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Experimental Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311980/characterising-the-plasma-metabolome-during-14-days-live-high-train-low-simulated-altitude-a-metabolomic-approach
#1
Nathan G Lawler, Chris R Abbiss, Joel Pa Gummer, David I Broadhurst, Andrew D Govus, Timothy J Fairchild, Kevin G Thompson, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Christopher J Gore, Garth L Maker, Robert D Trengove, Jeremiah J Peiffer
NEW FINDING: What is the central question of this study? To determine how 14 days of LHTL at simulated altitude alters an individual's metabolomic/metabolic profile? What is the main finding and its importance? This study demonstrated that ∼200 h of moderate simulated altitude exposure showed greater variance in measured metabolites between-person compared to within-person, which indicates individual variability during the adaptive phase to altitude exposure. In addition, metabolomics results indicate altitude alters multiple metabolic pathways of which the time course of these pathways is different over 14 days of altitude exposure...
October 12, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311699/serelaxin-attenuates-renal-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#2
Beverly Giam, Po-Yin Chu, Sanjaya Kuruppu, A Ian Smith, Duncan Horlock, Aishwarya Murali, Helen Kiriazis, Xiao-Jun Du, David M Kaye, Niwanthi W Rajapakse
What is the central question of this study? To determine the reno-protective effects of serelaxin in the setting of chronic heart failure. What are the main findings and its importance? Our data indicate that serelaxin can reduce renal fibrosis and inflammation in experimental heart failure. Currently, there are no effective treatments to rescue renal function in heart failure patients and our data suggest that serelaxin may have the potential to reduce renal fibrosis and inflammation in heart failure. ABSTRACT: Serelaxin has been demonstrated to attenuate renal fibrosis and inflammation in cardiorenal disease...
October 12, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298957/ventilatory-constraints-influence-physiologic-dead-space-in-heart-failure
#3
Joshua R Smith, Thomas P Olson
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of alterations in tidal volume and alveolar volume to the elevated physiologic dead space and contribution of ventilatory constraints thereof in heart failure patients during submaximal exercise. What is the main findings and its importance? We found that physiologic dead space was elevated in heart failure via reduced tidal volume and alveolar volume. Furthermore, the degree of ventilatory constraints was associated with physiologic dead space and alveolar volume...
October 9, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298576/extracellular-hsp70-modulates-the-inflammatory-response-of-cse-in-nci-h292-cells
#4
Andrea Hulina-Tomašković, Marija Grdić Rajković, Anita Somborac-Bačura, Andrea Čeri, Sanja Dabelić, Lada Rumora
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Cigarette smoke is a major risk factor for development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Extracellular Hsp70 (eHsp70), can act pro-inflammatory and is elevated in sera of COPD patients. We aim to explore whether eHsp70 alters CSE-induced inflammatory responses in NCI-H292 bronchial epithelial cells. What is the main finding and its importance? We showed that eHsp70 modulates inflammatory responses, TLR2, TLR4 and HSP70 gene expression, and protects NCI-H292 cells against CSE-induced cytotoxicity...
October 9, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30286253/corticospinal-excitability-during-shortening-and-lengthening-actions-with-incremental-torque-output
#5
Jakob Škarabot, Jamie Tallent, Stuart Goodall, Rade Durbaba, Glyn Howatson
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Relationship between motor unit recruitment and firing rate has been related to the size of the corticospinal output with variations in the nervous system gain during isometric contractions. However, corticospinal behaviour with incremental torque output might differ during anisometric contractions due to differences in neural control of anisometric contraction types. What is the main finding and its importance? Corticospinal excitability during lengthening contractions was smaller compared to shortening, but increased with incremental torque output similarly between contraction types...
