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Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087126/cardiac-lymphatics-a-new-avenue-for-therapeutics
#1
REVIEW
Taina Vuorio, Annakaisa Tirronen, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
Recent progress in lymphatic vessel biology and in novel imaging techniques has established the importance of the lymphatic vasculature as part of the cardiovascular system. The lymphatic vessel network regulates many physiological processes important for heart function such as fluid balance, transport of extravasated proteins, and trafficking of immune cells. Therefore, lymphangiogenic therapy could be beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, for example by improving reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) from atherosclerotic lesions or by resolving edema and fibrosis after myocardial infarction...
January 10, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087125/hydroxy-carboxylic-acid-receptor-actions-in-metabolism
#2
REVIEW
Stefan Offermanns
Lactic acid, the ketone body 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, also known as β-hydroxybutyrate, and the β-oxidation intermediate 3-hydroxy-octanoic acid are hydroxy-carboxylic acids (HCAs) that serve as intermediates of energy metabolism. However, they also regulate cellular functions, in part by directly activating the G protein-coupled receptors HCA1/GPR81, HCA2/GPR109A, and HCA3/GPR109B. During the past decade, it has become clear that HCA receptors help to maintain homeostasis under changing metabolic and dietary conditions, by controlling metabolic, immune, and other body functions...
January 10, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063768/emerging-role-for-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-in-male-fertility
#3
Pedro F Oliveira, C Y Cheng, Marco G Alves
Male fertility is modulated by environmental, endocrine, paracrine, and metabolic cues. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) coordinates many cellular events in response to those signals. Here, we discuss how the mTOR pathway integrates and mediates signals throughout the male reproductive system, acting as a central player in the control of spermatogenesis.
January 4, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063767/peroxisomal-dysfunction-in-age-related-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Cynthia M Cipolla, Irfan J Lodhi
Peroxisomes carry out many key functions related to lipid and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism. The fundamental importance of peroxisomes for health in humans is underscored by the existence of devastating genetic disorders caused by impaired peroxisomal function or lack of peroxisomes. Emerging studies suggest that peroxisomal function may also be altered with aging and contribute to the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, including diabetes and its related complications, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer...
January 4, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057414/apoe-apoe-receptors-and-the-synapse-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Courtney Lane-Donovan, Joachim Herz
As the population ages, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are becoming a significant burden on patients, their families, and health-care systems. Neurodegenerative processes may start up to 15 years before outward signs and symptoms of AD, as evidenced by data from AD patients and mouse models. A major genetic risk factor for late-onset AD is the ɛ4 isoform of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4), which is present in almost 20% of the population. In this review we discuss the contribution of ApoE receptor signaling to the function of each component of the tripartite synapse - the axon terminal, the postsynaptic dendritic spine, and the astrocyte - and examine how these systems fail in the context of ApoE4 and AD...
January 2, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989505/endothelial-mirnas-as-cellular-messengers-in-cardiometabolic-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Makon-Sébastien Njock, Jason E Fish
Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of risk factors that increases susceptibility to serious cardiometabolic complications, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and myocardial infarction. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will advance the development of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. A prominent feature of cardiometabolic diseases is endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial cell (EC) homeostasis and response to pathological stimuli are controlled by gene regulatory networks in which miRNAs play a critical role...
December 15, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988256/oocyte-competence-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Stefano Palomba, Jessica Daolio, Giovanni Battista La Sala
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and affects fertility and pregnancy in cases of oligoanovulation. Ovulation induction is often used to treat anovulatory patients with PCOS, but many of these women fail to conceive and resort to assisted reproductive technologies. Alterations in oocyte competence (OC) are considered potential causative factors for subfertility in women with PCOS. In this review we present and critically assess all recent clinical and experimental data regarding OC in women with PCOS...
