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Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988874/regulation-of-mammalian-13-subunit-cytochrome-c-oxidase-and-binding-of-other-proteins-role-of-ndufa4
#1
REVIEW
Bernhard Kadenbach
Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is the final oxygen accepting enzyme complex (complex IV) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In contrast to the other complexes (I, II, and III), CcO is highly regulated via isoforms for six of its ten nuclear-coded subunits, which are differentially expressed in species, tissues, developmental stages, and cellular oxygen concentrations. Recent publications have claimed that NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex 4 (NDUFA4), originally identified as subunit of complex I, represents a 14th subunit of CcO...
October 5, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988873/ceramides-lipotoxic-inducers-of-metabolic-disorders-trends-in-endocrinology-and-metabolism-26-538-550-2015
#2
Bhagirath Chaurasia, Scott A Summers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966079/multifunctional-p62-effects-underlie-diverse-metabolic-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Min Long, Xing Li, Li Li, Matthew Dodson, Donna D Zhang, Hongting Zheng
p62, a protein capable of binding both ubiquitin and autophagy substrates, is well established as a key regulator in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, there has been accumulating evidence that p62 is also a pivotal regulator in metabolic diseases, such as obesity, T2DM, NAFLD, metabolic bone disease, gout and thyroid disease. This review summarizes the emerging role of p62 on these diseases by considering its functional domains, phenotypes in genetically modified animals, clinically observed alterations, and its effects on downstream metabolic signaling pathways...
September 28, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964631/a-tale-of-two-elabela-null-mice
#4
Irinna Papangeli, Hyung J Chun
Elabela (ELA), the second peptide ligand for the apelin receptor, APLNR, was previously found in lower vertebrates to be crucial for endoderm and cardiac development. Two new studies report on the phenotypes of Ela null mice, ranging from defective embryogenesis to preeclampsia, providing new insights and raising greater intrigue on this cardiometabolic pathway.
September 27, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888702/molecular-mechanisms-determining-lifespan-in-short-and-long-lived-species
#5
REVIEW
Xiao Tian, Andrei Seluanov, Vera Gorbunova
Aging is a global decline of physiological functions, leading to an increased susceptibility to diseases and ultimately death. Maximum lifespans differ up to 200-fold between mammalian species. Although considerable progress has been achieved in identifying conserved pathways that regulate individual lifespan within model organisms, whether the same pathways are responsible for the interspecies differences in longevity remains to be determined. Recent cross-species studies have begun to identify pathways responsible for interspecies differences in lifespan...
September 6, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867159/new-insights-into-the-nuclear-imaging-phenotypes-of-cluster-1-pheochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma
#6
REVIEW
David Taïeb, Karel Pacak
Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) belong to the family of neural crest cell-derived neoplasms. In up to 70% of cases they are associated with germline and somatic mutations in 15 well-characterized PPGL driver or fusion genes. PPGLs can be grouped into three main clusters, where cluster 1 includes PPGLs characterized by a pseudohypoxic signature. Although cluster 1 tumors share several common features, they exhibit unique behaviors. We present here unique insights into the imaging phenotypes of cluster 1 PPGLs based on glucose uptake, catecholamine metabolism, and somatostatin receptor expression...
August 31, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797581/surviving-stress-modulation-of-atf4-mediated-stress-responses-in-normal-and-malignant-cells
#7
REVIEW
Inge M N Wortel, Laurens T van der Meer, Michael S Kilberg, Frank N van Leeuwen
Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a stress-induced transcription factor that is frequently upregulated in cancer cells. ATF4 controls the expression of a wide range of adaptive genes that allow cells to endure periods of stress, such as hypoxia or amino acid limitation. However, under persistent stress conditions, ATF4 promotes the induction of apoptosis. Recent advances point to a role for post-translational modifications (PTMs) and epigenetic mechanisms in balancing these pro- and anti-survival effects of ATF4...
