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Current Opinion in Pediatrics

Robert C Tasker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
David B Flannery
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Demand for clinical genetics and genomics services is increasing. As discussed in this study, the clinical genetics and genomics workforce is small. How to meet the demand with a limited workforce requires innovation. RECENT FINDINGS: Background data regarding the current state of clinical genetic services including volume of services and make-up of the clinical genetics workforce are presented. The study then identifies opportunities to increase access to clinical genetic service providers using new models of service and discusses examples of solutions which have been implemented in some practice settings...
September 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Elizabeth M McCormick, Zarazuela Zolkipli-Cunningham, Marni J Falk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary mitochondrial disease (PMD) is a genetically and phenotypically diverse group of inherited energy deficiency disorders caused by impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity. Mutations in more than 350 genes in both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes are now recognized to cause primary mitochondrial disease following every inheritance pattern. Next-generation sequencing technologies have dramatically accelerated mitochondrial disease gene discovery and diagnostic yield...
September 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Heidi K Blume
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Headache following concussion and mild traumatic brain injury is very common in pediatrics. There is significant concern about appropriate management of acute and persistent headache following mild head injuries in children among affected youth, their families and care providers. RECENT FINDINGS: The current article will review definitions and diagnoses of posttraumatic headache (PTHA), recent research regarding risk factors for persistence of postconcussion symptoms and headaches, current recommendations for the evaluation of youth with PTHA, recent data regarding efficacy of treatment options for PTHA, and current recommendations for the treatment of acute and persistent PTHA...
September 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Catherine O Jordan, Shawn C Aylward
PURPOSE: To provide a current review of recent publications with regards to intracranial hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: Attempts were made to provide pediatric data; however, the recent completion of the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial (IIHTT) has provided a wealth of data with regards to adult intracranial hypertension.The pediatric incidence of intracranial hypertension ranges between 0.63 and 0.71 per 100 000 children. A majority of pediatric cases responded to acetazolamide, with resolution of headache averaging 3...
September 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Katherine Anagnostou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the current literature and provides insight into the role of food immunotherapy in the management of food-allergic children. Key food immunotherapy trials, benefits, and risks of the intervention, as well as areas requiring further study are all discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Research studies have reported encouraging results regarding the efficacy of food immunotherapy in desensitizing food-allergic patients with an acceptable safety profile and a documented improvement in quality of life...
August 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Meaghan Kelly, Jeffrey Strelzik, Raquel Langdon, Marc DiSabella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Headache is a common medical complaint in children and adolescents with the majority having experienced some type of headache by their teenage years. Pediatric headache presentations often differ compared to adults, and children may have difficulty describing their symptoms. Thus, a thorough understanding of the approach to the pediatric headache patient is essential to ensure appropriate diagnosis, evaluation, and management. RECENT FINDINGS: In the following article we will review the components of a comprehensive pediatric headache assessment, as well as discuss primary and secondary headache types seen in children with focus on clinical pearls and 'red flags' necessitating diagnostic testing...
August 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Gabrielle C Geddes, Michael G Earing
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study is to review genetics of congenital heart disease (CHD) with a focus on clinical applications, genetic testing and clinical challenges. RECENT FINDINGS: With improved clinical care, there is a rapidly expanding population of adults, especially women, with CHD who have not undergone contemporary genetic assessment and do not understand their risk for having a child with CHD. Many patients have never undergone assessment or had genetic testing...
August 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Bradford L Therrell, Carmencita D Padilla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review newborn screening (NBS) publications from the developing countries to identify global progress in improving child health. RECENT FINDINGS: Many developing countries do not yet have national NBS. As infant mortality rates decline, NBS gains in public health priority. Local incidence and outcome data are used to persuade health officials to include screening in priority health spending. Congenital hypothyroidism is the most cost-effective screened condition in most countries...
