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Journal of X-ray Science and Technology

Young-Pyo Kim, Yong-Pil Park, Min-Woo Cheon
Mobile X-ray device is widely employed because it is useful for diagnosis in patients having mobility difficulties and in medical emergencies. As various devices for X-ray generation have continued to be developed, X-ray devices can now be used more safely and effectively. However, mobile X-ray devices generate relatively low X-ray doses due to the limitation of the power input. Therefore, the use of mobile X-ray devices is limited to thin parts of body. In this study, a new device was designed in order to increase the usefulness of mobile X-ray devices by offsetting the weaknesses of the existing mobile X-ray devices, rendering them useable independently...
July 6, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Matthew Getzin, Josephine J Garfield, David S Rundle, Uwe Kruger, Anthony P H Butler, Manos Gkikas, Ge Wang
BACKGROUND: X-ray CT/micro-CT methods with photon-counting detectors (PCDs) and high Z materials are a hot research topic. One method using PCDs allows for spectral imaging in 5 energy windows while conventional X-ray detectors only collect energy-integrating data. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the enhanced separation of contrast materials by using PCDs, multivariate analysis, and linear discriminant methods. METHODS: Phantoms containing iodine and aqueous nanomaterials were scanned on a MARS spectral micro-CT...
July 4, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Jie Li, Wenkun Zhang, Ailong Cai, Linyuan Wang, Ningning Liang, Zhizhong Zheng, Lei Li, Bin Yan
Since the excessive radiation dose may induce potential body lesion, the low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is widely applied for clinical diagnosis and treatment. However, the dose reduction will inevitably cause severe noise and degrade image quality. Most state-of-the-art methods utilize a pre-determined regularizer to account for the prior images, which may be insufficient for the most images acquired in the clinical practice. This study proposed and investigated a joint regularization method combining a data-driven tight frame and total variation (DDTF-TV) to solve this problem...
July 4, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Liping Zhan, Runtao Gao, Jiao Fan, Huarui Ma
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effect of dentoalveolar distraction extraction (DDE) on site preservation, and to evaluate how the technique keeps the height and width of alveolar bones to a greater extent. METHODS: 12 beagle dogs, randomly divided into three groups (DDE group, NH group, BOG group), were used. In the dogs of three groups, the distal root of the left or right third mandibular premolars were respectively extracted by three methods namely, DDE, traditional extraction with natural healing, and traditional extraction with Bio-Oss bone dust implanted and guided bone regeneration (GBR)...
June 29, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Tsukasa Nakano, Yoshito Nakashima
BACKGROUND: Cylindrical phantoms are often imaged by X-ray computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the extent of beam hardening (or cupping artifact) resulting from a polychromatic X-ray source. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to derive analytical expressions for the reconstructed image of a homogeneous cylindrical phantom exhibiting a cupping artifact, to permit a quantitative comparison with experimental cupping data. METHODS: A filtered backprojection method was employed to obtain the analytical cupping profile for the phantom, assuming that the projection data could be approximated as a power series with respect to the sample penetration thickness...
June 29, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Neslihan Kurtul, Nursel Yurttutan, Murat Baykara
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to apply texture analysis to investigate whether there was a change in the lens following radiotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Patients who received radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer or brain tumour were enrolled. Computed tomography (CT) images taken one month before RT and the most recent images after RT were compared. Entropy values were calculated using lens attenuation values. The lens doses were obtained from the dose-volume histogram data...
June 5, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Xiaobo Li, Benhua Xu, Yu Lei, Jianping Zhang, Zhixing Lin, Sicong Li
BACKGROUND: Differences often exist in the dose calculation accuracy caused by using different dose calculation algorithms in non-uniform tissues. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of dose calculation with inhomogeneity correction in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) by comparing dose calculated in Monaco with measurements in lung-chest phantom for esophagus cancer treatments. METHODS: Finite size pencil beam (FSPB) and X-ray voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) were used respectively for IMRT dose recalculations...
June 5, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Yuewen Sun, Ximing Liu, Peng Cong, Litao Li, Zhongwei Zhao
Statistical noise may degrade the x-ray image quality of digital radiography (DR) system. This corruption can be alleviated by extending exposure time of detectors and increasing the intensity of radiation. However, in some instances, such as the security check and medical imaging examination, the system demands rapid and low-dose detection. In this study, we propose and test a generative adversarial network (GAN) based x-ray image denoising method. Images used in this study were acquired using a digital radiography (DR) imaging system...
June 5, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Zhiqiong Wang, Junchang Xin, Yukun Huang, Chen Li, Ling Xu, Yang Li, Hao Zhang, Huizi Gu, Wei Qian
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer, the most common malignancy among women, has a high mortality rate in clinical practice. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment can reduce the mortalities of breast cancer greatly. The method of mammogram retrieval can help doctors to find the early breast lesions effectively and determine a reasonable feature set for image similarity measure. This will improve the accuracy effectively for mammogram retrieval. METHODS: This paper proposes a similarity measure method combining location feature for mammogram retrieval...
May 28, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Xin-Jiang Liu, Chuan-Ting Li, Bin Wang, Chong-Xiao Zheng, Le-Bin Wu, Lan-Zhi Ma, Quan-Sheng Gao
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship of microhemorrhage on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) with the severity of clinical symptoms and the prognosis of viral encephalitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients with clinically diagnosed viral encephalitis were divided into three groups according to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and the condition of recovery namely, Group I (n = 12): Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)≥13 and recovered with no sequelae; Group II (n = 11): GCS 9-12 and recovered with some sequelae; Group III (n = 7): GCS 3-8 and recovered with more severe sequelae...
