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Reading and Writing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313395/the-contribution-of-vocabulary-knowledge-and-spelling-to-the-reading-comprehension-of-adolescents-who-are-and-are-not-english-language-learners
#1
Deborah K Reed, Yaacov Petscher, Barbara R Foorman
This study examined the contributions of vocabulary and spelling to the reading comprehension of students in grades 6-10 who were and were not classified as English language learners. Results indicate that vocabulary accounted for greater between-grade differences and unique variance (ΔR (2) = .11 to .31) in comprehension as compared to spelling (ΔR (2) = .01 to .09). However, the contribution of spelling to comprehension was higher in the upper grade levels included in this cross-sectional analysis and functioned as a mediator of the impact of vocabulary knowledge at all levels...
April 2016: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777496/effects-of-induced-orthographic-and-semantic-knowledge-on-subsequent-learning-a-test-of-the-partial-knowledge-hypothesis
#2
Suzanne Adlof, Gwen Frishkoff, Jennifer Dandy, Charles Perfetti
Word learning can build the high-quality word representations that support skilled reading and language comprehension. According to the partial knowledge hypothesis, words that are partially known, also known as "frontier words" (Durso & Shore, 1991), may be good targets for instruction precisely because they are already familiar. However, studies investigating this question have produced mixed findings, and individual differences in baseline knowledge have complicated results both within and across studies...
March 2016: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26877595/dialect-variation-dialect-shifting-and-reading-comprehension-in-second-grade
#3
Nicole Patton Terry, Carol McDonald Connor, Lakeisha Johnson, Adrienne Stuckey, Novell Tani
The purpose of this study was to examine second graders' (n=680) changing spoken nonmainstream American English (NMAE) use in relation to their oral language and reading comprehension achievement. Fall NMAE production was negatively associated with fall achievement scores. NMAE production generally decreased from fall to spring. Students who qualified for the US Free and Reduced Lunch program (FARL) and who had stronger language skills were more likely to decrease their NMAE use (i.e., dialect shifting) than their peers who did not qualify for FARL or their peers with weaker language skills...
February 1, 2016: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546985/immediate-and-delayed-effects-of-invented-writing-intervention-in-preschool
#4
Hilde Hofslundsengen, Bente Eriksen Hagtvet, Jan-Eric Gustafsson
This study examined the effects of a 10 week invented writing program with five-year-old preschoolers (mean age 5.7 years) on their immediate post intervention literacy skills and also the facilitative effects of the intervention on the subsequent learning to read during the first 6 months of schooling. The study included 105 children (54 girls) from 12 preschools in Norway. The preschools were randomly assigned to the experimental group with the invented writing program, or the control group with the ordinary program offered to preschoolers...
2016: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340335/preschool-morphological-training-produces-long-term-improvements-in-reading-comprehension
#5
Solveig-Alma Halaas Lyster, Arne Olav Lervåg, Charles Hulme
We evaluated the effect of morphological awareness training delivered in preschool (8 months before school entry) on reading ability at the end of grade 1 and 5 years later (in Grade 6). In preschool, one group of children received morphological awareness training, while a second group received phonological awareness training. A control group followed the ordinary preschool curriculum. The comparison between each training condition and the control condition is quasi experimental, whereas the comparison between the morphological and phonological treatments is randomized at group level...
2016: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340334/learning-from-texts-activation-of-information-from-previous-texts-during-reading
#6
Katinka Beker, Dietsje Jolles, Robert F Lorch, Paul van den Broek
Learning often involves integration of information from multiple texts. The aim of the current study was to determine whether relevant information from previously read texts is spontaneously activated during reading, allowing for integration between texts (experiment 1 and 2), and whether this process is related to the representation of the texts (experiment 2). In both experiments, texts with inconsistent target sentences were preceded by texts that either did or did not contain explanations that resolved the inconsistencies...
2016: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27073294/the-unique-role-of-lexical-accessibility-in-predicting-kindergarten-emergent-literacy
#7
Ludo Verhoeven, Jan van Leeuwe, Rosemarie Irausquin, Eliane Segers
The goal of this longitudinal study was to examine how lexical quality predicts the emergence of literacy abilities in 169 Dutch kindergarten children before formal reading instruction has started. At the beginning of the school year, a battery of precursor measures associated with lexical quality was related to the emergence of letter knowledge and word decoding. Confirmatory factor analysis evidenced five domains related to lexical quality, i.e., vocabulary, phonological coding, phonological awareness, lexical retrieval and phonological working memory...
