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Experimental Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676531/neuroimmune-modulation-of-cardiorespiratory-responses-to-acute-severe-hypoxia
#1
Ken D O'Halloran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667248/establishment-of-a-radiotelemetric-recording-technique-in-mice-to-investigate-gastric-slow-waves-modulatory-role-of-putative-neurotransmitter-systems
#2
Huichuan Wang, Zengbing Lu, Yuen Hang Liu, Yayi Sun, Longlong Tu, Man P Ngan, Chi-Kong Yeung, John A Rudd
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Gastric slow waves originating from interstitial cells of Cajal-smooth muscle syncytium are usually studied in culture or in tissue segments, but no studies have made recording of slow waves from conscious freely moving mice. Can radiotelemetry be used to record slow waves, and do they respond predictably to drug treatment? What is the main finding and its importance? Radiotelemetry may be used to record slow waves from conscious freely moving mice permitting an examination of drug action in vivo, which is critical to drug discovery projects characterizing drugs and metabolites on gastrointestinal function...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663576/neuroprotection-by-post-stroke-administration-of-an-oral-formulation-of-angiotensin-1-7-in-ischemic-stroke
#3
Douglas M Bennion, Chad H Jones, Lauren L Donnangelo, Justin T Graham, Jacob D Isenberg, Alex N Dang, Vermali Rodriguez, Ruben D M Sinisterra, Frederico B Sousa, Robson A S Santos, Colin Sumners
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Angiotensin-(1-7) decreases cerebral infarct volume and improves neurological function when delivered centrally prior to and during ischemic stroke. Here, we assessed the neuroprotective effects of angiotensin-(1-7) when delivered orally post-stroke. What is the main finding and its importance? We show that oral delivery of angiotensin-(1-7) attenuates cerebral damage induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats, without affecting blood pressure or cerebral blood flow...
April 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663541/eccentric-exercise-increases-circulating-fibroblast-activation-protein-but-not-bioactive-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-in-healthy-humans
#4
Biraj Parmar, Jo E Lewis, Ricardo J Samms, Francis J P Ebling, Christine C Cheng, Andrew C Adams, Joanne Mallinson, Scott Cooper, Tariq Taylor, Reza Ghasemi, Francis B Stephens, Kostas Tsintzas
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The role of FGF21 as an exercise-induced myokine remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether eccentric exercise would augment the release of FGF21 and/or its regulatory enzyme Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP) from skeletal muscle tissue into the systemic circulation of healthy human volunteers. What is the main finding and its importance? Eccentric exercise does not release total or bioactive FGF21 from human skeletal muscle...
April 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659080/influence-of-fitness-and-age-on-the-endothelial-response-to-acute-inflammation
#5
Elizabeth C Schroeder, Abbi D Lane-Cordova, Sushant M Ranadive, Tracy Baynard, Bo Fernhall
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of the study? The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of age and fitness on the vascular response to acute inflammation in younger and older adults. What is the main finding and its importance? In older adults, cardiorespiratory fitness level has a differential impact on endothelial function following acute inflammation: older moderately fit adults have a greater decrease in endothelial function, similar to that of younger adults...
April 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656554/a-single-day-of-bed-rest-irrespective-of-energy-balance-does-not-affect-skeletal-muscle-gene-expression-or-insulin-sensitivity
#6
Marlou L Dirks, Francis B Stephens, Sarah R Jackman, Jesús Galera Gordo, David Machin, Richard M Pulsford, Luc Jc van Loon, Benjamin T Wall
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? What are the initial metabolic and molecular events that underpin bed rest-induced skeletal muscle deconditioning, and what is the contribution of energy balance? What is the main finding and its importance? A single day of bed rest, irrespective of energy balance, did not lead to overt changes in skeletal muscle gene expression or insulin sensitivity. More than one day of physical inactivity is required to observe the insulin resistance and robust skeletal muscle transcriptional responses associated with bed rest and consequent alterations in energy balance...
April 15, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626373/sex-dimorphism-of-substrate-utilization-differences-in-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-volume-density-and-function
#7
David Montero, Klavs Madsen, Anne-Kristine Meinild-Lundby, Fredrik Edin, Carsten Lundby
Fat oxidation during exercise is higher in females than males. We sought to determine whether sex differences in substrate metabolism are paralleled by distinct skeletal muscle mitochondrial volume density and oxidative capacity. Whole-body substrate (fat, carbohydrate (CHO)) utilization during submaximal treadmill running was assessed and skeletal muscle biopsies were taken to determine mitochondrial volume density (MitoVD ) and function in healthy young females (n = 12) and males (n = 12) matched by aerobic exercise capacity (VO2max ) and exercise performance...
