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Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416361/unraveling-the-regulation-of-hepatic-metabolism-by-insulin
#1
REVIEW
Paul M Titchenell, Mitchell A Lazar, Morris J Birnbaum
During insulin-resistant states such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), insulin fails to suppress hepatic glucose production but promotes lipid synthesis leading to hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Defining the downstream signaling pathways underlying the control of hepatic metabolism by insulin is necessary for understanding both normal physiology and the pathogenesis of metabolic disease. We summarize recent literature highlighting the importance of both hepatic and extrahepatic mechanisms in insulin regulation of liver glucose and lipid metabolism...
April 14, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410994/the-role-of-oxysterols-in-human-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Alzbeta Kloudova, F Peter Guengerich, Pavel Soucek
Oxysterols are oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol formed in the human body or ingested in the diet. By modulating the activity of many proteins [e.g., liver X receptors (LXRs), oxysterol-binding proteins (OSBPs), some ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters], oxysterols can affect many cellular functions and influence various physiological processes (e.g., cholesterol metabolism, membrane fluidity regulation, intracellular signaling pathways). Therefore, the role of oxysterols is also important in pathological conditions (e...
April 12, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385385/deactivating-fatty-acids-acyl-coa-thioesterase-mediated-control-of-lipid-metabolism
#3
REVIEW
Veronika Tillander, Stefan E H Alexson, David E Cohen
The cellular uptake of free fatty acids (FFA) is followed by esterification to coenzyme A (CoA), generating fatty acyl-CoAs that are substrates for oxidation or incorporation into complex lipids. Acyl-CoA thioesterases (ACOTs) constitute a family of enzymes that hydrolyze fatty acyl-CoAs to form FFA and CoA. Although biochemically and biophysically well characterized, the metabolic functions of these enzymes remain incompletely understood. Existing evidence suggests regulatory roles in controlling rates of peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acyl-CoA oxidation, as well as in the subcellular trafficking of fatty acids...
April 3, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318896/role-of-ahr-and-hif-1%C3%AE-in-glioblastoma-metabolism
#4
REVIEW
Galina Gabriely, Michael A Wheeler, Maisa C Takenaka, Francisco J Quintana
Glioblastoma (GBM) progression is associated with metabolic remodeling in both glioma and immune cells, resulting in the use of aerobic glycolysis as the main source of energy and biosynthetic molecules. The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α drives this metabolic reorganization. Oxygen levels, as well as other factors, control the activity of HIF-1α. In addition, the ligand-activated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) modulates tumor-specific immunity and can also participate in metabolic remodeling...
March 16, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314502/nutrient-sensing-and-the-oxidative-stress-response
#5
REVIEW
Hanzhi Luo, Hou-Hsien Chiang, Makensie Louw, Albert Susanto, Danica Chen
The simplicity and effectiveness of calorie restriction (CR) in lifespan and healthspan extension have fascinated generations searching for the Fountain of Youth. CR reduces levels of oxidative stress and damage, which have been postulated in the free radical theory of aging as a major cause of aging and diseases of aging. This reduction has long been viewed as a result of passive slowing of metabolism. Recent advances in nutrient sensing have provided molecular insights into the oxidative stress response and suggest that CR triggers an active defense program involving a cascade of molecular regulators to reduce oxidative stress...
March 14, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291578/nicotinamide-n-methyltransferase-more-than-a-vitamin-b3-clearance-enzyme
#6
REVIEW
Pavlos Pissios
Nicotinamide (NAM) N-methyltransferase (NNMT) was originally identified as the enzyme responsible for the methylation of NAM, one of the forms of vitamin B3. Methylated NAM is eventually excreted from the body. Recent evidence has expanded the role of NNMT beyond clearance of excess vitamin B3. NNMT has been implicated in the regulation of multiple metabolic pathways in tissues such as adipose and liver as well as cancer cells through the consumption of methyl donors and generation of active metabolites. This review examines recent findings regarding the function of NNMT in physiology and disease and highlights potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention...
March 10, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283319/oxytocin-the-sweet-hormone
#7
REVIEW
Gareth Leng, Nancy Sabatier
Mammalian neurons that produce oxytocin and vasopressin apparently evolved from an ancient cell type with both sensory and neurosecretory properties that probably linked reproductive functions to energy status and feeding behavior. Oxytocin in modern mammals is an autocrine/paracrine regulator of cell function, a systemic hormone, a neuromodulator released from axon terminals within the brain, and a 'neurohormone' that acts at receptors distant from its site of release. In the periphery oxytocin is involved in electrolyte homeostasis, gastric motility, glucose homeostasis, adipogenesis, and osteogenesis, and within the brain it is involved in food reward, food choice, and satiety...
