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Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237819/the-complex-roles-of-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-in-adipocytes-and-beyond
#1
REVIEW
Peter L Lee, Su Myung Jung, David A Guertin
Having healthy adipose tissue is essential for metabolic fitness. This is clear from the obesity epidemic, which is unveiling a myriad of comorbidities associated with excess adipose tissue including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Lipodystrophy also causes insulin resistance, emphasizing the importance of having a balanced amount of fat. In cells, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complexes 1 and 2 (mTORC1 and mTORC2, respectively) link nutrient and hormonal signaling with metabolism, and recent studies are shedding new light on their in vivo roles in adipocytes...
February 22, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214071/lipocalin-2-a-master-mediator-of-intestinal-and-metabolic-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Alexander R Moschen, Timon E Adolph, Romana R Gerner, Verena Wieser, Herbert Tilg
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2), also known as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), is released by various cell types and is an attractive biomarker of inflammation, ischemia, infection, and kidney damage. Both intestinal and metabolic inflammation, as observed in obesity and related disorders, are associated with increased LCN2 synthesis. While LCN2 in the intestinal tract regulates the composition of the gut microbiota and shows anti-inflammatory activities, it also exhibits proinflammatory activities in other experimental settings...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209382/err%C3%AE-a-junior-orphan-with-a-senior-role-in-metabolism
#3
REVIEW
Jagannath Misra, Don-Kyu Kim, Hueng-Sik Choi
Estrogen-related receptor (ERR)γ is an orphan nuclear hormone receptor that belongs to the ERR subfamily of transcription factors. No endogenous ligand has been identified to date. ERRγ possesses ligand-independent transcriptional activity that is regulated by co-regulator interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs). Recent data from animal models have established ERRγ as a crucial mediator of multiple endocrine and metabolic signals. ERRγ plays important roles in pathological conditions such as insulin resistance, alcoholic liver injury, and cardiac hypertrophy, and controls energy metabolism in the heart, skeletal muscle, and pancreatic β cells...
February 13, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209316/intestinal-adaptations-after-bariatric-surgery-consequences-on-glucose-homeostasis
#4
REVIEW
Jean-Baptiste Cavin, André Bado, Maude Le Gall
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract can play a direct role in glucose homeostasis by modulating the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates and by producing the incretin hormones. In recent years, numerous studies have focused on intestinal adaptation following bariatric surgeries. Changes in the number of incretin (glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) producing cells have been reported, which could result in the modified hormonal response seen after surgery. In addition, the rate of absorption and the intestinal regions exposed to sugars may affect the time course of appearance of glucose in the blood...
February 10, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117213/unraveling-the-role-of-ataxin-2-in-metabolism
#5
REVIEW
Sara Carmo-Silva, Clevio Nobrega, Luís Pereira de Almeida, Claudia Cavadas
Ataxin-2 is a polyglutamine protein implicated in several biological processes such as RNA metabolism and cytoskeleton reorganization. Ataxin-2 is highly expressed in various tissues including the hypothalamus, a brain region that controls food intake and energy balance. Ataxin-2 expression is influenced by nutritional status. Emerging studies discussed here now show that ataxin-2 deficiency correlates with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, an action mediated via the mTOR pathway, suggesting that ataxin-2 might play key roles in metabolic homeostasis including body weight regulation, insulin sensitivity, and cellular stress responses...
January 20, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110810/biased-opioid-receptor-ligands-gain-without-pain
#6
Ravi Ranjan, Shubhi Pandey, Arun K Shukla
Kappa opioid receptor (κ-OR) agonists are promising therapeutic candidates for pain and itch; however, they also exhibit the adverse effects of sedation and dysphoria. A recent study has demonstrated that a G protein-biased agonist for κ-OR provides effective pain and itch relief without causing sedation or dysphoria, in animal models.