October 4, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30267546/genetic-variant-in-the-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-arg16gly-influences-fat-free-mass-muscle-strength-and-motor-unit-behavior-in-young-men
#6
Nathaniel D M Jenkins, Ryan J Colquhoun, Patrick M Tomko, Trey Gradnigo, Mitchel A Magrini, Tyler W D Muddle, Sydnie Fleming, Matthew Ferrell, Ahmed El-Sohemy
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Does a common genetic variant in the β2-adrenergic receptor (AR) have functional effects on skeletal muscle function in young, healthy men? What is the main finding and its importance? This study provides preliminary evidence that β2-AR Arg16Gly genotype has a significant effect on fat free mass, muscle strength, and motor unit behavior in recreationally-trained men. These data may have important clinical and exercise-related implications...
September 29, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30260066/low-dose-administration-of-bleomycin-leads-to-early-alterations-in-lung-mechanics
#7
Lauren Headley, Weizhen Bi, Cory Wilson, Scott D Collum, Melissa Chavez, Tamara Darwiche, Tinne C J Mertens, Adriana M Hernandez, Saad R Siddiqui, Stephanie Rosenbaum, Richard A Johnston, Harry Karmouty-Quintana
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most widespread form of interstitial lung disease, and currently, there are only limited treatment options available. In pre-clinical animal models of lung fibrosis, the effectiveness of experimental therapeutics are often deemed successful via reductions in collagen deposition and expression of pro-fibrotic genes in the lung. However, in clinical studies, improvements in lung function are primarily used to gauge the success of therapeutics directed toward IPF...
September 27, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30255553/cardiorespiratory-fitness-is-impaired-and-predicts-mid-term-postoperative-survival-in-patients-with-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-disease
#8
G A Rose, R G Davies, I R Appadurai, W G Lewis, J S Cho, M H Lewis, I M Williams, D M Bailey
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? To what extent cardiorespiratory fitness is impaired in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysmal (AAA) disease and corresponding implications for postoperative survival requires further investigation. What is the main finding and its importance? Cardiorespiratory fitness is impaired in patients with AAA disease. Patients with peak oxygen uptake of <13.1 ml O2  kg-1  min-1 and ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide at anaerobic threshold ≥34 are associated with increased risk of postoperative mortality at 2 years...
September 26, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242929/differential-expression-of-hsps-and-activation-of-mapks-in-a549-alveolar-epithelial-cells-exposed-to-cigarette-smoke-extract
#9
Anita Somborac-Bačura, Lada Rumora, Ruđer Novak, Dubravka Rašić, Jerka Dumić, Ivana Čepelak, Tihana Žanić-Grubišić
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Cigarette smoking is associated with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in lungs. Our aim was to examine the effect of cigarette smoke on cell death, oxidative damage, expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in A549 alveolar epithelial cells. What is the main finding and its importance? Cigarette smoke induces cytotoxicity and oxidative damage to A549 cells, increases expression of different HSPs and activates MAPK signaling pathways...
September 22, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242927/atp-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-perifornical-area-enhances-the-co-2-chemoreflex-control-of-breathing
#10
Eliandra N da Silva, José de Anchieta C Horta-Júnior, Luciane H Gargaglioni, Mirela B Dias
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? ATP is known to modulate the chemosensitivity of some brain areas. However, whether the ATP contributes specifically to the mechanism of chemoreception in the LH/PFA remains to be determined. What is the main finding and its importance? ATP, acting on the LH/PFA, enhances the hypercapnic ventilatory response in rats during wakefulness, in the dark period. Our results highlight the importance of ATP as a modulator of central chemoreception and provide new insight regarding the mechanisms involved in LH/PFA chemosensitivity and the sleep-wake differences in the CO2 /H+ -dependent drive to breathe...
September 22, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242925/genioglossus-muscle-activity-during-sniff-and-reverse-sniff-in-healthy-men
#11
Tsuyoshi Ichikawa, Masanori Yokoba, Masahiko Kimura, Manaka Shibuya, Paul A Easton, Masato Katagiri
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Maximal sniff nasal inspiratory and reverse sniff nasal expiratory pressures are measured as inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength, respectively. Is the genioglossus muscle activated during short maximal inspiratory and expiratory efforts through the nose? What is the main finding and its importance? Genioglossus muscle activity occurred with inspiratory muscle activity during a maximal sniff, and with expiratory muscle activity during a maximal reverse sniff...