December 14, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986466/mitochondrial-adaptation-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-novel-mechanisms-and-treatment-strategies
#8
REVIEW
Nishanth E Sunny, Fernando Bril, Kenneth Cusi
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is prevalent in patients with obesity or type 2 diabetes. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), encompassing steatosis with inflammation, hepatocyte injury, and fibrosis, predisposes to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and even cardiovascular disease. In rodent models and humans with NAFLD/NASH, maladaptation of mitochondrial oxidative flux is a central feature of simple steatosis to NASH transition. Induction of hepatic tricarboxylic acid cycle closely mirrors the severity of oxidative stress and inflammation in NASH...
December 13, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979331/genome-wide-insights-into-the-development-and-function-of-thermogenic-adipocytes
#9
REVIEW
Anne Loft, Isabel Forss, Susanne Mandrup
Brown and brown-like adipocytes are specialized adipocytes with a high capacity to convert metabolic energy to heat. This function is not only eminent in supporting organismal thermogenesis, but may also have potential in the fight against obesity. The latter has spurred a massive interest in understanding the development and regulation of these thermogenic adipocytes. Here, we review how genome-wide studies based on next-generation sequencing have provided insight into how the chromatin and transcriptional landscapes are established in thermogenic adipocytes and how thermogenic signals can change the genomic programming of white adipocytes...
December 12, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938937/amylin-and-leptin-co-regulators-of-energy-homeostasis-and-neuronal-development
#10
REVIEW
Barry E Levin, Thomas A Lutz
While the regulation of energy homeostasis by amylin is already well-characterized, emerging data suggest that amylin is also crucial for the development of neural pathways in the hypothalamus and caudal hindbrain (area postrema, AP; nucleus tractus solitarius, NTS). Exciting new findings demonstrate crucial amylin-leptin interactions in altering the activity of specific hypothalamic and AP neurons, and a role for amylin as a novel class of 'leptin sensitizers' which enhance leptin signaling in both leptin-sensitive and -resistant individuals, in part by stimulating IL-6 production by hypothalamic microglia...
December 6, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923532/physiological-adaptations-to-sugar-intake-new-paradigms-from-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
REVIEW
Wen-Bin Alfred Chng, Ville Hietakangas, Bruno Lemaitre
Sugars are important energy sources, but high sugar intake poses a metabolic challenge and leads to diseases. Drosophila melanogaster is a generalist fruit breeder that encounters high levels of dietary sugars in its natural habitat. Consequently, Drosophila displays adaptive responses to dietary sugars, including highly conserved and unique metabolic adaptations not described in mammals. Carbohydrate homeostasis is maintained by a network comprising intracellular energy sensors, transcriptional regulators, and hormonal and neuronal mechanisms that together coordinate animal behavior, gut function, and metabolic flux...
December 3, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889227/gpcr-signaling-and-trafficking-the-long-and-short-of-it
#12
REVIEW
Nathan J Pavlos, Peter A Friedman
Emerging findings disclose unexpected components of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling and cell biology. Select GPCRs exhibit classical signaling, that is restricted to cell membranes, as well as newly described persistent signaling that depends on internalization of the GPCR bound to β-arrestins. Termination of non-canonical endosomal signaling requires intraluminal acidification and sophisticated protein trafficking machineries. Recent studies reveal the structural determinants of the trafficking chaperones...
November 23, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863854/the-various-metabolic-sources-of-histone-acetylation
#13
Carlos Sebastián, Raul Mostoslavsky
Glucose-derived acetyl-CoA levels directly impact histone acetylation, linking the energetic status of the cell to its epigenome. Two recent reports showed that other carbon sources can contribute to the acetyl-CoA pool used for histone acetylation, highlighting the metabolic plasticity that allows cells to respond to nutrient availability.
