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Journal of X-ray Science and Technology

Jun Woo Bae, Hee Reyoung Kim
BACKGROUND: Anti-scattering grid has been used to improve the image quality. However, applying a commonly used linear or parallel grid would cause image distortion, and focusing grid also requires a precise fabrication technology, which is expensive. OBJECTIVE: To investigate and analyze whether using CO2 laser micromachining-based PMMA anti-scattering grid can improve the performance of the grid at a lower cost. Thus, improvement of grid performance would result in improvement of image quality...
November 16, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Madan Lal, Lakhwinder Kaur, Savita Gupta
BACKGROUND: Since breast ultrasound images are of low contrast, contain inherent noise and shadowing effect due to its imaging process, segmentation of breast tumors depicting ultrasound image is a challenging task. Thus, a robust breast ultrasound image segmentation technique is inevitable. OBJECTIVE: To develop an automatic lesion segmentation technique and scheme for breast ultrasound images. METHODS: First, the scheme automatically detects the suspicious tumor region of interest and dscards the unwanted complex background regions...
November 16, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Quan-Xin Yang, Xing Ji, Lin-Lin Feng, Long Zheng, Xiao-Qian Zhou, Qian Wu, Xin Chen
OBJECTIVE: To explore and evaluate new malignant predictors of breast non-mass enhancement lesions using the new BI-RADS MRI lexicon. METHODS: A dataset involving 422 consecutive women underwent breast 3.0 T MRI between January 2014 and July 2016 was assembled for this study. Each case was retrospectively reviewed by 3 radiologists. Eighty-four lesions that present non-mass enhancement in 79 patients were identified in the study. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI features were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses to identify significant indicators of malignancy...
November 16, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Soonmu Kwon, Jae Hong Lim, Yoshiharu Namba, Kwon Su Chon
BACKGROUND: Mono-capillary optics have been applied to increase the performance of X-ray instruments. However, performance of a mono-capillary optic strongly depends on the shape accuracy, which is determined by the diameters of the inner hollow of the capillary along the axial direction. OBJECTIVE: To precisely determine the inner diameter of the capillary optic used in X-ray imaging technique, which aims to replace the conventional method using a visible microscope...
November 16, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Liqiang Ren, Bin Zheng, Hong Liu
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in photon counting detection technology have led to significant research interest in X-ray imaging. OBJECTIVE: As a tutorial level review, this paper covers a wide range of aspects related to X-ray photon counting detector characterization. METHODS: The tutorial begins with a detailed description of the working principle and operating modes of a pixelated X-ray photon counting detector with basic architecture and detection mechanism...
November 16, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Yuewen Sun, Litao Li, Peng Cong, Zhentao Wang, Xiaojing Guo
Digital radiography system is widely used for noninvasive security check and medical imaging examination. However, the system has a limitation of lower image quality in spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio. In this study, we explored whether the image quality acquired by the digital radiography system can be improved with a modified convolutional neural network to generate high-resolution images with reduced noise from the original low-quality images. The experiment evaluated on a test dataset, which contains 5 X-ray images, showed that the proposed method outperformed the traditional methods (i...
October 10, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Changcheng Gong, Yufang Cai, Li Zeng
For cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), transversal shifts of the rotation center exist inevitably, which will result in geometric artifacts in CT images. In this work, we propose a novel geometric calibration method for CBCT, which can also be used in micro-CT. The symmetry property of the sinogram is used for the first calibration, and then L0-norm of the gradient image from the reconstructed image is used as the cost function to be minimized for the second calibration. An iterative search method is adopted to pursue the local minimum of the L0-norm minimization problem...
October 10, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Huafeng Wang, Tingting Zhao, Lihong Connie Li, Haixia Pan, Wanquan Liu, Haoqi Gao, Fangfang Han, Yuehai Wang, YiFang Qi, Zhengrong Liang
The malignancy risk differentiation of pulmonary nodule is one of the most challenge tasks of computer-aided diagnosis (CADx). Most recently reported CADx methods or schemes based on texture and shape estimation have shown relatively satisfactory on differentiating the risk level of malignancy among the nodules detected in lung cancer screening. However, the existing CADx schemes tend to detect and analyze characteristics of pulmonary nodules from a statistical perspective according to local features only. Enlightened by the currently prevailing learning ability of convolutional neural network (CNN), which simulates human neural network for target recognition and our previously research on texture features, we present a hybrid model that takes into consideration of both global and local features for pulmonary nodule differentiation using the largest public database founded by the Lung Image Database Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative (LIDC-IDRI)...
October 10, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Fu-Qiang Yang, Ding-Hua Zhang, Kui-Dong Huang, Ya-Fei Yang, Jin-Ming Liao
This study aims to investigate and test a new image reconstruction algorithm applying to the low-signal projections to generate high quality images by reducing the artifacts and noise in the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). For the low-signal and noisy projections, a multiple sampling method is first utilized in projection domain to suppress environmental noise, which guarantees the accuracy of the data for reconstruction, simultaneously. Next, a fuzzy entropy based method with block matching 3D (BM3D) filtering algorithm is employed to improve the image quality to reduce artifacts and noise in image domain...
October 10, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Zhiwei Qiao, Gage Redler, Zhiguo Gui, Yuhua Qian, Boris Epel, Howard Halpern
OBJECTIVES: This work aims to explore more accurate pixel-driven projection methods for iterative image reconstructions in order to reduce high-frequency artifacts in the generated projection image. METHODS: Three new pixel-driven projection methods namely, small-pixel-large-detector (SPLD), linear interpolation based (LIB) and distance anterpolation based (DAB), were proposed and applied to reconstruct images. The performance of these methods was evaluated in both two-dimensional (2D) computed tomography (CT) images via the modified FORBILD phantom and three-dimensional (3D) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) images via the 6-spheres phantom...