March 7, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279562/neural-circuit-mechanisms-underlying-emotional-regulation-of-homeostatic-feeding
#8
REVIEW
Patrick Sweeney, Yunlei Yang
The neural circuits controlling feeding and emotional behaviors are intricately and reciprocally connected. Recent technological developments, including cell type-specific optogenetic and chemogenetic approaches, allow functional characterization of genetically defined cell populations and neural circuits in feeding and emotional processes. Here we review recent studies that have utilized circuit-based manipulations to decipher the functional interactions between neural circuits controlling feeding and those controlling emotional processes...
March 6, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274682/glucocorticoids-and-reproduction-traffic-control-on-the-road-to-reproduction
#9
REVIEW
Shannon Whirledge, John A Cidlowski
Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that regulate diverse cellular functions and are essential to facilitate normal physiology. However, stress-induced levels of glucocorticoids result in several pathologies including profound reproductive dysfunction. Compelling new evidence indicates that glucocorticoids are crucial to the establishment and maintenance of reproductive function. The fertility-promoting or -inhibiting activity of glucocorticoids depends on timing, dose, and glucocorticoid responsiveness within a given tissue, which is mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
March 5, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259375/sr-bi-a-multifunctional-receptor-in-cholesterol-homeostasis-and-atherosclerosis
#10
REVIEW
MacRae F Linton, Huan Tao, Edward F Linton, Patricia G Yancey
The HDL receptor scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) plays crucial roles in cholesterol homeostasis, lipoprotein metabolism, and atherosclerosis. Hepatic SR-BI mediates reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) by the uptake of HDL cholesterol for routing to the bile. Through the selective uptake of HDL lipids, hepatic SR-BI modulates HDL composition and preserves HDL's atheroprotective functions of mediating cholesterol efflux and minimizing inflammation and oxidation. Macrophage and endothelial cell SR-BI inhibits the development of atherosclerosis by mediating cholesterol trafficking to minimize atherosclerotic lesion foam cell formation...
March 1, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256297/insulin-and-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-signaling-crosstalk-in-heart
#11
REVIEW
Qin Fu, Qingtong Wang, Yang K Xiang
Recent advances show that insulin may affect β adrenergic receptor (βAR) signaling in the heart to modulate cardiac function in clinically relevant states, such as diabetes mellitus (DM) and heart failure (HF). Conversely, activation of βAR regulates cardiac glucose uptake and promotes insulin resistance (IR) in HF. Here, we discuss the recent characterization of the interaction between the cardiac insulin receptor (InsR) and βAR in the myocardium, in which insulin stimulation crosstalks with cardiac βAR via InsR substrate (IRS)-dependent and G-protein receptor kinase 2 (GRK2)-mediated phosphorylation of β2AR...
February 27, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237819/the-complex-roles-of-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-in-adipocytes-and-beyond
#12
REVIEW
Peter L Lee, Su Myung Jung, David A Guertin
Having healthy adipose tissue is essential for metabolic fitness. This is clear from the obesity epidemic, which is unveiling a myriad of comorbidities associated with excess adipose tissue including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Lipodystrophy also causes insulin resistance, emphasizing the importance of having a balanced amount of fat. In cells, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complexes 1 and 2 (mTORC1 and mTORC2, respectively) link nutrient and hormonal signaling with metabolism, and recent studies are shedding new light on their in vivo roles in adipocytes...
