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Experimental Physiology

Alireza Ghardashi Afousi, Mohammad Reza Izadi, Kamran Rakhshan, Farnoosh Mafi, Soheil Biglari, Habibalah Gandomkar Bagheri
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Endothelial function is impaired because of increased oscillatory and retrograde shear in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous moderate intensity exercise can modulate oscillatory and retrograde shear, blood flow and flow-mediated arterial dilation in these patients. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that low-volume high-intensity interval training, by increasing anterograde shear and decreasing retrograde shear and oscillatory index, can increase nitric oxide production and consequently result in increased flow-mediated dilation and outward arterial remodelling in patients with type 2 diabetes...
June 22, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Liang Xiong, Yu Liu, Mingmin Zhou, Guangji Wang, Dajun Quan, Wei Shuai, Caijie Shen, Bin Kong, Congxin Huang, He Huang
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? In this study, we investigated whether targeted ablation of cardiac sympathetic neurons (TACSN) could suppress myocardial infarction-induced adverse cardiac remodeling and left ventricle dysfunction. What is the main finding and its importance? TACSN significantly alleviated sympathetic remodeling and neuroendocrine activation, attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and improved the left ventricular function. Thus, TACSN may have a beneficial effect on adverse post-infarction remodeling and left ventricle dysfunction...
June 21, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Callum G Brownstein, Paul Ansdell, Jakob Škarabot, Ash Frazer, Dawson Kidgell, Glyn Howatson, Stuart Goodall, Kevin Thomas
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? In order to discern information about testing modalities when assessing neuroplastic responses to squat resistance training, the present study investigated whether corticospinal and intracortical function was different between a joint-angle matched isometric squat, and isometric knee extension. What is the main finding and its importance? The present data shows poor agreement of corticospinal and intracortical function between the isometric squat and isometric knee extension...
June 21, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Cécile Baldy, Stéphanie Fournier, Samuel Boisjoly-Villeneuve, Marie-Ève Tremblay, Richard Kinkead
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of the study? Does neonatal stress, in the form of neonatal maternal separation, influence the maturation of microglial density, morphology, and neuronal signalling in medullary regions regulating cardio-respiratory function in rat pups? What is the main finding and its importance? Using Iba-1 immunohistochemistry, we show that neonatal maternal separation augments microglial density and the proportion of cells with an amoeboid morphology in the medulla...
June 19, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Ievgen Strielkov, Nicole Catherine Krause, Natasha Sommer, Ralph Theo Schermuly, Hossein Ardeschir Ghofrani, Friedrich Grimminger, Thomas Gudermann, Alexander Dietrich, Norbert Weissmann
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction has never been characterized in isolated mouse pulmonary arteries of different generations in detail. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that only small intrapulmonary arteries (80 - 200 μm in diameter) exhibit hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. The observed response was sustained, significantly potentiated by depolarization-induced preconstriction, and not dependent on endothelium and TRPC6 channels...
June 19, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Joao Paulo Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque, Grasielle Clotildes Kincheski, Ruy Andrade Louzada, Antônio Galina, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha Pierucci, Denise P Carvalho
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Physical exercise has emerged as a non-pharmacological treatment for obesity by promoting changes in energy balance. Despite the accumulated knowledge about exercise effects on energy expenditure, the central question of this study is to understand how an acute session of exercise might affect food intake of male Wistar rats. What is the main finding? The main finding of this work is that food intake in male Wistar rats is decreased in the first hour after physical exercise independent of the intensity...
June 12, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Jessica Silver, Glenn Wadley, Séverine Lamon
NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? This article draws evidence from the current literature to support the hypothesis that non-coding RNA-mediated gene regulation takes place in the mitochondria. An emphasis is put on skeletal muscle. What advances does it highlight? This review highlights the potential role of miRNAs and lncRNAs in mitochondrial gene regulation. The discovery of a new level of skeletal muscle mitochondria-controlled gene regulation presents exciting perspectives for our understanding of skeletal muscle physiology in health and disease...
June 9, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Carol T Bussey, Hp Aye Thaung, Gillian Hughes, Andrew Bahn, Regis R Lamberts
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of the study? What is the main finding and its importance? 1. Is the reduced signalling of AMPK, a key regulator of energy homeostasis in the heart, responsible for the reduced β-adrenergic responsiveness of the heart in obesity? 2. Inhibition of AMPK in isolated hearts prevented the reduced cardiac β-adrenergic responsiveness of obese rats, which was accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of AMPK, a proxy of AMPK activity. This suggests a direct functional link between β-adrenergic responsiveness and AMPK signalling in the heart, and that AMPK might be an important target to restore the β-adrenergic responsiveness in the heart in obesity...
June 5, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Daniel Gagnon, Steven A Romero, Matthew N Cramer, Ken Kouda, Paula Ys Poh, Hai Ngo, Ollie Jay, Craig G Crandall
What is the central question of this study? Few studies have evaluated potential strategies to alleviate thermoregulatory and cardiovascular strain of older adults during heat exposure. We studied the effects of folic acid supplementation on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses of healthy older adults exposed to extreme heat and humidity. What is the main finding and its importance? Supplementation did not affect whole-limb blood flow/vasodilation, core and skin temperatures, heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac output...
June 5, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Sean P Parsons, Jan D Huizinga
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? What is the nature of slow wave driven contraction frequency gradients in the small intestine? What is the main finding and its importance? Frequency plateaus are composed of discrete waves of increased interval, each wave associated with a contraction dislocation. Smooth frequency gradients are generated by localised neural modulation of wave frequency, leading to functionally important wave turbulence. Both patterns are emergent properties of a network of coupled oscillators, the interstitial cells of Cajal...
