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Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM

Anne-Marie Lundsgaard, Andreas Mæchel Fritzen, Bente Kiens
This review summarizes how fatty acid (FA) oxidation is regulated in skeletal muscle during exercise. From the available evidence it seems that acetyl-CoA availability in the mitochondrial matrix adjusts FA oxidation to exercise intensity and duration. This is executed at the step of mitochondrial fatty acyl import, as the extent of acetyl group sequestration by carnitine determines the availability of carnitine for the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) reaction. The rate of glycolysis seems therefore to be central to the amount of β-oxidation-derived acetyl-CoA that is oxidized in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle...
December 5, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Thomas W Grunt
Cancer-specific perturbations of signaling, metabolism, and epigenetics can be a cause and/or consequence of malignant transformation. Evidence indicates that these regulatory systems interact with each other to form highly flexible and robust cybernetic networks that promote malignant growth and confer treatment resistance. Deciphering these plexuses using holistic approaches known from systems biology can be instructive for the future design of novel anticancer strategies. In this review, I discuss novel findings elucidating the multiple molecular interdependence among cancer-specific signaling, cell metabolism, and epigenetics to provide an insightful understanding of how major cancer machineries interact with each other during cancer development and progression, and how this knowledge may be used for future co-targeting strategies...
December 1, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
David R Grattan
A recent paper demonstrates that kisspeptin can stimulate the secretion of both prolactin and luteinizing hormone (LH). This provides novel insight into mechanisms that could account for previous observations of concordant patterns of secretion of the two hormones, such as pulsatile secretion with simultaneous pulses, as well as the preovulatory surges of both prolactin and LH.
December 1, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Antonio Molinaro, Annika Wahlström, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall
Bile acids are endocrine molecules that in addition to facilitating the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients regulate numerous metabolic processes, including glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis. The signaling actions of bile acids are mediated through specific bile-acid-activated nuclear and membrane-bound receptors. These receptors are not only expressed by tissues within the enterohepatic circulation such as the liver and the intestine, but also in other organs where bile acids mediate their systemic actions...
November 28, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
David W Dodington, Harsh R Desai, Minna Woo
The Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway is crucial for transducing signals from a variety of metabolically relevant hormones and cytokines including growth hormone, leptin, erythropoietin, IL4, IL6 and IFNγ. A growing body of evidence suggests that this pathway is dysregulated in the context of obesity and metabolic disease. Recent development of animal models has been instrumental in identifying the role of JAK/STAT signaling in the peripheral metabolic organs including adipose, liver, muscle, pancreas, and the immune system...
November 27, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Jolien Vandewalle, Astrid Luypaert, Karolien De Bosscher, Claude Libert
Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been used clinically for decades as potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. Nevertheless, their use is severely hampered by the risk of developing side effects and the occurrence of glucocorticoid resistance (GCR). Therefore, efforts to understand the complex mechanisms underlying GC function and GCR are ongoing. The goal is to generate new glucocorticoid receptor (GR) ligands that can dissociate anti-inflammatory from metabolic side effects and/or overcome GCR. In this review paper we discuss recent insights into GR-mediated actions in GCR and novel therapeutic strategies for acute and chronic inflammatory diseases...
November 18, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Wei-Jun Wei, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Quan-Yong Luo
Postsurgical management of differentiated thyroid cancer in China has gained a great success in the last twenty years, but there are still gaps to be filled. Here, we briefly review the current status and also extend an outlook for future development.
November 14, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Mario D Cordero, Matthew R Williams, Bernhard Ryffel
The NLRP3 inflammasome has recently emerged as an unexpected marker of stress and metabolic risk and has also been implicated in the development of major aging-related diseases such as gout, type 2 diabetes, obesity, cancer, and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders. Several pathways regulating the NLRP3 inflammasome are currently being studied, but how the NLRP3 inflammasome is regulated remains unknown. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a central regulator of multiple metabolic pathways involved in the pathophysiology of aging and age-related diseases, has emerged as an important integrator of signals controlling inflammation including the inflammasome...
November 14, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Ahmed Lawan, Anton M Bennett
The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) participate in a multitude of processes that control hepatic metabolism. The liver regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, and under pathophysiological conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) these processes become dysfunctional. Stress responses activate the hepatic MAPKs, and this is thought to impair insulin action and lipid metabolism. The MAPKs also activate the MAPK phosphatases (MKPs) which oppose their actions...
