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Growth Factors

Joana Mesquita, João Paulo Castro-de-Sousa, Sara Vaz-Pereira, Arminda Neves, Luís A Passarinha, Cândida T Tomaz
VEGF-A and VEGF-B are proangiogenic and key regulating factors for blood vessel growth. This study aims to compare VEGF-A and VEGF-B levels in the serum and vitreous of patients with neovascular pathology versus non-neovascular pathology. Our findings showed vitreous VEGF-A and VEGF-B levels increased in patients with neovascular disease, with higher levels of VEGF-A compared to VEGF-B (p ≤ .05). In the diabetic retinopathy (DR) group, higher vitreous VEGF-A or VEGF-B were found in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) than in non-PDR...
July 3, 2018: Growth Factors
Aleks C Guanizo, Chamira Dilanka Fernando, Daniel J Garama, Daniel J Gough
Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 is a key signalling protein engaged by a multitude of growth factors and cytokines to elicit diverse biological outcomes including cellular growth, differentiation, and survival. The complete loss of STAT3 is not compatible with life and even partial loss of function mutations lead to debilitating pathologies like hyper IgE syndrome. Conversely, augmented STAT3 activity has been reported in as many as 50% of all human tumours. The dogma of STAT3 activity posits that it is a tyrosine phosphorylated transcription factor which modulates the expression of hundreds of genes...
June 6, 2018: Growth Factors
Kankshi Sahu, Anumegha Gupta, Alka Sharma, Meenakshi Tiwari, Ashutosh N Pandey, Shilpa Prasad, Pramod K Yadav, Ajai K Pandey, Tulsidas G Shrivastav, Shail K Chaube
In mammals, preovulatory oocytes are encircled by several layers of granulosa cells (GCs) in follicular microenvironment. These follicular oocytes are arrested at diplotene arrest due to high level of cyclic nucleotides from encircling GCs. Pituitary gonadotropin acts at the level of encircling GCs and increases adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) and activates mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 (MAPK3/1) signaling pathway. The MAPK3/1 disrupts the gap junctions between encircling GCs and oocyte...
May 29, 2018: Growth Factors
James P Roy, Michael M Halford, Steven A Stacker
The receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are a well-characterized family of growth factor receptors that have central roles in human disease and are frequently therapeutically targeted. The RYK, ROR, PTK7 and MuSK subfamilies make up an understudied subset of WNT-binding RTKs. Numerous developmental, stem cell and pathological roles of WNTs, in particular WNT5A, involve signalling via these WNT receptors. The WNT-binding RTKs have highly context-dependent signalling outputs and stimulate the β-catenin-dependent, planar cell polarity and/or WNT/Ca2+ pathways...
May 28, 2018: Growth Factors
Guang Bin Zheng, Jae Hyup Lee, Yuan-Zhe Jin
This study compared osteoinductivity and osteogenic capacity between AB204 and rhBMP-2 using hMSCs in vitro and a beagle's posterolateral spinal fusion model. Cultured hMSCs were treated with AB204 or rhBMP-2 with low to high doses. Three male beagles were performed posterolateral spinal fusion with biphasic calcium phosphate (2 ml) + AB204 or rhBMP-2 (20, 50 or 200 µg). They were euthanized after 8 weeks. The fusion rate and bone formation of spine samples were examined. AB204 had higher alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization and osteogenic-related gene expression than rhBMP-2...
December 2017: Growth Factors
J Ødegård, J E Sondresen, M Aasrum, I H Tveteraas, T K Guren, T Christoffersen, G H Thoresen
Hepatocytes are responsive to mitogenic effects of several ligands acting via EGFR. Studying primary cultures of rat hepatocytes, we found that, as compared to EGF, HB-EGF had a markedly higher affinity of the EGFR, while AR and TGFα had lower affinity. HB-EGF was also more potent compared to the other growth factors regarding phosphorylation of EGFR, Shc, ERK1/2 and Akt. All ligands induced phosphorylation of ErbB2, indicating receptor heterodimerization. TGFα, despite having much lower receptor affinity, was about equally potent and efficacious as HB-EGF as a stimulator of DNA synthesis...
December 2017: Growth Factors
Li Liu, Jena J Steinle
Dysfunctional insulin signalling is a causative factor in type-2 diabetes. While insulin signal transduction has been well investigated in many tissues, less is known in retinal tissues. We have previously reported that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in retinal damage in diabetes. We used TLR4 retinal Müller cell-specific knockout mice and Müller cells in culture to investigate the effects of loss of TLR4 on Müller cell insulin signal transduction. Loss of TLR4 in the mouse retinal Müller cells led to increased insulin receptor and Akt phosphorylation, with reduced insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation on serine 307, which was associated with reduced cleavage of caspase 3...
