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Current Opinion in Pediatrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206650/surgical-treatment-of-femoroacetabular-impingement-after-slipped-capital-femoral-epiphysis
#1
Jamil F Soni, Weverley R Valenza, Chistiano S Uliana
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) post slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) may lead to degenerative changes on the hip. We have reviewed the current procedures in the literature, aiming to correct the SCFE to prevent FAI and the ones that treat FAI post SCFE. RECENT FINDINGS: The trends of managing moderated or severe SCFE is to correct the displacement by reduction and fixation with articular hematoma decompression in unstable hips and Dunn modified procedure even for unstable and stable situations...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206649/the-importance-of-the-microbiome-in-pediatrics-and-pediatric-infectious-diseases
#2
Thaidra Gaufin, Nicole H Tobin, Grace M Aldrovandi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Emerging research on the pediatric microbiome implicates the importance of the microbiome on the development of the immune system, nervous system, and growth. Changes to the microbiome during infancy are associated with the development of chronic illnesses such as asthma and inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, the microbiome provides protection against certain pathogens, affects vaccine responses, and alters drug metabolism. This review highlights what is known about the microbiome, the establishment of a healthy microbiome and the significance that changes to the microbiome composition have on growth and health of children and adolescents...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194074/developmental-dysplasia-of-the-hip-an-update-on-diagnosis-and-management-from-birth-to-6-months
#3
Ishaan Swarup, Caitlin L Penny, Emily R Dodwell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is evolving. This review focuses on the most up-to-date literature on DDH in patients from birth to six months of age. RECENT FINDINGS: Well known risk factors for DDH include family history, female sex, and breech positioning. Recent evidence suggests higher birth weight is a risk, whereas prematurity may be protective. Screening includes physical examination of all infant hips and imaging when abnormal findings or risk factors are present...
November 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194073/update-on-trends-in-childhood-tuberculosis
#4
Samantha Fry, Shaun Barnabas, Mark F Cotton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although tuberculosis (TB) causes much morbidity and mortality in children, diagnosis and treatment remain challenging. Recently, children have gained increasing attention in research and clinical trials driving improved contact management, case identification and treatment of both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB. This review highlights some recent advances. RECENT FINDINGS: The tuberculin skin test is the most widely used test to distinguish Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M...
November 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176498/zika-clinical-updates-implications-for-pediatrics
#5
Kristina Adachi, Karin Nielsen-Saines
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, has gained recognition over the past few years as an important new cause of congenital infection. As a result, it is critical that pediatricians understand its epidemiology, clinical presentation, clinical sequelae, and management. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent ZIKV epidemiology, clinical presentation of acute infection in children and complications, perinatal infection, and congenital infection will be summarized in this ZIKV review...
November 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189430/precision-medicine-in-pediatric-oncology
#6
Suzanne J Forrest, Birgit Geoerger, Katherine A Janeway
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review describes recent advances and unique challenges in precision medicine for pediatric cancers and highlights clinical trials assessing the clinical impact of targeted therapy matched to molecular alterations identified by tumor profiling. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple prospective clinical sequencing studies in pediatric oncology have been reported in the last 2 years. These studies demonstrated feasibility of sequencing in the clinic and revealed a rate of actionable variants that justifies the development of precision trials for childhood cancer...
November 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189429/new-developments-in-immunotherapy-for-pediatric-solid-tumors
#7
Liora M Schultz, Robbie Majzner, Kara L Davis, Crystal Mackall
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Building upon preclinical advances, we are uncovering immunotherapy strategies that are translating into improved outcomes in tumor subsets. Advanced pediatric solid tumors carry poor prognoses and resultant robust efforts to apply immunotherapy advances to pediatric solid tumors are in progress. Here, we discuss recent developments in the field using mAb and mAb-based therapies including checkpoint blockade and chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). RECENT FINDINGS: The pediatric solid tumor mAb experience targeting the diganglioside, GD2, for patients with neuroblastoma has been the most compelling to date...
November 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189353/pediatric-palliative-oncology-the-state-of-the-science-and-art-of-caring-for-children-with-cancer
#8
Jennifer M Snaman, Erica C Kaye, Justin N Baker, Joanne Wolfe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pediatric palliative oncology (PPO) is an emerging field that integrates the principles of palliative care early into the illness trajectory of children with cancer. PPO providers work with interdisciplinary clinicians to provide optimal medical and psychosocial care to children with cancer and their families. Ongoing advances in the field of pediatric oncology, including new treatment options for progressive cancers, necessitate the early integration of palliative care tenets including holistic care, high-quality communication, and assessment and management of refractory symptoms...
November 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189352/metagenomics-in-pediatrics-using-a-shotgun-approach-to-diagnose-infections
#9
Jeffrey M Bender, Jennifer Dien Bard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the advent of novel massively parallel sequencing technologies and bioinformatic processing capabilities, clinical applications of metagenomic studies are rapidly being integrated into medicine. Through this paper, we hope to introduce this powerful new tool to clinicians caring for children. RECENT FINDINGS: Very few studies have looked at metagenomic applications in children. The ability to perform these types of massive sequencing projects was not possible as little as 7 years ago...
