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Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM

Cunqi Ye, Benjamin P Tu
Epigenetic modifications on chromatin are most commonly thought to be involved in the transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Due to their dependency on small-molecule metabolites, these modifications can relay information about cellular metabolic state to the genome for the activation or repression of particular sets of genes. In this review we discuss emerging evidence that these modifications might also have a metabolic purpose. Due to their abundance, the histones have the capacity to store substantial amounts of useful metabolites or to enable important metabolic transformations...
July 9, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Dongxing Zhu, Xiaosa Li, Vicky E Macrae, Tommaso Simoncini, Xiaodong Fu
The risk of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease increases significantly in postmenopausal women. Until recently, the underlying mechanisms have been primarily attributed to estrogen decline following menopause. However, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels rise sharply during menopausal transition and are maintained at elevated levels for many years. FSH receptor has been detected in various extragonadal sites, including osteoclasts and endothelial cells. Recent advances suggest FSH may contribute to postmenopausal osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease...
July 5, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Brett McKinnon, Michael Mueller, Grant Montgomery
Endometriosis is the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus and is characterized by progesterone resistance and changes in global and progesterone target gene expression. However, the mechanism behind this and whether it is innate, acquired, or present in both the eutopic and ectopic tissue in not always clear. We find large-scale gene expression studies in eutopic tissue, indicative of progesterone resistance, are often contradictory, potentially due to the dynamic nature of this tissue, whereas suppressed progesterone receptor expression is supported in ectopic but not eutopic tissue...
June 19, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Geoffroy de Faudeur, Bas Brouwers, Frans Schuit, John W M Creemers, Bruno Ramos-Molina
The minigene encoding human growth hormone (hGH) has been incorporated into over 300 transgenic mouse lines to improve transgene expression. However, unexpected and functional hGH expression can drastically alter physiology. We list here the mouse lines in which ectopic hGH has been confirmed, and we provide a wiki for lines awaiting analysis.
June 16, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Yu-Chan Chang, Yi-Chieh Yang, Chia-Ping Tien, Chih-Jen Yang, Michael Hsiao
The aldolase family members involved in metabolism and glycolysis are present in three isoforms: ALDOA, ALDOB, and ALDOC. Aldolases are differentially expressed in human tissues, and aberrant expression has been observed in several human diseases and cancer types. However, non-enzymatic functions through protein-protein interactions or epigenetic modifications have been reported in recent years. Using high-throughput screening and -omics database integration, aldolase has been validated as an independent clinical prognostic marker of human cancers...
June 12, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Scott J Bultman
In a recent Cell Reports article, Li et al. report that obesity is associated with altered fatty acid metabolism and DNA methylation in the colonic epithelium, which precede a tumor-prone gene-expression profile. Interestingly, obesity-associated methylation and transcriptome changes were reversed by weight loss, and the duration of weight loss correlated with the extent of restored gene expression. These findings have implications that are encouraging for weight loss and cancer prevention.
June 5, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Shannon E Mullican, Shamina M Rangwala
Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15) is a circulating protein that has been implicated in multiple biological processes, including energy homeostasis, body weight regulation, and cachexia driven by cancer and chronic disease. The potential to target GDF15 in the treatment of energy-intake disorders, including obesity and anorexia, is an area of intense investigation, but has been limited by the lack of an identified receptor, signaling mechanism, and target tissue. GDNF family receptor α-like (GFRAL) was recently identified as the neuronal brainstem receptor responsible for mediating the anorectic actions of GDF15...
June 1, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Macarena Pozo, Marc Claret
Maintenance of glucose homeostasis is mandatory for organismal survival. It is accomplished by complex and coordinated interplay between glucose detection mechanisms and multiple effector systems. The brain, in particular homeostatic regions such as the hypothalamus, plays a crucial role in orchestrating such a highly integral response. We review here current understanding of how the hypothalamus senses glucose availability and participates in systemic glucose homeostasis. We provide an update of the relevant signaling pathways and neuronal subsets involved, as well as of the mechanisms modulating metabolic processes in peripheral tissues such as liver, skeletal muscle, fat, and especially the pancreas...
June 1, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Ali Aminian
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are fairly similar in terms of their long-term effects on excess body weight, cardiometabolic risk factors, and quality of life. However, SG appears to be a safer procedure with distinct metabolic advantages, which can be even better than gastric bypass in some aspects.
May 24, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Suowen Xu, Jaroslav Pelisek, Zheng Gen Jin
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory and lipid-depository disease that eventually leads to acute cardiovascular events. Emerging evidence supports that epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNAs play an important role in plaque progression and vulnerability, highlighting the therapeutic potential of epigenetic drugs in cardiovascular therapeutics.
