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Journal of X-ray Science and Technology

You-Gen Cheng, Zong-Qiong Sun, Hong-Xia Zhang, Guo-Qun Mao
PURPOSE: To explore the characteristics of breast cancer and breast fibroadenoma using low-dose computed tomography perfusion imaging (LDCTPI) including specific perfusion parameter values, and seek the potential clinical applications in cancer prognosis assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty patients including 30 diagnosed with breast cancer and 20 with breast fibroadenoma, as well as 15 control subjects with normal breasts were studied prospectively using LDCTPI examinations...
May 3, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Ruifeng Wang, Nan Yu, Shen Zhou, Fuwen Dong, Jun Wang, Nan Yin, Lu Bai, Cong Shen, Youmin Guo
PURPOSE: Automated pulmonary embolism (PE) segmentation is frequently used as a preprocessing step in the quantitative analysis of pulmonary embolism. Objective of this study is to analyze the potential limitation in automated PE segmentation using clinical cases. METHODS: A database of 304 computer tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) examinations was collected and confirmed to be PE. After processing using an automated scheme, two radiologists classified these cases into four groups of A, B, C and D, which represent 4 different segmentation results namely, (1) entire pulmonary artery identified without motivation artifacts, (2) entire pulmonary artery identified with motivation artifacts, (3) part of the pulmonary artery identified, and (4) none of the pulmonary artery identified...
April 25, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Putri Ayu Jayusman, Isa Naina Mohamed, Ekram Alias, Sulaiman Md Dom, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid
BACKGROUND: Eurycoma longifolia (EL) is a well-known aphrodisiac herb for men. Recently, the crude extract of EL was reported to possess anti-osteoporotic activities. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the bone protective effects of the standardized quassinoid-rich EL extract in testosterone-deficient rat model. METHODS: Ninety-six intact male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into baseline, sham, orchidectomized, and chemically castrated groups...
April 18, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Junfeng Wu, Fang Dai, Gang Hu, Xuanqin Mou
Excessive radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT) scans increases the chance of developing cancer and has become a major clinical concern. Recently, statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR) with l0-norm dictionary learning regularization has been developed to reconstruct CT images from the low dose and few-view dataset in order to reduce radiation dose. Nonetheless, the sparse regularization term adopted in this approach is l0-norm, which cannot guarantee the global convergence of the proposed algorithm...
April 18, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Jainil P Shah, Steve D Mann, Randolph L McKinley, Martin P Tornai
Hounsfield Units (HU) are used clinically in differentiating tissue types in a reconstructed CT image, and therefore the HU accuracy of a system is important, especially when using multiple sources, novel detector and non-traditional trajectories. Dedicated clinical breast CT (BCT) systems therefore should be similarly evaluated. In this study, uniform cylindrical phantoms filled with various uniform density fluids were used to characterize differences in HU values between simple circular and complex 3D (saddle) orbits...
April 18, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Caiyun Jia, Ci Wei, Ming Hu, Jing Xu, Kun Niu, Chao Zhang, Peiyuan Lv, Ling Li, Yanhong Dong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical significance of antiplatelet aggregation therapy for patients diagnosed with acute cerebral infarction (ACI) complicated with the cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). METHODS: Thirty patients with ACI and 36 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) were included in this research. Two groups, studied by susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), were compared in terms of the number, location, and severity of CMBs. Then, 30 cases of ACI patients were divided into CMBs sub-group and non-CMBs sub-group...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Yifu Xu, Bin Yan, Jian Chen, Lei Zeng, Lei Li
BACKGROUND: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has been widely used to improve identification of substances from different spectral information. Decomposition of the mixed test samples into two materials relies on a well-calibrated material decomposition function. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to establish and validate a data-driven algorithm for estimation of the decomposition function. METHODS: A deep neural network (DNN) consisting of two sub-nets is proposed to solve the projection decomposition problem...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Mugahed A Al-Antari, Mohammed A Al-Masni, Mohamed K Metwally, Dildar Hussain, Se-Je Park, Jeong-Sik Shin, Seung-Moo Han, Tae-Seong Kim
BACKGROUND: In general, the image quality of high and low energy images of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) suffers from noise due to the use of a small amount of X-rays. Denoising of DXA images could be a key process to improve a bone mineral density map, which is derived from a pair of high and low energy images. This could further improve the accuracy of diagnosis of bone fractures and osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to develop and test a new technology to improve the quality, remove the noise, and preserve the edges and fine details of real DXA images...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Uchechukwu I Nwadike, Kenneth K Agwu, Charles U Eze, Duke Kani, Gregory Agu, Emmanuel Enwereuzo, Mike Obika, Effiong Umoh, Emmanuel Ufomba
BACKGROUND: There is abundant quartz deposit in Nigeria which has been used for export and building purposes. However, its electrical and piezoelectric properties have not been studied. Thus, whether it can be used as raw material for the indigenous electric industries is unknown to date. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to characterize the piezoelectric properties of smoky quartz for ultrasonic transducer and determine its sonic properties. METHOD: In the research approach, the raw quartz was cut into six crystals of rectangular shape using a universal cutter...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Shogo Hatanaka, Munefumi Shimbo, Masatsugu Hariu, Go Nakajima, Keisuke Todoroki, Katsuhito Hosaka, Tetsuya Watanabe, Kana Washizu, Nobuko Utsumi, Takafumi Yamano, Keiichiro Nishimura, Takeo Takahashi