2016: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27073293/how-logical-reasoning-mediates-the-relation-between-lexical-quality-and-reading-comprehension
#8
Eliane Segers, Ludo Verhoeven
The present study aimed to examine the role of logical reasoning in the relation between lexical quality and reading comprehension in 146 fourth grade Dutch children. We assessed their standardized reading comprehension measure, along with their decoding efficiency and vocabulary as measures of lexical quality, syllogistic reasoning as measure of (verbal) logical reasoning, and nonverbal reasoning as a control measure. Syllogistic reasoning was divided into a measure tapping basic, coherence inferencing skill using logical syllogisms, and a measure tapping elaborative inferencing skill using indeterminate syllogisms...
2016: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26957783/contributions-of-morphological-skill-to-children-s-essay-writing
#9
Mary Northey, Deborah McCutchen, Elizabeth A Sanders
Morphological skills have previously been found to reliably predict reading skill, including word reading, vocabulary, and comprehension. However, less is known about how morphological skills might contribute to writing skill, aside from its well-documented role in the development of spelling. This correlational study examines whether morphological skill, as measured by a sentence generation task tapping both derivational morphology and meta-syntactic skills, predicts performance on a standardized essay writing task for fifth- and eighth-grade U...
January 1, 2016: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26941479/the-dynamics-of-narrative-writing-in-primary-grade-children-writing-process-factors-predict-story-quality
#10
Janne von Koss Torkildsen, Frøydis Morken, Wenche A Helland, Turid Helland
In this study of third grade school children, we investigated the association between writing process measures recorded with key stroke logging and the final written product. Moreover, we examined the cognitive predictors of writing process and product measures. Analyses of key strokes showed that while most children spontaneously made local online revisions while writing, few revised previously written text. Children with good reading and spelling abilities made more online revisions than their peers. Two process factors, transcription fluency and online revision activity, contributed to explaining variance in narrative macrostructural quality and story length...
2016: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26941478/vocabulary-does-not-complicate-the-simple-view-of-reading
#11
David Braze, Leonard Katz, James S Magnuson, W Einar Mencl, Whitney Tabor, Julie A Van Dyke, Tao Gong, Clinton L Johns, Donald P Shankweiler
Gough and Tunmer's (1986) simple view of reading (SVR) proposed that reading comprehension (RC) is a function of language comprehension (LC) and word recognition/decoding. Braze et al. (2007) presented data suggesting an extension of the SVR in which knowledge of vocabulary (V) affected RC over and above the effects of LC. Tunmer and Chapman (2012) found a similar independent contribution of V to RC when the data were analyzed by hierarchical regression. However, additional analysis by factor analysis and structural equation modeling indicated that the effect of V on RC was, in fact, completely captured by LC itself and there was no need to posit a separate direct effect of V on RC...
2016: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26941477/teachers-reported-practices-for-teaching-writing-in-england
#12
Julie E Dockrell, Chloë R Marshall, Dominic Wyse
To date there have been no systematic studies examining the ways in which teachers in England focus and adapt their teaching of writing. The current study addresses this gap by investigating the nature and frequency of teachers' approaches to the teaching of writing in a sample of English primary schools, using the 'simple view of writing' as a framework to examine the extent to which different aspects of the writing process are addressed. One hundred and eighty-eight staff from ten different schools responded to an online questionnaire...
2016: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26798203/reading-comprehension-in-children-with-down-syndrome
#13
Glynis Laws, Heather Brown, Elizabeth Main
Two studies aimed to investigate the reading comprehension abilities of 14 readers with Down syndrome aged 6 years 8 months to 13 years relative to those of typically developing children matched on word reading ability, and to investigate how these abilities were associated with reading accuracy, listening comprehension, phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. Study 1 confirmed significantly poorer passage-reading comprehension than the typically developing group. In an experimental task, readers with Down syndrome understood fewer written sentences than the typical group and, contrary to prediction, received no advantage from printed sentences compared to spoken sentences, despite the lower memory load...
