of right ventricular dyssynchrony in pulmonary hypertension remain uncertain. What is the main finding and its importance? Acute hypoxic breathing, but not normoxic exercise, induces an increase in right ventricular dyssynchrony detected at speckle tracking echocardiography in healthy subjects...
July 28, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055018/thirty-minutes-of-handgrip-exercise-potentiates-flow-mediated-dilation-in-response-to-sustained-and-transient-shear-stress-stimuli-to-a-similar-extent
#16
I A C McPhee, K E Pyke
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? This study sought to determine whether enhancement of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) following acute exposure to a sustained elevation in shear stress is greater when the shear stress stimulus for FMD is also sustained. What is the main finding and its importance? Brachial artery FMD in response to a sustained (handgrip exercise) and transient (reactive hyperemia) shear stress stimulus was similarly enhanced 10 minutes following a 30 minute handgrip exercise intervention...
July 28, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055008/water-drinking-enhances-the-gain-of-arterial-baroreflex-control-of-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-healthy-young-humans
#17
Lauro C Vianna, Igor A Fernandes, Daniel G Martinez, André L Teixeira, Bruno M Silva, Paul J Fadel, Antonio C L Nóbrega
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Water drinking increases muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) which is accompanied by increases in arterial blood pressure in patients with impaired baroreflex function and older populations, but not in young healthy subjects. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that an increase in the gain of arterial baroreflex control of MSNA contributes to the maintenance of arterial blood pressure following water drinking in healthy young subjects...
July 28, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30051938/myths-and-methodologies-reducing-scientific-design-ambiguity-in-studies-comparing-sexes-and-or-menstrual-cycle-phases
#18
Stacy T Sims, Alison K Heather
NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? We review methodological considerations for the inclusion of women in sex and menstrual cycle phase comparison studies. What advances does it highlight? Improving the methodological design for studies exploring sex differences, menstrual cycle phase differences and/or endogenous versus exogenous female sex hormones will help to close the gap in our understanding of the effects of endogenous and exogenous hormones on exercise science and sports medicine outcomes...
July 27, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024072/do-we-have-to-consider-acidosis-induced-by-exercise-as-deleterious-in-sickle-cell-disease
#19
Benjamin Chatel, Laurent A Messonnier, David Bendahan
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited haemoglobin (Hb) disorder and the most common monogenic disease in the world. The root cause of this pathology is the synthesis of an abnormal Hb (HbS) that polymerizes in deoxygenated conditions, leading to the sickling of red blood cells (RBC). Acidosis is well-recognized as a promoter of HbS polymerisation, and thereby RBC sickling. Indeed, it has been shown in vitro that the relative amount of sickled RBC increased markedly from 1% at pH 7.4 to more than 90% at pH 7...
July 19, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007015/nicotinamide-riboside-supplementation-dysregulates-redox-and-energy-metabolism-in-rats-implications-for-exercise-performance
#20
I A Kourtzidis, C F Dolopikou, A N Tsiftsis, N V Margaritelis, A A Theodorou, I A Zervos, M P Tsantarliotou, A S Veskoukis, I S Vrabas, V Paschalis, A Kyparos, M G Nikolaidis
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? To investigate the potential metabolic and redox mechanisms that impaired exercise performance after a 21-day supplementation with 300 mg/kg body weight of nicotinamide riboside in rats. What is the main finding and its importance? Nicotinamide riboside disturbed energy and redox metabolism and impaired exercise performance in heathy rats. Exogenously administered redox agents in heathy populations may lead to adverse effects...
July 14, 2018: Experimental Physiology
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