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Journal of X-ray Science and Technology

Bartłomiej Włodarczyk
This article considers the problem of recovering edge-illumination x-ray phase contrast (EIXPC) images from a set of potentially Poisson noisy projection measurements. The authors cast a recovery as a sparse regularization problem based on Anscombe multiscale variance stabilizing transform (MS-VST) with fast discrete curvelet transform which was applied to simulated edge-illumination x-ray phase contrast images. For accurate modelling, the noise characteristics of the EIXPCi data are used to determine the relative importance of each projection...
November 11, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Rui Liu, Lu He, Yan Luo, Hengyong Yu
Singular value decomposition (SVD)-based 2D image reconstruction methods are developed and evaluated for a broad class of inverse problems for which there are no analytical solutions. The proposed methods are fast and accurate for reconstructing images in a non-iterative fashion. The multi-resolution strategy is adopted to reduce the size of the system matrix to reconstruct large images using limited memory capacity. A modified high-contrast Shepp-Logan phantom, a low-contrast FORBILD head phantom, and a physical phantom are employed to evaluate the proposed methods with different system configurations...
November 5, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Yongxia Zhao, Yanmin Wu, Ziwei Zuo, Hongna Suo, Sisi Zhao, Jun Han, Xian Chang, Shujie Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of low-concentration contrast medium on spectral computed tomography (CT) image quality for portal venography CT. METHODS: 150 patients with suspected portal diseases were divided into three groups and had spectral CT examination using a GE Discovery CT 750 HD scanner. The patients in three groups were injected with different concentrations of iodine (350 mgI/mL, 315 mgI/mL and 280 mgI/mL) at an injection rate of 4.0-5...
October 21, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Nadia Mohd Effendy, Mohd Fadhli Khamis, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid
BACKGOUND: Labisia pumila (LP) is a popular herb used by women over the past few decades. This herb has shown potentials as an alternative agent for treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. It was observed in previous studies that supplementation to ovariectomized rats were associated with increased bone antioxidative enzymes and reduced lipid peroxidation activity. It had also improved bone formation markers in ovariectomized rats. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of giving different forms of LP extracts on the trabecular bone microarchitecture of ovariectomised rats...
October 21, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Yongxia Zhao, Yanmin Wu, Ziwei Zuo, Hongna Suo, Sisi Zhao, Haisong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differences in imaging quality and radiation dose in CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) by using fast-kV switching dual energy CT imaging and 3D Smart mA modulation at different body mass indices (BMIs) and at different noise index (NI) values with an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm. METHODS: Four hundred patients who underwent CTPA were equally divided into two groups: A (18.5 kg/m2 ≦ BMI <24.9 kg/m2) and B (24...
October 6, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Thomas W Rogers, James Ollier, Edward J Morton, Lewis D Griffin
BACKGROUND: Large-scale transmission radiography scanners are used to image vehicles and cargo containers. Acquired images are inspected for threats by a human operator or a computer algorithm. To make accurate detections, it is important that image values are precise. However, due to the scale (∼5 m tall) of such systems, they can be mechanically unstable, causing the imaging array to wobble during a scan. This leads to an effective loss of precision in the captured image. OBJECTIVE: We consider the measurement of wobble and amelioration of the consequent loss of image precision...
October 6, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Thomas W Rogers, Nicolas Jaccard, Edward J Morton, Lewis D Griffin
We review the relatively immature field of automated image analysis for X-ray cargo imagery. There is increasing demand for automated analysis methods that can assist in the inspection and selection of containers, due to the ever-growing volumes of traded cargo and the increasing concerns that customs- and security-related threats are being smuggled across borders by organised crime and terrorist networks. We split the field into the classical pipeline of image preprocessing and image understanding. Preprocessing includes: image manipulation; quality improvement; Threat Image Projection (TIP); and material discrimination and segmentation...
October 6, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Jian Lv, Lin Shi, Lei Zhao, Jian Weng, Vincent C T Mok, Winnie C W Chu, Defeng Wang
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects both adults and children, likely mediated by the deficits of various brain regions. The association between structural alterations in the brain and OSA syndrome have been reported in adult patients, but the corresponding evidence for OSA children is still limited. OBJECTIVE: The proposed study aimed to investigate the structural alterations in the brain of children with OSA, with focus on basal ganglia structures...
October 6, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Igor Mikhailov, Aleksey Baturin, Valery Kondratenko, Igor Kopilets, Anton Mikhailov
The characteristics of spectra obtained by monochromatization of a broadband spectrum using the effect of X-ray anomalous transmission (Bormann effect) have been experimentally studied. Optimization of the crystal thickness allows one to obtain the spectral band with a controlled width of ΔE/E = 1-5 10-3 and with a contrast of more than 250 with a peak reflectivity not less than 4% in the transmitted Bormann beam. It was found that due to the wave field compression, the width of the transmitted Bormann beam decreased three times as the thickness of the crystal increased...
