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Journal of X-ray Science and Technology

Reheman Baikejiang, Wei Zhang, Changqing Li
Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has attracted attentions in the last two decades due to its intrinsic sensitivity in imaging chromophores of tissues such as hemoglobin, water, and lipid. However, DOT has not been clinically accepted yet due to its low spatial resolution caused by strong optical scattering in tissues. Structural guidance provided by an anatomical imaging modality enhances the DOT imaging substantially. Here, we propose a computed tomography (CT) guided multispectral DOT imaging system for breast cancer imaging...
December 14, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Yunzhi Wang, Faranak Aghaei, Ali Zarafshani, Yuchen Qiu, Wei Qian, Bin Zheng
PURPOSE: To develop a new computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme that computes visually sensitive image features routinely used by radiologists to develop a machine learning classifier and distinguish between the malignant and benign breast masses detected from digital mammograms. METHODS: An image dataset including 301 breast masses was retrospectively selected. From each segmented mass region, we computed image features that mimic five categories of visually sensitive features routinely used by radiologists in reading mammograms...
November 30, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
M Goudarzi, Sh Saviz, M Ghoranneviss, A Salar Elahi
Antibacterial surfaces such as copper coatings are able to reduce the growth of bacteria. In this study, copper coatings was deposited on the 316 stainless steel substrates by a handmade device operating as an atmospheric plasma spraying system. The chemical composition microstructure and morphology surface of the coatings are examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and back scattering electron microscope (BSE). Micro hardness as one of the key properties of the coating is characterized based on cross-section...
November 30, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Jiangkun Liu, Weixing Cai, Ruola Ning
Grating-based differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging enables the use of a hospital-grade X-ray tube, but compromises the image quality due to insufficiently coherent illumination. In this research, a bench-top DPC cone beam CT (DPC-CBCT) was systematically evaluated and compared with the traditional attenuation-based CBCT in terms of contrast to noise ratio, noise property, and contrast resolution through phantom studies. In order to evaluate DPC-CBCT for soft tissue imaging, breast specimen and small animal studies were carried out...
November 30, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Tomohiro Arai, Masaki Misawa, Miki Arai, Masafumi Shinozaki, Kayo Sakamoto, Yoshinobu Yajima, Yuichi Nozaki, Tsuyoshi Tajima, Masanori Sato, Fumihiko Hinoshita
BACKGROUND: Currently, no standardized method for measuring intrahepatic fat density via conventional computed tomography (CT) exists. OBJECTIVE: We aim to quantify intrahepatic fat density via material decomposition analysis using rapid kilovolt peak-switching dual-energy (RSDE) CT. METHODS: Homogenized porcine liver and fat (lard) were mixed in various ratios to produce phantoms for fat density verification. The actual fat density was measured on the basis of the phantom volume and weight, and these measurements were used as reference densities...
November 30, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Bartłomiej Włodarczyk
This article considers the problem of recovering edge-illumination x-ray phase contrast (EIXPC) images from a set of potentially Poisson noisy projection measurements. The authors cast a recovery as a sparse regularization problem based on Anscombe multiscale variance stabilizing transform (MS-VST) with fast discrete curvelet transform which was applied to simulated edge-illumination x-ray phase contrast images. For accurate modelling, the noise characteristics of the EIXPCi data are used to determine the relative importance of each projection...
November 11, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Rui Liu, Lu He, Yan Luo, Hengyong Yu
Singular value decomposition (SVD)-based 2D image reconstruction methods are developed and evaluated for a broad class of inverse problems for which there are no analytical solutions. The proposed methods are fast and accurate for reconstructing images in a non-iterative fashion. The multi-resolution strategy is adopted to reduce the size of the system matrix to reconstruct large images using limited memory capacity. A modified high-contrast Shepp-Logan phantom, a low-contrast FORBILD head phantom, and a physical phantom are employed to evaluate the proposed methods with different system configurations...
November 5, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Yingmei Wang, Ge Wang, Shuwei Mao, Wenxiang Cong, Zhilong Ji, Jian-Feng Cai, Yangbo Ye
Reducing radiation dose is an important goal in medical computed tomography (CT), for which interior tomography is an effective approach. There have been interior reconstruction algorithms for monochromatic CT, but in reality, X-ray sources are polychromatic. Using a polychromatic acquisition model and motivated by framelet-based image processing algorithms, in this paper, we propose an interior reconstruction algorithm to obtain an image with spectral information assuming only one scan with a current energy-integrating detector...
November 22, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Azeez Omotayo, Idris Elbakri
OBJECTIVE: Iterative algorithms are gaining clinical acceptance in CT. We performed objective phantom-based image quality evaluation of five commercial iterative reconstruction algorithms available on four different multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanners at different dose levels as well as the conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction. METHODS: Using the Catphan500 phantom, we evaluated image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise-power spectrum (NPS)...
November 22, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Toru Kano, Michihiko Koseki
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) is an established imaging technology primarily used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool that reconstructs axial images. However, significant problems with metal artifacts remain. A metal artifact is a strong radial noise in an image, which makes it difficult to diagnose patients and inspect products containing metal implants. Historically, studies related to metal artifact reduction used projection data, though the data is not typically saved after processing...
November 22, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
M Ghoranneviss, S Shahidi, A Salar Elahi
In this research, the cotton fabrics were treated with nitrogen plasma for the clinical and anti-bacterial purposes. Turmeric was used a as a natural dye. Some part of both untreated and plasma treated samples was immersed in silver nitrate as a mordant before dyeing. Effect of plasma and silver nitrate on dye ability of cotton samples was compared and studied. Samples were analyzed with different experimental methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Reflection spectro-photometry and antibacterial test...