December 2017: Growth Factors
Lovorka Grgurevic, Igor Erjavec, Ivica Grgurevic, Ivo Dumic-Cule, Jelena Brkljacic, Donatella Verbanac, Mario Matijasic, Hana Cipcic Paljetak, Rudjer Novak, Mihovil Plecko, Jadranka Bubic-Spoljar, Dunja Rogic, Vera Kufner, Martina Pauk, Tatjana Bordukalo-Niksic, Slobodan Vukicevic
Liver fibrosis is a progressive pathological process resulting in an accumulation of excess extracellular matrix proteins. We discovered that bone morphogenetic protein 1-3 (BMP1-3), an isoform of the metalloproteinase Bmp1 gene, circulates in the plasma of healthy volunteers and its neutralization decreases the progression of chronic kidney disease in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Here, we investigated the potential role of BMP1-3 in a chronic liver disease. Rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced liver fibrosis were treated with monoclonal anti-BMP1-3 antibodies...
December 2017: Growth Factors
Won-Yong Jeong, Hye-Young Yoo, Chan-Wha Kim
Corneal epithelial cells (CECs) play an important role in the function of the cornea, and are maintained by corneal epithelial stem cells (CESCs). Recent studies have shown that neuronal growth factors affect the proliferation and migration of CESCs. Neuregulin-1 (NR-1) is a neuronal growth factor that is expressed in the early stages of brain development. The aim of this study was to determine whether NR-1 activates corneal wound healing. We observed that NR-1 activated both proliferation and migration of CECs...
December 2017: Growth Factors
Hok Yin Tsui, You Chen Liu, Xin Yan, Yue Lin, Ye Xu, Qian Tan
Wounds in patients with diabetes mellitus are one of the most prevalent impaired wounds in the world. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important proangiogenic mediators. Artificial dermal (AD) such as Pelnac® has been shown, in humans and animal models, a great therapeutic potential in full-thickness skin wounds. We attempt to promote the wound healing in diabetic porcine models through combined use of AD and constant concentration of VEGF or VEGF concentration gradient. We created full-thickness excisional wounds in diabetic animal models...
December 2017: Growth Factors
Natália Katley Oliveira, Rodrigo Novaes Ferreira, Sara Delaine Nogueira Lopes, Egler Chiari, Elizabeth Ribeiro da Silva Camargos, Patricia Massara Martinelli
Although cardiac dysautonomia is a distinctive feature of Chagas disease, its clinical and functional significance is still being speculated. Neurotrophic factors are potentially involved; however, studies of their effect in this infection are rare. Ultrastructural abnormalities in autonomic varicosities, levels of both nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as well as the expression of their receptors, were analysed in the heart of a rat model of Trypanosoma infection. Predominantly, at the early stage of the infection, cardiac autonomic varicosities displayed several signs of degeneration parallel to the elevation of cardiac levels of NGF, as well as expression of the receptors TrkA and p75NTR...
November 8, 2017: Growth Factors
Maria Tayyab Baig, Gibran Ali, Sana Javaid Awan, Umara Shehzad, Azra Mehmood, Sadia Mohsin, Shaheen N Khan, Sheikh Riazuddin
Cellular therapies hold promise to alleviate liver diseases. This study explored the potential of allogenic serum isolated from rat with acute CCl4 injury to differentiate adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) towards hepatic lineage. Acute liver injury was induced by CCl4 which caused significant increase in serum levels of VEGF, SDF1α and EGF. ADSCs were preconditioned with 3% serum isolated from normal and acute liver injury models. ADSCs showed enhanced expression of hepatic markers (AFP, albumin, CK8 and CK19)...
November 7, 2017: Growth Factors
Laxmi Iyengar, Frank J Lovicu
The eye lens grows by systematic proliferation of its epithelial cells and their differentiation into fibre cells. The anterior aqueous humour regulates lens epithelial cell proliferation whereas posteriorly, the vitreous stimulates lens fibre differentiation. Vitreous-derived members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family induce fibre differentiation, with added support for FGFs as putative regulators of aqueous-induced lens cell proliferation. To further characterize this, given FGFs' known affinity for proteoglycans, we compared the effect of proteoglycan sulphation in growth factor- and aqueous-induced lens cell proliferation...