May 9, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Laura Légat, Ilse Smolders, Alain G Dupont
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Christopher J Halbrook, Zeribe C Nwosu, Costas A Lyssiotis
Metabolic processes within cells are dynamically interconnected. If mitochondria become defective, cells must rewire their metabolism to survive. Here we highlight recent work by Gaude et al. that used a tunable model of mitochondrial dysfunction combined with metabolic tracing and in silico analyses to define these compensatory pathways.
April 22, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Anders M Näär
The miR-33 microRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial regulators of cholesterol/lipids, and may represent therapeutic targets for the treatment of atherosclerosis. A recent report by Price et al. showed that miR-33 knockout (KO) mice exhibit obesity, insulin resistance, and increased food intake, suggesting that metabolic regulation by miR-33 is more complex than was previously known.
April 21, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Bhagirath Chaurasia, William L Holland, Scott A Summers
Chaurasia and colleagues discuss the provocative new finding that some enzymes in the de novo sphingolipid synthesis pathway have dual roles as transcriptional regulators.
April 20, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Kristina I Rother, Ellen M Conway, Allison C Sylvetsky
Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) elicit a multitude of endocrine effects in vitro, in animal models, and in humans. The best-characterized consequences of NNS exposure are metabolic changes, which may be mediated by activation of sweet taste receptors in oral and extraoral tissues (e.g., intestine, pancreatic β cells, and brain), and alterations of the gut microbiome. These mechanisms are likely synergistic and may differ across species and chemically distinct NNSs. However, the extent to which these hormonal effects are clinically relevant in the context of human consumption is unclear...
July 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Jacqueline M Ratter, Cees J Tack, Mihai G Netea, Rinke Stienstra
The environment induces metabolic reprogramming of immune cells via specific signaling pathways. Recent studies have revealed that changes in cell metabolism affect key immune cell functions including cytokine production and migration. In diabetes, these functions are either insufficiently or excessively activated, translating into diabetes-associated complications, including increased susceptibility to infection and accelerated cardiovascular disease. Diabetes alters the abundance of environmental signals, including glucose, insulin, and lipids...
July 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Buffy S Ellsworth, Caitlin E Stallings
Pituitary somatotropes secrete growth hormone (GH), which is essential for normal growth and metabolism. Somatotrope defects result in GH deficiency (GHD), leading to short stature in childhood and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Current hormone replacement therapies fail to recapitulate normal pulsatile GH secretion. Stem cell therapies could overcome this problem but are dependent on a thorough understanding of somatotrope differentiation. Although several transcription factors, signaling pathways, and hormones that regulate this process have been identified, the mechanisms of action are not well understood...
July 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Amin Ardestani, Blaz Lupse, Kathrin Maedler
The evolutionarily conserved Hippo pathway is a key regulator of organ size and tissue homeostasis. Its dysregulation is linked to multiple pathological disorders. In addition to regulating development and growth, recent studies show that Hippo pathway components such as MST1/2 and LATS1/2 kinases, as well as YAP/TAZ transcriptional coactivators, are regulated by metabolic pathways and that the Hippo pathway controls metabolic processes at the cellular and organismal levels in physiological and metabolic disease states such as obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular disorders, and cancer...
July 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
San-Pin Wu, Rong Li, Francesco J DeMayo
Progesterone acts through the progesterone receptor to direct physiological adaption of the uterus in preparation and completion of pregnancy. Genome-wide transcriptome and cistrome analyses have uncovered new members and novel modifiers of the progesterone signaling pathway. Genetically engineered mice allow functional assessment of newly identified genes in vivo and provide insights on the impact of progesterone receptor-dependent molecular mechanisms on pregnancy at the organ system level. Progesterone receptor isoforms collectively mediate progesterone signaling via their distinct and common downstream target genes, which makes the stoichiometry of isoforms relevant in modifying the progesterone activity...
July 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Robert D S Pitceathly, Jan-Willem Taanman
Groundbreaking work by Kadenbach and colleagues in the 1980s revealed the presence of 13 subunits in the mammalian mitochondrial cytochrome-c oxidase (COX; Complex IV). This observation stood the test of time until 2012 when it was demonstrated that NDUFA4, a polypeptide previously attributed to mitochondrial Complex I, was a 14th subunit of COX. In his recent opinion article, Kadenbach argued that NDUFA4 is not a subunit of COX. However, based on the findings that NDUFA4 deficiency results in a severe loss of COX activity and that NDUFA4 represents a stoichiometric component of the individual COX complex, we reason that NDUFA4 is a bona fide COX subunit and propose renaming it as COX subunit FA4 (COXFA4)...
July 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
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