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Current Opinion in Pediatrics

Erin E Shaughnessy, Erika L Stalets, Samir S Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review covers the outpatient management of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), discussing the changing microbiology of CAP since the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, and providing an overview of national guideline recommendations for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal antibiotic resistance have plummeted since widespread 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Rima Rachid, Talal A Chatila
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rise in the prevalence of food allergy over the past decades has focused attention of factors that may impact disease development, most notably the gut microbiota. The gut microbial communities play a crucial role in promoting oral tolerance. Their alteration by such factors as Cesarean section delivery, diet and antibiotics may influence disease development. This review highlights recent progress in our understanding of the role of the gut microbiota in the development of food allergy...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Nicola Brodie, Elizabeth A Silberholz, Nancy D Spector, Amy E Pattishall
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present article addresses recent research related to three key facets of adolescent preventive care and health maintenance: long-acting reversible contraception, human papillomavirus vaccination, and heavy menstrual bleeding. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies suggest that long-acting reversible contraception use results in significantly lower rates of unintended pregnancies, and is well tolerated by nulliparous adolescent females. Additionally, a strong recommendation from a pediatric primary care provider is extremely effective in ensuring human papillomavirus vaccination prior to sexual debut...
September 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Angela Morgan, Alexandra Bonthrone, Frédérique J Liégeois
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Developmental speech and language disorders are common, seen in one in 20 preschool children, in the absence of frank neurological deficits or intellectual impairment. They are a key reason parents seek help from paediatricians. Complex neurogenetic and environmental contributions underpin the disorders, yet few specific causes are known. With the advent of quantitative brain imaging, a growing number of studies have investigated neural contributions. Here, we discuss current MRI approaches and recent findings (January 2014-June 2016) in the field...
September 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Robert C Tasker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Nathaniel H Robin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Hani Harb, Bilal Alashkar Alhamwe, Holger Garn, Harald Renz, Daniel P Potaczek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review was to systematically analyze recent studies updating our knowledge on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in childhood asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: A systematic literature search was conducted that identified 23 fresh articles published within the last 5 years reporting the results of human studies on the relationships between epigenetic modifications and childhood asthma or its/related phenotypes. In almost all these studies, meaningful associations between levels of epigenetic marks (DNA methylation and/or histone modifications) and pediatric asthma or its/related phenotypes have been observed...
September 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Jamie L Fraser, Charles P Venditti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent clinical studies and management guidelines for the treatment of the organic acidopathies methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) and propionic acidemia address the scope of interventions to maximize health and quality of life. Unfortunately, these disorders continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality due to acute and chronic systemic and end-organ injury. RECENT FINDINGS: Dietary management with medical foods has been a mainstay of therapy for decades, yet well controlled patients can manifest growth, development, cardiac, ophthalmological, renal, and neurological complications...
September 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
William J Sheehan, Wanda Phipatanakul
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of the present review is to discuss updates on research regarding the relationship between indoor allergen exposure and childhood asthma with a focus on clinical effects, locations of exposure, and novel treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data continue to demonstrate that early life sensitization to indoor allergens is a predictor of asthma development later in life. Furthermore, avoidance of exposure to these allergens continues to be important especially given that the vast majority of children with asthma are sensitized to at least one indoor allergen...
September 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Magali Noval Rivas, Timothy R Crother, Moshe Arditi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease with strong genetic and environmental components that manifests within a variety of clinical features and diverse patterns of immune responses. Asthma prevalence has dramatically increased over the last decade in Westernized societies, thereby suggesting a key function of environmental factors in disease promotion and development. RECENT FINDINGS: 'Early-life' microbial exposure and bacterial colonization are crucial for the maturation and the education of the immune system...