PURPOSE: Based on a retrospective analysis, this study aims to develop a simple index for validity of the evaluation point for the dosimetric verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). METHODS: The results for the dosimetric verifications of a total of 69 IMRT plans were analyzed in this study. A Farmer-type ion chamber was used as a dose detector, and a solid water-equivalent phantom was used. Index values were obtained by dividing the difference between the maximum and minimum dosages by the mean dosage of the 69 plans, and the values were classified into five groups with index value <4, 4-8, 8-12, 12-16, and >16...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Xiao Li, Zhuodong Xu, Ximing Wang
21-hydroxylase deficiency is a rare kind of autosomal recessive disorders, which can result in congenital adrenal hyperplasia and/or testicular adrenal rest tumors. 21-hydroxylase deficiency with TARTs is prone to be misdiagnosed as Leydig cell tumors. Although the sonographic characteristics of TARTs have been summarized in previous reports, its features in computed tomography images were rarely reported. In this study, we presented and summarized the clinical and imaging data of a special case suffering this disease, aiming to improve the imaging diagnosis performance...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Zhiwei Qiao, Gage Redler, Yuhua Qian, Shaojie Tang, Boris Epel, Howard Halpern
The optimization-based image reconstruction methods have been thoroughly investigated in the field of medical imaging. The Chambolle-Pock (CP) algorithm may be employed to solve these convex optimization image reconstruction programs. The preconditioned CP (PCP) algorithm has been shown to have much higher convergence rate than the ordinary CP (OCP) algorithm. This algorithm utilizes a preconditioner-parameter to tune the implementation of the algorithm to the specific application, which ranges from 0 and 2, but is often set to 1...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Soomin Jeon, Chang-Ock Lee
BACKGROUND: Streak artifacts in computed tomography (CT) images caused by metallic objects limit the wider use of CT imaging technologies. There have been various attempts to improve CT images containing streak artifacts; however, most of them generate additional artifacts or do not completely eradicate existing artifacts. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm which reduces streak artifacts in CT images. METHODS: Using CT numbers reconstructed from a given sinogram, we extract the metal part M and the surrounding area C with similar CT numbers...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Lingli Zhang, Li Zeng, Yumeng Guo
PURPOSES: Restricted by the scanning environment in some CT imaging modalities, the acquired projection data are usually incomplete, which may lead to a limited-angle reconstruction problem. Thus, image quality usually suffers from the slope artifacts. The objective of this study is to first investigate the distorted domains of the reconstructed images which encounter the slope artifacts and then present a new iterative reconstruction method to address the limited-angle X-ray CT reconstruction problem...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Jinfeng Yu, Yun Hu, Mingna Huang, Jun Chen, Xiaoqian Ding, Leilei Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the skeletal and dental characteristics in skeletal class III patients with facial asymmetry and to analyse the relationships among various parts of the stomatognathic system to provide a theoretical basis for clinical practice. METHODS: Asymmetric cone-beam computed tomography data acquired from 56 patients were evaluated using Mimics 10.0 and 3-Matic software. Skeletal and dental measurements were performed to assess the three-dimensional differences between two sides...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Shihe Liu, Qing Fu, Hualong Yu, Chuanyu Zhang, Qing Yang, Yabin Hu, Wenjian Xu
BACKGROUND: 640-slice coronary CT angiography is becoming an accurate and reliable method of diagnosing coronary heart disease. However, how to reduce the radiation dosage while ensuring the clinically acceptable image quality remains a quite challenging issue. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of low tube voltage on radiation dosage under 640-slice coronary CT angiography (CCTA). METHODS: Four hundred patients (236 males, 164 females) with coronary heart disease and underwent CCTA using DCVT were classified into A1 (tube voltage: 120 kV; exposure phase window: 30-80%), B1 (120 kV; 70-80%), A2 (100 kV; 30-80%) and B2 group (100 kV; 70-80%), respectively...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Hui Wang, Yanan Xu, Hongli Shi
PURPOSE: Metal artifacts severely degrade CT image quality in clinical diagnosis, which are difficult to removed, especially for the beam hardening artifacts. The metal artifact reduction (MAR) based on prior images are the most frequently-used methods. However, there exists a lot misclassification in most prior images caused by absence of prior information such as spectrum distribution of X-ray beam source, especially when multiple or big metal are included. This work aims is to identify a more accurate prior image to improve image quality...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Xuelin Cui, Lamine Mili, Ge Wang, Hengyong Yu
Since their inceptions, the multimodal imaging techniques have received a great deal of attention for achieving enhanced imaging performance. In this work, a novel joint reconstruction framework using sparse computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data is developed and evaluated. CT and MRI images are synchronously acquired and registered from a hybrid CT-MRI platform. Because image data are highly undersampled, analytic methods are unable to generate decent image quality. To overcome this drawback, we resort to the compressed sensing (CS) techniques, which employ sparse priors that result from an application of a wavelet transform...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Avinash Jaiswal, Mark A Williams, Abhir Bhalerao, Manoj K Tiwari, Jason M Warnett
X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) has become an important tool for industrial measurement and quality control through its ability to measure internal structures and volumetric defects. Segmentation of constituent materials in the volume acquired through XCT is one of the most critical factors that influence its robustness and repeatability. Highly attenuating materials such as steel can introduce artefacts in CT images that adversely affect the segmentation process, and results in large errors during quantification...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
M Goudarzi, Sh Saviz, M Ghoranneviss, A Salar Elahi
The objective of this study is to investigate antibacterial characteristics of a thermal plasma spray system. For this purpose, copper powder was coated on a handmade atmospheric plasma spraying system made by the stainless steel 316 substrate, which is preheated at different temperatures before spraying. A number of deposition characteristics such as antibacterial characteristics, adhesion strength and hardness of coating, was investigated. All of the spray parameters are fixed except the substrate temperature...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
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