August 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Oliver Kindler, Franz Quehenberger, Martin Benesch, Markus G Seidel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The risk of cancer is higher, and its outcome is worse in patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) than in members of the general population. Thus, the inter-relationship of malignant diseases with PIDs requires more study. RECENT FINDINGS: Large genetic screens identified a vast number of germline mutations in childhood cancer patient samples. Although TP53 was the most frequent single gene identified as mutated, many PID disorders like DNA repair defects are among the inborn causes of childhood cancer...
August 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Ailin Song, Jonathan D Fish
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over 80% of children diagnosed with cancer are now cured. The burgeoning population of survivors of childhood cancer experiences high rates of morbidity and mortality due to 'late-effects' of treatment. These can be defined as any consequence of treatment that persists beyond or develops after the completion of cancer therapy. Awareness of late-effects is critically important for pediatricians and adult providers alike, as late-effects impact children in proximity to cancer treatment, as well as adults many decades removed...
August 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Nathaniel H Robin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Victoria Chi, Shannon Cleary, Joseph A Bocchini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the impact of recommendations for routine immunization of infants and children against hepatitis A and hepatitis B, the changing epidemiology of these infections, and the remaining challenges to controlling or eliminating these diseases in the United States. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of hepatitis A and B have significantly declined because of childhood vaccination programs and long-term protection provided by infant immunization...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Scott M Bolton, Martha Saker, Lee M Bass
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pediatric foreign body ingestion is a common occurrence that presents a challenge both to pediatric gastroenterologists and primary care providers. Increasing prevalence of smaller, more technologically advanced toys in the household has resulted in an increased exposure to higher voltage batteries and powerful magnets that carry a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. This review highlights the latest findings regarding the patients at risk for button battery and magnet ingestions, the symptoms of presentation, and complications of these objects in contributing to long-standing gastrointestinal injury...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Neha Bansal, Shahnawaz M Amdani, Kelley K Hutchins, Steven E Lipshultz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the cardiotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, the clinical and subclinical presentations and progression of their cardiotoxicity, and the management of the subsequent cardiovascular disease in survivors of childhood cancer. We discuss various preventive measures, especially the cardioprotectant, dexrazoxane, whose use with anthracycline chemotherapy, including doxorubicin, is based on strong evidence. Most treatment recommendations for this unique population are based on expert opinion, not on empirical evidence...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Jane C Burns, Tomoyo Matsubara
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Kawasaki disease presents many challenges to the diverse group of physicians who care for these patients including infectious disease specialists, rheumatologists, and cardiologists. Here we review some of the progress being made toward improved understanding of disease pathogenesis, treatment, and long-term outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiologic studies in different populations documented increasing numbers of cases in countries with high physician awareness of the disease...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Bradley A Barth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
R Thomas Collins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Williams syndrome is a multisystem disorder seen with some regularity at most pediatric centers and usually fairly often at larger centers. Cardiovascular abnormalities, because of elastin deficiency, are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with Williams syndrome. The present article presents a review of the most recent developments regarding the cardiovascular issues in Williams syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Cardiovascular abnormalities occur in 80% of patients with Williams syndrome, the majority of which are arterial stenoses...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Yoseph Gurevich, Benjamin Sahn, Toba Weinstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review clinical manifestations and management of common pediatric foreign body ingestions, with a particular focus on some of the current trends. RECENT FINDINGS: Foreign body ingestion (FBI) is a problem that is frequently encountered by pediatric providers. As new toys and products enter the marketplace, there may also be new dangers from those objects not initially recognized. Some of the recent trends and findings in pediatric FBI include an increase in adolescent injury from ingestion of laundry detergent pods because of a popular game where participants are encouraged to bite or swallow the pods, and injuries associated with ingesting parts of a popular toy known as a 'Fidget Spinner'...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Mark E Lindsay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is the most common cause of aortic aneurysm in children and is associated with premature mortality. Whereas surgical therapy remains the primary treatment to prevent aortic complications, medical therapy may slow or prevent aortic growth. Pediatricians and pediatric cardiologists should become familiar with the diagnosis and management of MFS. This review focuses on the medical management for the most important life-threatening manifestation of MFS, thoracic aortic disease...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
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