November 8, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Francesc Villarroya, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Marion Peyrou, Joan Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is responsible for adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis. Moreover, brown fat secretes regulatory factors, so-called brown adipokines, that have autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine actions. Brown adipokines are either polypeptides or nonpeptidic molecules including lipid molecules and microRNAs. The secretory properties of brown fat are essential for tissue remodeling adaptations to thermogenic necessities. The endocrine properties of brown adipokines are thought to contribute to the association between BAT activity and a healthy metabolic profile in relation to glucose and lipid homeostasis...
November 4, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Matteo Villa, Jing Qiu, Erika L Pearce
Sugars have pathogenic roles in diabetes. In Nature Medicine, Zhang et al. revisit this dogma and show that mannose induces the generation of regulatory T (Treg) cells. The immunoregulatory effect of mannose not only prevented the onset of autoimmune diabetes but also blocked disease progression in new-onset diabetic mice.
November 1, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Tomohiro Nakamura, Stuart A Lipton
The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), is currently a major public health concern due to the lack of efficient disease-modifying therapeutic options. Recent evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and nitrosative/oxidative stress are key common mediators of pathogenesis. In this review, we highlight molecular mechanisms linking NO-dependent post-translational modifications, such as cysteine S-nitrosylation and tyrosine nitration, to abnormal mitochondrial metabolism...
October 30, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Ahmed M ALJohani, Deeba N Syed, James M Ntambi
Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1) is a central regulator of fuel metabolism and may represent a therapeutic target to control obesity and the progression of related metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes and hepatic steatosis. SCD1 catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), mainly oleate and palmitoleate, which are important in controlling weight gain in response to feeding high carbohydrate diets. In this review, we evaluate the role of SCD1 isoform in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism in metabolic tissues...
October 28, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Stefania Carobbio, Anne-Claire Guénantin, Antonio Vidal-Puig
Obesity is a major health problem without satisfactory pharmacological treatment. A promising strategy is to promote energy dissipation by activating brown/beige adipose tissue. However, for this strategy to succeed it requires improving the transferability amongst cellular, murine, and human systems and bridging the gap between basic and clinical research.
October 27, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Bhagirath Chaurasia, Scott A Summers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Bharath K Mani, Jeffrey M Zigman
Ghrelin administration induces food intake and body weight gain. Based on these actions, the ghrelin system was initially proposed as an antiobesity target. Subsequent studies using genetic mouse models have raised doubts about the role of the endogenous ghrelin system in mediating body weight homeostasis or obesity. However, this is not to say that the endogenous ghrelin system is not important metabolically or otherwise. Here we review an emerging concept in which the endogenous ghrelin system serves an essential function during extreme nutritional and psychological challenges to defend blood glucose, protect body weight, avoid exaggerated depression, and ultimately allow survival...
December 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Walter L Miller
Until the mid-1980s studies of steroidogenesis largely depended on identifying steroid structures and measuring steroid concentrations in body fluids. The molecular biology revolution radically revolutionized studies of steroidogenesis with the cloning of known steroidogenic enzymes, by identifying novel factors, and delineating the genetic basis of known and newly discovered diseases. Unfortunately, this dramatic success has led many young research-oriented endocrinologists to regard steroidogenesis as a 'solved area'...
November 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Bernhard Kadenbach
Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is the final oxygen accepting enzyme complex (complex IV) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In contrast to the other complexes (I, II, and III), CcO is highly regulated via isoforms for six of its ten nuclear-coded subunits, which are differentially expressed in species, tissues, developmental stages, and cellular oxygen concentrations. Recent publications have claimed that NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex 4 (NDUFA4), originally identified as subunit of complex I, represents a 14th subunit of CcO...
November 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Min Long, Xing Li, Li Li, Matthew Dodson, Donna D Zhang, Hongting Zheng
p62, a protein capable of binding both ubiquitin and autophagy substrates, is well established as a key regulator in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, there has been accumulating evidence that p62 is also a pivotal regulator in metabolic diseases, such as obesity, T2DM, NAFLD, metabolic bone disease, gout and thyroid disease. This review summarizes the emerging role of p62 on these diseases by considering its functional domains, phenotypes in genetically modified animals, clinically observed alterations, and its effects on downstream metabolic signaling pathways...
November 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Irinna Papangeli, Hyung J Chun
Elabela (ELA), the second peptide ligand for the apelin receptor, APLNR, was previously found in lower vertebrates to be crucial for endoderm and cardiac development. Two new studies report on the phenotypes of Ela null mice, ranging from defective embryogenesis to preeclampsia, providing new insights and raising greater intrigue on this cardiometabolic pathway.
November 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
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