June 3, 2018: Experimental Physiology
L Djouhri, T Smith, M Alotaibi, X Weng
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Is spontaneous activity (SA) in L4-DRG neurons induced by L5 spinal nerve axotomy is associated with membrane potentials oscillations in theses neurons, and are these membrane oscillations mediated by HCN channels? What is the main finding and its importance? Unlike injured L5 DRG neurons which have been shown to be incapable of firing spontaneously without membrane potentials oscillations, such membrane oscillations are not essential for SA generation in conducting "uninjured'' L4 neurons, and they are not mediated by HCN channels...
June 3, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Simon Tew, Richard Barrett-Jolley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Angus Lindsay, Alexandra Schmiechen, Christopher M Chamberlain, James M Ervasti, Dawn A Lowe
Macrophage infiltration is a hallmark of dystrophin-deficient muscle. We tested the hypothesis that Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients would have elevated levels of the macrophage synthesized pterins, neopterin and 7,8-dihydroneopterin compared to unaffected age-matched controls. Urinary neopterin/creatinine and 7,8-dihydroneopterin/creatinine were elevated in DMD patients and 7,8-dihydroneopterin/creatinine was associated with patient age and ambulation. 7,8-dihydroneopterin correction with specific gravity was also elevated in DMD patients...
May 23, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Meiling Tan, Caixia Liu, Wenjie Huang, Linhong Deng, Xiaoqun Qin, Yang Xiang
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? In our previous work, CTNNAL1 (catenin alpha-like 1), an asthma-related epithelial adhesion molecule, was found to play a vital role in airway epithelial wound repair. The effect of CTNNAL1 on airway EMT has not been previously explored. What is the main finding and its importance? CTNNAL1 inhibits ozone-induced airway EMT features and mediated by repressing the expression of Twist1 mRNA and reducing TGF-β1 levels. These findings contribute to our understanding of the pathology of airway EMT and may indicate a possible therapeutic target for airway remodelling in bronchial asthma...
May 23, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Kondo C, R B Clark, T Y Kim, Belke D, Banderali U, R T Szerencsei, A H Jalloul, P P M Schnetkamp, Spitzer Kw, Giles Wr
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? In human articular joints, the synovial fibroblast HSF cell population has essential functions including secretion of lubricants. We address some remaining questions concerning activation-secretion coupling by characterizing the main [Ca2+ ]i signalling pathways activated by ATP. What is the main finding and its importance? In HSF ATP acts through a linked G-protein (Gq ) and phospholipase C signalling mechanisms to produce IP-3 which markedly enhances release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum...
May 23, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Heather L Clifton, Daniel R Machin, H Jonathan Groot, Tracy M Frech, Anthony J Donato, Russell S Richardson, D Walter Wray
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Do systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients exhibit impaired nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vascular function of the lower limb, and are these decrements correlated with plasma biomarkers for inflammation and oxidative stress? What is the main finding and its importance? Findings indicate impaired NO-mediated vascular function, linked to the incidence of digital ulcers, and a milieu of inflammation and oxidative stress. However, the absence of significant correlations between individual biomarkers and blood flow responses suggests the vasculopathy observed in SSc may not be solely the result of derangements in the redox balance or inflammatory signaling...
May 23, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Peter J Houweling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Jenna M Schulz, Baraa K Al-Khazraji, J Kevin Shoemaker
Recent evidence indicates that basal cerebral conduit vessels dilate with hypercapnia, with a nitric oxide (NO) mechanism explaining one way in which parenchymal cerebral arterioles dilate. However, whether NO affects basal cerebral artery dilation remains unknown. This study quantified the effect of an exogenous NO donor [sodium nitroglycerin (NTG); 0.4 mg sublingual spray] on the right middle cerebral artery (rMCA) cross-sectional area (CSA), blood velocity and overall blood flow. Measures of vessel CSA (7 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging) and MCA blood velocity (transcranial Doppler ultrasound) were made at baseline (BL), and following exogenous NTG or placebo (PLO) administration in young, healthy individuals (n = 10, 2 males, age range 20-23 years)...
May 15, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Ciarán E Fealy, Stephan Nieuwoudt, Julie A Foucher, Amanda R Scelsi, Steve K Malin, Mangesh Pagadala, Lauren A Cruz, Miranda Li, Michael Rocco, Bartolome Burguera, John P Kirwan
AIM: Functional high intensity training (F-HIT) is a novel fitness paradigm that integrates simultaneous aerobic and resistance training in sets of constantly varied movements, based on real-world situational exercises, performed at high intensity in workouts that range from ∼8-20 min/session. We hypothesized that F-HIT would be an effective exercise mode for reducing insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: We recruited 13 overweight/obese adults (5 males, 8 females; 53 ± 7 years; BMI 34...
May 15, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Barbara J Morgan, Mihaela Teodorescu, David F Pegelow, Emily R Jackson, Devin L Schneider, David T Plante, James P Gapinski, Scott J Hetzel, John M Dopp
Chemoreflex sensitization produced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in rats is attenuated by angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 R) blockade. AT1 R blockade and xanthine oxidase inhibition both ameliorate CIH-induced endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized treatment with losartan and allopurinol would reduce chemoreflex sensitivity and improve hypoxic vasodilation in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Eighty-six hypertensive patients with apnoea-hypopnoea index ≥25 events/hr and no other cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, or metabolic disease were randomly assigned to receive allopurinol, losartan, or placebo for 6 weeks...
May 11, 2018: Experimental Physiology
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