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Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM

Audrey Sambeat, Olga Gulyaeva, Jon Dempersmier, Hei Sook Sul
In contrast to white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy in the form of triglycerides, brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy by producing heat to maintain body temperature by burning glucose and fatty acids in a process called adaptive thermogenesis. The presence of an inducible thermogenic adipose tissue, and its beneficial effects for maintaining body weight and glucose and lipid homeostasis, has raised intense interest in understanding the regulation of thermogenesis. Elucidating the regulatory mechanisms underlying the thermogenic adipose program may provide excellent targets for therapeutics against obesity and diabetes...
September 27, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Pierre Theurey, Jennifer Rieusset
Metabolic diseases are associated with nutrient excess and metabolic inflexibility. Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum are important organelles and nutrient sensors, and their dysfunction has been extensively and independently implicated in metabolic diseases. Both organelles interact at sites known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), in order to exchange metabolites and calcium. Recent evidence indicates that MAM could be a hub of hepatic insulin signaling and nutrient sensing. In this review, we discuss the roles organelle function and communication play in the cell's adaptation to nutrient availability, in both physiology and metabolic diseases...
September 23, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Maria Conte, Claudio Franceschi, Marco Sandri, Stefano Salvioli
Perilipin 2 (Plin2), a protein associated with the metabolism of intracellular lipid droplets (LDs), has long been considered only for its role in lipid storage. However, the manipulation of its expression affects the severity of a variety of metabolic and age-related diseases, such as fatty liver, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, sarcopenia, and cancer, suggesting that this protein may play a role in these pathological conditions. In particular, its downregulation in mice prevents or mitigates some of the above mentioned diseases...
September 19, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Joanne Boldison, F Susan Wong
The autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic islet β cells is due to a targeted lymphocyte attack. Different T cell subsets communicate with each other and with the insulin-producing β cells in this process, with evidence not only of damage to the tissue cells but also of lymphocyte regulation. Here we explore the various components of the immune response as well as the cellular interactions that are involved in causing or reducing immune damage to the β cells. We consider these in the light of the possibility that understanding them may help us identify therapeutic targets to reduce the damage and destruction leading to type 1 diabetes...
September 19, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Franck Mauvais-Jarvis
The gonads have long been considered endocrine glands, producing sex steroids such as estrogens, androgens, and progesterone (P4) for the sole purpose of sexual differentiation, puberty, and reproduction. Reproduction and energy metabolism are tightly linked, however, and gonadal steroids play an important role in sex-specific aspects of energy metabolism in various physiological conditions. In that respect, gonadal steroids also influence the secretion of insulin in a sex-specific manner. This review presents a perspective on the physiological roles of estrogens, androgens, and P4 via their receptors in pancreatic β cells in the gender-specific tuning of insulin secretion...
September 15, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Meghna Pant, Naresh C Bal, Muthu Periasamy
Skeletal muscle constitutes ∼40% of body mass and has the capacity to play a major role as thermogenic, metabolic, and endocrine organ. In addition to shivering, muscle also contributes to nonshivering thermogenesis via futile sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) activity. Sarcolipin (SLN), a regulator of SERCA activity in muscle, plays an important role in regulating muscle thermogenesis and metabolism. Uncoupling of SERCA by SLN increases ATP hydrolysis and heat production, and contributes to temperature homeostasis...
September 13, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Claire L Donohoe, Joanne Lysaght, Jacintha O'Sullivan, John V Reynolds
There is compelling epidemiological evidence linking obesity to many tumours; however, the molecular mechanisms fuelling this association are not clearly understood. Emerging evidence links changes in the tumour microenvironment with the obese state, and murine and human studies highlight the relevance of adipose stromal cells (ASCs), including immune cells, both at remote fat depots, such as the omentum, as well as in peritumoural tissue. These obesity-associated changes have been implicated in several hallmarks of cancer, including the chronic inflammatory state and associated cell signalling, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumour-related fibrosis, angiogenesis, and genomic instability...
September 12, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Timothy W Hand, Ivan Vujkovic-Cvijin, Vanessa K Ridaura, Yasmine Belkaid
Chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs) are the most important causes of mortality in the world today and are on the rise. We now know that immune-driven inflammation is critical in the etiology of these diseases, though the environmental triggers and cellular mechanisms that lead to their development are still mysterious. Many CIDs are associated with significant shifts in the microbiota toward inflammatory configurations, which can affect the host both by inducing local and systemic inflammation and by alterations in microbiota-derived metabolites...
September 9, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Christopher Lipina, Harinder S Hundal
Regulated in development and DNA damage response 1 (REDD1) has been functionally linked to the control of diverse cellular processes due, at least in part, to its ability to repress mammalian or mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Complex-1 (mTORC1), a key protein complex controlled by hormonal and nutrient cues. Notably, emerging evidence suggests that REDD1 also regulates several pathways involved in modulating energy balance and metabolism. Herein, we discuss evidence implicating REDD1 as a key modulator of insulin action and metabolic function, including its potential contribution to mitochondrial biology and pancreatic islet function...