September 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Jeffrey R Botkin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Developments in genetic test technologies enable a detailed analysis of the genomes of individuals across the range of human development from embryos to adults with increased precision and lower cost. These powerful technologies raise a number of ethical issues in pediatrics, primarily because of the frequent lack of clinical utility of genetic information, the generation of secondary results and questions over the proper scope of parental authority for testing. RECENT FINDINGS: Several professional organizations in the fields of genetics and pediatrics have published new guidance on the ethical, legal, and policy issues relevant to genetic testing in children...
September 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Francesca Happé, Jane R Conway
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Social interaction is affected in many different developmental disorders; indeed, the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has introduced social cognition as one of six core components of neurocognitive functioning. Social cognition is not one thing, but a wide range of putative processes, which may be differentially affected in different clinical groups. This review focuses on recent advances in one aspect of social cognition, 'theory of mind' (ToM, representing what people think), and one core clinical group, autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
September 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Mohammed Almannai, Ronit Marom, V Reid Sutton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the development and recent advancements of newborn screening. RECENT FINDINGS: Early initiation of medical care has modified the outcome for many disorders that were previously associated with high morbidity (such as cystic fibrosis, primary immune deficiencies, and inborn errors of metabolism) or with significant neurodevelopmental disabilities (such as phenylketonuria and congenital hypothyroidism)...
August 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
John D Roberson, Omer L Burnett, Nathaniel Robin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article evaluates the field of radiogenomics within recent developments in genomics and radiation biology. RECENT FINDINGS: Many pediatric cancer survivors have undergone treatment with radiation, putting them at risk for long-term side-effects associated with this therapy, especially cardiac disease and secondary malignancies. Advancements in our understanding of radiation biology have led to the understanding that genetics plays a major role in determining a patient's susceptibility to developing long-term side-effects, leading to the field of 'radiogenomics'...
August 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Christina M Sloan-Heggen, Richard J H Smith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the age of targeted genomic enrichment and massively parallel sequencing, there is no more efficient genetic testing method for the diagnosis of hereditary hearing loss. More clinical tests are on the market, which can make choosing good tests difficult. RECENT FINDINGS: More and larger comprehensive genetic studies in patients with hearing loss have been published recently. They remind us of the importance of looking for both single nucleotide variation and copy number variation in all genes implicated in nonsyndromic hearing loss...
August 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Michael I Posner, Mary K Rothbart, Pascale Voelker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Attention is a primary cognitive function critical for perception, language, and memory. We provide an update on brain networks related to attention, their development, training, and pathologies. RECENT FINDINGS: An executive attention network, also called the cingulo-opercular network, allows voluntary control of behavior in accordance with goals. Individual differences among children in self-regulation have been measured by a higher order factor called effortful control, which is related to the executive network and to the size of the anterior cingulate cortex...
August 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Charles Hulme, Margaret J Snowling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. RECENT FINDINGS: Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia...
August 4, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Jeremy I M Carpendale, Stuart I Hammond
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review critically evaluates recent claims that infants have innate knowledge of morality and examines the sources of moral norms. RECENT FINDINGS: Many studies show that toddlers readily help adults with daily tasks. A more contentious set of studies suggests that young infants prefer actors who help others to those who hinder them. Some researchers have interpreted these findings as indicating that morality is innately present in humans. Others look to alternative explanations in developmental systems theory...
August 4, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Peter L Lu, Carlo Di Lorenzo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The use of neurostimulation for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders has been growing over the past two to three decades. Our objective is to review current applications of neurostimulation in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders with an emphasis on the use of these treatment modalities in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Gastric electrical stimulation can lead to symptomatic improvement in children with chronic nausea and vomiting refractory to conventional treatment, and a recent report of long-term outcomes is encouraging...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Jacqueline Jossen, Marla Dubinsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are an expanding number of therapies available to treat pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). As pediatric gastroenterologists attempt to achieve complete intestinal mucosal healing for their patients, it has become more important to gain an understanding of how to maximize the efficacy of our medications while minimizing their toxicities. We aim to provide an overview of therapeutic drug monitoring in IBD with an emphasis on the biologic therapies (antitumor necrosis factor and anti-integrin monoclonal antibodies)...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
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