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Growth Factors

Li Liu, Jena J Steinle
Dysfunctional insulin signalling is a causative factor in type-2 diabetes. While insulin signal transduction has been well investigated in many tissues, less is known in retinal tissues. We have previously reported that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in retinal damage in diabetes. We used TLR4 retinal Müller cell-specific knockout mice and Müller cells in culture to investigate the effects of loss of TLR4 on Müller cell insulin signal transduction. Loss of TLR4 in the mouse retinal Müller cells led to increased insulin receptor and Akt phosphorylation, with reduced insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation on serine 307, which was associated with reduced cleavage of caspase 3...
February 28, 2018: Growth Factors
Lovorka Grgurevic, Igor Erjavec, Ivica Grgurevic, Ivo Dumic-Cule, Jelena Brkljacic, Donatella Verbanac, Mario Matijasic, Hana Cipcic Paljetak, Rudjer Novak, Mihovil Plecko, Jadranka Bubic-Spoljar, Dunja Rogic, Vera Kufner, Martina Pauk, Tatjana Bordukalo-Niksic, Slobodan Vukicevic
Liver fibrosis is a progressive pathological process resulting in an accumulation of excess extracellular matrix proteins. We discovered that bone morphogenetic protein 1-3 (BMP1-3), an isoform of the metalloproteinase Bmp1 gene, circulates in the plasma of healthy volunteers and its neutralization decreases the progression of chronic kidney disease in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Here, we investigated the potential role of BMP1-3 in a chronic liver disease. Rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced liver fibrosis were treated with monoclonal anti-BMP1-3 antibodies...
February 27, 2018: Growth Factors
Won-Yong Jeong, Hye-Young Yoo, Chan-Wha Kim
Corneal epithelial cells (CECs) play an important role in the function of the cornea, and are maintained by corneal epithelial stem cells (CESCs). Recent studies have shown that neuronal growth factors affect the proliferation and migration of CESCs. Neuregulin-1 (NR-1) is a neuronal growth factor that is expressed in the early stages of brain development. The aim of this study was to determine whether NR-1 activates corneal wound healing. We observed that NR-1 activated both proliferation and migration of CECs...
February 20, 2018: Growth Factors
Hok Yin Tsui, You Chen Liu, Xin Yan, Yue Lin, Ye Xu, Qian Tan
Wounds in patients with diabetes mellitus are one of the most prevalent impaired wounds in the world. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important proangiogenic mediators. Artificial dermal (AD) such as Pelnac ® has been shown, in humans and animal models, a great therapeutic potential in full-thickness skin wounds. We attempt to promote the wound healing in diabetic porcine models through combined use of AD and constant concentration of VEGF or VEGF concentration gradient. We created full-thickness excisional wounds in diabetic animal models...
February 15, 2018: Growth Factors
Natália Katley Oliveira, Rodrigo Novaes Ferreira, Sara Delaine Nogueira Lopes, Egler Chiari, Elizabeth Ribeiro da Silva Camargos, Patricia Massara Martinelli
Although cardiac dysautonomia is a distinctive feature of Chagas disease, its clinical and functional significance is still being speculated. Neurotrophic factors are potentially involved; however, studies of their effect in this infection are rare. Ultrastructural abnormalities in autonomic varicosities, levels of both nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as well as the expression of their receptors, were analysed in the heart of a rat model of Trypanosoma infection. Predominantly, at the early stage of the infection, cardiac autonomic varicosities displayed several signs of degeneration parallel to the elevation of cardiac levels of NGF, as well as expression of the receptors TrkA and p75NTR...
November 8, 2017: Growth Factors
Maria Tayyab Baig, Gibran Ali, Sana Javaid Awan, Umara Shehzad, Azra Mehmood, Sadia Mohsin, Shaheen N Khan, Sheikh Riazuddin
Cellular therapies hold promise to alleviate liver diseases. This study explored the potential of allogenic serum isolated from rat with acute CCl4 injury to differentiate adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) towards hepatic lineage. Acute liver injury was induced by CCl4 which caused significant increase in serum levels of VEGF, SDF1α and EGF. ADSCs were preconditioned with 3% serum isolated from normal and acute liver injury models. ADSCs showed enhanced expression of hepatic markers (AFP, albumin, CK8 and CK19)...
November 7, 2017: Growth Factors
Laxmi Iyengar, Frank J Lovicu
The eye lens grows by systematic proliferation of its epithelial cells and their differentiation into fibre cells. The anterior aqueous humour regulates lens epithelial cell proliferation whereas posteriorly, the vitreous stimulates lens fibre differentiation. Vitreous-derived members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family induce fibre differentiation, with added support for FGFs as putative regulators of aqueous-induced lens cell proliferation. To further characterize this, given FGFs' known affinity for proteoglycans, we compared the effect of proteoglycan sulphation in growth factor- and aqueous-induced lens cell proliferation...
