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Experimental Physiology

R Ashrafi, P Modi, A Y Oo, D M Pullan, K Jian, H Zhang, J Yanni Gerges, G Hart, M R Boyett, G K Davis, J P H Wilding
Type 2 diabetes is associated with higher rate of ventricular arrhythmias and this is hypothesised to be independent of coronary artery disease or hypertension. To investigate further we compared changes in left ventricular myocardial gene expression in Type 2 diabetes to patients in a control group with left ventricular hypertrophy. 9 control patients and 7 patients with type 2 diabetes with aortic stenosis undergoing aortic valve replacement had standard ECGs, signal averaged ECGs and echocardiograms prior to surgery...
August 14, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Nick P Talbot, Peter A Robbins, Keith L Dorrington
We read with interest the recent article by Luks et al. (2017), which reports the relationship between arterial oxygen saturation and an echocardiographic index of pulmonary artery pressure (tricuspid transvalvular pressure gradient, TVPG) in healthy volunteers at sea level and after undertaking a two-week trek to Everest base camp. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 11, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Jill N Barnes
Over the last decade, there have been many published reports on sex differences in blood pressure regulation between young men and young women. The autonomic nervous system is a primary contributor to both acute and long-term blood pressure regulation. Sex differences in blood pressure regulation likely have effects that extend beyond mean arterial pressure, and which can affect blood flow and tissue function. This short review will include recent literature from our laboratory focusing on autonomic control of the circulation, specifically age and sex hormone related differences in central hemodynamics and cerebral blood flow, and discuss potential clinical implications...
August 11, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Tevfik Kalelioglu, Nesrin Karamustafalioglu, Abdullah Genc, Murat Kocabiyik
Imbalance of water and electrolyte homeostasis has been suggested to be associated with the acute episodes of bipolar disorder. In this study we aimed to investigate, for the first time, the serum osmolarity in bipolar disorder manic episode. A total of 68 bipolar inpatients in manic episode and 60 age-gender matched healthy controls were included in the study. Serum osmolarity was calculated from Sodium (Na(+) ), glucose and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) according to formula of (2 × Na(+) ) + (BUN/2.8) + (Glucose/18)...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Valentin Doguet, Kazunori Nosaka, Arnaud Guével, Gary Thickbroom, Kazuhiro Ishimura, Marc Jubeau
Neural control of eccentric contractions differs from that of concentric and isometric contractions, but no previous study has compared responses to motor cortex stimulations at long muscle lengths during such contraction types. This study compared the effect of muscle length on corticospinal excitability between maximal concentric, isometric and eccentric contractions of the knee extensors. Twelve males performed 12 maximal concentric, isometric and eccentric voluntary contractions (36 contractions in total), separated by a 5-min rest between contraction types...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Sang-Rok Lee, Andy V Khamoui, Edward Jo, Michael C Zourdos, Lynn B Panton, Michael J Ormsbee, Jeong-Su Kim
This study investigated the effects of 20 weeks of combined conjugated linoleic acid/omega-3 fatty acid (n-3) administration independently or combined with resistance exercise training (RET) muscle in middle-aged mice consuming a high-fat diet (HFD). Nine-month-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into four experimental groups (H: high-fat diet, HE: H + RET, HCN: H + CLA/n-3, and HECN: H + CLA/n3 + RET). Body composition and functional capacity were assessed at pre- and post-intervention. Muscle tissues were collected at 14 months of age...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Izabelle Dias Benfato, Thaís Ludmilla Moretto, Francine Pereira de Carvalho, Marcela Barthichoto, Sandra Mara Ferreira, José Maria Costa Júnior, Mariana Cruz Lazzarin, Flávia de Oliveira, Carolina Martinez, Carolina Prado de França Carvalho, Camila Aparecida Machado de Oliveira
The biological control of physical activity is poorly understood. Age decreases insulin, leptin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the hypothalamus and all have been shown to modulate spontaneous physical activity (SPA). We investigated the age at which SPA starts to decline and whether this is associated with the emergence of hypothalamic insulin and leptin resistance and reduced BDNF expression. SPA (and other parameters of locomotion) and energy expenditure (EE) were determined monthly in mice from the 4(th) to the 10(th)  month of age...
August 8, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Jules C Hancox
Diabetes is well-established to be a major healthcare problem. Preclinical and clinical data suggest that diabetes influences the heart and may be associated with cardiac repolarisation abnormalities and pro-arrhythmia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 8, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Kurt J Smith, Philip N Ainslie
Cerebral function in humans is critically dependent upon continuous oxygen delivery, metabolic nutrients and active regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF). As a consequence, cerebrovascular function is precisely titrated by multiple physiological mechanisms, characterised by complex integration, synergism and protective redundancy. At rest, adequate CBF is regulated through reflexive responses in the following order of regulatory importance: fluctuating arterial blood gases (in particularly partial pressure of carbon dioxide [PaCO2 ]), cerebral metabolism, arterial blood pressure, neurogenic activity and cardiac output...
