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Journal of X-ray Science and Technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550270/a-quantitative-evaluation-of-pleural-effusion-on-computed-tomography-scans-using-b-spline-and-local-clustering-level-set
#1
Lei Song, Jungang Gao, Sheng Wang, Youmin Guo
Estimation of the pleural effusion's volume is an important clinical issue. The existing methods cannot assess it accurately when there is large volume of liquid in the pleural cavity and/or the patient has some other disease (e.g. pneumonia). In order to help solve this issue, the objective of this study is to develop and test a novel algorithm using B-spline and local clustering level set method jointly, namely BLL. The BLL algorithm was applied to a dataset involving 27 pleural effusions detected on chest CT examination of 18 adult patients with the presence of free pleural effusion...
May 24, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550269/surface-protection-from-high-energy-electrons-and-x-ray-radiation-analysis-in-tokamak-plasma
#2
A Salar Elahi, M Ghoranneviss
Plasma cooling due to hard x-ray radiation from the Runaway electrons is an important issue in tokamaks. Thus, developing effective methods to reduce the Runaway electrons and the emitted hard x-ray is also important for optimal tokamak plasma operation. In this study, we investigated the effects of external fields on hard x-ray intensity and the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. In other words, we presented the effects of positive biased limiter and Resonant Helical Field (RHF) on the MHD fluctuations and hard x-ray emission from the Runaway electrons...
May 24, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527236/a-weighted-difference-of-l1-and-l2-on%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-gradient-minimization-based-on%C3%A2-alternating-direction-method-for%C3%A2-circular%C3%A2-computed-tomography
#3
Wanli Lu, Lei Li, Ailong Cai, Hanming Zhang, Linyuan Wang, Bin Yan
Iterative reconstruction algorithms for computed tomography (CT) through total variation (TV) regularization can provide accurate and stable reconstruction results. TV minimization is the L1-norm of gradient-magnitude images and can be regarded as a convex relaxation method to replace the L0 norm. In this study, a fast and efficient algorithm, which is named a weighted difference of L1 and L2 (L1 - αL2) on the gradient minimization, was proposed and investigated. The new algorithm provides a better description of sparsity for the optimization-based algorithms than TV minimization algorithms...
May 15, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506024/microrna-expression-profiling-in-endometriosis-associated-infertility-and-its-relationship-with-endometrial-receptivity-evaluated-by-ultrasound
#4
Xianfeng Xu, Zhenzhou Li, Jin Liu, Sha Yu, Zhaolian Wei
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microRNA expression profiling in endometriosis-associate infertility, and relationship between the microRNA expression and endometrial receptivity evaluated by ultrasound. METHODS: First, miRNA expression profiling difference of ectopic endometrium between 8 endometriosis patients and 6 endometriosis-free patients were compared. Bioinformatics analyses detected 61 differentially expressed (DE) known miRNAs and 57 DE novel miRNAs. Next, other 24 patients were selected for checking the microRNAs in differential expression by RT-PCR...
May 6, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506023/optimization-method-of-mri-scan-parameters-of-a-double-inversion-recovery-sequence-using-a-t1-map-and-a-developed-analysis-algorithm
#5
Norio Hayashi, Kazuma Yarita, Kozue Sakata, Shunichi Motegi, Hiroyuki Nagase, Kouichi Ujita, Akio Ogura, Toshihiro Ogura, Takehiro Shimada, Yoshito Tsushima
BACKGROUND: Optimizing scan parameters for double inversion recovery (DIR) sequences remains difficult. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a new method for optimizing DIR sequence scan parameters using T1 mapping and a newly developed analysis algorithm. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers underwent T1 mapping and DIR magnetic resonance imaging. The following steps were used for image optimization including: 1) measurement of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) T1 values to create a T1 map; 2) calculation of optimized scan parameters by using a developed analysis algorithm; 3) performance assessment of DIR magnetic resonance imaging by using the calculated optimized imaging parameters...
May 6, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506022/breast-osteoblastoma-and-recurrence-after-resection-demonstration-by-color-doppler-ultrasound
#6
Xia Li, Hua Xin, Shifeng Yang, Miaoqing Zhao, Ximing Wang, Nan Zhang
Osteoblastoma is a rare benign primary bone tumor, which occurs in any part of the skeleton. Extraskeletal osteoblastoma is rather rare. We presented an extremely rare case of extraskeletal osteoblastoma located in the breast. The tumor recurred 7 months later after resection and transformed to aggressive osteoblastoma. The histopathological features, ultrasonic manifestations and ultrasonic differential diagnoses of the primary and recurrent tumors were discussed. The recommended treatment of the tumor is surgical excision...
May 6, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506021/metal-artifact-reduction-in-spiral-fan-beam-ct-using-a-new-sinogram-segmentation-scheme
#7
Mehran Yazdi, Zohre Mansourian
Objective of this study is to present and test a new method for metal artifact reduction (MAR) by segmenting raw CT data (sinogram). The artifact suppression technique incorporates two steps namely, metal projection segmentation in the sinogram and replacement of segmented regions by new values using an interpolation method. The proposed segmentation algorithm uses the sinogram instead of reconstructed CT slices. First, one of the best and newest region-based geometric active contour models is used to detect projection data affected by metal objects (missing projections)...