October 3, 2017: Growth Factors
Laisa Liane Paineiras-Domingos, Danúbia da Cunha de Sá-Caputo, Eloá Moreira-Marconi, Danielle Soares Morel, Carla da Fontoura Dionello, Cintia Renata Sousa-Gonçalves, Éric Heleno Freire Ferreira Frederico, Pedro Jesus Marín, Sofia Tamini, Alessandro Sartorio, Mario Bernardo-Filho
Whole body vibration (WBV) has been recognized as an effective alternative exercise modality to resistance exercise for its ability in enhancing force and power, generating capacity in skeletal muscle, increasing bone mass and improving cardiovascular function. Since the effect of WBV exercises on growth hormone (GH) levels has been never compared and discussed, the aim of this study was to review systematically the literature to verify the WBV effects on GH concentration. By using PubMed, Scopus and PEDRo databases with the keywords 'growth hormone' or GH and 'whole body vibration' or WBV, we found and analysed 12 papers (182 subjects recruited), verifying their level of evidence (National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence) and the methodological quality (PEDRo scale)...
October 2017: Growth Factors
Bruno Reible, Gerhard Schmidmaier, Matthäus Prokscha, Arash Moghaddam, Fabian Westhauser
Bone defect treatment belongs to the most challenging fields in orthopedic surgery and requires the well-coordinated application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and differentiation factors. MSC isolated from reaming material (RMSC) and iliac crest (BMSC) in combination with bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been used. The short half-life of both factors limit their applications: a burst release of the factor can probably not induce sustainable differentiation...
October 2017: Growth Factors
Guo-Dong Cai, Zhuang-Chen Zhu, Jun-Qin Wang, Guang Chen, Zeng Wang, Chen-Song Yang, Gui-Xin Sun
Cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (cOPLL) is one of the major causes of myelopathy. However, the mechanism underlying remains elusive. In the present study, using MILLIPLEX magnetic bead panel, we investigated four serum hormones and six serum cytokines in cOPLL patients and healthy subjects. The results showed that tumor necrosis factore-α (TNF-α) were significantly increased, and DDK-1 was significantly decreased in the serum from male and female cOPLL patients compared with those from healthy controls, respectively...
October 2017: Growth Factors
Muhammad Sohail Anjum, Azra Mehmood, Muhammad Ali, Hira Butt, Shaheen N Khan, Sheikh Riazuddin
The defective insulin production is associated with severely reduced islet cell mass leading to diabetes. Growth factors preconditioned stem cells have arisen as an effective therapy to treat many diseases including diabetes. The current study was designed to assess the effect of pretreatment of ASCs derived IPCs with combination of stromal cell derived factor 1 alpha (SDF1α) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in improving glucose tolerance in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The results showed maximally significant reduction in hyperglycaemia and fibrosis, while up-regulation of survival and pancreas-specific genes, insulin levels and homing of transplanted cells in SDF-1α + bFGF IPCs transplanted rats as compared with other groups...
August 24, 2017: Growth Factors
Mai Atef Rahmoon, Rana Ahmed Youness, Asmaa Ibrahim Gomaa, Mohamed Tarif Hamza, Imam Waked, Hend Mohamed El Tayebi, Ahmed Ihab Abdelaziz
miR-615-5p was characterized by our group as a tumour suppressor. IGF-1 R activates a downstream signalling pathway, well characterized in liver cells, however, its role in immunity especially Natural Killer cells (NKs) remains vague. This study aimed at investigating the regulatory role of miR-615-5p on IGF signalling and its impact on NKs cytotoxicity in HCC. Our results showed an upregulation in miR-615-5p and IGF-1 R in NKs of 130 HCC patients compared to 35 controls. Forcing the expression of miR-615-5p, repressed IGF-IR, attenuated NKs cytotoxicity, decreased CD56(dim), increased CD56(bright) NK subsets and reduced the cytotoxic markers NKG2D, TNF-α and perforins...
July 27, 2017: Growth Factors
Sophie Paquet-Fifield, Sally Roufail, You-Fang Zhang, Trifina Sofian, David J Byrne, Paul B Coughlin, Stephen B Fox, Steven A Stacker, Marc G Achen
Remodelling of lymphatic vessels in tumours facilitates metastasis to lymph nodes. The growth factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D are well known inducers of lymphatic remodelling and metastasis in cancer. They are initially produced as full-length proteins requiring proteolytic processing in order to bind VEGF receptors with high affinity and thereby promote lymphatic remodelling. The fibrinolytic protease plasmin promotes processing of VEGF-C and VEGF-D in vitro, but its role in processing them in cancer was unknown...