November 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176354/pediatric-avulsion-fractures-of-pelvis-current-concepts
#10
Ismat B Ghanem, Maroun Rizkallah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Provide the reader with an evidence-based update on the importance of accurate diagnosis of commonly missed avulsion fractures of pelvis apophyses, the necessary imaging studies, the feared complications and the recent treatment recommendations. RECENT FINDINGS: Accurate diagnosis of avulsion fractures of pelvis apophyses is high yield as misdiagnosis leads to improper treatment. They should be differentiated from muscle strain and apophysitis...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176353/new-developments-in-immunotherapy-for-pediatric-leukemia
#11
Jessica B Foster, Shannon L Maude
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer has advanced at a tremendous pace over the last decade. In this review, we provide an overview of recent progress in immunotherapy for the treatment of leukemia, focusing on antibody-drug conjugates (ADC), bi-specific T-cell engagers (BiTE), and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. RECENT FINDINGS: Ongoing clinical trials of CAR T cells directed against CD19 have produced complete remission rates as high as 93%, prompting global multicenter phase 2 trials and the first FDA approval of a CAR T-cell therapy...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176352/new-science-and-treatment-paradigms-for-atopic-dermatitis
#12
James G Dinulos, Alyssa Trickett, Caroline Crudele
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The prevalence of atopic dermatitis is increasing in industrialized countries for unclear reasons. One theory centers on reduced exposure to microbes during infancy and childhood. Alterations in the epidermal permeability barrier, place certain patients at risk for the immunological dysfunction seen in atopic dermatitis. This review examines current research pertaining to the epidermal permeability barrier, the cutaneous microbiome, and the immunology of atopic dermatitis...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176358/recent-advances-in-pediatric-oncology
#13
Susan M Blaney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176357/human-papillomavirus-related-disease-in-pediatrics
#14
Collin Fuller, Eva Hudgins, Nika Finelt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) account for a number of distinct disease entities in pediatrics, ranging from common warts to the stigmatizing condyloma acuminata to life-threatening respiratory papillomatosis. Although there is still a lack of consensus on treatment for each of these HPV-related diseases, scientific investigation continues to progress. Increasing prevention of HPV-related disease with further vaccination and development of new vaccines continues to be the best medical strategy...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176356/evolving-paradigms-for-new-agent-development-in-pediatric-oncology
#15
Andrea Flynn, Elizabeth Fox
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss considerations of new paradigms for clinical drug development in pediatric oncology that incorporate our expanding knowledge and complexity of molecular alterations associated with cancer; advances in cancer immunology and cellular therapy; the increasing number of new anticancer drugs, therapeutic approaches, and potential combinations; and recent initiatives by regulatory agencies to improve access to safe and effective therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Cancer in children and adolescents is a rare event with significant long-term impact on individuals and society...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176355/what-is-the-chance-that-a-patella-dislocation-will-happen-a-second-time-update-on-the-natural-history-of-a-first-time-patella-dislocation-in-the-adolescent
#16
Gerd Seitlinger, Hannah N Ladenhauf, Guido Wierer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patellar instability occurs mainly in young patients and shows a high incidence of concomitant cartilage injuries. Recently there has been a strong attempt to identify risk factors and enhance imaging techniques to detect patients with an increased risk for recurrent patella dislocation.We describe current findings on factors associated with recurrent patella dislocation in the adolescent. RECENT FINDINGS: Trochlear dysplasia, patellar height, patellar tilt, tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance, skeletal maturity, and history of contralateral patellar dislocation are well known significant risk factors for recurrence in adolescent patients...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135566/management-of-hypertonia-in-cerebral-palsy
#17
Nickolas J Nahm, H Kerr Graham, Mark E Gormley, Andrew G Georgiadis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review provides an update on the treatment of hypertonia in cerebral palsy, including physical management, pharmacotherapy, neurosurgical, and orthopedic procedures. RECENT FINDINGS: Serial casting potentiates the effect of Botulinum neurotoxin A injections for spasticity. Deep brain stimulation, intraventricular baclofen, and ventral and dorsal rhizotomy are emerging tools for the treatment of dystonia and/or mixed tone. The long-term results of selective dorsal rhizotomy and the timing of orthopedic surgery represent recent advances in the surgical management of hypertonia...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135565/pediatric-and-adolescent-anterior-shoulder-instability-clinical-management-of-first-time-dislocators
#18
Kenneth M Lin, Evan W James, Elad Spitzer, Peter D Fabricant
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss the epidemiology, pathoanatomy, diagnosis, and clinical management of pediatric and adolescent patients following a first-time shoulder dislocation. RECENT FINDINGS: Shoulder instability is becoming increasingly common as pediatric and adolescent patients engage in earlier organized sports competition. Recommended treatment following a first-time glenohumeral dislocation event in adolescents depends on several factors, but surgical stabilization is becoming more frequently performed...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120895/leaving-the-nest-anticipatory-guidance-for-the-college-bound-youth
#19
Sharnendra Sidhu, Andrew Adesman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The number of students enrolling in college is on the rise; however, the number of students dropping out is increasing as well. Given that the transition to attending college poses challenges with independent academic functioning, social adjustment, health behaviors, and lifestyle choices, the purpose of this review is to describe some of the issues that these students will encounter so that pediatricians can help teens who are going to college successfully transition to their new academic, social, and living environment...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120894/advances-in-pharmacotherapies-for-movement-disorders-in-children-current-limitations-and-future-progress
#20
Jean-Pierre Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In childhood, movement disorders are generated by a very large number of disorders of the nervous system, and the very different developmental ages at which these occur make studies of pharmacotherapy efficacy extremely difficult. In most clinical practices, medication used in management is by trial and error, and limited by lack of efficacy and/or adverse drug reactions leading to drug intolerance. Nevertheless, symptom reduction using polypharmacy must be balanced against any accompanying comorbidities such as poor attention and concentration, constipation, ileus, urinary retention, blurred vision sedation and respiratory depression...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
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