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Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533020/the-role-of-pyy-in-pancreatic-islet-physiology-and-surgical-control-of-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Claudia Guida, Sam Stephen, Romain Guitton, Reshma D Ramracheya
Bariatric surgery in obese individuals leads to rapid and lasting remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This phenomenon occurs independently of weight loss possibly via a combination of factors. The incretin hormone GLP-1 has so far been recognised as a critical factor. However, recent data have indicated that elevation in another gut hormone, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), may drive the beneficial effects of surgery. Here we discuss recent findings on PYY-mediated control of glucose homeostasis and its role in diabetes, in the context of what is known for GLP-1...
May 19, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501497/the-micro-managing-fat-exosomes-as-a-new-messenger
#2
Xiao-Wei Chen, Siming Li, Jiandie D Lin
Brown fat secretes endocrine factors and exerts metabolic effects beyond thermogenesis. In addition to protein factors and bioactive lipids, recent work has revealed brown fat-derived miRNAs carried by exosomes as a new means of interorgan crosstalk, with potentially important implications for metabolic physiology and disease.
May 10, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499663/htr2c-splice-variants-and-5ht2cr-mediated-appetite
#3
Anthony R Isles
Serotonin 2C receptor (5HT2CR) exists as different isoforms as a result of alternate splicing. A truncated variant (5HT2CR-trunc) has no canonical receptor function and yet shows robust expression levels throughout the brain. Recent work has demonstrated the biochemical role of this isoform and how altering levels of 5HT2CR-trunc leads to changes in behaviour.
May 9, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495406/nuclear-receptor-function-through-genomics-lessons-from-the-glucocorticoid-receptor
#4
REVIEW
Daniel M Cohen, David J Steger
Unlocking the therapeutic potential of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) has motivated a search for small molecules that selectively modulate its ability to activate or repress gene transcription. Recently, breakthrough studies in the field of genomics have reinvigorated debate over longstanding transcriptional models explaining how GR controls tissue-specific gene expression. Here, we highlight these genomic studies with the dual goals of advancing understanding of nuclear receptor-mediated transcription and stimulating thought on the development of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive ligands for GR that have reduced harmful effects on metabolism...
May 8, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473178/cardiovascular-adiponectin-resistance-the-critical-role-of-adiponectin-receptor-modification
#5
REVIEW
Yajing Wang, Xin L Ma, Wayne Bond Lau
For the past two decades, a great deal of research has been published concerning adiponectin (APN), an abundant protein responsible for regulating numerous biologic functions including antioxidative, antinitrative, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective effects. A review of APN and its two major receptors is timely because of new findings concerning the mechanisms by which APN signaling may be altered in pathologic processes such as diabetes and heart failure. In this review we elaborate on currently known information regarding the physiologic role of APN and the known mechanisms underlying pathologic APN resistance - namely, APN receptor downregulation and phosphorylation - and provide insight regarding the future directions of APN research including an assessment of the clinical applicability of preventing pathologic post-translational modification of the APN receptor...
May 1, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462811/sphingolipids-and-lipoproteins-in-health-and-metabolic-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Jahangir Iqbal, Meghan T Walsh, Samar M Hammad, M Mahmood Hussain
Sphingolipids are structurally and functionally diverse molecules with significant physiologic functions and are found associated with cellular membranes and plasma lipoproteins. The cellular and plasma concentrations of sphingolipids are altered in several metabolic disorders and may serve as prognostic and diagnostic markers. Here we discuss various sphingolipid transport mechanisms and highlight how changes in cellular and plasma sphingolipid levels contribute to cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
April 24, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416361/unraveling-the-regulation-of-hepatic-metabolism-by-insulin
#7
REVIEW
Paul M Titchenell, Mitchell A Lazar, Morris J Birnbaum
During insulin-resistant states such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), insulin fails to suppress hepatic glucose production but promotes lipid synthesis leading to hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Defining the downstream signaling pathways underlying the control of hepatic metabolism by insulin is necessary for understanding both normal physiology and the pathogenesis of metabolic disease. We summarize recent literature highlighting the importance of both hepatic and extrahepatic mechanisms in insulin regulation of liver glucose and lipid metabolism...