July 11, 2017: Growth Factors
H R Aboelenein, M T Hamza, H Marzouk, R A Youness, M Rahmoon, S Salah, A I Abdelaziz
microRNA-155 (miR-155) is implicated in regulating B-cell activation and survival that is important in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis. PU.1, a target for miR-155, is a crucial regulator of B-cell development and enhances Tumour-Necrosis-factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression. TNF-α induces the expression of B-cell-activating-factor (BAFF). BAFF is reported to increase the expression of the autoimmunity marker; CD19. This study aimed to investigate the regulation of expression of PU.1 in pediatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus (pSLE) patients by miR-155, and hence evaluate its impact on TNF-α/BAFF/CD19 signalling pathway...
July 7, 2017: Growth Factors
Shabnam Khatibi, Jeff Babon, John Wagner, Jonathan H Manton, Chin Wee Tan, Hong-Jian Zhu, Sam Wormald, Antony W Burgess
Mathematical models for TGF-β and IL-6 signalling have been linked, providing a platform for analyzing the crosstalk between the systems. An integrated IL-6:TGF-β model was developed via a reduced set of reaction equations which incorporate both feedback loops and appropriate time-delays for transcription and translation processes. The model simulates stable, robust and realistic responses to both ligands. Pulsatile (multiple pulses) inputs for both TGF-β and IL-6 have been simulated to investigate the effects of each ligand on the sensitivity, equilibrium and dynamic responses of the integrated signalling system...
June 2017: Growth Factors
Sandra Woelke, Helena Pommerening, Matthias Kieslich, Ralf Schubert, Stefan Zielen
INTRODUCTION: Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a devastating autosomal recessive disorder with chromosomal instability and growth failure. Low levels of growth hormone (GH) and growth factors may be related to advanced neurological deterioration, wasting syndrome and more pronounced immunodeficiency. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to study safety and effectiveness of GH therapy in patients with A-T and evaluate the effect of GH on ataxia and lymphocyte subsets...
June 2017: Growth Factors
Marianthi Kontonika, Eleonora Barka, Maria Roumpi, Vassilios La Rocca, Panagiotis Lekkas, Evangelos P Daskalopoulos, Agapi D Vilaeti, Giannis G Baltogiannis, Antonios P Vlahos, Simeon Agathopoulos, Theofilos M Kolettis
Experimental studies indicate improved ventricular function after treatment with growth hormone (GH) post-myocardial infarction, but its effect on arrhythmogenesis is unknown. Here, we assessed the medium-term electrophysiologic remodeling after intra-myocardial GH administration in (n = 33) rats. GH was released from an alginate scaffold, injected around the ischemic myocardium after coronary ligation. Two weeks thereafter, ventricular tachyarrhythmias were induced by programmed electrical stimulation...
March 6, 2017: Growth Factors
Sung-Ho Kim, Qing-Mei Pei, Ping Jiang, Min Yang, Xue-Jiao Qian, Jiang-Bo Liu
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction with persistent airway inflammation and airway remodeling, which is associated with increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. Licochalcone A is the predominant characteristic chalcone in licorice root. We found that licochalcone A inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced ASM cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. Additionally, VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation was suppressed via inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity, but not that of Akt...
February 2017: Growth Factors
Yongqiang Sha, Ruli Afandi, Bingbing Zhang, Li Yang, Yonggang Lv
Injured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is hard to heal due to the poor proliferative potential of ACL fibroblasts. To verify whether mechano-growth factor (MGF) E peptide can restore the cell proliferation of injured ACL fibroblasts, ACL fibroblasts pretreated with MGF E peptide were subjected to injurious stretch and the outcomes were evaluated at 0 and 24 h. After injured, the type III collagen synthesis was increased at 0 h while inhibited at 24 h. The matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity/expression was up-regulated, but the cell proliferation was inhibited...
February 2017: Growth Factors
Kei Tanaka, Keiji Sakai, Miho Matsushima, Yukiko Matsuzawa, Tomoko Izawa, Yoichi Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi Iwashita
Deprivation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) induces insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) production in HepG2 cells, while the role of non-essential amino acids (NEAAs) remains unknown. We investigated changes in IGFBP-1 production and phosphorylation induced by NEAAs and also examined its significance on IGF-I activity in HepG2 cells. We demonstrated that decreased BCAAs and increased NEAAs stimulated phosphorylated IGFBP-1 secretion. We also revealed that decreased BCAA-to-NEAA ratios enhanced phosphorylated IGFBP-1 secretion, while changes in the total amount of amino acids (AAs) had no effect...
February 2017: Growth Factors
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