February 22, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214071/lipocalin-2-a-master-mediator-of-intestinal-and-metabolic-inflammation
#13
REVIEW
Alexander R Moschen, Timon E Adolph, Romana R Gerner, Verena Wieser, Herbert Tilg
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2), also known as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), is released by various cell types and is an attractive biomarker of inflammation, ischemia, infection, and kidney damage. Both intestinal and metabolic inflammation, as observed in obesity and related disorders, are associated with increased LCN2 synthesis. While LCN2 in the intestinal tract regulates the composition of the gut microbiota and shows anti-inflammatory activities, it also exhibits proinflammatory activities in other experimental settings...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209382/err%C3%AE-a-junior-orphan-with-a-senior-role-in-metabolism
#14
REVIEW
Jagannath Misra, Don-Kyu Kim, Hueng-Sik Choi
Estrogen-related receptor (ERR)γ is an orphan nuclear hormone receptor that belongs to the ERR subfamily of transcription factors. No endogenous ligand has been identified to date. ERRγ possesses ligand-independent transcriptional activity that is regulated by co-regulator interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs). Recent data from animal models have established ERRγ as a crucial mediator of multiple endocrine and metabolic signals. ERRγ plays important roles in pathological conditions such as insulin resistance, alcoholic liver injury, and cardiac hypertrophy, and controls energy metabolism in the heart, skeletal muscle, and pancreatic β cells...
February 13, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209316/intestinal-adaptations-after-bariatric-surgery-consequences-on-glucose-homeostasis
#15
REVIEW
Jean-Baptiste Cavin, André Bado, Maude Le Gall
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract can play a direct role in glucose homeostasis by modulating the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates and by producing the incretin hormones. In recent years, numerous studies have focused on intestinal adaptation following bariatric surgeries. Changes in the number of incretin (glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) producing cells have been reported, which could result in the modified hormonal response seen after surgery. In addition, the rate of absorption and the intestinal regions exposed to sugars may affect the time course of appearance of glucose in the blood...
February 10, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262438/neonatal-diabetes-and-the-katp-channel-from-mutation-to-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Frances M Ashcroft, Michael C Puljung, Natascia Vedovato
Activating mutations in one of the two subunits of the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel cause neonatal diabetes (ND). This may be either transient or permanent and, in approximately 20% of patients, is associated with neurodevelopmental delay. In most patients, switching from insulin to oral sulfonylurea therapy improves glycemic control and ameliorates some of the neurological disabilities. Here, we review how KATP channel mutations lead to the varied clinical phenotype, how sulfonylureas exert their therapeutic effects, and why their efficacy varies with individual mutations...
May 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063767/peroxisomal-dysfunction-in-age-related-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Cynthia M Cipolla, Irfan J Lodhi
Peroxisomes carry out many key functions related to lipid and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism. The fundamental importance of peroxisomes for health in humans is underscored by the existence of devastating genetic disorders caused by impaired peroxisomal function or lack of peroxisomes. Emerging studies suggest that peroxisomal function may also be altered with aging and contribute to the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, including diabetes and its related complications, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer...
April 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057414/apoe-apoe-receptors-and-the-synapse-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Courtney Lane-Donovan, Joachim Herz
As the population ages, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are becoming a significant burden on patients, their families, and health-care systems. Neurodegenerative processes may start up to 15 years before outward signs and symptoms of AD, as evidenced by data from AD patients and mouse models. A major genetic risk factor for late-onset AD is the ɛ4 isoform of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4), which is present in almost 20% of the population. In this review we discuss the contribution of ApoE receptor signaling to the function of each component of the tripartite synapse - the axon terminal, the postsynaptic dendritic spine, and the astrocyte - and examine how these systems fail in the context of ApoE4 and AD...
April 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986466/mitochondrial-adaptation-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-novel-mechanisms-and-treatment-strategies
#19
REVIEW
Nishanth E Sunny, Fernando Bril, Kenneth Cusi
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is prevalent in patients with obesity or type 2 diabetes. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), encompassing steatosis with inflammation, hepatocyte injury, and fibrosis, predisposes to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and even cardiovascular disease. In rodent models and humans with NAFLD/NASH, maladaptation of mitochondrial oxidative flux is a central feature of simple steatosis to NASH transition. Induction of hepatic tricarboxylic acid cycle closely mirrors the severity of oxidative stress and inflammation in NASH...
April 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087125/hydroxy-carboxylic-acid-receptor-actions-in-metabolism
#20
REVIEW
Stefan Offermanns
Lactic acid, the ketone body 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, also known as β-hydroxybutyrate, and the β-oxidation intermediate 3-hydroxy-octanoic acid are hydroxy-carboxylic acids (HCAs) that serve as intermediates of energy metabolism. However, they also regulate cellular functions, in part by directly activating the G protein-coupled receptors HCA1/GPR81, HCA2/GPR109A, and HCA3/GPR109B. During the past decade, it has become clear that HCA receptors help to maintain homeostasis under changing metabolic and dietary conditions, by controlling metabolic, immune, and other body functions...
March 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
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