September 6, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Frederik Holst, Christian F Singer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Karen L Chen, Zeynep Madak-Erdogan
Recent advances have suggested that steroid hormones such as estrogens, and gut microbiota might synergize to influence obesity, diabetes, and cancer. We discuss recent knowledge of the interactions between estrogens and gut microbiota, and new insights that might offer new approaches to influence this crosstalk and improve metabolic outcomes.
August 20, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Linda Sasset, Yi Zhang, Teresa M Dunn, Annarita Di Lorenzo
Sphingolipids (SL) are both fundamental structural components of the eukaryotic membranes and signaling molecules that regulate a variety of biological functions. The highly-bioactive lipids, ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate, have emerged as important regulators of cardiovascular function in health and disease. In this review we discuss recent insights into the role of SLs, particularly ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate, in the pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system. We also highlight advances into the molecular mechanisms regulating serine palmitoyltransferase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme of de novo SL biosynthesis, with an emphasis on the recently discovered inhibitors of serine palmitoyltransferase, ORMDL and NOGO-B proteins...
August 11, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Rafael Moncada, Manuel F Landecho, Gema Frühbeck
A Joint Statement endorsed by 45 international organizations, clinicians, and researchers indicating when to recommend or consider metabolic surgery in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment has been recently published. These new guidelines, resulting from the Second Diabetes Surgery Summit (DSS-II), represent the most radical change in T2DM management of the past few decades.
October 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Suowen Xu, Peter Bai, Zheng Gen Jin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Kathrina L Marcelo, Anthony R Means, Brian York
Calcium (Ca(2+)) is an essential ligand that binds its primary intracellular receptor calmodulin (CaM) to trigger a variety of downstream processes and pathways. Central to the actions of Ca(2+)/CaM is the activation of a highly conserved Ca(2+)/CaM kinase (CaMK) cascade that amplifies Ca(2+) signals through a series of subsequent phosphorylation events. Proper regulation of Ca(2+) flux is necessary for whole-body metabolism and disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis has been linked to various metabolic diseases...
October 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Mark A Herman, Varman T Samuel
Epidemiological studies link fructose consumption with metabolic disease, an association attributable in part to fructose-mediated lipogenesis. The mechanisms governing fructose-induced lipogenesis and disease remain debated. Acutely, fructose increases de novo lipogenesis through the efficient and uninhibited action of ketohexokinase and aldolase B which yields substrates for fatty-acid synthesis. Chronic fructose consumption further enhances the capacity for hepatic fructose metabolism by activating several key transcription factors (i...
October 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Sara Lovisa, Michael Zeisberg, Raghu Kalluri
Kidney fibrosis is the unavoidable consequence of chronic kidney disease irrespective of the primary underlying insult. It is a complex phenomenon governed by the interplay between different cellular components and intricate networks of signaling pathways, which together lead to loss of renal functionality and replacement of kidney parenchyma with scar tissue. An immense effort has recently been made to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to kidney fibrosis. The cellular protagonists of this process include myofibroblasts, tubular epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and immune cells...
October 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Francesca Cingolani, Mark J Czaja
The selective breakdown by autophagy of lipid droplet (LD)-stored lipids, termed lipophagy, is a lysosomal lipolytic pathway that complements the actions of cytosolic neutral lipases. The physiological importance of lipophagy has been demonstrated in multiple mammalian cell types, as well as in lower organisms, and this pathway has many functions in addition to supplying free fatty acids to maintain cellular energy stores. Recent studies have begun to delineate the molecular mechanisms of the selective recognition of LDs by the autophagic machinery, as well as the intricate crosstalk between the different forms of autophagy and neutral lipases...
October 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
David J Shapiro, Mara Livezey, Liqun Yu, Xiaobin Zheng, Neal Andruska
The endoplasmic reticulum (EnR) stress sensor, the unfolded protein response (UPR), plays a key role in regulating intracellular protein homeostasis. The extensively studied reactive mode of UPR activation is characterized by unfolded protein, or other EnR stress, triggering UPR activation. Here we focus on the emerging anticipatory mode of UPR activation in which mitogenic steroid and peptide hormones and other effectors preactivate the UPR and anticipate a future need for increased protein folding capacity...
October 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Deborah L Johnson, Bangyan L Stiles
PTEN is a critical tumor suppressor whose dysregulation leads to metabolic disease and cancer. How these diseases are linked at a molecular level is poorly understood. Maf1 is a novel PTEN target that connects PTEN's ability to repress intracellular lipid accumulation with its tumor suppressor function. Maf1 represses the expression of rRNAs and tRNAs to restrain biosynthetic capacity and oncogenic transformation. Recent studies demonstrate that Maf1 also controls intracellular lipid accumulation. In animal models, dysregulation of RNA polymerase I- and III-dependent transcription, and subsequent upregulation of rRNAs and tRNAs, leads to altered lipid metabolism and storage...
October 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
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