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Journal of X-ray Science and Technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436412/subinguinal-microsurgical-varicocelectomy-with-intraoperative-microvascular-doppler-ultrasound-leads-to-the-pain-free-outcome-after-surgery
#1
Kun-Long Lv, Ya-Dong Zhang, Jin-Tao Zhuang, Yong Gao, Liang Zhao, Zi Wan, Ming-Kuan Zhou, Jing-Wei Yu, Xiang-Zhou Sun, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Xiang-An Tu
OBJECTIVE: To determine efficacy of intraoperative microvascular Doppler ultrasound in assisting subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy for pain relief in the treatment of painful varicoceles, compared to the microsurgery without Doppler ultrasound. METHODS: Total 153 patients underwent microsurgical varicocelectomy were randomly allocated to two groups: Groups 1 and 2 included 82 and 71 patients monitored with and without using intraoperative microvascular Doppler ultrasound, respectively...
April 18, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436411/benign-mixed-epithelial-and-stromal-tumor-of-the-kidney-with-inferior-vena-cava-tumor-thrombus-a-rare-case-report-and-review-of%C3%A2-literature
#2
Chi Zhang, Xiaofei Li, Chengqiang Mo, Zhenpeng Peng, Ruilin Yang, Yiming Tang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Rongpei Wu
Mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of the kidney (MESTK) is a rare renal tumor composed of epithelial and stromal cells. In this study, we report a rare case of MESTK, which was pathologically benign but complicated with renal vein and inferior vena cava tumor thrombus. The 50-year-old female patient was admitted to hospital for a mass on the left kidney. Computed tomography showed a 32 mm×18 mm mass with slight delayed enhancement in the left renal sinus, and neoplastic thrombus was detected in left renal vein and inferior vena cava...
April 18, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436410/a-new-approach-to-develop-computer-aided-diagnosis-scheme-of-breast-mass-classification-using-deep-learning-technology
#3
Yuchen Qiu, Shiju Yan, Rohith Reddy Gundreddy, Yunzhi Wang, Samuel Cheng, Hong Liu, Bin Zheng
PURPOSE: To develop and test a deep learning based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme of mammograms for classifying between malignant and benign masses. METHODS: An image dataset involving 560 regions of interest (ROIs) extracted from digital mammograms was used. After down-sampling each ROI from 512×512 to 64×64 pixel size, we applied an 8 layer deep learning network that involves 3 pairs of convolution-max-pooling layers for automatic feature extraction and a multiple layer perceptron (MLP) classifier for feature categorization to process ROIs...
April 18, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387700/iterative-reconstruction-for-sparse-view-x-ray-ct-using-alpha-divergence-constrained-total-generalized-variation-minimization
#4
Shanzhou Niu, Jing Huang, Zhaoying Bian, Dong Zeng, Wufan Chen, Gaohang Yu, Zhengrong Liang, Jianhua Ma
BCKGROUND: Accurate statistical model of the measured projection data is essential for computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction. The transmission data can be described by a compound Poisson distribution upon an electronic noise background. However, such a statistical distribution is numerically intractable for image reconstruction. OBJECTIVE: Although the sinogram data is easily manipulated, it lacks a statistical description for image reconstruction. To address this problem, we present an alpha-divergence constrained total generalized variation (AD-TGV) method for sparse-view x-ray CT image reconstruction...
April 5, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387699/synchronous-scanning-mode-of-industrial-computed-tomography-for-multiple-objects-test
#5
Fenglin Liu, Chao Quan, Weiwen Wu, Peng Feng, Yufang Cai
When testing small size and high density objects with a broad field-of-view (FOV) industrial CT system, multiple objects are always assembled evenly onto the turntable for detecting to improve test efficiency. However, the maximum X-ray's penetrating path through the materials increases, which means the CT system should collocate with a high energy X-ray source and wide-dynamic range detectors to complete the CT scanning. In this study, we proposed and tested a novel and efficient CT scanning method based on linear-arrangement and synchronous-rotating multi-turntables without enhancing the energy of X-ray source and wide-dynamic range of detectors for the CT system...
April 5, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387698/noise-indices-adjusted-to-body-mass-index-and-an-iterative-reconstruction-algorithm-maintain-image-quality-on-low-dose-contrast-enhanced-liver-ct
#6
Yongxia Zhao, Hongna Suo, Yanmin Wu, Ziwei Zuo, Sisi Zhao, Shujie Cheng
OBJECTIVES: Since body mass index (BMI) affects medical imaging quality or noise due to penetration of the radiation through bodies with varying sizes, this study aims to investigate and determine the optimal BMI-adjusted noise index (NI) setting on the contrast-enhanced liver CT scans obtained using 3D Smart mA technology with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR 2.0) algorithm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 320 patients who had contrast-enhanced liver CT scans were divided into two equal-sized groups: A (18...