August 7, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780001/endocrinology-meets-metabolomics-achievements-pitfalls-and-challenges
#8
REVIEW
Janina Tokarz, Mark Haid, Alexander Cecil, Cornelia Prehn, Anna Artati, Gabriele Möller, Jerzy Adamski
The metabolome, although very dynamic, is sufficiently stable to provide specific quantitative traits related to health and disease. Metabolomics requires balanced use of state-of-the-art study design, chemical analytics, biostatistics, and bioinformatics to deliver meaningful answers to contemporary questions in human disease research. The technology is now frequently employed for biomarker discovery and for elucidating the mechanisms underlying endocrine-related diseases. Metabolomics has also enriched genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in this area by providing functional data...
August 2, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938972/mitochondrial-metabolism-yin-and-yang-for-tumor-progression
#9
REVIEW
Lorea Valcarcel-Jimenez, Edoardo Gaude, Veronica Torrano, Christian Frezza, Arkaitz Carracedo
Altered metabolism is a distinct feature of cancer cells. During transformation, the entire metabolic network is rewired to efficiently convert nutrients to biosynthetic precursors to sustain cancer cell growth and proliferation. Whilst the molecular underpinnings of this metabolic reprogramming have been described, its role in tumor progression is still under investigation. Importantly, the mitochondrion is a central actor in many of the metabolic processes that are altered in tumors. Yet, we have only begun to understand the dualities of mitochondrial function during cancer metastasis and therapy resistance...
October 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780002/sex-specific-gene-expression-and-life-span-regulation
#10
REVIEW
John Tower
Aging-related diseases show a marked sex bias. For example, women live longer than men yet have more Alzheimer's disease and osteoporosis, whereas men have more cancer and Parkinson's disease. Understanding the role of sex will be important in designing interventions and in understanding basic aging mechanisms. Aging also shows sex differences in model organisms. Dietary restriction (DR), reduced insulin/IGF1-like signaling (IIS), and reduced TOR signaling each increase life span preferentially in females in both flies and mice...
October 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733136/unexpected-bone-formation-produced-by-rankl-blockade
#11
REVIEW
Sergio Portal-Núñez, Aranzazu Mediero, Pedro Esbrit, Olga Sánchez-Pernaute, Raquel Largo, Gabriel Herrero-Beaumont
Denosumab (Dmab) is a humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks RANKL (receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand), thereby exerting a potent bone antiresorptive action. Dmab treatment leads to a dramatic and sustained increase in bone mass through mechanisms that are currently under debate. It is also a matter of controversy whether this potent action of Dmab could lead to intrabone dystrophic mineralization. Recent research has uncovered a possible anabolic role of Dmab involving RANKL-dependent reverse signaling in osteoblasts, and that bone marrow adipocytes can modulate osteoclastogenesis through the production of RANKL...
October 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733135/centrally-mediated-cardiovascular-actions-of-the-angiotensin-ii-type-2-receptor
#12
REVIEW
U Muscha Steckelings, Annette de Kloet, Colin Sumners
Sustained increases in the activity of the sympathetic neural pathways that exit the brain and which increase blood pressure (BP) are a major underlying factor in resistant hypertension. Recently available information on the occurrence of angiotensin II type 2 receptors (AT2Rs) within or adjacent to brain cardiovascular control centers is consistent with findings that stimulation of these receptors lowers BP, particularly during hypertension of neurogenic origin. Until recently brain AT2R had not been considered by many to play a role in the central control of BP...
September 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629897/a-unified-pathophysiological-construct-of-diabetes-and-its-complications
#13
REVIEW
Stanley S Schwartz, Solomon Epstein, Barbara E Corkey, Struan F A Grant, James R Gavin Iii, Richard B Aguilar, Mary E Herman
Advances in understanding diabetes mellitus (DM) through basic and clinical research have helped clarify and reunify a disease state fragmented into numerous etiologies and subtypes. It is now understood that a common pathophysiology drives the diabetic state throughout its natural history and across its varied clinical presentations, a pathophysiology involving metabolic insults, oxidative damage, and vicious cycles that aggravate and intensify organ dysfunction and damage. This new understanding of the disease requires that we revisit existing diagnostics and treatment approaches, which were built upon outmoded assumptions...
September 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647324/ampk-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-treating-metabolic-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Emily A Day, Rebecca J Ford, Gregory R Steinberg
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of multiple metabolic pathways and may have therapeutic importance for treating obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Given the ubiquitous expression of AMPK, it has been a challenge to evaluate which tissue types may be most beneficially poised for mediating the positive metabolic effects of AMPK-centered treatments. In this review we evaluate the metabolic phenotypes of transgenic mouse models in which AMPK expression and function have been manipulated, and the impact this has on controlling lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation...