October 3, 2017: Growth Factors
Laisa Liane Paineiras-Domingos, Danúbia da Cunha de Sá-Caputo, Eloá Moreira-Marconi, Danielle Soares Morel, Carla da Fontoura Dionello, Cintia Renata Sousa-Gonçalves, Éric Heleno Freire Ferreira Frederico, Pedro Jesus Marín, Sofia Tamini, Alessandro Sartorio, Mario Bernardo-Filho
Whole body vibration (WBV) has been recognized as an effective alternative exercise modality to resistance exercise for its ability in enhancing force and power, generating capacity in skeletal muscle, increasing bone mass and improving cardiovascular function. Since the effect of WBV exercises on growth hormone (GH) levels has been never compared and discussed, the aim of this study was to review systematically the literature to verify the WBV effects on GH concentration. By using PubMed, Scopus and PEDRo databases with the keywords 'growth hormone' or GH and 'whole body vibration' or WBV, we found and analysed 12 papers (182 subjects recruited), verifying their level of evidence (National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence) and the methodological quality (PEDRo scale)...
October 2017: Growth Factors
Bruno Reible, Gerhard Schmidmaier, Matthäus Prokscha, Arash Moghaddam, Fabian Westhauser
Bone defect treatment belongs to the most challenging fields in orthopedic surgery and requires the well-coordinated application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and differentiation factors. MSC isolated from reaming material (RMSC) and iliac crest (BMSC) in combination with bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been used. The short half-life of both factors limit their applications: a burst release of the factor can probably not induce sustainable differentiation...
October 2017: Growth Factors
Guo-Dong Cai, Zhuang-Chen Zhu, Jun-Qin Wang, Guang Chen, Zeng Wang, Chen-Song Yang, Gui-Xin Sun
Cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (cOPLL) is one of the major causes of myelopathy. However, the mechanism underlying remains elusive. In the present study, using MILLIPLEX magnetic bead panel, we investigated four serum hormones and six serum cytokines in cOPLL patients and healthy subjects. The results showed that tumor necrosis factore-α (TNF-α) were significantly increased, and DDK-1 was significantly decreased in the serum from male and female cOPLL patients compared with those from healthy controls, respectively...
October 2017: Growth Factors
Shabnam Khatibi, Jeff Babon, John Wagner, Jonathan H Manton, Chin Wee Tan, Hong-Jian Zhu, Sam Wormald, Antony W Burgess
Mathematical models for TGF-β and IL-6 signalling have been linked, providing a platform for analyzing the crosstalk between the systems. An integrated IL-6:TGF-β model was developed via a reduced set of reaction equations which incorporate both feedback loops and appropriate time-delays for transcription and translation processes. The model simulates stable, robust and realistic responses to both ligands. Pulsatile (multiple pulses) inputs for both TGF-β and IL-6 have been simulated to investigate the effects of each ligand on the sensitivity, equilibrium and dynamic responses of the integrated signalling system...
June 2017: Growth Factors
Sandra Woelke, Helena Pommerening, Matthias Kieslich, Ralf Schubert, Stefan Zielen
INTRODUCTION: Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a devastating autosomal recessive disorder with chromosomal instability and growth failure. Low levels of growth hormone (GH) and growth factors may be related to advanced neurological deterioration, wasting syndrome and more pronounced immunodeficiency. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to study safety and effectiveness of GH therapy in patients with A-T and evaluate the effect of GH on ataxia and lymphocyte subsets...
June 2017: Growth Factors
Muhammad Sohail Anjum, Azra Mehmood, Muhammad Ali, Hira Butt, Shaheen N Khan, Sheikh Riazuddin
The defective insulin production is associated with severely reduced islet cell mass leading to diabetes. Growth factors preconditioned stem cells have arisen as an effective therapy to treat many diseases including diabetes. The current study was designed to assess the effect of pretreatment of ASCs derived IPCs with combination of stromal cell derived factor 1 alpha (SDF1α) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in improving glucose tolerance in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The results showed maximally significant reduction in hyperglycaemia and fibrosis, while up-regulation of survival and pancreas-specific genes, insulin levels and homing of transplanted cells in SDF-1α + bFGF IPCs transplanted rats as compared with other groups...
June 2017: Growth Factors
Mai Atef Rahmoon, Rana Ahmed Youness, Asmaa Ibrahim Gomaa, Mohamed Tarif Hamza, Imam Waked, Hend Mohamed El Tayebi, Ahmed Ihab Abdelaziz
miR-615-5p was characterized by our group as a tumour suppressor. IGF-1 R activates a downstream signalling pathway, well characterized in liver cells, however, its role in immunity especially Natural Killer cells (NKs) remains vague. This study aimed at investigating the regulatory role of miR-615-5p on IGF signalling and its impact on NKs cytotoxicity in HCC. Our results showed an upregulation in miR-615-5p and IGF-1 R in NKs of 130 HCC patients compared to 35 controls. Forcing the expression of miR-615-5p, repressed IGF-IR, attenuated NKs cytotoxicity, decreased CD56dim , increased CD56bright NK subsets and reduced the cytotoxic markers NKG2D, TNF-α and perforins...
June 2017: Growth Factors
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