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Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797581/surviving-stress-modulation-of-atf4-mediated-stress-responses-in-normal-and-malignant-cells
#1
REVIEW
Inge M N Wortel, Laurens T van der Meer, Michael S Kilberg, Frank N van Leeuwen
Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a stress-induced transcription factor that is frequently upregulated in cancer cells. ATF4 controls the expression of a wide range of adaptive genes that allow cells to endure periods of stress, such as hypoxia or amino acid limitation. However, under persistent stress conditions, ATF4 promotes the induction of apoptosis. Recent advances point to a role for post-translational modifications (PTMs) and epigenetic mechanisms in balancing these pro- and anti-survival effects of ATF4...
August 7, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780002/sex-specific-gene-expression-and-life-span-regulation
#2
REVIEW
John Tower
Aging-related diseases show a marked sex bias. For example, women live longer than men yet have more Alzheimer's disease and osteoporosis, whereas men have more cancer and Parkinson's disease. Understanding the role of sex will be important in designing interventions and in understanding basic aging mechanisms. Aging also shows sex differences in model organisms. Dietary restriction (DR), reduced insulin/IGF1-like signaling (IIS), and reduced TOR signaling each increase life span preferentially in females in both flies and mice...
August 2, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780001/endocrinology-meets-metabolomics-achievements-pitfalls-and-challenges
#3
REVIEW
Janina Tokarz, Mark Haid, Alexander Cecil, Cornelia Prehn, Anna Artati, Gabriele Möller, Jerzy Adamski
The metabolome, although very dynamic, is sufficiently stable to provide specific quantitative traits related to health and disease. Metabolomics requires balanced use of state-of-the-art study design, chemical analytics, biostatistics, and bioinformatics to deliver meaningful answers to contemporary questions in human disease research. The technology is now frequently employed for biomarker discovery and for elucidating the mechanisms underlying endocrine-related diseases. Metabolomics has also enriched genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in this area by providing functional data...
August 2, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733136/unexpected-bone-formation-produced-by-rankl-blockade
#4
REVIEW
Sergio Portal-Núñez, Aranzazu Mediero, Pedro Esbrit, Olga Sánchez-Pernaute, Raquel Largo, Gabriel Herrero-Beaumont
Denosumab (Dmab) is a humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks RANKL (receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand), thereby exerting a potent bone antiresorptive action. Dmab treatment leads to a dramatic and sustained increase in bone mass through mechanisms that are currently under debate. It is also a matter of controversy whether this potent action of Dmab could lead to intrabone dystrophic mineralization. Recent research has uncovered a possible anabolic role of Dmab involving RANKL-dependent reverse signaling in osteoblasts, and that bone marrow adipocytes can modulate osteoclastogenesis through the production of RANKL...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668301/the-significance-of-epidermal-lipid-metabolism-in-whole-body-physiology
#5
REVIEW
Vibeke Kruse, Ditte Neess, Nils J Færgeman
The skin is the largest sensory organ of the human body. The skin not only prevents loss of water and other components of the body, but also is involved in regulation of body temperature and serves as an essential barrier, protecting mammals from both routine and extreme environments. Given the importance of the skin in temperature regulation, it is surprising that adaptive alterations in skin functions and morphology only vaguely have been associated with systemic physiological responses. Despite that impaired lipid metabolism in the skin often impairs the epidermal permeability barrier and insulation properties of the skin, its role in regulating systemic physiology and metabolism is yet to be recognized...
June 28, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651856/progesterone-mediated-non-classical-signaling
#6
REVIEW
Deepika Garg, Sinnie Sin Man Ng, K Maravet Baig, Paul Driggers, James Segars
Progesterone is essential for pregnancy maintenance and menstrual cycle regulation. Hormone action has been primarily ascribed to the well-characterized classical signaling pathway involving ligand binding, activation of nuclear progesterone receptors (PRs), and subsequent activation of genes containing progesterone response elements (PREs). Recent studies have revealed progesterone actions via non-classical signaling pathways, often mediated by non-genomic signaling. Progesterone signaling, in conjunction with growth factor signaling, impacts on the function of growth factors and regulates important physiological actions such as cell growth and remodeling, as well as apoptosis...
