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Current Opinion in Pediatrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092283/inherited-disorders-of-tubular-transport
#1
Michel Baum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092282/neonatal-palliative-care
#2
Elvira Parravicini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A significant number of newborns are affected by life-limiting or life-threatening conditions. When prolongation of survival is no longer a goal, or prognosis is uncertain, a plan of care focused on the infant's comfort is essential. The aim of this article is to review the most recent and relevant literature regarding neonatal palliative care (NPC). RECENT FINDINGS: A variety of perinatal and NPC programs are described, but most programs focus exclusively on end-of-life care...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092281/renal-tubular-acidosis
#3
Fernando Santos, Helena Gil-Peña, Silvia Alvarez-Alvarez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To facilitate the understanding and knowledge of renal tubular acidosis by providing a summarized information on the known clinical and biochemical characteristics of this group of diseases, by updating the genetic and molecular bases of the primary forms renal tubular acidosis and by examining some issues regarding the diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) in the daily clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: The manuscript presents recent findings on the potential of next-generation sequencing to disclose new pathogenic variants in patients with a clinical diagnosis of primary RTA and negative Sanger sequencing of known genes...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092280/challenges-and-opportunities-to-enhance-global-drug-development-in-neonates
#4
Alexandra M Smith, Jonathan M Davis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study reviews the history of neonatal drug development, recent legislative efforts designed to facilitate the study of therapeutic agents in neonates, and future steps necessary to advance drug development. RECENT FINDINGS: Although many federal regulations have been introduced over the past 15 years to encourage pediatric and neonatal drug development, the majority of medications that are used in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in neonates...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085684/continuous-noninvasive-monitoring-in-the-neonatal-icu
#5
Rakesh Sahni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Standard hemodynamic monitoring such as heart rate and systemic blood pressure may only provide a crude estimation of organ perfusion during neonatal intensive care. Pulse oximetry monitoring allows for continuous noninvasive monitoring of hemoglobin oxygenation and thus provides estimation of end-organ oxygenation. This review aims to provide an overview of pulse oximetry and discuss its current and potential clinical use during neonatal intensive care. RECENT FINDINGS: Technological advances in continuous assessment of dynamic changes in systemic oxygenation with pulse oximetry during transition to extrauterine life and beyond provide additional details about physiological interactions among the key hemodynamic factors regulating systemic blood flow distribution along with the subtle changes that are frequently transient and undetectable with standard monitoring...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085683/oxygen-saturation-targeting-by-pulse-oximetry-in-the-extremely-low-gestational-age-neonate-a-quixotic-quest
#6
James J Cummings, Satyan Lakshminrusimha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A collaboration of comparative effectiveness research trials of pulse oximeter saturation (SpO2) targeting in extremely low-gestational-age neonates have begun to report their aggregate results. We examine the results of those trials, collectively referred to as the Neonatal Oxygenation Prospective Meta-analysis or NeOProM. We also discuss the uncertainties that remain and the clinical challenges that lie ahead. RECENT FINDINGS: The primary outcome from NeOProM was a composite of death or disability at 18-24 months corrected age...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059904/emerging-exposures-of-developmental-toxicants
#7
Mary S Wolff, Jessie Buckley, Stephanie M Engel, Rob S McConnell, Dana B Barr
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to identify emerging developmental toxicants that are understudied in children's health. Exposures may arise from new products designed to improve utility, to reduce toxicity, or to replace undesirable chemicals. Exposures to less-toxic chemicals may also be significant if they are very commonly used, thereby generating widespread exposure. Sources of exposure include the workplace, personal, home, and office products; food, water, and air...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059903/tobacco-e-cigarettes-and-child-health
#8
Lisa A Peterson, Stephen S Hecht
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The availability of the Children's Health Exposure Assessment Resource funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences provides new opportunities for exploring the role of tobacco smoke exposure in causing harm to children. RECENT FINDINGS: Children of smokers are exposed to nicotine and other harmful tobacco smoke chemicals in utero as well as in their environment. This passive exposure to tobacco smoke has a variety of negative effects on children...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059902/does-quality-improvement-work-in-neonatology-improve-clinical-outcomes
#9
Dan L Ellsbury, Reese H Clark
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Quality improvement initiatives in neonatology have been promoted as an important way of improving outcomes of newborns. The purpose of this review is to examine the effectiveness of recent quality improvement work in improving the outcomes of infants requiring neonatal intensive care. RECENT FINDINGS: Quality improvement collaboratives and single-center projects demonstrate improvement of clinical processes and outcomes in neonatology that impact both preterm and term infants...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930380/vitamin-d-in-pediatric-gastrointestinal-disease
#10
Rajni Ahlawat, Toba Weinstein, Michael J Pettei
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to examine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pediatric gastrointestinal disease, specifically celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); to discuss the role of vitamin D and its deficiency in gastrointestinal disease pathophysiology; and to present current literature regarding diagnosis and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in these pediatric gastrointestinal diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin D deficiency is common in children with gastrointestinal symptoms and disease processes...
