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Current Opinion in Pediatrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465463/novel-therapeutics-for-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#1
Lannae Strueby, Bernard Thébaud
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides a concise summary of recent literature pertaining to emerging therapies for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). To provide context for the presented therapies, a brief overview of recently proposed changes to the definition of BPD and the concept of expanded respiratory outcomes is included. RECENT FINDINGS: New or redefined respiratory outcomes are required to improve accuracy in evaluating new therapies and correlating results with long-term clinical outcomes of importance...
February 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461296/evidence-supporting-laparoscopic-hernia-repair-in-children
#2
Samuel Jessula, Dafydd A Davies
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pediatric inguinal hernias are a commonly performed surgical procedure. Currently, they can be approached via open or laparoscopic surgery. We summarize the current evidence for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repairs in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Laparoscopic and open inguinal hernia repair in children are associated with similar operative times for unilateral hernia, as well as similar cosmesis, complication rates and recurrence rates. Bilateral hernia repair has been shown to be faster through a laparoscopic approach...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432217/prematurity-and-future-kidney-health-the-growing-risk-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
Michelle C Starr, Sangeeta R Hingorani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the role prematurity plays in the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to discuss potential reasons for this association including decreased nephron mass, as well as postnatal insults such as neonatal acute kidney injury (nAKI). RECENT FINDINGS: New observational studies in humans and experimental studies in animal models have strengthened the association between prematurity, low birth weight and CKD...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406442/genetic-risk-of-apol1-and-kidney-disease-in-children-and-young-adults-of-african-ancestry
#4
Kimberly J Reidy, Rebecca Hjorten, Rulan S Parekh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Understanding the genetic risk of APOL1 in children and young adults is important given the lifetime risk of hypertension and kidney disease among children of African descent. We review recent epidemiologic and biologic findings on the effects of APOL1 and kidney disease. RECENT FINDINGS: APOL1 in children and young adults is associated with hypertension, albuminuria and more rapid decline in kidney function and progression to end-stage kidney disease, especially among those with glomerular causes of kidney disease, and those affected by sickle cell disease or HIV...
February 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406441/the-genesis-of-systems-of-care-for-transition-to-adulthood-services-new-emerging-models-in-primary-and-subspecialty-care
#5
Charmaine Wright, Caren Steinway, Sophia Jan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Transitioning adolescents and young adults with chronic conditions can be complex. Expert recommendations support a transition process that starts in early adolescence, provides continuous guidance and support and allows for care opportunities with patients and caregivers, with the patient alone and between paediatric and adult providers. As most of the guidance is focused on individual patients, providers and clinical programmes, much less is known about how health systems as a whole might support effective transitions of care...
February 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406440/measurement-framework-for-the-environmental-influences-on-child-health-outcomes-research-program
#6
Courtney K Blackwell, Lauren S Wakschlag, Richard C Gershon, David Cella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diverse methodological approaches pose significant challenges to assess environmental exposure effects on child health outcomes. Although transdisciplinary research efforts offer unique opportunities for understanding the complex and multidimensional facets of lifespan health and disease trajectories, a shared measurement strategy is necessary for ensuring cohesion and comprehensibility across disciplines and domains. RECENT FINDINGS: Exposure science often focuses on one life stage, one primary outcome domain and/or one environmental context without regard for understanding the complexity of exposome pathways and outcomes across a developmental continuum...
February 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406439/oxygen-and-preterm-infant-resuscitation-what-else-do-we-need-to-know
#7
Ju-Lee Oei, Ola D Saugstad, Maximo Vento
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate current evidence for the use of lower or higher oxygen strategies for preterm infant resuscitation RECENT FINDINGS: The equipoise for using higher fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) (>0.4) to initiate preterm infant respiratory stabilization has been lost. Recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials assessing outcomes after using higher (FiO2 ≥ 0.6) vs. lower (FiO2 ≤ 0.3) oxygen strategies to initiate preterm resuscitation shows no difference in the rates of death or major morbidities...
February 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406438/the-child-health-exposure-analysis-resource-as-a-vehicle-to-measure-environment-in-the-environmental-influences-on-child-health-outcomes-program
#8
Robert O Wright, Susan Teitelbaum, Claudia Thompson, David Balshaw
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Demonstrate the role of environment as a predictor of child health. RECENT FINDINGS: The children's health exposure analysis resource (CHEAR) assists the Environmental influences on child health outcomes (ECHO) program in understanding the time sensitive and dynamic nature of perinatal and childhood environment on developmental trajectories by providing a central infrastructure for the analysis of biological samples from the ECHO cohort awards...
February 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389684/the-medical-home-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-essential-element-whose-time-has-come
#9
Carlyn Todorow, James Connell, Renee M Turchi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the role of the medical home in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A high-quality medical home is essential, given the increase in prevalence of ASD and the array of services, community partners, specialists, therapists, and healthcare team members needed to care for this population. RECENT FINDINGS: Providing care through the medical home model results in fewer unmet needs. Care coordination and integration are the aspects of the medical home currently most lacking...