September 23, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
K Ghanbari, A Salar Elahi, M Ghoranneviss
The synchrotron radiation emitted by runaway electrons in fusion plasma provides information regarding the particle momentum and pitch-angles of the runaway electron population through the strong dependence of the synchrotron spectrum on these parameters. Information about the runaway density and its spatial distribution, as well as the time evolution of the above quantities, can also be deduced. On the other hand, control of radial electric filed and suggestion of the methods to reduce plasma turbulence are important issues in confinement process and particle transport in the tokamaks...
September 23, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Baodong Liu, Alexander Katsevich, Hengyong Yu
The interior problem, i.e. reconstruction from local truncated projections in computed tomography (CT), is common in practical applications. However, its solution is non-unique in a general unconstrained setting. To solve the interior problem uniquely and stably, in recent years both the prior knowledge- and compressive sensing (CS)-based methods have been developed. Those theoretically exact solutions for the interior problem are called interior tomography. Along this direction, we propose here a new CS-based method for the interior problem based on the curvelet transform...
September 9, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Azeez Omotayo, Idris Elbakri
OBJECTIVE: Iterative algorithms are gaining clinical acceptance in CT. We performed objective phantom-based image quality evaluation of five commercial iterative reconstruction algorithms available on four different multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanners at different dose levels as well as the conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction. METHODS: Using the Catphan500 phantom, we evaluated image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise-power spectrum (NPS)...
November 22, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Toru Kano, Michihiko Koseki
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) is an established imaging technology primarily used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool that reconstructs axial images. However, significant problems with metal artifacts remain. A metal artifact is a strong radial noise in an image, which makes it difficult to diagnose patients and inspect products containing metal implants. Historically, studies related to metal artifact reduction used projection data, though the data is not typically saved after processing...
November 22, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
M Ghoranneviss, S Shahidi, A Salar Elahi
In this research, the cotton fabrics were treated with nitrogen plasma for the clinical and anti-bacterial purposes. Turmeric was used a as a natural dye. Some part of both untreated and plasma treated samples was immersed in silver nitrate as a mordant before dyeing. Effect of plasma and silver nitrate on dye ability of cotton samples was compared and studied. Samples were analyzed with different experimental methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Reflection spectro-photometry and antibacterial test...
November 22, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Chia-Chun Kuo, Ho-Chiao Chuang, Kuan-Ting Teng, Hsiao-Yu Hsu, Der-Chi Tien, Chih-Jen Wu, Shiu-Chen Jeng, Jeng-Fong Chiou
The purpose of this study was to develop an ultrasound image tracking algorithm (UITA) for extracting the exact displacement of internal organs caused by respiratory motion. The program can track organ displacements in real time, and analyze the displacement signals associated with organ displacements via a respiration compensating system (RCS). The ultrasound imaging system is noninvasive and has a high spatial resolution and a high frame rate (around 32 frames/s), which reduces the radiation doses that patients receive during computed tomography and X-ray observations...
November 22, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Navnina Bhatia, David Tisseur, Solene Valton, Jean Michel Létang
Due to the increased cone beam coverage and the introduction of flat panel detector, the size of X-ray illumination fields has grown dramatically in Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT), causing an increase in scatter radiation. Existing reconstruction algorithms do not model the scatter radiation, so scatter artifacts appear in the reconstruction images. The contribution of scattering of photons inside the detector itself becomes prominent and challenging in case of X-ray source of high energy (over a few 100 keV) which is used in typical industrial Non Destructive Testing (NDT)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Yaming Li, Jicheng Sun, Yuanyuan Zhang, Wenyang Li, Bo Hu, Jinlin Song
Dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a new approach in diagnosis and predication of various dental diseases, including trauma, congenital defects, tumors and inflammatory. In this study, we reported the outcome of CBCT for a complicated case of malocclusion, accompanied with tooth loss and periodontitis. A combined application of CBCT with 3D-static images and rotated reconstruction images is reviewed as a systematic model in diagnosis, treatment and progonsis of a complex malocclusion.
October 6, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Liang Chen, Xiaoyong Zeng, Shuang Li, Chengliang Gong, Ejun Peng, Bolin Wu, Wei Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhang
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an extremely rare disease caused by a cancerous growth in the adrenal cortex. Although most of adrenal tumors are benign, the functional ACC is malignant resulting in endocrine dysfunction and necessitates surgical removal. Retroperitoneal laparoscope adrenalectomy is often used to perform adrenal gland surgery. Here, we reported a case of huge ACC with the size of 6.8 cm × 5.2 cm. To achieve better surgical outcome, we integrated 3D reconstructed CT images into a dynamic video for preoperative planning and intraoperative guiding to resect the diseased adrenal gland completely without neighbor organ's injury and surgery complications...
October 6, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Jun Deng, Xiongbing Lu, Ying Liu
Ectopic insertion of the ureter in the genitourinary tract is a rare congenital disorder, usually associated with ureteral duplication. Identification of the insertion open is critical for ureteric re-implantation. However, the challenge in the diagnosis of ectopic insertion of the ureter usually is to identify its insertion, particularly when the affected ureter is not dilated. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) urography with nonionic iodinated contrast media delineates the ureteric course in the normal functioning kidney in the excretory phase [1]...
October 6, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
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