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Advances in Food and Nutrition Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555074/preface
#1
EDITORIAL
Fidel Toldrá
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555073/novel-biosensors-for-the-rapid-detection-of-toxicants-in-foods
#2
Georgia-Paraskevi Nikoleli, Dimitrios P Nikolelis, Christina G Siontorou, Stephanos Karapetis, Theo Varzakas
The modern environmental and food analysis requires sensitive, accurate, and rapid methods. The growing field of biosensors represents an answer to this demand. Unfortunately, most biosensor systems have been tested only on distilled water or buffered solutions, although applications to real samples are increasingly appearing in recent years. In this context, biosensors for potential food applications continue to show advances in areas such as genetic modification of enzymes and microorganisms, improvement of recognition element immobilization, and sensor interfaces...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555072/bioactive-potential-of-andean-fruits-seeds-and-tubers
#3
David Campos, Rosana Chirinos, Lena Gálvez Ranilla, Romina Pedreschi
The Andes is considered the longest continental mountain range in the world. It covers 7000km long and about 200-700km wide and an average height of about 4000m. Very unique plant species are endemic of this area including fruits (e.g., lucuma, cherimoya, sweet pepino, sauco), roots and tubers (potatoes, sweet potatoes, yacón, chicuru, mashua, olluco, etc.), and seeds (quinoa, amaranth, tarwi, etc.). These crops have been used for centuries by the native population and relatively recently have gained the world attention due to the wide range of nutrients and/or phytochemicals they possess...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555071/modern-procedures-for-removal-of-hazardous-compounds-from-foods
#4
Peter Šimko
This chapter deals with interactions between foods or food additives and plastic package materials oriented to elimination of hazardous compounds from foods. As found, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be effectively eliminated from liquid smoke flavors and smoked meat products by migration of PAHs into low-density polyethylene (LDPE), when the limiting factor of the elimination is diffusion in food matrix. After leaving food bulk, PAHs migrate deeper into LDPE bulk what brings about permanent renewal of material imbalance on LDPE/food matrix interface that maintains the migration process in an intensive regime causing extensive lowering of PAH content in food matrix...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555070/effect-of-ultrasound-technology-on-food-and-nutritional-quality
#5
Kumari S Ojha, Brijesh K Tiwari, Colm P O'Donnell
Ultrasound technology has been successfully demonstrated for several food processing and preservation applications. The majority of food processing applications reported refer to liquid foods. Ultrasound has been applied to solid foods in some niche applications, e.g., tenderization of meat, mass transfer applications, and drying. Similar to any other technology, ultrasound also has some positive and negative effects on food quality depending on the application and processing conditions employed. This chapter outlines various applications of ultrasound to food and its effect on food and nutritional quality...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555069/effects-of-%C3%AE-alanine-supplementation-on-carnosine-elevation-and-physiological-performance
#6
Jay R Hoffman, Alyssa Varanoske, Jeffrey R Stout
β-Alanine is one of the more popular sport supplements used by strength/power athletes today. The popularity of β-alanine stems from its ability to enhance intracellular muscle-buffering capacity thereby delaying fatigue during high-intensity exercise by increasing muscle carnosine content. Recent evidence also suggests that elevated carnosine levels may enhance cognitive performance and increase resiliency to stress. These benefits are thought to result from carnosine's potential role as an antioxidant. This review will discuss these new findings including recent investigations examining β-alanine supplementation and increased resiliency to posttraumatic stress and mild traumatic brain injury...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555068/structural-basis-of-bioactivity-of-food-peptides-in-promoting-metabolic-health
#7
Shixiang Yao, Dominic Agyei, Chibuike C Udenigwe
Bioactive peptides have many structural features that enable them to become functional in controlling several biological processes in the body, especially those related to metabolic health. This chapter provides an overview of the multiple targets of food-derived peptides against metabolic health problems (e.g., hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress) and discusses the importance of structural chemistry in determining the bioactivities of peptides and protein hydrolysates.