April 5, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387697/initial-analysis-of-the-middle-problem-in-ct-image-reconstruction
#7
Jiansheng Yang, Hengyong Yu, Ge Wang
The interior and exterior problems have been extensively studied in the field of reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) images, which lead to important theoretical and practical results. In this study, we formulate a middle problem of CT image reconstruction, which is more challenging than either the interior or exterior problems. In the middle problem of CT image reconstruction, projection data are measured through and only through the middle dough-like region, so that each projection profile misses data not only internally but also on both sides...
April 5, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387696/convolution-based-scatter-correction-using%C3%A2-kernels-combining-measurements-and%C3%A2-monte-carlo-simulations
#8
Navnina Bhatia, David Tisseur, Jean Michel Létang
One of the well-recognized challenge of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is scatter contamination within the projection images. Scatter degrades the image quality by decreasing the contrast, introducing cupping and shading artifacts and thus leading to inaccuracies in the reconstructed values. The higher scatter to primary ratio experienced in industrial applications leads to even more important artifacts. Various strategies have been investigated to manage the scatter signal in CBCT projection data. One of these strategies is to calculate the scatter intensity by deconvolution of primary intensity using Scatter Kernel Superposition (SKS)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339423/spherically-symmetric-volume-elements-as-basis-functions-for-image-reconstructions-in-computed-laminography
#9
Patrick Trampert, Jonas Vogelgesang, Christian Schorr, Michael Maisl, Sviatoslav Bogachev, Nico Marniok, Alfred Louis, Tim Dahmen, Philipp Slusallek
BACKGROUND: Laminography is a tomographic technique that allows three-dimensional imaging of flat and elongated objects that stretch beyond the extent of a reconstruction volume. Laminography images can be reconstructed using iterative algorithms based on the Kaczmarz method. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to develop and demonstrate a new reconstruction algorithm that may provide superior image reconstruction quality for this challenged imaging application. METHODS: The images are initially represented using the coefficients over basis functions, which are typically piecewise constant functions (voxels)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339422/diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-for-diagnosis-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-novel-software-tool-proposal
#10
Cruz Gloria, Sheng Dong Nie
In order to diagnose Parkinson disease (PD) at an early stage, it is important to develop a sensitive method for detecting structural changes in the substantia nigra (SN). Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have become important tools in supporting diagnosis of PD, with findings based on increased apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) in basal ganglia and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in SN. Based on the hypothesis that a diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) theory is a valuable method for PD diagnosis based on the non-Gaussian diffusion of water in biologic systems, the purpose of this study is to develop an image processing scheme (software) based on Image-J for the facilitating the application of DKI to assist PD diagnosis...
March 21, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269814/quantitative-evaluation-by-measurement-and-modeling-of-the-variations-in-dose-distributions-deposited-in-mobile-targets
#11
Imad Ali, Nesreen Alsbou, Jean-Michel Taguenang, Salahuddin Ahmad
The objective of this study is to quantitatively evaluate variations of dose distributions deposited in mobile target by measurement and modeling. The effects of variation in dose distribution induced by motion on tumor dose coverage and sparing of normal tissues were investigated quantitatively. The dose distributions with motion artifacts were modeled considering different motion patterns that include (a) motion with constant speed and (b) sinusoidal motion. The model predictions of the dose distributions with motion artifacts were verified with measurement where the dose distributions from various plans that included three-dimensional conformal and intensity-modulated fields were measured with a multiple-diode-array detector (MapCheck2), which was mounted on a mobile platform that moves with adjustable motion parameters...
March 3, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269813/evaluation-of-noise-limits-to-improve-image-processing-in-soft-x-ray-projection-microscopy
#12
Erdenetogtokh Jamsranjav, Kenichi Kuge, Atsushi Ito, Yasuhito Kinjo, Tatsuo Shiina
Soft X-ray microscopy has been developed for high resolution imaging of hydrated biological specimens due to the availability of water window region. In particular, a projection type microscopy has advantages in wide viewing area, easy zooming function and easy extensibility to computed tomography (CT). The blur of projection image due to the Fresnel diffraction of X-rays, which eventually reduces spatial resolution, could be corrected by an iteration procedure, i.e., repetition of Fresnel and inverse Fresnel transformations...
March 3, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269812/multi-material-linearization-beam-hardening-correction-for-computed-tomography
#13
J J Lifton
Since beam hardening causes cupping and streaking artifacts in computed tomographic images, the presence of such artifacts can impair both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the reconstructed data. When the scanned object is composed of a single material, it is possible to correct beam hardening artifacts using the linearization method. However, for multi-material objects, an iterative segmentation-based correction algorithm is needed, which is not only computationally expensive, but may also fail if the initial segmentation result is poor...