August 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602209/update-on-glut4-vesicle-traffic-a-cornerstone-of-insulin-action
#15
REVIEW
Javier R Jaldin-Fincati, Martin Pavarotti, Scott Frendo-Cumbo, Philip J Bilan, Amira Klip
Glucose transport is rate limiting for dietary glucose utilization by muscle and fat. The glucose transporter GLUT4 is dynamically sorted and retained intracellularly and redistributes to the plasma membrane (PM) by insulin-regulated vesicular traffic, or 'GLUT4 translocation'. Here we emphasize recent findings in GLUT4 translocation research. The application of total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) has increased our understanding of insulin-regulated events beneath the PM, such as vesicle tethering and membrane fusion...
August 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571659/gut-microbiota-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-the-diabetes-epidemic
#16
REVIEW
Ganesan Velmurugan, Tharmarajan Ramprasath, Mithieux Gilles, Krishnan Swaminathan, Subbiah Ramasamy
Diabetes is rapidly emerging as one of the biggest health concerns worldwide, with profound implications for disability, mortality, and costs. This suddenly escalating rate of diabetes correlates with global industrialization and the production of plastics, pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, electronic waste, and food additives that release endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) into the environment and the food chain. Emerging evidence indicates an association between exposure of EDCs and diabetes. In humans, these chemicals are also metabolized by the gut microbiota and thereby their toxicodynamics are altered...
August 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545784/pro-and-antiarrhythmic-actions-of-sulfonylureas-mechanistic-and-clinical-evidence
#17
REVIEW
Charles E Leonard, Sean Hennessy, Xu Han, David S Siscovick, James H Flory, Rajat Deo
Sulfonylureas are the most commonly used second-line drug class for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While the cardiovascular safety of sulfonylureas has been examined in several trials and nonrandomized studies, little is known of their specific effects on sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) and related serious arrhythmic outcomes. This knowledge gap is striking, because persons with DM are at increased risk of SCA. In this review, we explore the influence of sulfonylureas on the risk of serious arrhythmias, with specific foci on ischemic preconditioning, cardiac excitability, and serious hypoglycemia as putative mechanisms...
August 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501497/the-micro-managing-fat-exosomes-as-a-new-messenger
#18
Xiao-Wei Chen, Siming Li, Jiandie D Lin
Brown fat secretes endocrine factors and exerts metabolic effects beyond thermogenesis. In addition to protein factors and bioactive lipids, recent work has revealed brown fat-derived miRNAs carried by exosomes as a new means of interorgan crosstalk, with potentially important implications for metabolic physiology and disease.
August 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939417/mitochondrial-metabolism-yin-and-yang-for-tumor-progression
#19
REVIEW
Lorea Valcarcel-Jimenez, Edoardo Gaude, Veronica Torrano, Christian Frezza, Arkaitz Carracedo
Altered metabolism is a distinct feature of cancer cells. During transformation, the entire metabolic network is rewired to efficiently convert nutrients to biosynthetic precursors to sustain cancer cell growth and proliferation. Whilst the molecular underpinnings of this metabolic reprogramming have been described, its role in tumor progression is still under investigation. Importantly, the mitochondrion is a central actor in many of the metabolic processes that are altered in tumors. Yet, we have only begun to understand the dualities of mitochondrial function during cancer metastasis and therapy resistance...
July 18, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495406/nuclear-receptor-function-through-genomics-lessons-from-the-glucocorticoid-receptor
#20
REVIEW
Daniel M Cohen, David J Steger
Unlocking the therapeutic potential of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) has motivated a search for small molecules that selectively modulate its ability to activate or repress gene transcription. Recently, breakthrough studies in the field of genomics have reinvigorated debate over longstanding transcriptional models explaining how GR controls tissue-specific gene expression. Here, we highlight these genomic studies with the dual goals of advancing understanding of nuclear receptor-mediated transcription and stimulating thought on the development of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive ligands for GR that have reduced harmful effects on metabolism...
July 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
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