October 10, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Jiadong Yu, Yaqun He, Juan Hao, Fengyongzheng Liu, Hong Li, Wang Chao, Haifeng Wang
Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of coal, an empirical model for judging the coalification degree is used to calculate the ratio of the 002 peak height to the Full width at half maximum (FWHM). However, the existing models are often simpler and more suitable for judgment of the medium and low rank coal, while are not feasible in determination of high rank coal. In order to address this issue, the objective of this study is to establish a new modified mathematical model based on optimization of the existing empirical models...
August 24, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Dongjiang Ji, Gangrong Qu, Chunhong Hu, Yuqing Zhao, Xiaodong Chen
In practice, mis-calibrated detector pixels give rise to wide and faint ring artifacts in the reconstruction image of the In-line phase-contrast computed tomography (IL-PC-CT). Ring artifacts correction is essential in IL-PC-CT. In this study, a novel method of wide and faint ring artifacts correction was presented based on combining TV-L1 model with guided image filtering (GIF) in the reconstruction image domain. The new correction method includes two main steps namely, the GIF step and the TV-L1 step. To validate the performance of this method, simulation data and real experimental synchrotron data are provided...
August 24, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Xu Zhu, Chun Wu, Yun He, Bin Qin, Haiyan Yang, Hong Huang, Xiaojuan Ji
Double aortic arch (DAA) is a rare congenital anomaly associated with the formation of a vascular ring. Patients with DAA commonly suffer from complications caused by intracardiac and extracardiac malformations and different degrees of airway stenosis. Multislice computed tomographic angiography (MSCTA) is an intuitive and effective medical imaging technique in clinical diagnosis of DAA. MSCTA can accurately manifest the aortic arch and the course of the descending aorta and airway stenosis in three-dimension (3D)...
August 24, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Liang Xu, Rongchang Chen, Yiming Yang, Biao Deng, Guohao Du, Honglan Xie, Tiqiao Xiao
Monochromatic-beam-based dynamic X-ray computed microtomography (CT) was developed to observe evolution of microstructure inside samples. However, the low flux density results in low efficiency in data collection. To increase efficiency, reducing the number of projections should be a practical solution. However, it has disadvantages of low image reconstruction quality using the traditional filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm. In this study, an iterative reconstruction method using an ordered subset expectation maximization-total variation (OSEM-TV) algorithm was employed to address and solve this problem...
July 31, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Mengfei Li, Yunsong Zhao, Peng Zhang
Computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in digital rock analysis, which is a new prospective technique for oil and gas industry. But the artifacts in CT images will influence the accuracy of the digital rock model. In this study, we proposed and demonstrated a novel method to restore detector-unit-dependent functions for polychromatic projection calibration by scanning some simple shaped reference samples. As long as the attenuation coefficients of the reference samples are similar to the scanned object, the size or position is not needed to be exactly known...
July 31, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Xia Liu, Liansheng Liu, Fen Hou, Zhifeng Zhou, Qingying Wu, Hengguo Li
BACKGROUND: Motor learning and professional sports training can induce plastic changes in brain structures that are associated with distinct training demands. OBJECTIVE: To testify the hypothesis of that regional gray matter structures in the motor-related cortex and its functional connectivity (FC) are altered in young divers. METHODS: We undertook T1-voxel-based morphometry (VBM) structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in groups of diving athletes (DAs) and demographically-matched healthy controls...
July 7, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Shurong Han, Yeqing Huang
The study analysed the medical imaging technology business cycle from 1981 to 2009 and found that the volatility of consumption in Chinese medical imaging business was higher than that of the developed countries. The volatility of gross domestic product (GDP) and the correlation between consumption and GDP is also higher than that of the developed countries. Prior to the early 1990s the volatility of consumption is even higher than GDP. This fact makes it difficult to explain the volatile market using the standard one sector real economic cycle (REC) model...
July 7, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Zong-Qiong Sun, Gen Yan, Yu-Xi Ge, Jie Li, Lin-Fang Jin, Zhi-Hui Xie, Peng Zhao
PURPOSE: To explore the value of low-dose CT perfusion imaging (LDCTPI) technology and its perfusion parameters in assessing response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC). METHODS: Thirty patients with AGC were studied prospectively by LDCTPI to measure two parameters including blood flow (BF) and blood volume (BV) of tumor area before and after chemotherapy, respectively. All of the patients received two courses of NAC and surgical resection of gastric tumor within one week after chemotherapy, and then obtained the result of postoperative pathology response for chemotherapy...
July 7, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Ti Bai, Hao Yan, Luo Ouyang, David Staub, Jing Wang, Xun Jia, Steve B Jiang, Xuanqin Mou
BACKGROUND: In regularized iterative reconstruction algorithms, the selection of regularization parameter depends on the noise level of cone beam projection data. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to propose an algorithm to estimate the noise level of cone beam projection data. METHODS: We first derived the data correlation of cone beam projection data in the Fourier domain, based on which, the signal and the noise were decoupled. Then the noise was extracted and averaged for estimation...
July 7, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Min Jiang, Yi Sun, Zhiping Qu, Mengjie Li
Sparse-view Computed Tomography (CT) plays an important role in industrial inspection and medical diagnosis. However, the established reconstruction equations based on traditional Radon transform are ill-posed and obtain an approximate solution in the case of finite sampling angles. By contrast, Mojette transform is considered as the discrete geometry of the projection and reconstruction lattice. It determines the geometrical conditions for ensuring a unique solution instead of solving an ill-posed problem from the start...
July 7, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
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