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Current Opinion in Pediatrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787394/new-developments-in-the-genetic-diagnosis-of-short-stature
#1
Youn Hee Jee, Jeffrey Baron, Ola Nilsson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genome-wide approaches including genome-wide association studies as well as exome and genome sequencing represent powerful new approaches that have improved our ability to identify genetic causes of human disorders. The purpose of this review is to describe recent advances in the genetic causes of short stature. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to SHOX deficiency which is one of the most common causes of isolated short stature, PAPPA2, aggrecan, C-natriuretic peptide, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), NPR2 (CNP receptor), protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11(PTPN11) (and other rasopathies), Fibrillin 1 (FBN1), IHH and BMP2 have been identified in isolated growth disorders with or without other mild skeletal findings...
May 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782384/breastfeeding-uncovering-barriers-and-offering-solutions
#2
Stephanie Sayres, Lisa Visentin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months after an infant is born. Although the recommendations are well known, mothers face barriers that make breastfeeding difficult. This article reviews the recent literature on barriers to breastfeeding as well as strategies for pediatricians to use to help women overcome them. RECENT FINDINGS: The mode of delivery, mother's socioeconomic status, return to work, and prenatal breastfeeding education have been reported as factors that influence breastfeeding...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782383/genetic-testing-of-xy-newborns-with-a-suspected-disorder-of-sex-development
#3
Malika Alimussina, Louise Ann Diver, Ruth McGowan, Syed Faisal Ahmed
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review focuses on the neonatal presentation of disorders of sex development, summarize the current approach to the evaluation of newborns and describes recent advances in understanding of underlying genetic aetiology of these conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Several possible candidate genes as well as other adverse environmental factors have been described as contributing to several clinical subgroups of 46,XY DSDs. Moreover, registry-based studies showed that infants with suspected DSD may have extragenital anomalies and in 46,XY cases, being small for gestational age (SGA), cardiac and neurological malformations are the commonest concomitant conditions...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782382/an-update-on-pcos-in-adolescents
#4
Shannon Fitzgerald, Amy DiVasta, Holly Gooding
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy which can be difficult to treat in adolescents. Fortunately, early identification and treatment can help mitigate some of the metabolic complications. In this review, we reflect on recent literature regarding PCOS diagnosis, associated complications, and treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there are three well known criteria to diagnose PCOS, they can be difficult to translate to adolescence...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771763/recognizing-diagnosing-and-preventing-child-maltreatment-an-update-for-pediatric-clinicians
#5
Fiona Danaher, Andrea Vandeven, Aine Blanchard, Alice W Newton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite an increasing understanding of the impact of emotional trauma and physical abuse on children, clinicians and hospitals still sometimes miss the diagnosis of abuse. The literature in 2017 focused on creating standardized approaches to recognition and diagnosis of physical abuse and occult injury, including using the electronic medical record to provide triggers for consultation of the hospital Child Protection Program. The American College of Radiology updated their standardized approach to the evaluation of physical abuse in the child, and other authors gave us screening tools for commercial exploitation, as well as guidance about how to recognize risks for emotional abuse in families...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771762/update-in-diagnosis-and-management-of-cutaneous-skin-disorders-in-children
#6
Joyce M C Teng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771761/genetics-of-pubertal-timing
#7
Jia Zhu, Temitope O Kusa, Yee-Ming Chan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize advances in the genetics underlying variation in normal pubertal timing, precocious puberty, and delayed puberty, and to discuss mechanisms by which genes may regulate pubertal timing. RECENT FINDINGS: Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of loci that affect pubertal timing in the general population in both sexes and across ethnic groups. Single genes have been implicated in both precocious and delayed puberty...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771760/cutaneous-manifestations-of-nutritional-deficiency
#8
Ramrada Lekwuttikarn, Joyce M C Teng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Childhood malnutrition is a major global health issue. It is often thought of as a developing world problem and therefore, underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed in developed countries. The delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Cutaneous manifestations are often the initial presenting signs of nutritional deficiency. Early recognition is essential in timely initiation of the necessary interventions. This article will review pertinent cutaneous findings and systemic manifestations associated with common nutritional deficiencies...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771759/finding-treatable-genetic-obesity-strategies-for-success
#9
Kristin Dayton, Jennifer Miller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genetic obesity is responsible for up to 7% of severe childhood obesity. Although current Pediatric Endocrine Society guidelines recommend assessment of children with early-onset morbid obesity and hyperphagia for underlying genetic disorders, a vast majority of patients are not being appropriately screened for genetic obesity syndromes. RECENT FINDINGS: With advances in genetic testing, more genetic causes of obesity are being identified. Treatments are likely to be individualized, depending on the cause of the obesity, and must be targeted at addressing the underlying cause...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771758/opportunistic-fungal-infection-in-children-and-management
#10