June 23, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641927/from-prokaryotes-to-cancer-glutamine-flux-in-multicellular-units
#7
REVIEW
Ayelet Erez, Ilana Kolodkin-Gal
Bacteria in nature reside in organized communities, termed biofilms, which are composed of multiple individual cells adhering to each other. Similarly, tumors are a multicellular mass with distinct cellular phenotypes. Both tumors and biofilms are considered to be an active interphase between unicellular and multicellular life states. Because both of these units depend on glutamine for growth and survival, we review here glutamine flux within them as a readout for intra- and inter-commensal metabolism. We suggest that the difference between glutamine fluxes in these cellular communities lies mainly in their global multicellular metabolic organization...
June 19, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629897/a-unified-pathophysiological-construct-of-diabetes-and-its-complications
#8
REVIEW
Stanley S Schwartz, Solomon Epstein, Barbara E Corkey, Struan F A Grant, James R Gavin Iii, Richard B Aguilar, Mary E Herman
Advances in understanding diabetes mellitus (DM) through basic and clinical research have helped clarify and reunify a disease state fragmented into numerous etiologies and subtypes. It is now understood that a common pathophysiology drives the diabetic state throughout its natural history and across its varied clinical presentations, a pathophysiology involving metabolic insults, oxidative damage, and vicious cycles that aggravate and intensify organ dysfunction and damage. This new understanding of the disease requires that we revisit existing diagnostics and treatment approaches, which were built upon outmoded assumptions...
June 16, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622965/tumour-derived-human-growth-hormone-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-oncology
#9
REVIEW
Jo K Perry, Zheng-Sheng Wu, Hichem C Mertani, Tao Zhu, Peter E Lobie
The growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) axis is the key regulator of longitudinal growth, promoting postnatal bone and muscle growth. The available data suggest that GH expression by tumour cells is associated with the aetiology and progression of various cancers such as endometrial, breast, liver, prostate, and colon cancer. Accordingly there has been increased interest in targeting GH-mediated signal transduction in a therapeutic setting. Because GH has endocrine, autocrine, and paracrine actions, therapeutic strategies will need to take into account systemic and local functions...
June 13, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602209/update-on-glut4-vesicle-traffic-a-cornerstone-of-insulin-action
#10
REVIEW
Javier R Jaldin-Fincati, Martin Pavarotti, Scott Frendo-Cumbo, Philip J Bilan, Amira Klip
Glucose transport is rate limiting for dietary glucose utilization by muscle and fat. The glucose transporter GLUT4 is dynamically sorted and retained intracellularly and redistributes to the plasma membrane (PM) by insulin-regulated vesicular traffic, or 'GLUT4 translocation'. Here we emphasize recent findings in GLUT4 translocation research. The application of total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) has increased our understanding of insulin-regulated events beneath the PM, such as vesicle tethering and membrane fusion...
June 8, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571659/gut-microbiota-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-the-diabetes-epidemic
#11
REVIEW
Ganesan Velmurugan, Tharmarajan Ramprasath, Mithieux Gilles, Krishnan Swaminathan, Subbiah Ramasamy
Diabetes is rapidly emerging as one of the biggest health concerns worldwide, with profound implications for disability, mortality, and costs. This suddenly escalating rate of diabetes correlates with global industrialization and the production of plastics, pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, electronic waste, and food additives that release endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) into the environment and the food chain. Emerging evidence indicates an association between exposure of EDCs and diabetes. In humans, these chemicals are also metabolized by the gut microbiota and thereby their toxicodynamics are altered...
May 29, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733135/centrally-mediated-cardiovascular-actions-of-the-angiotensin-ii-type-2-receptor
#12
REVIEW
U Muscha Steckelings, Annette de Kloet, Colin Sumners
Sustained increases in the activity of the sympathetic neural pathways that exit the brain and which increase blood pressure (BP) are a major underlying factor in resistant hypertension. Recently available information on the occurrence of angiotensin II type 2 receptors (AT2Rs) within or adjacent to brain cardiovascular control centers is consistent with findings that stimulation of these receptors lowers BP, particularly during hypertension of neurogenic origin. Until recently brain AT2R had not been considered by many to play a role in the central control of BP...
September 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647324/ampk-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-treating-metabolic-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Emily A Day, Rebecca J Ford, Gregory R Steinberg
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of multiple metabolic pathways and may have therapeutic importance for treating obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Given the ubiquitous expression of AMPK, it has been a challenge to evaluate which tissue types may be most beneficially poised for mediating the positive metabolic effects of AMPK-centered treatments. In this review we evaluate the metabolic phenotypes of transgenic mouse models in which AMPK expression and function have been manipulated, and the impact this has on controlling lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation...