November 22, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Chia-Chun Kuo, Ho-Chiao Chuang, Kuan-Ting Teng, Hsiao-Yu Hsu, Der-Chi Tien, Chih-Jen Wu, Shiu-Chen Jeng, Jeng-Fong Chiou
The purpose of this study was to develop an ultrasound image tracking algorithm (UITA) for extracting the exact displacement of internal organs caused by respiratory motion. The program can track organ displacements in real time, and analyze the displacement signals associated with organ displacements via a respiration compensating system (RCS). The ultrasound imaging system is noninvasive and has a high spatial resolution and a high frame rate (around 32 frames/s), which reduces the radiation doses that patients receive during computed tomography and X-ray observations...
November 22, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Zhijie He, Quanbang Qiao, Jun Li, Meiping Huang, Shouping Zhu, Liyu Huang
BACKGROUND: The CT image reconstruction algorithm based compressed sensing (CS) can be formulated as an optimization problem that minimizes the total-variation (TV) term constrained by the data fidelity and image nonnegativity. There are a lot of solutions to this problem, but the computational efficiency and reconstructed image quality of these methods still need to be improved. OBJECTIVE: To investigate a faster and more accurate mathematical algorithm to settle TV term minimization problem of CT image reconstruction...
November 22, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Wuteng Cao, Fangqian Li, Jiaying Gong, Dechao Liu, Yanhong Deng, Liang Kang, Zhiyang Zhou
To investigate the efficacy of liver acquisition with acceleration volume acquisition (LAVA) gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) sequences and to assess its added accuracy in diagnosing local recurrence (LR) of rectal cancer with conventional T2-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) sequences. Pelvic MRI, including T2-weighted FSE sequences, gadolinium-enhanced sequences of LAVA and T1-weighted FSE with fat suppression, was performed on 225 patients with postoperative rectal cancer. Two readers evaluated the presence of LR according to "T2" (T2 sequences only), "T2 + LAVA-Gad" (LAVA and T2 imaging), and "T2 + T1-fs-Gad" (T1 fat suppression-enhanced sequence with T2 images)...
November 22, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Xiumei Tian, Dong Zeng, Shanli Zhang, Jing Huang, Hua Zhang, Ji He, Lijun Lu, Weiwen Xi, Jianhua Ma, Zhaoying Bian
Dynamic cerebral perfusion x-ray computed tomography (PCT) imaging has been advocated to quantitatively and qualitatively assess hemodynamic parameters in the diagnosis of acute stroke or chronic cerebrovascular diseases. However, the associated radiation dose is a significant concern to patients due to its dynamic scan protocol. To address this issue, in this paper we propose an image restoration method by utilizing coupled dictionary learning (CDL) scheme to yield clinically acceptable PCT images with low-dose data acquisition...
November 22, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Mianyi Chen, Qingsong Yang, Wenxiang Cong, Biao Wei, Ge Wang
The Precision of geometric parameters is the key requirement for grating-based phase-contrast CT and attenuation-based CT in cone-beam geometry. By extending our fan-beam geometric calibration work via Locally Linear Embedding (LLE) into the cone-beam case, here we calibrate the geometric parameters of our in-house phase-contrast CT system with attenuation projection data. Numerical and experimental studies show that the LLE-based calibration method is feasible to calibrate 8 parameters of the cone-beam geometry that improves reconstruction quality significantly...
November 22, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Pei-Hua Tang, Ben-Jun Du, Xiang-Ming Fang, Xiao-Yun Hu, Ping-Yan Qian, Quan-Sheng Gao
PURPOSE: To assess the application value of submillisievert coronary CT angiography (CCTA) in patients with a high heart rate (HR) acquired with adaptive prospective ECG-triggered sequence acquisition and iterative reconstruction on the secondary generation dual-source CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 120 consecutive high-HR patients suspected with coronary artery disease underwent CCTA and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) within two weeks. Patients were randomly assigned into three groups: group A (n = 40), where the patients underwent retrospectively ECG-triggered acquisition CCTA at 100 kVp; group B (n = 40), where the patients received adaptive prospective ECG-triggered sequence acquisition at 100 kVp; and group C (n = 40), where the patients performed adaptive prospective ECG-triggered sequence acquisition at 80 kVp with iterative reconstruction...
November 22, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
E E Libin, S V Chakhlov, D Trinca
A new mathematical appoach using the inverse Radon equation for restoration of images in problems of linear two-dimensional x-ray tomography is formulated. In this approach, Fourier transformation is not used, and it gives the chance to create the practical computing algorithms having more reliable mathematical substantiation. Results of software implementation show that for especially for low number of projections, the described approach performs better than standard X-ray tomographic reconstruction algorithms...
November 22, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Cuixiang Pei, Wenjing Wu, Mitsuru Ueaska
The use of portable and high-energy X-ray system can provide a very promising approach for on-site nondestructive inspection of inner steel reinforcement of concrete structures. However, the noise properties and contrast of the radiographic images for thick concrete structures do often not meet the demands. To enhance the images, we present a simple and effective method for noise reduction based on a combined curvelet-wavelet transform and local contrast enhancement based on neighborhood operation. To investigate the performance of this method for our X-ray system, we have performed several experiments with using simulated and experimental data...
November 22, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Yongxia Zhao, Yanmin Wu, Ziwei Zuo, Hongna Suo, Sisi Zhao, Jun Han, Xian Chang, Shujie Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of low-concentration contrast medium on spectral computed tomography (CT) image quality for portal venography CT. METHODS: 150 patients with suspected portal diseases were divided into three groups and had spectral CT examination using a GE Discovery CT 750 HD scanner. The patients in three groups were injected with different concentrations of iodine (350 mgI/mL, 315 mgI/mL and 280 mgI/mL) at an injection rate of 4.0-5...
October 21, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
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