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Growth Factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238816/heterodimeric-bmp-2-7-exhibits-different-osteoinductive-effects-in-human-and-murine-cells
#1
Xiao Zhang, Si Chen, Yunsong Liu, Ping Zhang, Yanjun Ge, Jing Guo, Gang Wu, Yongsheng Zhou
As robust osteoinductive cytokines, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a significant role in bone tissue engineering. Constituted of two different polypeptides, heterodimeric BMPs are more effective than the homodimers in bone formation. While most studies focused on the murine cell lines, such as murine preosteoblasts MC3T3-E1, the role of heterodimeric BMPs in the osteogenic differentiation of human cells remains uncertain, which hinders their application to practical treatment. In this study, we compared the osteoinductive effects of BMP-2/7 heterodimer in human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) with their homodimers BMP-2 and BMP-7, in which MC3T3-E1 cells were utilized as a positive control...
September 21, 2018: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30196772/effect-of-adipocyte-derived-igf-i-on-adipose-tissue-mass-and-glucose-metabolism-in-the-berlin-fat-mouse
#2
Deike Hesse, Jan Trost, Nadine Schäfer, Kristin Schwerbel, Andreas Hoeflich, Annette Schürmann, Gudrun A Brockmann
Besides liver, IGF-I is expressed in adipose tissue. However, the effects of this local IGF-I on adipose tissue and metabolism are unclear. We generated adipocyte-specific knock-out mice on the background of the Berlin Fat Mouse Inbred (BFMI) line to evaluate the contribution of adipocyte-IGF-I on glucose metabolism and adipose tissue development. BFMI mice are obese, non-diabetic with elevated plasma insulin and IGF-I concentration. The knock-out in adipocytes led to a total white adipose tissue expression of 50-60% due to unaltered Igf-1 expression in stromavascular cells...
April 2018: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30196771/cyclooxygenase-2-interacts-with-mmp-and-fgf-pathways-to-promote-epimorphic-regeneration-in-lizard-hemidactylus-flaviviridis
#3
Pranav R Buch, Isha Ranadive, Isha Desai, Suresh Balarakrishnan
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme known for its role in promoting inflammation, pain and cancer. It has more recently been attributed a function in epimorphic regeneration of vertebrate appendages. However, its position among the molecular regulators of regeneration remains unclear. This work was aimed at analyzing the influence of COX-2 on critical mediators of regenerative processes in the lizard Hemidactylus flaviviridis. It was found during the early events of regeneration that MMP and FGF genes get altered in their expression in response to administration of etoricoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor...
April 2018: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30035654/deficiency-of-the-wnt-receptor-ryk-causes-multiple-cardiac-and-outflow-tract-defects
#4
Kumudhini Kugathasan, Michael M Halford, Peter G Farlie, Damien Bates, Darrin P Smith, You Fang Zhang, James P Roy, Maria L Macheda, Dong Zhang, James L Wilkinson, Margaret L Kirby, Donald F Newgreen, Steven A Stacker
Ryk is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family of proteins that control and regulate cellular processes. It is distinguished by binding Wnt ligands and having no detectable intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase activity suggesting Ryk is a pseudokinase. Here, we show an essential role for Ryk in directing morphogenetic events required for normal cardiac development through the examination of Ryk-deficient mice. We employed vascular corrosion casting, vascular perfusion with contrast dye, and immunohistochemistry to characterize cardiovascular and pharyngeal defects in Ryk-/- embryos...
April 2018: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29969324/evaluation-of-the-growth-factors-vegf-a-and-vegf-b-in-the-vitreous-and-serum-of-patients-with-macular-and-retinal-vascular-diseases
#5
Joana Mesquita, João Paulo Castro-de-Sousa, Sara Vaz-Pereira, Arminda Neves, Luís A Passarinha, Cândida T Tomaz
VEGF-A and VEGF-B are proangiogenic and key regulating factors for blood vessel growth. This study aims to compare VEGF-A and VEGF-B levels in the serum and vitreous of patients with neovascular pathology versus non-neovascular pathology. Our findings showed vitreous VEGF-A and VEGF-B levels increased in patients with neovascular disease, with higher levels of VEGF-A compared to VEGF-B (p ≤ .05). In the diabetic retinopathy (DR) group, higher vitreous VEGF-A or VEGF-B were found in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) than in non-PDR...