August 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545784/pro-and-antiarrhythmic-actions-of-sulfonylureas-mechanistic-and-clinical-evidence
#14
REVIEW
Charles E Leonard, Sean Hennessy, Xu Han, David S Siscovick, James H Flory, Rajat Deo
Sulfonylureas are the most commonly used second-line drug class for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While the cardiovascular safety of sulfonylureas has been examined in several trials and nonrandomized studies, little is known of their specific effects on sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) and related serious arrhythmic outcomes. This knowledge gap is striking, because persons with DM are at increased risk of SCA. In this review, we explore the influence of sulfonylureas on the risk of serious arrhythmias, with specific foci on ischemic preconditioning, cardiac excitability, and serious hypoglycemia as putative mechanisms...
August 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501497/the-micro-managing-fat-exosomes-as-a-new-messenger
#15
Xiao-Wei Chen, Siming Li, Jiandie D Lin
Brown fat secretes endocrine factors and exerts metabolic effects beyond thermogenesis. In addition to protein factors and bioactive lipids, recent work has revealed brown fat-derived miRNAs carried by exosomes as a new means of interorgan crosstalk, with potentially important implications for metabolic physiology and disease.
August 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495406/nuclear-receptor-function-through-genomics-lessons-from-the-glucocorticoid-receptor
#16
REVIEW
Daniel M Cohen, David J Steger
Unlocking the therapeutic potential of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) has motivated a search for small molecules that selectively modulate its ability to activate or repress gene transcription. Recently, breakthrough studies in the field of genomics have reinvigorated debate over longstanding transcriptional models explaining how GR controls tissue-specific gene expression. Here, we highlight these genomic studies with the dual goals of advancing understanding of nuclear receptor-mediated transcription and stimulating thought on the development of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive ligands for GR that have reduced harmful effects on metabolism...
July 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462811/sphingolipids-and-lipoproteins-in-health-and-metabolic-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Jahangir Iqbal, Meghan T Walsh, Samar M Hammad, M Mahmood Hussain
Sphingolipids are structurally and functionally diverse molecules with significant physiologic functions and are found associated with cellular membranes and plasma lipoproteins. The cellular and plasma concentrations of sphingolipids are altered in several metabolic disorders and may serve as prognostic and diagnostic markers. Here we discuss various sphingolipid transport mechanisms and highlight how changes in cellular and plasma sphingolipid levels contribute to cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
July 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416361/unraveling-the-regulation-of-hepatic-metabolism-by-insulin
#18
REVIEW
Paul M Titchenell, Mitchell A Lazar, Morris J Birnbaum
During insulin-resistant states such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), insulin fails to suppress hepatic glucose production but promotes lipid synthesis leading to hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Defining the downstream signaling pathways underlying the control of hepatic metabolism by insulin is necessary for understanding both normal physiology and the pathogenesis of metabolic disease. We summarize recent literature highlighting the importance of both hepatic and extrahepatic mechanisms in insulin regulation of liver glucose and lipid metabolism...
July 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410994/the-role-of-oxysterols-in-human-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Alzbeta Kloudova, F Peter Guengerich, Pavel Soucek
Oxysterols are oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol formed in the human body or ingested in the diet. By modulating the activity of many proteins [e.g., liver X receptors (LXRs), oxysterol-binding proteins (OSBPs), some ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters], oxysterols can affect many cellular functions and influence various physiological processes (e.g., cholesterol metabolism, membrane fluidity regulation, intracellular signaling pathways). Therefore, the role of oxysterols is also important in pathological conditions (e...
July 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385385/deactivating-fatty-acids-acyl-coa-thioesterase-mediated-control-of-lipid-metabolism
#20
REVIEW
Veronika Tillander, Stefan E H Alexson, David E Cohen
The cellular uptake of free fatty acids (FFA) is followed by esterification to coenzyme A (CoA), generating fatty acyl-CoAs that are substrates for oxidation or incorporation into complex lipids. Acyl-CoA thioesterases (ACOTs) constitute a family of enzymes that hydrolyze fatty acyl-CoAs to form FFA and CoA. Although biochemically and biophysically well characterized, the metabolic functions of these enzymes remain incompletely understood. Existing evidence suggests regulatory roles in controlling rates of peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acyl-CoA oxidation, as well as in the subcellular trafficking of fatty acids...
July 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
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