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555067/polyphenols-and-their-interactions-with-other-dietary-compounds-implications-for-human-health
#8
Nevena Kardum, Maria Glibetic
Regular and optimal intake of polyphenols associates with numerous health-promoting effects. Bioavailability and activity of polyphenols depend on foods' structure and interactions with other food constituents, especially proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. Polyphenols-proteins interactions can result in various biological effects, such as sense of astringency. So far, polyphenols interactions with food lipids have not been of special importance, except in case of plant oils. Polyphenols-carbohydrates interactions can influence the organoleptic properties, while interactions with dietary fibers are particularly significant...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555066/ethylcellulose-oleogels-structure-functionality-and-food-applications
#9
Andrew J Gravelle, Alejandro G Marangoni
The structuring edible oils by nontraditional means has become a popular strategy for improving the lipid profile of food products while retaining the functionality of a crystalline triglyceride network. Although numerous oleogelator systems have now been identified, the polymer gelator ethylcellulose (EC) may present the greatest potential for applications in a diverse range of food systems which require unique physical attributes and structuring properties in the fat phase. The first portion of this chapter will provide a brief overview of oleogelation strategies, outline the basic physical characteristics of the polymer EC, and describe the mechanism of gelation and some basic physical characteristics of EC oleogels...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477228/preface
#10
EDITORIAL
N A Michael Eskin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477227/niacin
#11
James B Kirkland, Mirella L Meyer-Ficca
Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, collectively referred to as niacin, are nutritional precursors of the bioactive molecules nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). NAD and NADP are important cofactors for most cellular redox reactions, and as such are essential to maintain cellular metabolism and respiration. NAD also serves as a cosubstrate for a large number of ADP-ribosylation enzymes with varied functions. Among the NAD-consuming enzymes identified to date are important genetic and epigenetic regulators, e...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477226/riboflavin-in-human-health-a-review-of-current-evidences
#12
REVIEW
Ahmad Saedisomeolia, Marziyeh Ashoori
Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin, which was initially isolated from milk. There are two coenzyme forms of riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide, in which riboflavin plays important roles in the enzymatic reactions. Riboflavin is found in a wide variety of animal and plant foods. Meat and dairy products are the major contributors of riboflavin dietary intake. In this chapter, the latest evidence on the relationship between riboflavin status and specific health risks will be reviewed...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477225/water-soluble-vitamin-e-tocopheryl-phosphate
#13
REVIEW
Jean-Marc Zingg
The hydrophobicity of vitamin E poses transport and metabolic challenges to regulate its bioavailability and to prevent its accumulation in lipid-rich tissues such as adipose tissue, brain, and liver. Water-soluble precursors of vitamin E (α-tocopherol, αT), such as its esters with acetate (αTA), succinate (αTS), or phosphate (αTP), have increased solubility in water and stability against reaction with free radicals, but they are rapidly converted during their uptake into the lipid-soluble vitamin E. Therefore, the bioavailability of these precursors as intact molecules is low; nevertheless, at least for αTS and αTP, the recent research has revealed unique regulatory effects on signal transduction and gene expression and the modulation of cellular events ranging from proliferation, survival/apoptosis, lipid uptake and metabolism, phagocytosis, long term potentiation, cell migration, telomere maintenance, and angiogenesis...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477224/dietary-vitamin-c-in-human-health
#14
REVIEW
Matthew Granger, Peter Eck
Vitamin C is essential to prevent scurvy in humans and is implicated in the primary prevention of common and complex diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. This chapter reviews the latest knowledge about dietary vitamin C in human health with an emphasis on studies of the molecular mechanisms of vitamin C maintenance as well as gene-nutrient interactions modifying these relationships. Epidemiological evidence indicates 5% prevalence for vitamin C deficiency and 13% prevalence for suboptimal status even in industrialized countries...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477223/vitamin-b-12
#15
REVIEW
A David Smith, Martin J Warren, Helga Refsum
The biosynthesis of B12 , involving up to 30 different enzyme-mediated steps, only occurs in bacteria. Thus, most eukaryotes require an external source of B12 , and yet the vitamin appears to have only two functions in eukaryotes: as a cofactor for the enzymes methionine synthase and methylmalonylCoA mutase. These two functions are crucial for normal health in humans, and in particular, the formation of methionine is essential for providing methyl groups for over 100 methylation processes. Interference with the methionine synthase reaction not only depletes the body of methyl groups but also leads to the accumulation of homocysteine, a risk factor for many diseases...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477222/recent-developments-in-folate-nutrition
#16
REVIEW
Nassim Naderi, James D House
The term folate (vitamin B9) refers to a group of water-soluble compounds that are nutritionally essential for the support of optimal human health and development. Folates participate in numerous one-carbon transfer reactions, including the methylation of important biomolecules (lipids, amino acids, DNA). A deficiency of folate leads to pathological outcomes including anemia and impairments in reproductive health and fetal development. Due to the linkage of impaired folate status with an increased prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in babies, several jurisdictions required the fortification of the food supply with folic acid, a synthetic and stable form of folate...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477221/the-emerging-role-of-vitamin-b6-in-inflammation-and-carcinogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Ranjana P Bird
Vitamin B6 serves as a coenzyme catalyzing more than 150 enzymes regulating metabolism and synthesis of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, heme, and important bioactive metabolites. For several years vitamin B6 and its vitamers (B6) were recognized as antioxidant and antiinflammatory and in modulating immunity and gene expression. During the last 10 years, there were growing reports implicating B6 in inflammation and inflammation-related chronic illnesses including cancer. It is unclear if the deficiency of B6 or additional intake of B6, above the current requirement, should be the focus...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477220/thiamin
#18
REVIEW
Derrick Lonsdale
Starting with a brief history of beriberi and the discovery that thiamin deficiency is its cause, the symptoms and signs are reviewed. None are pathognomonic. The disease has a low mortality and a long morbidity. The appearance of the patient can be deceptive, often being mistaken for psychosomatic disease in the early stages. The chemistry of thiamin and the laboratory methodology for depicting its deficiency are outlined. The diseases associated with thiamin deficiency, apart from malnutrition, include a number of genetically determined conditions where mutations, either in the cofactor relationship or a transporter, provide the etiology...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427538/preface
#19
EDITORIAL
Fidel Toldrá
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427537/metabolomics-nutrition-and-potential-biomarkers-of-food-quality-intake-and-health-status
#20
Jean-Louis Sébédio
Diet, dietary patterns, and other environmental factors such as exposure to toxins are playing an important role in the prevention/development of many diseases, like obesity, type 2 diabetes, and consequently on the health status of individuals. A major challenge nowadays is to identify novel biomarkers to detect as early as possible metabolic dysfunction and to predict evolution of health status in order to refine nutritional advices to specific population groups. Omics technologies such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics coupled with statistical and bioinformatics tools have already shown great potential in this research field even if so far only few biomarkers have been validated...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
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