April 2018: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873274/stat3-a-multifaceted-oncoprotein
#6
Aleks C Guanizo, Chamira Dilanka Fernando, Daniel J Garama, Daniel J Gough
Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 is a key signalling protein engaged by a multitude of growth factors and cytokines to elicit diverse biological outcomes including cellular growth, differentiation, and survival. The complete loss of STAT3 is not compatible with life and even partial loss of function mutations lead to debilitating pathologies like hyper IgE syndrome. Conversely, augmented STAT3 activity has been reported in as many as 50% of all human tumours. The dogma of STAT3 activity posits that it is a tyrosine phosphorylated transcription factor which modulates the expression of hundreds of genes...
April 2018: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29842809/role-of-granulosa-cell-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-3-1-in-gonadotropin-mediated-meiotic-resumption-from-diplotene-arrest-of-mammalian-oocytes
#7
Kankshi Sahu, Anumegha Gupta, Alka Sharma, Meenakshi Tiwari, Ashutosh N Pandey, Shilpa Prasad, Pramod K Yadav, Ajai K Pandey, Tulsidas G Shrivastav, Shail K Chaube
In mammals, preovulatory oocytes are encircled by several layers of granulosa cells (GCs) in follicular microenvironment. These follicular oocytes are arrested at diplotene arrest due to high level of cyclic nucleotides from encircling GCs. Pituitary gonadotropin acts at the level of encircling GCs and increases adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) and activates mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 (MAPK3/1) signaling pathway. The MAPK3/1 disrupts the gap junctions between encircling GCs and oocyte...
April 2018: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29806777/the-biochemistry-signalling-and-disease-relevance-of-ryk-and-other-wnt-binding-receptor-tyrosine-kinases
#8
James P Roy, Michael M Halford, Steven A Stacker
The receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are a well-characterized family of growth factor receptors that have central roles in human disease and are frequently therapeutically targeted. The RYK, ROR, PTK7 and MuSK subfamilies make up an understudied subset of WNT-binding RTKs. Numerous developmental, stem cell and pathological roles of WNTs, in particular WNT5A, involve signalling via these WNT receptors. The WNT-binding RTKs have highly context-dependent signalling outputs and stimulate the β-catenin-dependent, planar cell polarity and/or WNT/Ca2+ pathways...
April 2018: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651874/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-osteoinductivity-and-bone-fusion-ability-of-an-activin-a-bmp2-chimera-ab204-a-comparison-study-between-ab204-and-rhbmp-2
#9
Guang Bin Zheng, Jae Hyup Lee, Yuan-Zhe Jin
This study compared osteoinductivity and osteogenic capacity between AB204 and rhBMP-2 using hMSCs in vitro and a beagle's posterolateral spinal fusion model. Cultured hMSCs were treated with AB204 or rhBMP-2 with low to high doses. Three male beagles were performed posterolateral spinal fusion with biphasic calcium phosphate (2 ml) + AB204 or rhBMP-2 (20, 50 or 200 µg). They were euthanized after 8 weeks. The fusion rate and bone formation of spine samples were examined. AB204 had higher alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization and osteogenic-related gene expression than rhBMP-2...
December 2017: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582692/differential-effects-of-epidermal-growth-factor-egf-receptor-ligands-on-receptor-binding-downstream-signalling-pathways-and-dna-synthesis-in-hepatocytes
#10
J Ødegård, J E Sondresen, M Aasrum, I H Tveteraas, T K Guren, T Christoffersen, G H Thoresen
Hepatocytes are responsive to mitogenic effects of several ligands acting via EGFR. Studying primary cultures of rat hepatocytes, we found that, as compared to EGF, HB-EGF had a markedly higher affinity of the EGFR, while AR and TGFα had lower affinity. HB-EGF was also more potent compared to the other growth factors regarding phosphorylation of EGFR, Shc, ERK1/2 and Akt. All ligands induced phosphorylation of ErbB2, indicating receptor heterodimerization. TGFα, despite having much lower receptor affinity, was about equally potent and efficacious as HB-EGF as a stimulator of DNA synthesis...