December 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906866/inherited-and-acquired-disorders-of-magnesium-homeostasis
#11
Matthias Tilmann Florian Wolf
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Magnesium (Mg) imbalances are frequently overlooked. Hypermagnesemia usually occurs in preeclamptic women after Mg therapy or in end-stage renal disease patients, whereas hypomagnesemia is more common with a prevalence of up to 15% in the general population. Increasing evidence points toward a role for mild-to-moderate chronic hypomagnesemia in the pathogenesis of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: The kidneys are the major regulator of total body Mg homeostasis...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906865/management-of-post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disorders
#12
Gabriela Llaurador, Lauren McLaughlin, Birte Wistinghausen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a major complication of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation. The incidence of transplantation in childhood has been steadily rising, making PTLD the most common form of lymphoproliferation in childhood. The purpose of this review is to summarize the role of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathophysiology and discuss the management of PTLD. RECENT FINDINGS: More than 90% of pediatric PTLD is EBV-positive...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906864/potential-for-treatment-and-a-zika-virus-vaccine
#13
Natalie Quanquin, Lulan Wang, Genhong Cheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zika virus (ZIKV) has only recently been exposed as a significant public health threat, and much of our limited knowledge of its pathogenesis and triggered immune responses were discovered in only the last few years. There are currently no ZIKV-specific therapeutics or vaccines available. This review seeks to bring the reader up-to-date with the latest developments in finding a way to combat this emerging infectious disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Current strategies used for developing ZIKV vaccines or treatments follow proven methods used against other flaviviruses...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906863/bartter-s-and-gitelman-s-syndrome
#14
Hannsjörg W Seyberth, Stefanie Weber, Martin Kömhoff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The clinical presentations of Bartter's syndrome and Gitelman's syndrome will be reviewed including two most recently described hypokalemic salt-losing tubulopathies. By taking the quite heterogeneous presentations and the apparently different pathophysiologies as the basis, the applicability of the physiologic classification has been tested. RECENT FINDINGS: According to the physiologic approach, salt-losing tubulopathies can be divided into two major groups (with completely different tubular defects): first, disorders of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (loop disorders); second, disorders of the distal convolute tubule (DCT disorders)...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870690/advances-in-pediatric-hematology-oncology
#15
Elizabeth Raetz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870689/zika-virus-and-diagnostics
#16
Claudia Raja Gabaglia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the Zika virus (ZIKV) at the time of writing this review. The viral structure and its phylogeny, as well as the limitations of current available techniques used for diagnosis, are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy of the whole ZIKV, or a few of its proteins, are confirming its overall antigenic relatedness to other flaviviruses. Sequencing has revealed its dynamic genetic variation and has placed the Western cluster of Zika isolates within the Asian phylogenic tree...
November 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870688/clinical-aspects-of-zika-virus
#17
Elysse N Grossi-Soyster, A Desiree LaBeaud
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused a sudden and explosive outbreak in South America and the Caribbean in the last year, and has been declared a public health emergency by the WHO. As ZIKV afflicts previously naive populations, more severe clinical presentations and sequelae have been observed. A specific emphasis has been placed on the neurological effects in infants resulting from viral exposure in utero. RECENT FINDINGS: Acute onset of ZIKV disease is seen in approximately 20% of cases, whereas most individuals (80%) exposed are asymptomatic...
November 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870687/when-is-it-ok-to-use-a-splint-versus-cast-and-what-remodeling-can-one-expect-for-common-pediatric-forearm-fractures
#18
Robert S Runyon, Shevaun M Doyle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of common pediatric forearm fractures, clarify the descriptions used to identify and thereby appropriately treat them with a splint or cast, and explain osseous remodeling that is unique to the skeletally immature. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature addresses the gap in standard treatment protocols. There is variability in the management of pediatric forearm fractures because of the multiple subspecialty physicians that care for children's fractures and a lack of well established guidelines...
November 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861256/nonmodifiable-risk-factors-for-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury
#19
Meghan J Price, Maria Tuca, Frank A Cordasco, Daniel W Green
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is becoming increasingly prevalent in the population of active children and young adolescents, it is crucial to be aware of both the modifiable and nonmodifiable factors that place this population at increased ACL injury risk. Historically, there has not been a definitive consensus on all of these risk factors-particularly the nonmodifiable ones. RECENT FINDINGS: The present review has accumulated the most recent evidence for the nonmodifiable risk factors in ACL injury focusing particularly on female gender, generalized joint laxity, knee recurvatum, increased lateral tibial slope, decreased intercondylar notch width, structural lower extremity valgus, limb length discrepancy, family history, and history of contralateral knee ACL injury...
November 16, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861255/neonatal-nonimmune-hemolytic-anemia
#20
Hassan M Yaish, Robert D Christensen, Richard S Lemons
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As in adults and older children, anemia in newborn infants can be the result of erythropoietic failure, hemorrhage, or hemolysis. When hemolysis is the prime consideration, it can be challenging for physicians caring for neonates to choose from the wide variety of available diagnostic tests. This review describes the authors' opinions regarding rational, consistent, and cost-effective means of making an exact diagnosis of a neonatal hemolytic condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Two recent advances in the diagnosis of neonatal nonimmune hemolytic disorders are highlighted in this review: introduction of flow cytometry-based Eosin-5-maleimide (EMA) uptake as a screening test to identify RBC membrane defects and next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based panels to uncover exact mutations causing hemolysis...
November 16, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
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