January 16, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087126/cardiac-lymphatics-a-new-avenue-for-therapeutics
#7
REVIEW
Taina Vuorio, Annakaisa Tirronen, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
Recent progress in lymphatic vessel biology and in novel imaging techniques has established the importance of the lymphatic vasculature as part of the cardiovascular system. The lymphatic vessel network regulates many physiological processes important for heart function such as fluid balance, transport of extravasated proteins, and trafficking of immune cells. Therefore, lymphangiogenic therapy could be beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, for example by improving reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) from atherosclerotic lesions or by resolving edema and fibrosis after myocardial infarction...
January 10, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063767/peroxisomal-dysfunction-in-age-related-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Cynthia M Cipolla, Irfan J Lodhi
Peroxisomes carry out many key functions related to lipid and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism. The fundamental importance of peroxisomes for health in humans is underscored by the existence of devastating genetic disorders caused by impaired peroxisomal function or lack of peroxisomes. Emerging studies suggest that peroxisomal function may also be altered with aging and contribute to the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, including diabetes and its related complications, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer...
January 4, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057414/apoe-apoe-receptors-and-the-synapse-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Courtney Lane-Donovan, Joachim Herz
As the population ages, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are becoming a significant burden on patients, their families, and health-care systems. Neurodegenerative processes may start up to 15 years before outward signs and symptoms of AD, as evidenced by data from AD patients and mouse models. A major genetic risk factor for late-onset AD is the ɛ4 isoform of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4), which is present in almost 20% of the population. In this review we discuss the contribution of ApoE receptor signaling to the function of each component of the tripartite synapse - the axon terminal, the postsynaptic dendritic spine, and the astrocyte - and examine how these systems fail in the context of ApoE4 and AD...
January 2, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986466/mitochondrial-adaptation-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-novel-mechanisms-and-treatment-strategies
#10
REVIEW
Nishanth E Sunny, Fernando Bril, Kenneth Cusi
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is prevalent in patients with obesity or type 2 diabetes. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), encompassing steatosis with inflammation, hepatocyte injury, and fibrosis, predisposes to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and even cardiovascular disease. In rodent models and humans with NAFLD/NASH, maladaptation of mitochondrial oxidative flux is a central feature of simple steatosis to NASH transition. Induction of hepatic tricarboxylic acid cycle closely mirrors the severity of oxidative stress and inflammation in NASH...
December 13, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938937/amylin-and-leptin-co-regulators-of-energy-homeostasis-and-neuronal-development
#11
REVIEW
Barry E Levin, Thomas A Lutz
While the regulation of energy homeostasis by amylin is already well-characterized, emerging data suggest that amylin is also crucial for the development of neural pathways in the hypothalamus and caudal hindbrain (area postrema, AP; nucleus tractus solitarius, NTS). Exciting new findings demonstrate crucial amylin-leptin interactions in altering the activity of specific hypothalamic and AP neurons, and a role for amylin as a novel class of 'leptin sensitizers' which enhance leptin signaling in both leptin-sensitive and -resistant individuals, in part by stimulating IL-6 production by hypothalamic microglia...
December 6, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087125/hydroxy-carboxylic-acid-receptor-actions-in-metabolism
#12
REVIEW
Stefan Offermanns
Lactic acid, the ketone body 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, also known as β-hydroxybutyrate, and the β-oxidation intermediate 3-hydroxy-octanoic acid are hydroxy-carboxylic acids (HCAs) that serve as intermediates of energy metabolism. However, they also regulate cellular functions, in part by directly activating the G protein-coupled receptors HCA1/GPR81, HCA2/GPR109A, and HCA3/GPR109B. During the past decade, it has become clear that HCA receptors help to maintain homeostasis under changing metabolic and dietary conditions, by controlling metabolic, immune, and other body functions...
March 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063768/emerging-role-for-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-in-male-fertility
#13
Pedro F Oliveira, C Y Cheng, Marco G Alves
Male fertility is modulated by environmental, endocrine, paracrine, and metabolic cues. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) coordinates many cellular events in response to those signals. Here, we discuss how the mTOR pathway integrates and mediates signals throughout the male reproductive system, acting as a central player in the control of spermatogenesis.