April 14, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410994/the-role-of-oxysterols-in-human-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Alzbeta Kloudova, F Peter Guengerich, Pavel Soucek
Oxysterols are oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol formed in the human body or ingested in the diet. By modulating the activity of many proteins [e.g., liver X receptors (LXRs), oxysterol-binding proteins (OSBPs), some ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters], oxysterols can affect many cellular functions and influence various physiological processes (e.g., cholesterol metabolism, membrane fluidity regulation, intracellular signaling pathways). Therefore, the role of oxysterols is also important in pathological conditions (e...
April 12, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385385/deactivating-fatty-acids-acyl-coa-thioesterase-mediated-control-of-lipid-metabolism
#9
REVIEW
Veronika Tillander, Stefan E H Alexson, David E Cohen
The cellular uptake of free fatty acids (FFA) is followed by esterification to coenzyme A (CoA), generating fatty acyl-CoAs that are substrates for oxidation or incorporation into complex lipids. Acyl-CoA thioesterases (ACOTs) constitute a family of enzymes that hydrolyze fatty acyl-CoAs to form FFA and CoA. Although biochemically and biophysically well characterized, the metabolic functions of these enzymes remain incompletely understood. Existing evidence suggests regulatory roles in controlling rates of peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acyl-CoA oxidation, as well as in the subcellular trafficking of fatty acids...
April 3, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291578/nicotinamide-n-methyltransferase-more-than-a-vitamin-b3-clearance-enzyme
#10
REVIEW
Pavlos Pissios
Nicotinamide (NAM) N-methyltransferase (NNMT) was originally identified as the enzyme responsible for the methylation of NAM, one of the forms of vitamin B3. Methylated NAM is eventually excreted from the body. Recent evidence has expanded the role of NNMT beyond clearance of excess vitamin B3. NNMT has been implicated in the regulation of multiple metabolic pathways in tissues such as adipose and liver as well as cancer cells through the consumption of methyl donors and generation of active metabolites. This review examines recent findings regarding the function of NNMT in physiology and disease and highlights potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention...
March 10, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283319/oxytocin-the-sweet-hormone
#11
REVIEW
Gareth Leng, Nancy Sabatier
Mammalian neurons that produce oxytocin and vasopressin apparently evolved from an ancient cell type with both sensory and neurosecretory properties that probably linked reproductive functions to energy status and feeding behavior. Oxytocin in modern mammals is an autocrine/paracrine regulator of cell function, a systemic hormone, a neuromodulator released from axon terminals within the brain, and a 'neurohormone' that acts at receptors distant from its site of release. In the periphery oxytocin is involved in electrolyte homeostasis, gastric motility, glucose homeostasis, adipogenesis, and osteogenesis, and within the brain it is involved in food reward, food choice, and satiety...
March 7, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256297/insulin-and-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-signaling-crosstalk-in-heart
#12
REVIEW
Qin Fu, Qingtong Wang, Yang K Xiang
Recent advances show that insulin may affect β adrenergic receptor (βAR) signaling in the heart to modulate cardiac function in clinically relevant states, such as diabetes mellitus (DM) and heart failure (HF). Conversely, activation of βAR regulates cardiac glucose uptake and promotes insulin resistance (IR) in HF. Here, we discuss the recent characterization of the interaction between the cardiac insulin receptor (InsR) and βAR in the myocardium, in which insulin stimulation crosstalks with cardiac βAR via InsR substrate (IRS)-dependent and G-protein receptor kinase 2 (GRK2)-mediated phosphorylation of β2AR...
February 27, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318896/role-of-ahr-and-hif-1%C3%AE-in-glioblastoma-metabolism
#13
REVIEW
Galina Gabriely, Michael A Wheeler, Maisa C Takenaka, Francisco J Quintana
Glioblastoma (GBM) progression is associated with metabolic remodeling in both glioma and immune cells, resulting in the use of aerobic glycolysis as the main source of energy and biosynthetic molecules. The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α drives this metabolic reorganization. Oxygen levels, as well as other factors, control the activity of HIF-1α. In addition, the ligand-activated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) modulates tumor-specific immunity and can also participate in metabolic remodeling...
