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Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM

Yuichi Takashi, Seiji Fukumoto
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 is a bone-derived phosphotropic hormone that regulates phosphate and vitamin D metabolism. FGF23 mainly affects kidney function via the FGF receptor (FGFR)/α-Klotho complex. The physiological roles of FGF23 and α-Klotho in the regulation of mineral homeostasis have been well established. In addition, recent studies have reported that FGF23 has various effects on many other tissues, sometimes in an α-Klotho-independent manner, especially under pathological conditions. However, how FGF23 works in these tissues without α-Klotho is not entirely clear...
September 11, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Kirsty A Walters, Robert B Gilchrist, William L Ledger, Helena J Teede, David J Handelsman, Rebecca E Campbell
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine condition in reproductive-aged women. It is characterized by reproductive, endocrine, metabolic, and psychological features. The cause of PCOS is unknown, thus there is no cure and its management remains suboptimal because it relies on the ad hoc empirical management of symptoms only. We review here the strong support for PCOS having a neuroendocrine origin. In particular, we focus on the role of aberrant hypothalamic-pituitary function and associated hyperandrogenism, and their role as major drivers of the mechanisms underpinning the development of PCOS...
September 5, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Jingjing Cai, Xiao-Jing Zhang, Hongliang Li
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most epidemic liver disease worldwide owing to rapid changes in lifestyle over the past few decades. This chronic condition intertwines with low-grade inflammation and metabolic disequilibrium, and potentiates the onset and progression of devastating hepatic and extrahepatic complications. In addition to an integral role in promoting host defense, recent studies also implicate innate immune signaling in a multitude of processes that control the progression of NAFLD...
August 18, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Simon Lecoutre, Paul Petrus, Mikael Rydén, Christophe Breton
An adverse nutritional environment during the perinatal period increases the risk of adult-onset metabolic diseases, such as obesity, which may persist across generations. Adipose tissue (AT) from offspring of malnourished dams has been shown to display altered adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and adipokine expression, impaired thermogenesis, and low-grade inflammation. Although the exact mechanisms underlying these alterations remain unclear, epigenetic processes are believed to have an important role. In this review, we focus on epigenetic mechanisms in AT that may account for transgenerational dysregulation of adipocyte formation and adipose function...
August 10, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Amin Ardestani, Kathrin Maedler
Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex (mTORC)1 is the major regulator of metabolism at the cellular and organismal level. mTORC1-mediated regulatory feedback loops enable adaptation to nutrient and growth factor availability and metabolic demand. In their recent study, Yoneyama et al. have identified and characterized a negative feedback loop from mTORC1 to insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1; the key component of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway.
August 3, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Xue Jiao, Hanni Ke, Yingying Qin, Zi-Jiang Chen
Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is highly heterogeneous in genetic etiology. Yet identifying causative genes has been challenging with candidate gene approaches. Recent approaches using next generation sequencing (NGS), especially whole exome sequencing (WES), in large POI pedigrees have identified new causatives and proposed relevant candidates, mainly enriched in DNA damage repair, homologous recombination, and meiosis. In the near future, NGS or whole genome sequencing will help better define genes involved in intricate regulatory networks...
August 2, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Raphael Chevre, Carlos Silvestre-Roig, Oliver Soehnlein
Altered nutritional behavior in Western societies has unleashed numerous metabolic disorders, intimately linked to profound disruptions of the immune system. Here we summarize how nutrition modulates innate immunity. We outline recent findings regarding nutrient signaling and we particularly focus on the collateral impact of nutrition on the microbiome and on the bile acid (BA) pool. We discuss how the integration of postprandial signals by the gut microbiota, along with the absorption routes of metabolites, differentially affects immune niches to orchestrate immune responses...
October 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Marc N Wein, Marc Foretz, David E Fisher, Ramnik J Xavier, Henry M Kronenberg
Salt-inducible kinases (SIKs) represent a subfamily of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family kinases. Initially named because SIK1 (the founding member of this kinase family) expression is regulated by dietary salt intake in the adrenal gland, it is now apparent that a major biological role of these kinases is to control gene expression in response to extracellular cues that increase intracellular levels of cAMP. Here, we review four physiologically relevant examples of how cAMP signaling impinges upon SIK cellular function...
October 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Jun Ren, James R Sowers, Yingmei Zhang
Recent advances in health care have improved the management of cardiometabolic disorders, and prolonged lifespan. However, the ever-rising prevalence of metabolic stress related to obesity (insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) has greatly challenged geriatric care. The ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy-lysosomal pathways represent two major, yet distinct cellular machineries, for degradation and removal of damaged or long-lived proteins and organelles; the function of which declines with aging...