January 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389683/progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-children-role-of-glomerular-hemodynamics-and-interstitial-fibrosis
#10
Eduardo A Oliveira, Robert H Mak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current advances in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with emphasis on the role of glomerular hemodynamics and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the varied causes of CKD, the progressive destruction of renal tissue processes through a complex common pathway. Current studies have highlighted both the role of the abnormal intrarenal hemodynamics and of the activation of fibrogenic biochemical pathway in the replacement of normal renal structure by extracellular matrix and ultimately by fibrosis...
January 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389682/is-acute-kidney-injury-a-harbinger-for-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
David T Selewski, Dylan M Hyatt, Kevin M Bennett, Jennifer R Charlton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite abundant evidence in adults, the relationship between acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unanswered in pediatrics. Obstacles to overcome include the challenges defining these entities and the lack of long-term follow-up studies. This review focuses on pediatric populations at high-risk for AKI, the evidence of the long-term effect of AKI on renal health, and biomarkers to detect renal disease. RECENT FINDINGS: AKI in critically ill children and neonates is common and independently associated with adverse outcomes...
January 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373331/the-physiology-of-neonatal-resuscitation
#12
Stuart B Hooper, Marcus J Kitchen, Graeme R Polglase, Charles C Roehr, Arjan B Te Pas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the infant's physiology changes dramatically after birth, modern neonatal resuscitation approaches should detect and be modified in response to these changes. This review describes the changes in respiratory physiology at birth and highlights approaches that can assist these changes. RECENT FINDINGS: To better target assistance given to infants at birth, the changes in lung physiology have been classified into three phases. The first phase involves lung aeration...
January 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373330/the-importance-of-cohort-research-starting-early-in-life-to-understanding-child-health
#13
Nigel Paneth, Catherine Monk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review addresses the importance of the prospective cohort design in large, unselected populations starting early in life for understanding the origins of childhood health disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Cohort studies originating in healthy populations have contributed to great advances in health, especially in cardiovascular diseases, but have only recently been applied systematically to study the origins of childhood disorders. Several large population-based pregnancy and/or birth cohorts have been developed in different parts of the world, and these are beginning to contribute to better understanding of the underlying causes of rare but important childhood disorders, such as autism...
January 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369068/applications-of-near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-the-neonate
#14
Aisling A Garvey, Eugene M Dempsey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been a significant increase in the utilization of NIRS in neonatal care over the last few years, with some centers now routinely utilizing this monitoring technique for direct intervention at the bedside. In this review, we provide a summary of the most up-to-date evidence on near infrared spectroscopy utilization, with particular emphasis on measurement of cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants. RECENT FINDINGS: There have been significant advances in the technology, leading to an increase in the number of available devices and in the use of this monitoring tool to reduce cerebral injury in preterm infants...
January 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356702/environmental-influences-on-child-health-outcomes-a-research-program-of-the-national-institutes-of-health
#15
Matthew W Gillman, Carol J Blaisdell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351109/coordination-of-the-environmental-influences-on-child-health-outcomes-program-so-the-whole-is-greater-than-the-sum-of-its-parts
#16
Brian Smith, Susan Knox, Daniel K Benjamin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) program's mission is to enhance the health of children for generations to come. In this manuscript, we describe the structure of the ECHO Coordinating Center (ECHO-CC) and its role in developing the infrastructure for the ECHO program. RECENT FINDINGS: The ECHO-CC supports ECHO's mission by developing the framework of the ECHO program, coordinating multiple levels of membership in the ECHO community, developing ECHO policies and procedures, and fostering communication and engagement inside and outside of ECHO...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346143/progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-children
#17
Michel Baum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346142/neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-an-update
#18
Lauren A Sanlorenzo, Ann R Stark, Stephen W Patrick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review provides an update focused on the evolving epidemiology of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), factors influencing disease expression, advances in clinical assessment of withdrawal, novel approaches to NAS treatment, and the emerging role of quality improvement in assessment and management of NAS. RECENT FINDINGS: The rise in the incidence of NAS disproportionately occurred in rural and suburban areas. Polysubstance exposure and genetic polymorphisms have been shown to modify NAS expression and severity...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346141/caffeine-controversies
#19
Samuel J Gentle, Colm P Travers, Waldemar A Carlo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Caffeine use in preterm infants has endured several paradigms: from standard of care to possible neurotoxin to one of the few medications for which there is evidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) risk reduction. The purpose of the review is to analyze this dynamic trajectory and discuss controversies that still remain after decades of caffeine use. RECENT FINDINGS: Following concerns for caffeine safety in preterm infants, a large randomized controlled trial demonstrated a reduction in BPD and treatment for patent ductus arteriosus...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346140/neonatal-hypoglycemia-continuous-glucose-monitoring
#20
Rajesh Shah, Christopher J D McKinlay, Jane E Harding
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is increasingly used in the management of diabetes in children and adults, but there are few data regarding its use in neonates. The purpose of this article is to discuss the potential benefits and limitations of CGM in neonates. RECENT FINDINGS: Smaller electrodes in new sensors and real-time monitoring have made CGM devices more approachable for neonatal care. CGM is well tolerated in infants including very low birth weight babies, and few if any local complications have been reported...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
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