December 2017: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490521/toll-like-receptor-4-regulates-insulin-signal-transduction-in-retinal-m%C3%A3-ller-cells
#11
Li Liu, Jena J Steinle
Dysfunctional insulin signalling is a causative factor in type-2 diabetes. While insulin signal transduction has been well investigated in many tissues, less is known in retinal tissues. We have previously reported that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in retinal damage in diabetes. We used TLR4 retinal Müller cell-specific knockout mice and Müller cells in culture to investigate the effects of loss of TLR4 on Müller cell insulin signal transduction. Loss of TLR4 in the mouse retinal Müller cells led to increased insulin receptor and Akt phosphorylation, with reduced insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation on serine 307, which was associated with reduced cleavage of caspase 3...
December 2017: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482391/systemic-inhibition-of-bmp1-3-decreases-progression-of-ccl-4-induced-liver-fibrosis-in-rats
#12
Lovorka Grgurevic, Igor Erjavec, Ivica Grgurevic, Ivo Dumic-Cule, Jelena Brkljacic, Donatella Verbanac, Mario Matijasic, Hana Cipcic Paljetak, Rudjer Novak, Mihovil Plecko, Jadranka Bubic-Spoljar, Dunja Rogic, Vera Kufner, Martina Pauk, Tatjana Bordukalo-Niksic, Slobodan Vukicevic
Liver fibrosis is a progressive pathological process resulting in an accumulation of excess extracellular matrix proteins. We discovered that bone morphogenetic protein 1-3 (BMP1-3), an isoform of the metalloproteinase Bmp1 gene, circulates in the plasma of healthy volunteers and its neutralization decreases the progression of chronic kidney disease in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Here, we investigated the potential role of BMP1-3 in a chronic liver disease. Rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced liver fibrosis were treated with monoclonal anti-BMP1-3 antibodies...
December 2017: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458290/neuregulin-1-accelerates-corneal-epithelial-wound-healing
#13
Won-Yong Jeong, Hye-Young Yoo, Chan-Wha Kim
Corneal epithelial cells (CECs) play an important role in the function of the cornea, and are maintained by corneal epithelial stem cells (CESCs). Recent studies have shown that neuronal growth factors affect the proliferation and migration of CESCs. Neuregulin-1 (NR-1) is a neuronal growth factor that is expressed in the early stages of brain development. The aim of this study was to determine whether NR-1 activates corneal wound healing. We observed that NR-1 activated both proliferation and migration of CECs...
December 2017: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447490/combined-effects-of-artificial-dermis-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-concentration-gradient-on-wound-healing-in-diabetic-porcine-model
#14
Hok Yin Tsui, You Chen Liu, Xin Yan, Yue Lin, Ye Xu, Qian Tan
Wounds in patients with diabetes mellitus are one of the most prevalent impaired wounds in the world. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important proangiogenic mediators. Artificial dermal (AD) such as Pelnac® has been shown, in humans and animal models, a great therapeutic potential in full-thickness skin wounds. We attempt to promote the wound healing in diabetic porcine models through combined use of AD and constant concentration of VEGF or VEGF concentration gradient. We created full-thickness excisional wounds in diabetic animal models...
December 2017: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228887/can-whole-body-vibration-exercises-affect-growth-hormone-concentration-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Laisa Liane Paineiras-Domingos, Danúbia da Cunha de Sá-Caputo, Eloá Moreira-Marconi, Danielle Soares Morel, Carla da Fontoura Dionello, Cintia Renata Sousa-Gonçalves, Éric Heleno Freire Ferreira Frederico, Pedro Jesus Marín, Sofia Tamini, Alessandro Sartorio, Mario Bernardo-Filho
Whole body vibration (WBV) has been recognized as an effective alternative exercise modality to resistance exercise for its ability in enhancing force and power, generating capacity in skeletal muscle, increasing bone mass and improving cardiovascular function. Since the effect of WBV exercises on growth hormone (GH) levels has been never compared and discussed, the aim of this study was to review systematically the literature to verify the WBV effects on GH concentration. By using PubMed, Scopus and PEDRo databases with the keywords 'growth hormone' or GH and 'whole body vibration' or WBV, we found and analysed 12 papers (182 subjects recruited), verifying their level of evidence (National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence) and the methodological quality (PEDRo scale)...