May 28, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
You-Gen Cheng, Zong-Qiong Sun, Hong-Xia Zhang, Guo-Qun Mao
PURPOSE: To explore the characteristics of breast cancer and breast fibroadenoma using low-dose computed tomography perfusion imaging (LDCTPI) including specific perfusion parameter values, and seek the potential clinical applications in cancer prognosis assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty patients including 30 diagnosed with breast cancer and 20 with breast fibroadenoma, as well as 15 control subjects with normal breasts were studied prospectively using LDCTPI examinations...
May 3, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Ruifeng Wang, Nan Yu, Shen Zhou, Fuwen Dong, Jun Wang, Nan Yin, Lu Bai, Cong Shen, Youmin Guo
PURPOSE: Automated pulmonary embolism (PE) segmentation is frequently used as a preprocessing step in the quantitative analysis of pulmonary embolism. Objective of this study is to analyze the potential limitation in automated PE segmentation using clinical cases. METHODS: A database of 304 computer tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) examinations was collected and confirmed to be PE. After processing using an automated scheme, two radiologists classified these cases into four groups of A, B, C and D, which represent 4 different segmentation results namely, (1) entire pulmonary artery identified without motivation artifacts, (2) entire pulmonary artery identified with motivation artifacts, (3) part of the pulmonary artery identified, and (4) none of the pulmonary artery identified...
April 25, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Putri Ayu Jayusman, Isa Naina Mohamed, Ekram Alias, Sulaiman Md Dom, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid
BACKGROUND: Eurycoma longifolia (EL) is a well-known aphrodisiac herb for men. Recently, the crude extract of EL was reported to possess anti-osteoporotic activities. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the bone protective effects of the standardized quassinoid-rich EL extract in testosterone-deficient rat model. METHODS: Ninety-six intact male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into baseline, sham, orchidectomized, and chemically castrated groups...
April 18, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Junfeng Wu, Fang Dai, Gang Hu, Xuanqin Mou
Excessive radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT) scans increases the chance of developing cancer and has become a major clinical concern. Recently, statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR) with l0-norm dictionary learning regularization has been developed to reconstruct CT images from the low dose and few-view dataset in order to reduce radiation dose. Nonetheless, the sparse regularization term adopted in this approach is l0-norm, which cannot guarantee the global convergence of the proposed algorithm...
April 18, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Jainil P Shah, Steve D Mann, Randolph L McKinley, Martin P Tornai
Hounsfield Units (HU) are used clinically in differentiating tissue types in a reconstructed CT image, and therefore the HU accuracy of a system is important, especially when using multiple sources, novel detector and non-traditional trajectories. Dedicated clinical breast CT (BCT) systems therefore should be similarly evaluated. In this study, uniform cylindrical phantoms filled with various uniform density fluids were used to characterize differences in HU values between simple circular and complex 3D (saddle) orbits...
April 18, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Caiyun Jia, Ci Wei, Ming Hu, Jing Xu, Kun Niu, Chao Zhang, Peiyuan Lv, Ling Li, Yanhong Dong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical significance of antiplatelet aggregation therapy for patients diagnosed with acute cerebral infarction (ACI) complicated with the cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). METHODS: Thirty patients with ACI and 36 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) were included in this research. Two groups, studied by susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), were compared in terms of the number, location, and severity of CMBs. Then, 30 cases of ACI patients were divided into CMBs sub-group and non-CMBs sub-group...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Hui Wang, Yanan Xu, Hongli Shi
PURPOSE: Metal artifacts severely degrade CT image quality in clinical diagnosis, which are difficult to removed, especially for the beam hardening artifacts. The metal artifact reduction (MAR) based on prior images are the most frequently-used methods. However, there exists a lot misclassification in most prior images caused by absence of prior information such as spectrum distribution of X-ray beam source, especially when multiple or big metal are included. This work aims is to identify a more accurate prior image to improve image quality...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Avinash Jaiswal, Mark A Williams, Abhir Bhalerao, Manoj K Tiwari, Jason M Warnett
X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) has become an important tool for industrial measurement and quality control through its ability to measure internal structures and volumetric defects. Segmentation of constituent materials in the volume acquired through XCT is one of the most critical factors that influence its robustness and repeatability. Highly attenuating materials such as steel can introduce artefacts in CT images that adversely affect the segmentation process, and results in large errors during quantification...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Yifu Xu, Bin Yan, Jian Chen, Lei Zeng, Lei Li
BACKGROUND: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has been widely used to improve identification of substances from different spectral information. Decomposition of the mixed test samples into two materials relies on a well-calibrated material decomposition function. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to establish and validate a data-driven algorithm for estimation of the decomposition function. METHODS: A deep neural network (DNN) consisting of two sub-nets is proposed to solve the projection decomposition problem...
2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Mugahed A Al-Antari, Mohammed A Al-Masni, Mohamed K Metwally, Dildar Hussain, Se-Je Park, Jeong-Sik Shin, Seung-Moo Han, Tae-Seong Kim
BACKGROUND: In general, the image quality of high and low energy images of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) suffers from noise due to the use of a small amount of X-rays. Denoising of DXA images could be a key process to improve a bone mineral density map, which is derived from a pair of high and low energy images. This could further improve the accuracy of diagnosis of bone fractures and osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to develop and test a new technology to improve the quality, remove the noise, and preserve the edges and fine details of real DXA images...
2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
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