October 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Anders M Näär
The miR-33 microRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial regulators of cholesterol/lipids, and may represent therapeutic targets for the treatment of atherosclerosis. A recent report by Price et al. showed that miR-33 knockout (KO) mice exhibit obesity, insulin resistance, and increased food intake, suggesting that metabolic regulation by miR-33 is more complex than was previously known.
October 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Rajashree Mishra, Kenyaita M Hodge, Diana L Cousminer, Richard D Leslie, Struan F A Grant
Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is characterized by the presence of islet autoantibodies and initial insulin independence, which can lead to misdiagnosis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). As such, understanding the genetic etiology of LADA could aid in more accurate diagnosis. However, there is ongoing debate regarding the exact definition of LADA, so understanding its impact in different populations when contrasted with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and T2D is one potential strategy to gain insight into its etiology...
September 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Almudena Veiga-Lopez, Yong Pu, Jeremy Gingrich, Vasantha Padmanabhan
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds that are part of everyday consumer products and industrial manufacturing processes. EDCs can interfere with the endocrine system, including the adipose tissue. Accumulating evidence from epidemiological, animal, and in vitro studies demonstrates that EDCs can alter body weight, adipose tissue expansion, circulating lipid profile, and adipogenesis, with some resulting in transgenerational effects. These outcomes appear to be mediated through multiple mechanisms, from nuclear receptor binding to epigenetic modifications...
September 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Saverio Cinti
Adipocytes are lipid-rich parenchymal cells contained in a very plastic organ, whose composition can undergo striking physiologic changes. In standard conditions the organ contains white and brown adipocytes which play opposite roles: lipid storage to meet metabolic requirements and lipid burning for thermogenesis, respectively. During chronic cold exposure, white adipocytes transdifferentiate to brown, to increase thermogenesis, whereas in conditions of chronic positive energy balance brown adipocytes transdifferentiate to white, to increase energy stores...
September 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Cunqi Ye, Benjamin P Tu
Epigenetic modifications on chromatin are most commonly thought to be involved in the transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Due to their dependency on small-molecule metabolites, these modifications can relay information about cellular metabolic state to the genome for the activation or repression of particular sets of genes. In this review we discuss emerging evidence that these modifications might also have a metabolic purpose. Due to their abundance, the histones have the capacity to store substantial amounts of useful metabolites or to enable important metabolic transformations...
September 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Laura Légat, Ilse Smolders, Alain G Dupont
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Christopher J Halbrook, Zeribe C Nwosu, Costas A Lyssiotis
Metabolic processes within cells are dynamically interconnected. If mitochondria become defective, cells must rewire their metabolism to survive. Here we highlight recent work by Gaude et al. that used a tunable model of mitochondrial dysfunction combined with metabolic tracing and in silico analyses to define these compensatory pathways.
September 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Bhagirath Chaurasia, William L Holland, Scott A Summers
Chaurasia and colleagues discuss the provocative new finding that some enzymes in the de novo sphingolipid synthesis pathway have dual roles as transcriptional regulators.
September 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Yahya Sohrabi, Rinesh Godfrey, Hannes M Findeisen
Exposing innate immune cells to an initial insult induces a long-term proinflammatory response due to metabolic and epigenetic alterations which encompass an emerging new concept called trained immunity. Recent studies provide novel insights into mechanisms centered on metabolic reprogramming which induce innate immune memory in hematopoietic stem cells and monocytes.
September 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Nina Weisshaar, Alaa Madi, Guoliang Cui
T cells rapidly engage glycolysis upon activation. The signaling pathways through which T cell receptor (TCR) activation initiates glycolysis have been a mystery. A long-awaited answer has been provided by Menk et al., who show that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDHK1) is in the center of signaling events linking TCR activation to glycolysis.
September 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Dongxing Zhu, Xiaosa Li, Vicky E Macrae, Tommaso Simoncini, Xiaodong Fu
The risk of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease increases significantly in postmenopausal women. Until recently, the underlying mechanisms have been primarily attributed to estrogen decline following menopause. However, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels rise sharply during menopausal transition and are maintained at elevated levels for many years. FSH receptor has been detected in various extragonadal sites, including osteoclasts and endothelial cells. Recent advances suggest FSH may contribute to postmenopausal osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease...
August 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
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