August 8, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Gregory N Ruegsegger, Joseph A Sevage, Thomas E Childs, Kolter B Grigsby, Frank W Booth
The transition from physical activity to inactivity is associated with drastic increases in 'catch-up' fat that in turn foster the development of many obesity-associated maladies. We tested if 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) treatment would prevent gains in body fat following the sudden transition from a physically active state to an inactive state by locking a voluntary running wheel. Male, Wistar rats were either sedentary (SED), or given wheel access for 4 weeks, at which time rats with wheels continued running (RUN), either had their wheel locked (WL), or had WL with daily AICAR injection (WL + AICAR) for 1 week...
August 7, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Lauro C Vianna
The alarming prevalence of obesity is a serious global health issue affecting both adults and children that is projected to increase in the following decades. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 4, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Thomas B L Kirkwood
What is the topic of this review? The reasons for the continuing increase in human life expectancy are examined in the light of progress in understanding the physiological basis of ageing. Prospects for further extending the health span - the period free of age-related disability and disease - are critically assessed. What advances does it highlight? No active programming directly causes ageing, which instead results as a side effect of how evolution optimises the physiological allocation of resources between growth, reproduction and maintenance...
August 2, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Spencer P Loewen, Alex R Paterson, Su Yi Loh, Mark F Rogers, Charles C T Hindmarch, David Murphy, Alastair V Ferguson
Many traditional cardiovascular hormones have been implicated in metabolic function. Conversely, many hormones traditionally involved in metabolic regulation have an effect on cardiovascular function. Many of these signalling molecules exert such effects through specific actions in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), an integrative autonomic control centre located in the hypothalamus. Here, we focus on four cardiovascular/metabolic peptide hormones that signal within the PVN, angiotensin II, orexin, adiponectin, and nesfatin-1...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Mike Stembridge, Ryan L Hoiland, Anthony R Bain, Otto F Barak, Ivan Drvis, David B MacLeod, Douglas M MacLeod, Dennis Madden, Tonci Batinic, Peter O'Donoghue, Rob Shave, Zeljko Dujic, Philip N Ainslie
We investigated the role of lung volume-induced changes in cardiac output (Q̇) on cerebrovascular regulation during prolonged apnoea. Fifteen elite apnoea divers (1F; 185 ± 7 cm, 82 ± 12 kg, 29 ± 7 years) attended the laboratory on two separate occasions and completed maximal breath-holds at total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC) to elicit disparate cardiovascular responses. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), internal jugular venous pressure (IJVP) and arterial blood gases were measured via cannulation, global cerebral blood flow (gCBF) was quantified by ultrasound and cardiac output via photoplethysmography...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Sophie Lalande, Patrick J Mueller, Charles S Chung
What is the topic of this review? This review focuses on how in vivo and molecular measurements of cardiac passive stiffness can predict exercise tolerance and how exercise training can reduce cardiac passive stiffness. What advances does it highlight? This review highlights advances in understanding the relationship between molecular (titin-based) and in vivo (left ventricular) passive stiffness, how passive stiffness modifies exercise tolerance, and how exercise training may be therapeutic for cardiac diseases with increased passive stiffness...
July 31, 2017: Experimental Physiology
James D Cotter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 30, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Jeremy Ward, Michael Tipton
Podcast available at:
July 30, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Samuel N Cheuvront, Scott J Montain
What is the topic of this review? There is a need to revisit the basic principles of exercise mass and water balance, the use of common equations and the practice of interpreting outcomes. What advances does it highlight? We propose use of the following equation as a way of simplifying exercise mass and water balance calculations in conditions where food is not consumed and waste is not excreted: ∆body mass - 0.20 g/kcal(-1)  = ∆body water. The relative efficacy of exercise drinking behaviours can be judged using the following equation: percentage dehydration = [(∆body mass - 0...
July 30, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Shigehiko Ogoh, Ai Hirasawa, Steven de Abreu, Pierre Denise, Hervé Normand
We have recently demonstrated that heterogeneous cerebral blood flow (CBF) response in each cerebral artery may contribute to the maintenance of circulatory homeostasis in the brain. However, to what extent weightlessness associated with fluid shift from peripheral to central circulations influences distribution of CBF in each cerebral artery remains unknown. We hypothesised that dry immersion-induced fluid shift (weightlessness condition) would cause heterogeneous CBF response in each cerebral artery. During and after a 3-day dry immersion, internal carotid (ICA), external carotid (ECA) and vertebral arteries (VA) blood flows were measured by Doppler ultrasonography using an 8-MHz linear transducer...
July 26, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Shinichi Asano, Grant C O'Connell, Kent C Lemaster, Evan R DeVallance, Kayla W Branyan, James W Simpkins, Jefferson C Frisbee, Taura L Barr, Paul D Chantler
Post-stroke inflammation has been linked to poor stroke outcomes. The vascular endothelium senses and responds to circulating factors, in particular inflammatory cytokines. Although stroke associated local cerebrovascular dysfunction is well reported, the effects of a stroke on conduit artery function are not fully understood. We tested the hypothesis that stroke patients' serum triggers leukocyte-dependent aortic endothelial dysfunction that is associated with elevated cytokines levels. Total leukocytes were isolated from healthy individuals and cells were incubated in control and stroke patients' serum for 6 h...
July 24, 2017: Experimental Physiology
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