October 2017: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228886/continuous-stimulation-with-differentiation-factors-is-necessary-to-enhance-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro
#16
Bruno Reible, Gerhard Schmidmaier, Matthäus Prokscha, Arash Moghaddam, Fabian Westhauser
Bone defect treatment belongs to the most challenging fields in orthopedic surgery and requires the well-coordinated application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and differentiation factors. MSC isolated from reaming material (RMSC) and iliac crest (BMSC) in combination with bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been used. The short half-life of both factors limit their applications: a burst release of the factor can probably not induce sustainable differentiation...
October 2017: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228885/multiplex-analysis-of-serum-hormone-and-cytokine-in-patients-with-cervical-copll-towards-understanding-the-potential-pathogenic-mechanisms
#17
Guo-Dong Cai, Zhuang-Chen Zhu, Jun-Qin Wang, Guang Chen, Zeng Wang, Chen-Song Yang, Gui-Xin Sun
Cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (cOPLL) is one of the major causes of myelopathy. However, the mechanism underlying remains elusive. In the present study, using MILLIPLEX magnetic bead panel, we investigated four serum hormones and six serum cytokines in cOPLL patients and healthy subjects. The results showed that tumor necrosis factore-α (TNF-α) were significantly increased, and DDK-1 was significantly decreased in the serum from male and female cOPLL patients compared with those from healthy controls, respectively...
October 2017: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117739/cardiac-autonomic-denervation-and-expression-of-neurotrophins-ngf-and-bdnf-and-their-receptors-during-experimental-chagas-disease
#18
Natália Katley Oliveira, Rodrigo Novaes Ferreira, Sara Delaine Nogueira Lopes, Egler Chiari, Elizabeth Ribeiro da Silva Camargos, Patricia Massara Martinelli
Although cardiac dysautonomia is a distinctive feature of Chagas disease, its clinical and functional significance is still being speculated. Neurotrophic factors are potentially involved; however, studies of their effect in this infection are rare. Ultrastructural abnormalities in autonomic varicosities, levels of both nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as well as the expression of their receptors, were analysed in the heart of a rat model of Trypanosoma infection. Predominantly, at the early stage of the infection, cardiac autonomic varicosities displayed several signs of degeneration parallel to the elevation of cardiac levels of NGF, as well as expression of the receptors TrkA and p75NTR...
October 2017: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110545/serum-from-ccl-4-induced-acute-rat-injury-model-induces-differentiation-of-adscs-towards-hepatic-cells-and-reduces-liver-fibrosis
#19
Maria Tayyab Baig, Gibran Ali, Sana Javaid Awan, Umara Shehzad, Azra Mehmood, Sadia Mohsin, Shaheen N Khan, Sheikh Riazuddin
Cellular therapies hold promise to alleviate liver diseases. This study explored the potential of allogenic serum isolated from rat with acute CCl4 injury to differentiate adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) towards hepatic lineage. Acute liver injury was induced by CCl4 which caused significant increase in serum levels of VEGF, SDF1α and EGF. ADSCs were preconditioned with 3% serum isolated from normal and acute liver injury models. ADSCs showed enhanced expression of hepatic markers (AFP, albumin, CK8 and CK19)...
October 2017: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969468/aqueous-humour-induced-lens-epithelial-cell-proliferation-requires-fgf-signalling
#20
Laxmi Iyengar, Frank J Lovicu
The eye lens grows by systematic proliferation of its epithelial cells and their differentiation into fibre cells. The anterior aqueous humour regulates lens epithelial cell proliferation whereas posteriorly, the vitreous stimulates lens fibre differentiation. Vitreous-derived members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family induce fibre differentiation, with added support for FGFs as putative regulators of aqueous-induced lens cell proliferation. To further characterize this, given FGFs' known affinity for proteoglycans, we compared the effect of proteoglycan sulphation in growth factor- and aqueous-induced lens cell proliferation...
October 2017: Growth Factors
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