March 3, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234270/bilateral-duplex-urinary-collecting-systems-accompanied-with-horseshoe-kidneys-deformity-and-right-renal-ureteral-calculi-and-hydronephrosis-diagnosis-in-magnetic-resonance-urography
#14
Yi Yu, Jianlong Li, Lian Guo, Taifu Gu, Ruihai Xiao, Ye Ye, Qiufeng Pan, Yuanyuan Zhang, Hongwei Huang
Horseshoe kidney deformity with duplex urinary collecting systems is a rare congenital urinary tract defect. Clinically, it is very difficult to visually observe and examine the whole anatomic structure and information with the regular 2D diagnostic imaging tools. Here, we report a case in which a middle age patient has bilateral duplex urinary collecting systems and horseshoe kidney deformity accompanied with right renal ureteral calculi and hydronephrosis. It was diagnosed by magnetic resonance urography with urinary system 3D reconstruction...
February 21, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234269/a-novel-method-of-micro-tomography-geometric-angle-calibration-with-random-phantom
#15
Haocheng Li, Wei Hong, Xuanqin Mou, Yu Liu
The objective of this study is to develop and test the feasibility of applying a machine learning method for geometry calibration of angles in micro-tomography systems. Increasing importance of micro-tomography systems are manifested with escalating applications in various scenarios including but not limited to oral and maxillofacial surgery, vascular and intervention radiology, among other specific applications for purposes of diagnosis and treatments planning. There is possibility, however, actual pathology is confused by artifact of tissue structures after volume reconstruction as a result of CT construction errors...
February 21, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234268/the-formation-of-amplitude-spectra-in-x-ray-pixel-detectors-made-of-gallium-arsenide
#16
Gennadiy Ayzenshtat, Dmitriy Prokopiev, Sergey Baidali, Oleg Tolbanov, Larisa Dorzheeva
PURPOSE: This study aims to analyse energy spectra formation in semiconductor X-ray pixel detectors using a simple experimental method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The calculations were performed for the pixel detectors made of high-resistivity gallium arsenide compensated by chromium GaAs (Cr). A peculiar feature of these detectors is an extremely short lifetime of the holes. When using ordinary detectors with planar electrodes the spectra with high energy resolution could not be observed...
February 21, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157121/a-three-dimensional-approach-for%C3%A2-identifying-small-pulmonary-vessels%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-smokers
#17
Junchao Ma, Nan Yu, Cong Shen, Zhimin Wang, Taiping He, You-Min Guo
BACKGROUND: This study aims to develop a computerized scheme that utilizes a differential geometric approach to identify pulmonary vessels and then evaluate the performance of the scheme on the CT images of heavy smokers. METHODS: The scheme consists of two primary steps to segment entire lung vascular tree and identify the number of pulmonary vessels in a cross section. The scheme performance including accuracy, consistency, and efficiency was assessed using 102 chest CT scans...
February 3, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157119/reduce-beam-hardening-artifacts-of%C3%A2-polychromatic-x-ray-computed-tomography-by-an-iterative-approximation-approach
#18
Hongli Shi, Zhi Yang, Shuqian Luo
BACKGROUND: The beam hardening artifact is one of most important modalities of metal artifact for polychromatic X-ray computed tomography (CT), which can impair the image quality seriously. OBJECTIVE: An iterative approach is proposed to reduce beam hardening artifact caused by metallic components in polychromatic X-ray CT. METHODS: According to Lambert-Beer law, the (detected) projections can be expressed as monotonic nonlinear functions of element geometry projections, which are the theoretical projections produced only by the pixel intensities (image grayscale) of certain element (component)...
February 3, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157118/bpf-type-region-of-interest-reconstruction-for-parallel-translational-computed-tomography
#19
Weiwen Wu, Hengyong Yu, Shaoyu Wang, Fenglin Liu
The objective of this study is to present and test a new ultra-low-cost linear scan based tomography architecture. Similar to linear tomosynthesis, the source and detector are translated in opposite directions and the data acquisition system targets on a region-of-interest (ROI) to acquire data for image reconstruction. This kind of tomographic architecture was named parallel translational computed tomography (PTCT). In previous studies, filtered backprojection (FBP)-type algorithms were developed to reconstruct images from PTCT...
January 31, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157117/rapid-diagnostics-of-urinary-iodine-using-a-portable-edxrf-spectrometer
#20
I F Mikhailov, A A Baturin, A I Mikhailov, S S Borisova, M V Reshetnyak, D I Galata
A method for urinary iodine diagnostics using a portable energy-dispersion X-ray fluorescent (EDXRF) spectrometer is proposed. The principle of the method consists in excitation of the sample atoms fluorescence by the energy spectrum intentionally formed from the spectrum of an X-ray tube using an optimized X-ray scheme. The optimization by the criterion of the minimum detection limit for L-series iodine fluorescence lines included the calculation of optimal atomic numbers for materials of a re-radiator and a filter, and their thicknesses, the collimation system parameters, and an X-ray tube voltage...
January 31, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
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