April 6, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607575/regulation-of-muscle-protein-synthesis-in-an-in-vitro-cell-model-using-ex-vivo-human-serum
#8
Brian P Carson, Bijal Patel, Miryam Amigo-Benavent, Martina Pauk, Sunil Kumar Gujulla, Sylvia M Murphy, Patrick A Kiely, Philip M Jakeman
Human serum embodies the integrated systemic response to any condition or perturbation which may regulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS). Conditioning of media with human serum represents a physiologically relevant method of regulating MPS in vitro. The primary purpose of this study is the development of a model using ex vivo human serum to condition media and regulate MPS in in vitro skeletal muscle cells. Four young healthy males reported to the lab after overnight fast and were fed with 0.33 g.kg-1  BM whey protein...
April 1, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604234/increased-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-free-radical-production-in-peripheral-arterial-disease-despite-preserved-mitochondrial-respiratory-capacity
#9
Corey R Hart, Gwenael Layec, Joel D Trinity, Oh Sung Kwon, Jia Zhao, Van R Reese, Jayson R Gifford, Russell S Richardson
Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction, which is not fully explained by disease-related arterial occlusion, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Therefore, this study comprehensively assessed mitochondrial respiratory function in biopsies from the gastrocnemius of 10 patients with PAD (Fontaine Stage II) and 12 healthy controls (HC). Intramuscular and systemic inflammation, mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and oxidative stress were also assessed to better understand the mechanisms responsible for the proposed PAD-induced mitochondrial dysfunction...
March 31, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604136/discontinued-stimulation-of-cardiomyocytes-provides-protection-against-hypothermia-rewarming-induced-disruption-of-excitation-contraction-coupling
#10
Young Soo Han, Niccole Schaible, Torkjel Tveita, Gary Sieck
After exposing spontaneously beating hearts as well as electrically stimulated isolated cardiomyocytes to hypothermia/rewarming (H/R), cardiac dysfunction or alterations in excitation-contraction coupling, respectively, is a consequence. In contrast, hypothermic cardiac arrest as routinely applied during cardiac surgery, will not impose any hazard to cardiac function after rewarming. We hypothesize that by maintaining asystole during H/R, cardiomyocytes will avoid Ca2+ overload due to the transient stimulation-evoked elevation of [Ca2+ ]cyto and thus, H/R-induced elevation of p-cTnI, and reduced Ca2+ sensitivity after rewarming...
March 31, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603461/metaboreceptor-activation-in-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-linking-cardiac-and-peripheral-vascular-hemodynamics
#11
Zachary Barrett-O'Keefe, Joshua F Lee, Amanda Berbert, Melissa A H Witman, Jose Nativi-Nicolau, Josef Stehlik, Russell S Richardson, D Walter Wray
This study sought to evaluate the muscle metaboreflex in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), with an emphasis on the interaction between cardiac and peripheral vascular hemodynamics across multiple levels of metaboreceptor activation. In 23 HFrEF patients (63 ± 2 yrs) and 15 healthy controls (64 ± 3 yrs), we examined changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular conductance (SVC), effective arterial elastance (Ea), stroke work (SW), and forearm deoxyhemoglobin concentration during metaboreceptor activation elicited by post-exercise circulatory occlusion (PECO) following three levels of static-intermittent handgrip exercise (15, 30, and 45% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC))...
March 30, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603450/nerve-growth-factor-dependent-hyperexcitability-of-capsaicin-sensitive-bladder-afferent-neurones-in-mice-with-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Takahiro Shimizu, Tsuyoshi Majima, Takahisa Suzuki, Nobutaka Shimizu, Naoki Wada, Katsumi Kadekawa, Shun Takai, Eiichiro Takaoka, Joonbeom Kwon, Anthony J Kanai, William C de Groat, Pradeep Tyagi, Motoaki Saito, Naoki Yoshimura
Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been implicated as an important mediator to induce C-fibre bladder afferent hyperexcitability, which contributes to the emergence of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) following spinal cord injury (SCI). In this study, we determined if NGF immunoneutralization using an anti-NGF antibody (NGF-Ab) normalizes the SCI-induced changes in electrophysiological properties of capsaicin-sensitive C-fibre bladder afferent neurones in female C57BL/6 mice. The spinal cord was transected at the Th8/9 level...
March 30, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603444/femoral-vascular-conductance-and-peroneal-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-responses-to-acute-epidural-spinal-cord-stimulation-in-humans
#13
Seth W Holwerda, Marshall T Holland, Chandan G Reddy, Gary L Pierce
Clinical cases have reported increased peripheral blood flow following continuous epidural spinal cord stimulation (SCS), and that reduced muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) may be a potential mechanism. However, no studies in humans have directly examined the effects of acute SCS (< 60 min) on vascular conductance and MSNA. In study 1, we tested the hypothesis that acute SCS (< 60 min) of the thoracic spine would lead to increased common femoral vascular conductance, but not brachial vascular conductance, in 11 patients that previously underwent surgical SCS implantation for management of neuropathic pain...