Joseph M Lam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An opportunistic mycosis is a fungal agent of low pathogenicity that specifically infects immunocompromised hosts. Advances in transplantation, preterm care, immunosuppressive therapies and intensive care, have lead to the emergence of pediatric patients with serious immunodeficiency who are vulnerable to nonpathogenic fungi. RECENT FINDINGS: The advent of the use of biologic agents in pediatric disease as well as the advances in care of preterm and immunosuppressed patients opens up a new cohort of patients at risk of opportunistic mycotic infections...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771757/teaching-mental-health-first-aid-in-the-school-setting-a-novel-approach-to-improving-outcomes-for-common-adolescent-mental-disorders
#11
Laura M Hart, Georgina R Cox, Lucy Lees
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Common adolescent mental disorders, such as depression, often go untreated and severely impact health and educational outcomes. The purpose of this review is to describe what is currently known about school-based mental health interventions and to describe a new intervention, Mental Health First Aid training. RECENT FINDINGS: Universal and selective prevention and treatment programmes have been widely evaluated, though population-level dissemination remains elusive...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750772/the-ins-and-outs-of-an-outside-in-view-of-allergies-atopic-dermatitis-and-allergy-prevention
#12
Marcus Shaker, Robert G P Murray, Julianne A Mann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The skin barrier is a dynamic innate immune organ. This review summarizes the current understanding of how deficiencies associated with atopic dermatitis invite other atopic disorders of the allergic march. RECENT FINDINGS: Atopic dermatitis is characterized by skin barrier defects (such as mutations in filaggrin), intrinsic proallergic T-helper cell 2 immune dysregulation, and skin microbiome alterations. These factors promote the development of food allergy and asthma...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750771/stemming-the-tide-of-abuse-clinicians-role-in-the-metoo-movement
#13
Sarah Pitts, Sara Forman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750770/genetic-characteristics-of-patients-with-congenital-hyperinsulinism
#14
Mary Ellen Vajravelu, Diva D De León
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Congenital hyperinsulinism is the most common cause of persistent hypoglycemia in infants and children. Early and appropriate recognition and treatment of hypoglycemia is vital to minimize neurocognitive impairment. RECENT FINDINGS: There are at least 11 known monogenic forms of hyperinsulinism and several associated syndromes. Molecular diagnosis allows for prediction of the effectiveness of diazoxide and the likelihood of focal hyperinsulinism...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750769/updates-on-adolescent-dating-and-sexual-violence-prevention-and-intervention
#15
Elizabeth Miller, Kelley A Jones, Heather L McCauley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dating and sexual violence victimization are not uncommon in early adolescence and increase in prevalence throughout adolescence into young adulthood with profound health and social consequences. Greater attention to what works in prevention is needed to inform current policies and practices. RECENT FINDINGS: Adolescent dating violence (ADV) and sexual violence victimization, including cyber dating abuse, are highly prevalent among adolescents...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746285/colourism-a-global-adolescent-health-concern
#16
Nadia Craddock, Ncoza Dlova, Phillippa C Diedrichs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Colourism, a form of prejudice and discrimination based solely upon skin colour, stands to jeopardize the physical health, wellbeing and life chances of adolescents of colour, globally. RECENT FINDINGS: Research shows that adolescents can experience colourism at school and college, in the criminal justice system, at work and in the media they consume. It is therefore unsurprising that adolescents of colour often express a desire for lighter skin tones and/or are dissatisfied with their skin tone...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745939/antiviral-treatment-of-childhood-influenza-an-update
#17
Amaran Moodley, John S Bradley, David W Kimberlin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Influenza virus can cause severe or life-threatening infection in children. This review provides an update on antiviral medications available to treat and prevent influenza in both healthy children and children with underlying medical conditions, and recommendations on their appropriate use in the outpatient and inpatient settings. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the significant morbidity and mortality associated with influenza infection, a large number of children hospitalized with influenza do not receive specific antiviral treatment with a neuraminidase inhibitor...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629980/development-of-an-enhanced-recovery-protocol-for-children-undergoing-gastrointestinal-surgery
#18
Mehul V Raval, Kurt F Heiss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Enhanced recovery protocols (ERPs) have been adopted for a variety of adult surgical conditions and resulted in markedly improved outcomes, including decreased length of stays, complications, costs, and narcotic utilization. In this review, we describe the development and implementation of an ERP for children undergoing gastrointestinal surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Existing ERP components from adult and pediatric surgical populations were reviewed and modified through an iterative process that included literature review, a national survey of practicing pediatric surgeons, and appropriateness assessment by a multidisciplinary expert panel...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601338/evolving-understanding-of-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#19
Mubina A Isani, Patrick T Delaplain, Anatoly Grishin, Henri R Ford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease that predominately affects premature neonates. The pathogenesis of NEC is multifactorial and poorly understood. Risk factors include low birth weight, formula-feeding, hypoxic/ischemic insults, and microbial dysbiosis. This review focuses on our current understanding of the diagnosis, management, and pathogenesis of NEC. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings identify specific mucosal cell types as potential therapeutic targets in NEC...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553958/pediatric-pulmonary-medicine-at-the-nexus-of-care-and-discovery
#20
David N Cornfield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
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