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Experimental Physiology

Renato Willian Martins Sá, Andrea Siqueira Haibara, Paula Magalhães Gomes, Giovana Lopes Aguiar, Rafael Souza Leopoldino Nascimento, Maria Lucia Pedrosa, Andréia Carvalho Alzamora, Lisandra Brandino de Oliveira, Leonardo Máximo Cardoso
What is the central question of this study? In this study we sought to investigate whether cardiovascular responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation of rats recovered from protein restriction are related to AT1 receptors activation. What is the main finding and its importance? This study highlights the fact that angiotensinergic mechanisms activated by AT1 receptors do not supported increased responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation by KCN in rats recovered from protein restriction. Also, we found that protein restriction led to increased resting ventilation in adult rats, even after recovery...
October 20, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Eva Soto-Tinoco, Natalí N Guerrero-Vargas, Ruud M Buijs
The brain is responsible for maintaining homeostasis of the organism, constantly adjusting its output via hormones and the autonomic nervous system to reach an optimal setting in every compartment of the body. Also the immune system is under strong control of the brain. Beyond the conventional systemic responses evoked by the brain during inflammation, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation and the induction of sickness behavior, the autonomic nervous system is now recognized to exert regulatory effects on the inflammatory response...
October 18, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Carsten Lundby, Paul Robach
The aim with any review is to summarize an expert's assessment of the literature where readers benefit from the reviewers overview and evaluation of the validity and applicability of individual studies. Millet and co-workers are of the opinion that our review (Lundby and Robach, 2016) is selective and that their studies are not fully and accurately represented in it. The reason for not including some of their studies is that we believe them to be flawed and we disagree that the studies we do cite are misinterpreted...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Grégoire P Millet, Franck Brocherie, Raphael Faiss, Olivier Girard
The authors report that many LHTL studies in normobaric hypoxia (NH) "failed to show a positive outcome", which in our view is only partially true. In a cross-over design, we (Saugy et al. 2016) recently tested if LHTL in hypobaric hypoxia (HH) would lead to larger performance enhancement than in NH. Our hypothesis was that HH (i.e. natural altitude) would lead to larger enhancement than NH but the results were contrary to this hypothesis. So we cannot support the affirmation by Lundby & Robach that "natural altitude remains the best approach"...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Joanna Majerczak, Marcin Grandys, Krzysztof Duda, Agnieszka Zakrzewska, Aneta Balcerczyk, Leszek Kolodziejski, Dorota Szymoniak-Chochol, Ryszard T Smolenski, Grzegorz Bartosz, Stefan Chlopicki, Jerzy A Zoladz
In this study we have evaluated the effect of 20-weeks of moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) on the endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in relation to the training-induced changes in antioxidant defence. Eleven healthy young, untrained men performed an incremental cycling exercise until exhaustion before and after 20 weeks of ET. Endurance training consisted of 40- minute sessions, mainly of moderate-intensity (∼50% of VO2max ), performed 4 times per week. Venous blood samples were taken at rest and at the end of the maximal exercise test...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Julliane Vasconcelos Joviano-Santos, Artur Santos-Miranda, Humberto Cavalcante Joca, Jader Santos Cruz, Anderson José Ferreira
Angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) has been proved to have cardio-protective effects. However, the effects of this peptide on in vivo cardiac arrhythmias and details regarding its mechanisms of action are still undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Ang-(1-7) against cardiac arrhythmias, its in vivo effects and cellular mechanisms of action. In vivo electrocardiography analysis upon inducement of arrhythmias using a combination of halothane and epinephrine were performed. To analyze the effects of Ang-(1-7) on cells, freshly ventricular cardiomyocytes were isolated...