May 6, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506020/rigid-motion-artifact-reduction-in-ct-using-frequency-domain-analysis
#8
Yuan Zhang, Liyi Zhang, Yunshan Sun
BACKGROUND: It is often unrealistic to assume that the subject remains stationary during a computed tomography (CT) imaging scan. A patient rigid motion can be decomposed into a translation and a rotation around an origin. How to minimize the motion impact on image quality is important. OBJECTIVE: To eliminate artifacts caused by patient rigid motion during a CT scan, this study investigated a new method based on frequency domain analysis to estimate and compensate motion impact...
May 6, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436412/subinguinal-microsurgical-varicocelectomy-with-intraoperative-microvascular-doppler-ultrasound-leads-to-the-pain-free-outcome-after-surgery
#9
Kun-Long Lv, Ya-Dong Zhang, Jin-Tao Zhuang, Yong Gao, Liang Zhao, Zi Wan, Ming-Kuan Zhou, Jing-Wei Yu, Xiang-Zhou Sun, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Xiang-An Tu
OBJECTIVE: To determine efficacy of intraoperative microvascular Doppler ultrasound in assisting subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy for pain relief in the treatment of painful varicoceles, compared to the microsurgery without Doppler ultrasound. METHODS: Total 153 patients underwent microsurgical varicocelectomy were randomly allocated to two groups: Groups 1 and 2 included 82 and 71 patients monitored with and without using intraoperative microvascular Doppler ultrasound, respectively...
April 18, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436411/benign-mixed-epithelial-and-stromal-tumor-of-the-kidney-with-inferior-vena-cava-tumor-thrombus-a-rare-case-report-and-review-of%C3%A2-literature
#10
Chi Zhang, Xiaofei Li, Chengqiang Mo, Zhenpeng Peng, Ruilin Yang, Yiming Tang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Rongpei Wu
Mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of the kidney (MESTK) is a rare renal tumor composed of epithelial and stromal cells. In this study, we report a rare case of MESTK, which was pathologically benign but complicated with renal vein and inferior vena cava tumor thrombus. The 50-year-old female patient was admitted to hospital for a mass on the left kidney. Computed tomography showed a 32 mm×18 mm mass with slight delayed enhancement in the left renal sinus, and neoplastic thrombus was detected in left renal vein and inferior vena cava...
April 18, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436410/a-new-approach-to-develop-computer-aided-diagnosis-scheme-of-breast-mass-classification-using-deep-learning-technology
#11
Yuchen Qiu, Shiju Yan, Rohith Reddy Gundreddy, Yunzhi Wang, Samuel Cheng, Hong Liu, Bin Zheng
PURPOSE: To develop and test a deep learning based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme of mammograms for classifying between malignant and benign masses. METHODS: An image dataset involving 560 regions of interest (ROIs) extracted from digital mammograms was used. After down-sampling each ROI from 512×512 to 64×64 pixel size, we applied an 8 layer deep learning network that involves 3 pairs of convolution-max-pooling layers for automatic feature extraction and a multiple layer perceptron (MLP) classifier for feature categorization to process ROIs...
April 18, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387700/iterative-reconstruction-for-sparse-view-x-ray-ct-using-alpha-divergence-constrained-total-generalized-variation-minimization
#12
Shanzhou Niu, Jing Huang, Zhaoying Bian, Dong Zeng, Wufan Chen, Gaohang Yu, Zhengrong Liang, Jianhua Ma
BCKGROUND: Accurate statistical model of the measured projection data is essential for computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction. The transmission data can be described by a compound Poisson distribution upon an electronic noise background. However, such a statistical distribution is numerically intractable for image reconstruction. OBJECTIVE: Although the sinogram data is easily manipulated, it lacks a statistical description for image reconstruction. To address this problem, we present an alpha-divergence constrained total generalized variation (AD-TGV) method for sparse-view x-ray CT image reconstruction...
April 5, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387699/synchronous-scanning-mode-of-industrial-computed-tomography-for-multiple-objects-test
#13
Fenglin Liu, Chao Quan, Weiwen Wu, Peng Feng, Yufang Cai
When testing small size and high density objects with a broad field-of-view (FOV) industrial CT system, multiple objects are always assembled evenly onto the turntable for detecting to improve test efficiency. However, the maximum X-ray's penetrating path through the materials increases, which means the CT system should collocate with a high energy X-ray source and wide-dynamic range detectors to complete the CT scanning. In this study, we proposed and tested a novel and efficient CT scanning method based on linear-arrangement and synchronous-rotating multi-turntables without enhancing the energy of X-ray source and wide-dynamic range of detectors for the CT system...