March 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989505/endothelial-mirnas-as-cellular-messengers-in-cardiometabolic-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Makon-Sébastien Njock, Jason E Fish
Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of risk factors that increases susceptibility to serious cardiometabolic complications, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and myocardial infarction. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will advance the development of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. A prominent feature of cardiometabolic diseases is endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial cell (EC) homeostasis and response to pathological stimuli are controlled by gene regulatory networks in which miRNAs play a critical role...
March 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988256/oocyte-competence-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
Stefano Palomba, Jessica Daolio, Giovanni Battista La Sala
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and affects fertility and pregnancy in cases of oligoanovulation. Ovulation induction is often used to treat anovulatory patients with PCOS, but many of these women fail to conceive and resort to assisted reproductive technologies. Alterations in oocyte competence (OC) are considered potential causative factors for subfertility in women with PCOS. In this review we present and critically assess all recent clinical and experimental data regarding OC in women with PCOS...
March 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889227/gpcr-signaling-and-trafficking-the-long-and-short-of-it
#16
REVIEW
Nathan J Pavlos, Peter A Friedman
Emerging findings disclose unexpected components of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling and cell biology. Select GPCRs exhibit classical signaling, that is restricted to cell membranes, as well as newly described persistent signaling that depends on internalization of the GPCR bound to β-arrestins. Termination of non-canonical endosomal signaling requires intraluminal acidification and sophisticated protein trafficking machineries. Recent studies reveal the structural determinants of the trafficking chaperones...
March 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836583/sirt6-novel-mechanisms-and-links-to-aging-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Luisa Tasselli, Wei Zheng, Katrin F Chua
SIRT6, a member of the Sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent enzymes, has established roles in chromatin signaling and genome maintenance. Through these functions, SIRT6 protects against aging-associated pathologies including metabolic disease and cancer, and can promote longevity in mice. Research from the past few years revealed that SIRT6 is a complex enzyme with multiple substrates and catalytic activities, and uncovered novel SIRT6 functions in the maintenance of organismal health span. Here, we review these new discoveries and models of SIRT6 biology in four areas: heterochromatin stabilization and silencing; stem cell biology; cancer initiation and progression; and regulation of metabolic homeostasis...
March 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789101/inflammaging-and-garb-aging
#18
REVIEW
Claudio Franceschi, Paolo Garagnani, Giovanni Vitale, Miriam Capri, Stefano Salvioli
'Inflammaging' refers to the chronic, low-grade inflammation that characterizes aging. Inflammaging is macrophage centered, involves several tissues and organs, including the gut microbiota, and is characterized by a complex balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory responses. Based on literature data, we argue that the major source of inflammatory stimuli is represented by endogenous/self, misplaced, or altered molecules resulting from damaged and/or dead cells and organelles (cell debris), recognized by receptors of the innate immune system...
March 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979331/genome-wide-insights-into-the-development-and-function-of-thermogenic-adipocytes
#19
REVIEW
Anne Loft, Isabel Forss, Susanne Mandrup
Brown and brown-like adipocytes are specialized adipocytes with a high capacity to convert metabolic energy to heat. This function is not only eminent in supporting organismal thermogenesis, but may also have potential in the fight against obesity. The latter has spurred a massive interest in understanding the development and regulation of these thermogenic adipocytes. Here, we review how genome-wide studies based on next-generation sequencing have provided insight into how the chromatin and transcriptional landscapes are established in thermogenic adipocytes and how thermogenic signals can change the genomic programming of white adipocytes...
February 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931771/context-dependent-role-of-oxidized-lipids-and-lipoproteins-in-inflammation
#20
REVIEW
Yury I Miller, John Y-J Shyy
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL), which contains hundreds of different oxidized lipid molecules, is a hallmark of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. The same oxidized lipids found in OxLDL are also formed in apoptotic cells, and are present in tissues as well as in the circulation under pathological conditions. In many disease contexts, oxidized lipids constitute damage signals, or patterns, that activate pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and significantly contribute to inflammation. Here, we review recent discoveries and emerging trends in the field of oxidized lipids and the regulation of inflammation, focusing on oxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids esterified into cholesteryl esters (CEs) and phospholipids (PLs)...
February 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
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