September 22, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232817/short-term-and-long-term-human-or-mouse-organoid-units-generate-tissue-engineered-small-intestine-without-added-signaling-molecules
#12
Xiaogang Hou, David F Chang, Andrew Trecartin, Erik R Barthel, Christopher R Schlieve, Mark R Frey, Kathryn L Fowler, Tracy C Grikscheit
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) was previously generated in vivo by immediate implantation of organoid units (OU) derived from both mouse and human donor intestine. Although immediate transplantation of OU into patients shows promise as a potential future therapy, some critically ill patients may require delayed transplantation. What is the main finding and its importance? Unlike enteroids that consist of isolated intestinal crypts, short and long-term cultured organoid units are composed of epithelial and mesenchymal cells derived from mouse or human intestine...
September 19, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211444/metabolic-dysfunction-in-a-rat-model-of-early-life-scarcity-adversity-modulatory-role-of-cafeteria-diet
#13
Sara C Sagae, Bárbara Zanardini, Edson D R Paz, Ana Cláudia Amaral, Gabriela A Bronczek, Camila Lubaczeuski, Sabrina Grassiolli, Patrícia Koehler-Santos, Jarbas Rodrigues de Oliveira, Márcio V Donadio, Charlis Raineki
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Early-life adversity is associated with increased risk for obesity and metabolic dysfunction. However, it is unclear whether obesity and metabolic dysfunction are a result of coping strategies to deal with adversity-related emotional dysregulation, a direct programing of systems regulating metabolic function, or a combination of both. What is the main finding and its importance? Early-life adversity increases vulnerability for later-life obesity and metabolic dysfunction, indicating that genetics and adult lifestyle are not the only determinants of obesity and related metabolic dysfunction...
September 13, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30204276/hypothalamic-dna-methylation-in-rats-with-dihydrotestosterone-induced-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-effects-of-low-frequency-electro-acupuncture
#14
Peng Cui, Tong Ma, Amin Tamadon, Sha Han, Bing Li, Zheyi Chen, Xiaofei An, Linus R Shao, Yanqing Wang, Yi Feng
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? What is the role of hypothalamic DNA methylation in the development of PCOS and the response to electro-acupuncture treatment. What is the main finding and its importance? Global DNA methylation and expression of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) were increased in PCOS-like rats, and electro-acupuncture decreased global DNA methylation and Dnmt3b expression. Pyrosequencing showed that the DNA methylation of some PCOS candidate genes was changed in the PCOS and PCOS+EA groups, suggesting that hypothalamic DNA methylation plays an important role in the development of PCOS and in mediating the effects of electro-acupuncture treatment...
September 11, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30204274/adaptation-of-myocardial-twist-in-the-remodelled-athlete-s-heart-is-not-related-to-cardiac-output
#15
Samuel Cooke, T Jake Samuel, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Eric J Stöhr
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? What is the role of heart muscle function in the increased output of remodelled, larger hearts? What is the main finding and its importance? The greater stroke volume of endurance athletes is not associated with enhanced function of the heart muscle (i.e. left ventricular twist, torsion and twist-to-shortening) in normal and low-oxygen environments. These data indicate that, in the process of cardiac adaptation, left ventricular twist may play an important role that is not related to generating a larger output...