March 30, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528526/minocycline-alters-expression-of-inflammatory-markers-in-autonomic-brain-areas-and-ventilatory-responses-induced-by-acute-hypoxia
#14
Talita M Silva, Laiali J Chaar, Reinaldo C Silva, Ana C Takakura, Niels O Câmara, Vagner R Antunes, Thiago S Moreira
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Microglia are presumably the source of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to hypoxia-induced neuroinflammation. However, the relationship between microglia activity during hypoxia and inflammatory responses in specific autonomic brain regions is not well understood. Therefore, we hypothesize that acute hypoxia (AH) initiates an immune response in the central nervous system elicited by an increased expression of inflammatory mediators in specific brain areas related to autonomic control...
March 12, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528524/age-associated-impairments-in-contraction-induced-rapid-onset-vasodilatation-within-the-forearm-are-independent-of-mechanical-factors
#15
William E Hughes, Nicholas T Kruse, Darren P Casey
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? We examined whether the mechanical contribution to contraction-induced rapid onset vasodilatation (ROV) differed with age, and whether ROV is associated with peripheral artery stiffness. Furthermore, we examined how manipulation of perfusion pressure modulates ROV in young and older adults. What is the main finding and its importance? The mechanical contribution to ROV is similar in young and older adults. Conversely, peripheral arterial stiffness is not associated with ROV...
March 12, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527752/central-chemosensitivity-is-augmented-during-two-hours-of-thermoneutral-head-out-water-immersion-in-healthy-men-and-women
#16
James R Sackett, Zachary J Schlader, Morgan C O'Leary, Christopher L Chapman, Blair D Johnson
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of the study? Is central chemosensitivity blunted during thermoneutral head out water immersion in healthy humans? What is the main finding and its importance? Central chemosensitivity is augmented during thermoneutral head out water immersion in healthy men and women. Thus, we suggest that the central chemoreceptors do not contribute CO2 retention during head out water immersion. ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) retention occurs during water immersion...
March 12, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524327/integrin-%C3%AE-v-%C3%AE-3-can-substitute-for-collagen-binding-%C3%AE-1-integrins-in-vivo-to-maintain-a-homeostatic-interstitial-fluid-pressure
#17
Åsa Lidén, Tine Veronika Karlsen, Bengt Guss, Rolf K Reed, Kristofer Rubin
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Collagen-binding β1 -integrins function physiologically in cellular control of dermal interstitial fluid pressure (PIF ) in vivo and thereby participate in control of extravascular fluid volume. During anaphylaxis, simulated by injection of Compound 48/80 integrin αV β3 takes over this physiological function. Here we addressed the question whether integrin αV β3 can replace collagen-binding β1 -integrin to maintain a long-term homeostatic PIF ...
March 10, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524326/anaphylactic-hypotension-causes-renal-and-adrenal-sympathoexcitaion-and-induces-c-fos-in-the-hypothalamus-and-medulla-oblongata-anaphylaxis-affects-the-brain-and-activates-sympathetic-nerves
#18
Mamoru Tanida, Zhang Tao, Lingling Sun, Jie Song, Wei Yang, Yuichi Kuda, Yasutaka Kurata, Toshishige Shibamoto
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Whether anaphylaxis affects sympathetic outflows to the brown adipose tissue (BAT) and adrenal grand is not known. Moreover, it is unknown whether anaphylaxis affects some brain areas in association with sympathetic regulation. What is the main finding and its importance? We showed that sympathoexcitatory responses to anaphylaxis regionally occurred in the kidney and adrenal grand, but not in the thermogenesis-related BAT. Further, anaphylactic hypotension also caused increase in c-fos immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic and medullary areas...
March 10, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512224/physiology-of-static-breath-holding-in-elite-apneists
#19
Anthony R Bain, Ivan Drvis, Zeljko Dujic, David B MacLeod, Philip N Ainslie
NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? This review provides an up-to-date assessment of the physiology involved with extreme static dry-land breath holding in trained apneists. What advances does it highlight? We specifically highlight the recent findings involved with the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and metabolic function during a maximal breath hold in elite apneists. ABSTRACT: Breath hold related activities have been performed for centuries, but only recently within the last ∼30 years has it emerged as an increasingly popular competitive sport...
March 7, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509982/development-of-an-anesthetized-rat-model-of-exercise-hyperpnoea-an-integrative-model-of-respiratory-control-using-an-equilibrium-diagram
#20
Tadayoshi Miyamoto, Kou Manabe, Shinya Ueda, Hidehiro Nakahara
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The lack of useful small animal models for studying exercise hyperpnoea makes it difficult to investigate the underlying mechanisms of exercise-induced ventilatory abnormalities in various disease states. What is the main finding and its importance? We developed an anesthetized rat model for studying exercise hyperpnoea, using respiratory equilibrium diagram for quantitative characterization of the respiratory chemoreflex feedback system...
March 6, 2018: Experimental Physiology
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