October 12, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Jie Zhang, Alan R Light, Charles L Hoppel, Caitlin Campbell, Carol J Chandler, Dustin J Burnett, Elaine C Souza, Gretchen A Casazza, Ronald W Hughen, Nancy L Keim, John W Newman, Gary R Hunter, Jose R Fernandez, W Timothy Garvey, Mary-Ellen Harper, Oliver Fiehn, Sean H Adams
With insulin-resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus, mismatches between mitochondrial fatty acid fuel delivery and oxidative phosphorylation/tricarboxylic acid cycle activity may contribute to inordinate accumulation of short- or medium-chain acylcarnitine fatty acid derivatives (markers of incomplete long-chain fatty acid oxidation [FAO]). We reasoned that incomplete FAO in muscle would be ameliorated concurrent with improved insulin sensitivity and fitness following a ∼14 wk training and weight loss intervention in obese, sedentary, insulin-resistant women...
October 12, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Anne Briançon-Marjollet, Denis Monneret, Marion Henri, Marie Joyeux-Faure, Perle Totoson, Sandrine Cachot, Patrice Faure, Diane Godin-Ribuot
What is the central question of this study? This study addresses the relative impact of obesity and intermittent hypoxia in the pathophysiological process of obstructive sleep apnoea by investigating the metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular consequences of intermittent hypoxia in lean and obese Zucker rats. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that obesity and intermittent hypoxia have mainly distinct consequences on the investigated inflammatory and cardiometabolic parameters in Zucker rats...
October 5, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Patrick Kanju, Wolfgang Liedtke
TRPV4 ion channels are osmo-mechano-TRP channels with pleiotropic function and expression in many different types of tissues and cells. They have also been found involved in pain and inflammation. Studies have focused on the role of TRPV4 in peripheral sensory neurons, but its expression and function in central nervous glial cells and neurons has also been documented. In this overview, based on the senior author's lecture at the recent physiology meeting in Dublin, we concisely review evidence of TRPV4 expression and function in the CNS, and how TRPV4 function can be modulated for therapeutic benefit of neuro-psychiatric disorders...
October 4, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Cian McGinley, David J Bishop
To better understand training-induced adaptations in skeletal muscle pH regulation, this study measured protein and mRNA kinetics of proton (H(+) ) transporters for 72 h following a bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), conducted after 4 weeks of similar training. We also assayed muscle buffer capacity (βm) by titration technique (βmin vitro ) over the same period. Sixteen active men cycled for 7 × 2 min at ∼80% of peak aerobic power, interspersed with 1 min rest. Compared to the first 9 h post-exercise, monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1 protein content was ∼1...
September 30, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Maria M Buckley, Rebecca O'Brien, Michelle Devlin, Aisling A Creed, Mark G Rae, Niall P Hyland, Eamonn M M Quigley, Declan P McKernan, Dervla O'Malley
In addition to its role in regulating energy homeostasis, the adipokine, leptin modifies gastrointestinal (GI) function. Indeed, leptin-resistant obese humans and leptin-deficient obese mice exhibit altered GI motility. In the functional GI disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), circulating leptin levels are reported to differ from healthy controls. Additionally, IBS patients display altered cytokine profiles, including elevated circulating levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-6, which bears structural homology and similarities in intracellular signalling to leptin...
September 27, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Eric A Kirk, Colin W Moore, Eric J Chater-Diehl, Shiva M Singh, Charles L Rice
PURPOSE: Polymorphisms of the collagen type V alpha 1 chain (COL5A1) gene are purported to influence mechanical properties of collagenous tissues. Our purpose was to assess musculo-tendinous contractile properties of the quadriceps in relation to the genetic influence of mechanical stiffness.. METHODS: Eighty, recreationally active males (ages 19-31 y) were assessed for the presence of three genetic polymorphisms associated with COL5A1 stability (rs4919510, rs1536482 and rs12722)...
September 26, 2016: Experimental Physiology
David S Kennedy, Chris J McNeil, Simon C Gandevia, Janet L Taylor
In upper limb muscles, changes in afferent feedback, motoneurone excitability, and motor cortical output can contribute to failure of the central nervous system to recruit muscles fully during fatigue. It is not known whether similar changes occur with fatigue of muscles in the lower limb. We assessed the corticospinal pathway to vastus lateralis during fatiguing sustained maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the knee extensors, and during firing of fatigue-sensitive group III/IV muscle afferents maintained by post-exercise ischaemia after fatiguing MVCs of the knee extensors and, separately, the flexors...