September 11, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194882/tlr7-agonist-attenuates-acetylcholine-induced-ca-2-dependent-ionic-currents-in-swine-tracheal-submucosal-gland-cells
#16
Shunichi Gamo, Tsutomu Tamada, Koji Murakami, Soshi Muramatsu, Hidemi Aritake, Masayuki Nara, Itsuro Kazama, Tatsuma Okazaki, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Masakazu Ichinose
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Does Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) have any direct effects on Ca2+ -dependent physiological function of tracheal submucosal gland cells? What is the main finding and its importance? TLR7 is co-localized with SERCA2 in tracheal submucosal gland cells and causes a rapid attenuation of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced, Ca2+ -dependent ionic currents through the activation of SERCA2-dependent Ca2+ clearance. TLR7 is abundantly expressed in the airways of both swine and healthy human subjects, but is significantly downregulated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) airways...
September 8, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30191627/postnatal-deficiency-of-adamts1-ameliorates-thoracic-aortic-aneurysm-and-dissection-in-mice
#17
Shanshan Wang, Yuting Liu, Guizhen Zhao, Li He, Yi Fu, Changan Yu, Zhizhi Wang, Tingting Zhao, Fan Cao, Yanxiang Gao, Wei Kong, Jingang Zheng
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? TAAD is characterized by extracellular matrix remodeling and inflammatory response. Evidence suggests that ADAMTS1 is closely associated with TAAD development, but whether it contributes to the pathophysiology of TAAD remains unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? We generated inducible postnatal ADAMTS1 knockout mice and found that ADAMTS1 deficiency attenuated BAPN-dependent TAAD formation and rupture. Furthermore, ADAMTS1 deficiency suppressed neutrophil and macrophage infiltration by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines levels and macrophage migration during the early stage of BAPN-induced TAAD...
September 7, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30184287/physiological-adaptations-to-resistance-training-in-rats-selectively-bred-for-low-and-high-response-to-aerobic-exercise-training
#18
Juha P Ahtiainen, Sanna Lensu, Ilona Ruotsalainen, Moritz Schumann, Johanna K Ihalainen, Vasco Fachada, Christopher L Mendias, Matthew S Brook, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Heikki Kainulainen
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Can phenotypic traits associated with low response to one mode of training be extrapolated to other exercise-inducible phenotypes? The present study investigated whether the low responder rats to endurance training are also low responders for resistance training. What is the main finding and its importance? By resistance training, high responder rats to aerobic exercise training (HRT) improved more maximal strength compared to the low responder rats (LRT)...
September 5, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30182473/sustained-vasomotor-control-of-skin-microcirculation-in-sherpas-versus-altitude-naive-lowlanders-experimental-evidence-from-xtreme-everest-2
#19
Thomas Davies, Edward Gilbert-Kawai, Stephen Wythe, Paula Meale, Monty Mythen, Denny Levett, Kay Mitchell, Michael Grocott, Geraldine Clough, Daniel Martin
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Do Sherpa highlanders, when exposed to graded hypobaric hypoxia, exhibit enhanced vasomotor and neurovascular control to maintain microcirculatory flux, and thus tissue oxygenation, when compared with altitude-naive lowlanders? What is the main finding and its importance? Sherpas, when exposed to hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude, demonstrated superior preservation of their peripheral microcirculatory perfusion, a greater oxygen unloading rate and sustained microvascular reactivity with enhanced vasomotion, when compared with altitude-naive lowlanders...
September 4, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30178895/plasma-ferritin-concentration-is-positively-associated-with-in-vivo-fatty-acid-mobilization-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-women
#20
Ryan Bj, Van Pelt Dw, Guth Lm, Ludzki Ac, Gioscia-Ryan Ra, C Ahn, Foug Kl, Horowitz Jf
What is the central question of this study? Do obese women with relatively high whole-body iron stores exhibit elevated in vivo rates of fatty acid (FA) release from adipose tissue compared with a well-matched cohort of obese women with relatively low iron stores? What is the main finding and its importance? Obese women with high plasma [ferritin] (a marker of whole-body iron stores) had greater FA mobilization, lipolytic activation in adipose tissue, and insulin resistance (IR) compared to obese women with lower plasma [ferritin]...
September 4, 2018: Experimental Physiology
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