April 5, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387698/noise-indices-adjusted-to-body-mass-index-and-an-iterative-reconstruction-algorithm-maintain-image-quality-on-low-dose-contrast-enhanced-liver-ct
#14
Yongxia Zhao, Hongna Suo, Yanmin Wu, Ziwei Zuo, Sisi Zhao, Shujie Cheng
OBJECTIVES: Since body mass index (BMI) affects medical imaging quality or noise due to penetration of the radiation through bodies with varying sizes, this study aims to investigate and determine the optimal BMI-adjusted noise index (NI) setting on the contrast-enhanced liver CT scans obtained using 3D Smart mA technology with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR 2.0) algorithm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 320 patients who had contrast-enhanced liver CT scans were divided into two equal-sized groups: A (18...
April 5, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387697/initial-analysis-of-the-middle-problem-in-ct-image-reconstruction
#15
Jiansheng Yang, Hengyong Yu, Ge Wang
The interior and exterior problems have been extensively studied in the field of reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) images, which lead to important theoretical and practical results. In this study, we formulate a middle problem of CT image reconstruction, which is more challenging than either the interior or exterior problems. In the middle problem of CT image reconstruction, projection data are measured through and only through the middle dough-like region, so that each projection profile misses data not only internally but also on both sides...
April 5, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387696/convolution-based-scatter-correction-using%C3%A2-kernels-combining-measurements-and%C3%A2-monte-carlo-simulations
#16
Navnina Bhatia, David Tisseur, Jean Michel Létang
One of the well-recognized challenge of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is scatter contamination within the projection images. Scatter degrades the image quality by decreasing the contrast, introducing cupping and shading artifacts and thus leading to inaccuracies in the reconstructed values. The higher scatter to primary ratio experienced in industrial applications leads to even more important artifacts. Various strategies have been investigated to manage the scatter signal in CBCT projection data. One of these strategies is to calculate the scatter intensity by deconvolution of primary intensity using Scatter Kernel Superposition (SKS)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339423/spherically-symmetric-volume-elements-as-basis-functions-for-image-reconstructions-in-computed-laminography
#17
Patrick Trampert, Jonas Vogelgesang, Christian Schorr, Michael Maisl, Sviatoslav Bogachev, Nico Marniok, Alfred Louis, Tim Dahmen, Philipp Slusallek
BACKGROUND: Laminography is a tomographic technique that allows three-dimensional imaging of flat and elongated objects that stretch beyond the extent of a reconstruction volume. Laminography images can be reconstructed using iterative algorithms based on the Kaczmarz method. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to develop and demonstrate a new reconstruction algorithm that may provide superior image reconstruction quality for this challenged imaging application. METHODS: The images are initially represented using the coefficients over basis functions, which are typically piecewise constant functions (voxels)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339422/diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-for-diagnosis-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-novel-software-tool-proposal
#18
Cruz Gloria, Sheng Dong Nie
In order to diagnose Parkinson disease (PD) at an early stage, it is important to develop a sensitive method for detecting structural changes in the substantia nigra (SN). Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have become important tools in supporting diagnosis of PD, with findings based on increased apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) in basal ganglia and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in SN. Based on the hypothesis that a diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) theory is a valuable method for PD diagnosis based on the non-Gaussian diffusion of water in biologic systems, the purpose of this study is to develop an image processing scheme (software) based on Image-J for the facilitating the application of DKI to assist PD diagnosis...
March 21, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269814/quantitative-evaluation-by-measurement-and-modeling-of-the-variations-in-dose-distributions-deposited-in-mobile-targets
#19
Imad Ali, Nesreen Alsbou, Jean-Michel Taguenang, Salahuddin Ahmad
The objective of this study is to quantitatively evaluate variations of dose distributions deposited in mobile target by measurement and modeling. The effects of variation in dose distribution induced by motion on tumor dose coverage and sparing of normal tissues were investigated quantitatively. The dose distributions with motion artifacts were modeled considering different motion patterns that include (a) motion with constant speed and (b) sinusoidal motion. The model predictions of the dose distributions with motion artifacts were verified with measurement where the dose distributions from various plans that included three-dimensional conformal and intensity-modulated fields were measured with a multiple-diode-array detector (MapCheck2), which was mounted on a mobile platform that moves with adjustable motion parameters...
March 3, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269813/evaluation-of-noise-limits-to-improve-image-processing-in-soft-x-ray-projection-microscopy
#20
Erdenetogtokh Jamsranjav, Kenichi Kuge, Atsushi Ito, Yasuhito Kinjo, Tatsuo Shiina
Soft X-ray microscopy has been developed for high resolution imaging of hydrated biological specimens due to the availability of water window region. In particular, a projection type microscopy has advantages in wide viewing area, easy zooming function and easy extensibility to computed tomography (CT). The blur of projection image due to the Fresnel diffraction of X-rays, which eventually reduces spatial resolution, could be corrected by an iteration procedure, i.e., repetition of Fresnel and inverse Fresnel transformations...
March 3, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
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