2016: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26336330/differential-diagnosis-of-dysgraphia-dyslexia-and-owl-ld-behavioral-and-neuroimaging-evidence
#14
Virginia W Berninger, Todd Richards, Robert D Abbott
In Study 1, children in grades 4 to 9 (N= 88, 29 females and 59 males) with persisting reading and/or writing disabilities, despite considerable prior specialized instruction in and out of school, were given an evidence-based comprehensive assessment battery at the university while parents completed questionnaires regarding past and current history of language learning and other difficulties. Profiles (patterns) of normed measures for different levels of oral and written language used to categorize participants into diagnostic groups for dysgraphia (impaired subword handwriting) (n=26), dyslexia (impaired word spelling and reading) (n=38), or oral and written language learning disability OWL LD (impaired oral and written syntax comprehension and expression) (n=13) or control oral and written language learners (OWLs) without SLDs (n=11) were consistent withreported history...
October 2015: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829705/large-grain-instruction-and-phonological-awareness-skill-influence-rime-sensitivity-processing-speed-and-early-decoding-skill-in-adult-l2-learners
#15
Christine Brennan, James R Booth
Linguistic knowledge, cognitive ability, and instruction influence how adults acquire a second orthography yet it remains unclear how different forms of instruction influence grain size sensitivity and subsequent decoding skill and speed. Thirty-seven monolingual, literate English-speaking adults were trained on a novel artificial orthography given initial instruction that directed attention to either large or small grain size units (i.e., words or letters). We examined how initial instruction influenced processing speed (i...
September 2015: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397969/morphosyntax-in-poor-comprehenders
#16
Suzanne M Adlof, Hugh W Catts
Children described as poor comprehenders (PCs) have reading comprehension difficulties in spite of adequate word reading abilities. PCs are known to display weakness with semantics and higher-level aspects of oral language, but less is known about their grammatical skills, especially with regard to morphosyntax. The purpose of this study was to examine morphosyntax in fourth grade PCs and typically developing readers (TDs), using three experimental tasks involving finiteness marking. Participants also completed standardized, norm-referenced assessments of phonological memory, vocabulary, and broader language skills...
September 2015: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26273128/examining-the-underlying-dimensions-of-morphological-awareness-and-vocabulary-knowledge
#17
Mercedes Spencer, Andrea Muse, Richard K Wagner, Barbara Foorman, Yaacov Petscher, Christopher Schatschneider, Elizabeth L Tighe, M Denise Bishop
We report results from two studies on the underlying dimensions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge in elementary-aged children. In Study 1, 99 fourth-grade students were given multiple measures of morphological awareness and vocabulary. A single factor accounted for individual differences in all morphology and vocabulary assessments. Study 2 extended these results by giving 90 eighth-grade students expanded measures of vocabulary and morphology that assessed (a) definitional knowledge, (b) usage, (c) relational knowledge, and (d) knowledge of morphological variants, with each potential aspect of knowledge assessed using an identical set of 23 words to control for differential knowledge of specific vocabulary items...
September 2015: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660395/the-structure-of-oral-language-and-reading-and-their-relation-to-comprehension-in-kindergarten-through-grade-2
#18
Barbara R Foorman, Sarah Herrera, Yaacov Petscher, Alison Mitchell, Adrea Truckenmiller
This study examined the structure of oral language and reading and their relation to comprehension from a latent variable modeling perspective in Kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. Participants were students in Kindergarten (n = 218), Grade 1 (n = 372), and Grade 2 (n = 273), attending Title 1 schools. Students were administered phonological awareness, syntax, vocabulary, listening comprehension, and decoding fluency measures in mid-year. Outcome measures included a listening comprehension measure in Kindergarten and a reading comprehension test in Grades1 and 2...
May 2015: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26166946/inferential-processing-among-adequate-and-struggling-adolescent-comprehenders-and-relations-to-reading-comprehension
#19
Amy E Barth, Marcia Barnes, David J Francis, Sharon Vaughn, Mary York
Separate mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6-12 (n = 1203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in comprehension. Results suggest that there is considerable growth across the middle and high school years, particularly for adequate comprehenders in those text integration processes that maintain local coherence...
May 1, 2015: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26478658/statistical-learning-is-related-to-early-literacy-related-skills
#20
Mercedes Spencer, Michael P Kaschak, John L Jones, Christopher J Lonigan
It has been demonstrated that statistical learning, or the ability to use statistical information to learn the structure of one's environment, plays a role in young children's acquisition of linguistic knowledge. Although most research on statistical learning has focused on language acquisition processes, such as the segmentation of words from fluent speech and the learning of syntactic structure, some recent studies have explored the extent to which individual differences in statistical learning are related to literacy-relevant knowledge and skills...
April 2015: Reading and Writing
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