September 22, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Stephen J Ives, Wesley K Lefferts, Margret Wharton, Patricia C Fehling, Denise L Smith
: Heat stress increases cardiovascular strain and is of particular concern in occupations, such as firefighters, where individuals are required to perform strenuous work while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). Sudden cardiac events are associated with strenuous activity and are the leading cause of duty-related death among firefighters, accounting for ∼50% of duty-related fatalities/year. Understanding the acute effects of exercise-induced heat stress (EIHS) on vascular endothelial function may provide insight into mechanisms precipitating acute coronary events in firefighters...
September 20, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Jeong-Seok Kim, Young-Hee Lee, Ho-Keun Yi
Recent evidence suggests that autophagy and bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway regulate skeletal muscle growth and bone formation in aged rats. However, the effect of downhill running on muscle growth and bone formation is not well understood. Thus, we investigated the effect of downhill and uphill running on age-related muscle and bone weakness. Young and late middle-aged rats were randomly assigned to control groups; young (YC) and late middle-aged (LMC), and two types of running training groups: late middle-aged downhill (LMD) and late middle-aged uphill (LMU)...
September 19, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Jason C Siegler, Kurt Mudie, Paul Marshall
The effect of metabolic alkalosis on fibre-specific maximal force production and rates of force development (RFD) has been previously investigated in animal models, with evidence suggesting an improved capacity to rapidly develop force in fast- compared to slow-twitch muscle. We have attempted to model in vivo the fatigue profile of voluntary and involuntary maximal force and RFD in the triceps' surae and brachii after sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) ingestion. In a double-blind, 3-way repeated measures design participants (n = 10) ingested either 0...
September 16, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Muhamad Marlini, Ayako Mabuchi, Beth L Mallard, Ngatiman Hairulhisyam, Sachiko Akashi-Takamura, Jacquie L Harper, Antony M Wheatley
Liver regeneration is delayed in mice with a defective TLR4 (C3H/HeJ) but is normal in TLR4 knockouts (TLR4(-/-) ). Here, we investigated the possible involvement of structural and hemodynamic changes in vivo in the underlying mechanism. In LPS-sensitive (C3H/HeN, C57BL/6) and LPS-insensitive (C3H/HeJ, TLR4(-/-) ) mice, a 70% partial hepatectomy (PH) was performed under inhalational anesthesia. At days 3 and 7 after PH, the hepatic microcirculation was interrogated using intravital microscopy. Delayed liver regeneration was confirmed in C3H/HeJ, but not in C3H/HeN, C57BL/6 (WT) or TLR4(-/-) mice by liver weight-to-body-weight ratio, percentage of PCNA-positive cells and mitotic index data...
September 16, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Joshua C Tremblay, Trevor J King
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2016: Experimental Physiology
George Miguel P R Souza, Leni G H Bonagamba, Mateus R Amorim, Davi J A Moraes, Benedito H Machado
What is the central question of the study? There are sex differences in the respiratory network and in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. Female rats develop hypertension after chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). In this context, we evaluated the respiratory-related mechanism underlying the development of hypertension in CIH-exposed female rats. What is the main finding and its importance? Female rats exposed to CIH develop changes in the respiratory pattern related to inspiration and sympathetic overactivity phase locked to the inspiratory phase of the respiratory cycle, which is different from CIH-exposed male rats...
September 12, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Hai Jin, Guorong Wen, Shili Deng, Shuo Wan, Jingyu Xu, Xuemei Liu, Rui Xie, Hui Dong, Biguang Tuo
The incidence of duodenal ulcer is markedly lower in women than men, but the cause of the gender difference is not clear. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the solute linked carrier 26 gene family A6 (SLC26A6) are two key bicarbonate transport proteins to mediate duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion which is an important protective factor against acid-induced duodenal injury. This study aimed to investigate the effect of estrogen on the expressions and functional activities of CFTR and SLC26A6 in duodenal mucosa...
September 12, 2016: Experimental Physiology
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