June 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314502/nutrient-sensing-and-the-oxidative-stress-response
#14
REVIEW
Hanzhi Luo, Hou-Hsien Chiang, Makensie Louw, Albert Susanto, Danica Chen
The simplicity and effectiveness of calorie restriction (CR) in lifespan and healthspan extension have fascinated generations searching for the Fountain of Youth. CR reduces levels of oxidative stress and damage, which have been postulated in the free radical theory of aging as a major cause of aging and diseases of aging. This reduction has long been viewed as a result of passive slowing of metabolism. Recent advances in nutrient sensing have provided molecular insights into the oxidative stress response and suggest that CR triggers an active defense program involving a cascade of molecular regulators to reduce oxidative stress...
June 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279562/neural-circuit-mechanisms-underlying-emotional-regulation-of-homeostatic-feeding
#15
REVIEW
Patrick Sweeney, Yunlei Yang
The neural circuits controlling feeding and emotional behaviors are intricately and reciprocally connected. Recent technological developments, including cell type-specific optogenetic and chemogenetic approaches, allow functional characterization of genetically defined cell populations and neural circuits in feeding and emotional processes. Here we review recent studies that have utilized circuit-based manipulations to decipher the functional interactions between neural circuits controlling feeding and those controlling emotional processes...
June 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274682/glucocorticoids-and-reproduction-traffic-control-on-the-road-to-reproduction
#16
REVIEW
Shannon Whirledge, John A Cidlowski
Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that regulate diverse cellular functions and are essential to facilitate normal physiology. However, stress-induced levels of glucocorticoids result in several pathologies including profound reproductive dysfunction. Compelling new evidence indicates that glucocorticoids are crucial to the establishment and maintenance of reproductive function. The fertility-promoting or -inhibiting activity of glucocorticoids depends on timing, dose, and glucocorticoid responsiveness within a given tissue, which is mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
June 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259375/sr-bi-a-multifunctional-receptor-in-cholesterol-homeostasis-and-atherosclerosis
#17
REVIEW
MacRae F Linton, Huan Tao, Edward F Linton, Patricia G Yancey
The HDL receptor scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) plays crucial roles in cholesterol homeostasis, lipoprotein metabolism, and atherosclerosis. Hepatic SR-BI mediates reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) by the uptake of HDL cholesterol for routing to the bile. Through the selective uptake of HDL lipids, hepatic SR-BI modulates HDL composition and preserves HDL's atheroprotective functions of mediating cholesterol efflux and minimizing inflammation and oxidation. Macrophage and endothelial cell SR-BI inhibits the development of atherosclerosis by mediating cholesterol trafficking to minimize atherosclerotic lesion foam cell formation...
June 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262438/neonatal-diabetes-and-the-katp-channel-from-mutation-to-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Frances M Ashcroft, Michael C Puljung, Natascia Vedovato
Activating mutations in one of the two subunits of the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel cause neonatal diabetes (ND). This may be either transient or permanent and, in approximately 20% of patients, is associated with neurodevelopmental delay. In most patients, switching from insulin to oral sulfonylurea therapy improves glycemic control and ameliorates some of the neurological disabilities. Here, we review how KATP channel mutations lead to the varied clinical phenotype, how sulfonylureas exert their therapeutic effects, and why their efficacy varies with individual mutations...
May 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087126/cardiac-lymphatics-a-new-avenue-for-therapeutics
#19
REVIEW
Taina Vuorio, Annakaisa Tirronen, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
Recent progress in lymphatic vessel biology and in novel imaging techniques has established the importance of the lymphatic vasculature as part of the cardiovascular system. The lymphatic vessel network regulates many physiological processes important for heart function such as fluid balance, transport of extravasated proteins, and trafficking of immune cells. Therefore, lymphangiogenic therapy could be beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, for example by improving reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) from atherosclerotic lesions or by resolving edema and fibrosis after myocardial infarction...
April 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063767/peroxisomal-dysfunction-in-age-related-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Cynthia M Cipolla, Irfan J Lodhi
Peroxisomes carry out many key functions related to lipid and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism. The fundamental importance of peroxisomes for health in humans is underscored by the existence of devastating genetic disorders caused by impaired peroxisomal function or lack of peroxisomes. Emerging studies suggest that peroxisomal function may also be altered with aging and contribute to the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, including diabetes and its related complications, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer...
April 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
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