November 15, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836583/sirt6-novel-mechanisms-and-links-to-aging-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Luisa Tasselli, Wei Zheng, Katrin F Chua
SIRT6, a member of the Sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent enzymes, has established roles in chromatin signaling and genome maintenance. Through these functions, SIRT6 protects against aging-associated pathologies including metabolic disease and cancer, and can promote longevity in mice. Research from the past few years revealed that SIRT6 is a complex enzyme with multiple substrates and catalytic activities, and uncovered novel SIRT6 functions in the maintenance of organismal health span. Here, we review these new discoveries and models of SIRT6 biology in four areas: heterochromatin stabilization and silencing; stem cell biology; cancer initiation and progression; and regulation of metabolic homeostasis...
November 8, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825547/trimethylamine-n-oxide-friend-foe-or-simply-caught-in-the-cross-fire
#15
REVIEW
Clara E Cho, Marie A Caudill
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a gut-derived metabolite, has recently emerged as a candidate risk factor for cardiovascular disease and other adverse health outcomes. However, the relation between TMAO and chronic disease can be confounded by several factors, including kidney function, the gut microbiome, and flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) genotype. Thus, whether TMAO is a causative agent in human disease development and progression, or simply a marker of an underlying pathology, remains inconclusive...
November 4, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931771/context-dependent-role-of-oxidized-lipids-and-lipoproteins-in-inflammation
#16
REVIEW
Yury I Miller, John Y-J Shyy
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL), which contains hundreds of different oxidized lipid molecules, is a hallmark of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. The same oxidized lipids found in OxLDL are also formed in apoptotic cells, and are present in tissues as well as in the circulation under pathological conditions. In many disease contexts, oxidized lipids constitute damage signals, or patterns, that activate pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and significantly contribute to inflammation. Here, we review recent discoveries and emerging trends in the field of oxidized lipids and the regulation of inflammation, focusing on oxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids esterified into cholesteryl esters (CEs) and phospholipids (PLs)...
February 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871675/glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-the-central-peripheral-nervous-system-crosstalk-in-diabetes
#17
REVIEW
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Ralph A DeFronzo, Amalia Gastaldelli, Jens J Holst
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is released in response to meals and exerts important roles in the maintenance of normal glucose homeostasis. GLP-1 is also important in the regulation of neurologic and cognitive functions. These actions are mediated via neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract that project to multiple regions expressing GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs). Treatment with GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1-RAs) reduces ischemia-induced hyperactivity, oxidative stress, neuronal damage and apoptosis, cerebral infarct volume, and neurologic damage, after cerebral ischemia, in experimental models...
February 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814942/lsd1-makes-fat-colorful
#18
Leon G Straub, Christian Wolfrum
The histone lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is a new and important player in the regulation of brown fat identity and function. In a recent Cell Reports article, Duteil et al. show that LSD1 exerts its effects via regulation of specific histone marks as well as through association with co-repressor complexes.
January 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810172/extracellular-vesicles-novel-mediators-of-cell-communication-in-metabolic-disease
#19
REVIEW
Isabel Huang-Doran, Chen-Yu Zhang, Antonio Vidal-Puig
Metabolic homeostasis emerges from the complex, multidirectional crosstalk between key metabolic tissues including adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. This crosstalk, traditionally mediated by hormones and metabolites, becomes dysregulated in human diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs; including exosomes) are circulating, cell-derived nanoparticles containing proteins and nucleic acids that interact with and modify local and distant cellular targets. Accumulating evidence, reviewed herein, supports a role for extracellular vesicles in obesity-associated metabolic disturbance, particularly the local and systemic inflammation characteristic of adipose and hepatic stress...
January 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789100/maternal-metabolism-and-vascular-adaptation-in-pregnancy-the-ppar-link
#20
REVIEW
Ruth Ganss
Current therapies for pregnancy-related hypertension and its complications remain inadequate, although an increasing role for maternal susceptibility is becoming evident. Systemic vascular dysfunction in response to imbalances in angiogenic, inflammatory, and constricting factors is implicated in the pathogenesis of gestational hypertension, and growing evidence now links these factors with maternal metabolism. In particular, the crucial role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in maternal vascular adaptation provides further insights into how obesity and gestational diabetes may be linked to pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia...
January 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
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