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Prehospital and Disaster Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001767/portable-health-care-facilities-in-disaster-and-rescue-zones-characteristics-and-future-suggestions
#1
Noemi Bitterman, Yoni Zimmer
IntroductionNatural and man-made disasters are becoming global concerns. Natural disasters appear to be growing in number and intensity due to global warming, population explosion, increased travel, and overcrowding of cities. In addition, man-made disasters do not seem to be diminishing.At disaster sites, an immediate response is needed. National and international organizations; nongovernmental, military, and commercial organizations; and even private donors enlist to provide humanitarian and medical support and to send supplies, shelters, and temporary health care facilities to disaster zones...
July 13, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001765/comparison-of-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-technology-assisted-triage-versus-standard-practice-in-triaging-casualties-by-paramedic-students-in-a-mass-casualty-incident-scenario
#2
Trevor Jain, Aaron Sibley, Henrik Stryhn, Ives Hubloue
IntroductionThe proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology has the potential to change the way medical incident commanders (ICs) respond to mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) in triaging victims. The aim of this study was to compare UAV technology to standard practice (SP) in triaging casualties at an MCI. METHODS: A randomized comparison study was conducted with 40 paramedic students from the Holland College Paramedicine Program (Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada)...
July 13, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001759/start-versus-salt-triage-which-is-preferred-by-the-21st-century-health-care-student
#3
Brian N Fink, Paul P Rega, Martha E Sexton, Carolina Wishner
IntroductionWhile the art and science of disaster triage continue to evolve, the education of the US health care student in matters pertaining to disaster preparedness and response remains stifled. Unfortunately, these students will be assuming major decision-making responsibilities regarding catastrophes that will be complicated by climate change, nuclear threats, global terrorism, and pandemics. Meanwhile, Sort, Assess, Life-Saving Interventions, Treatment, and/or Transport (SALT) triage is being advocated over the globally popular Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) algorithm for multiple reasons: (1) it's an all-hazard approach; (2) it has four medical interventions; and (3) it has an additional triage color for victims with non-survivable injuries...
July 13, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986783/patients-with-acute-stroke-presenting-like-conversion-disorder
#4
Mustafa Serinken, Ozgur Karcioglu
Conversion disorder is a form of somatoform disorders which has a high prevalence among women, individuals with lower socioeconomic status, under-educated populations, and in developing countries. However, up to one-half of patients who had been initially diagnosed with conversion disorder were eventually shown to have an underlying organic pathology-mostly neurological or non-psychiatric conditions. In this article, two patients are presented who accessed the emergency department (ED) with an initial diagnosis of conversion disorder in the ambulance that turned out to be stroke...
July 10, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962369/the-great-east-japan-earthquake-tsunamis-and-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-plant-disaster-lessons-for-evidence-integration-from-a-wadem-2017-presentation-and-panel-discussion
#5
Claire Leppold, Sae Ochi, Shuhei Nomura, Virginia Murray
In April 2017, some of the health impacts of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunamis, and resultant Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster (Okuma, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan) were presented at the 19th Congress of the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM; Madison, Wisconsin USA) in Toronto, Canada. A panel discussion was then opened by asking audience members about their experiences in their own countries, and how they would suggest taking steps to reach the goals of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030...
July 2, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962363/nonlinear-modelling-for-predicting-patient-presentation-rates-for-mass-gatherings
#6
Paul Arbon, Murk Bottema, Kathryn Zeitz, Adam Lund, Sheila Turris, Olga Anikeeva, Malinda Steenkamp
IntroductionMass gatherings are common in Australia. The interplay of variables, including crowd density and behavior, weather, and the consumption of alcohol and other drugs, can pose a unique set of challenges to attendees' well-being. On-site health services are available at most mass gatherings and reduce the strain on community health facilities. In order to efficiently plan and manage these services, it is important to be able to predict the number and type of presenting problems at mass gatherings.ProblemThere is a lack of reliable tools to predict patient presentations at mass gatherings...
July 2, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962360/what-is-the-optimal-age-for-students-to-receive-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-training
#7
Ding-Xiu He, Kai-Sen Huang, Y I Yang, Wei Jiang, Nan-Lan Yang, Hu Yang
OBJECTIVES: Training students has been proven to be the optimal way to deliver cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills. However, it is somehow unknown whether or not the current recommendations appropriate for Caucasian students are also suitable for East Asian students. The purpose of this study is to explore the best age for East Asian students to receive CPR training. METHODS: Students were recruited from six schools. Students participated in a standard CPR training program provided by tutors...
July 2, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962356/a-pilot-of-a-uk-emergency-medical-team-emt-medical-record-during-a-deployment-training-course
#8
Anisa J N Jafar, Rachel J Fletcher, Fiona Lecky, Anthony D Redmond
IntroductionImproving medical record keeping is a key part of the World Health Organization's (WHO's; Geneva, Switzerland) drive to standardize and evaluate emergency medical team (EMT) response to sudden onset disasters (SODs).ProblemIn response to the WHO initiative, the UK EMT is redeveloping its medical record template in line with the WHO minimum dataset (MDS) for daily reporting. When changing a medical record, it is important to understand how well it functions before it is implemented. METHODS: The redeveloped medical record was piloted at a UK EMT deployment course using simulated patients in order to examine ease of use by practitioners, and rates of data capture for key MDS variables...
July 2, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941063/patient-presentation-trends-at-15-mass-gathering-events-in-south-australia
#9
Olga Anikeeva, Paul Arbon, Kathryn Zeitz, Murk Bottema, Adam Lund, Sheila Turris, Malinda Steenkamp
IntroductionMass gatherings are complex events that present a unique set of challenges to attendees' health and well-being. There are numerous factors that influence the number and type of injuries and illnesses that occur at these events, including weather, event and venue type, and crowd demographics and behavior.ProblemWhile the impact of some factors, such as weather conditions and the availability of alcohol, on patient presentations at mass gatherings have been described previously, the influence of many other variables, including crowd demographics, crowd behavior, and event type, is poorly understood...
June 26, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929566/bullous-pemphigoid-in-an-infant-a-case-report
#10
Oscar Thabouillot, Julien Le Coz, Nicolas-Charles Roche
A seven-month-old girl was referred to the emergency department (ED) after a general practitioner suspected Steven-Johnson syndrome. Actually, the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid (BP) was made based on biopsies; BP is a rare, autoimmune skin disease involving the presence of blisters known as bullae. The child was efficiently treated with topical steroids. This case shows the importance of the ED physician's prior knowledge of BP so that a differential diagnosis with other autoimmune diseases (dermatosis, pemphigus) can be made...
June 22, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29855401/wadem-position-statement-accurate-reporting-of-public-health-information
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29855400/managing-disaster-related-health-risk-a-process-for-prevention
#12
Mark Keim
In 1994, the first World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction held in Yokohama, Japan affirmed that "Disaster prevention, mitigation, and preparedness are better than disaster response in achieving the goals and objectives of the decade. Disaster response alone is not sufficient, as it yields only temporary results in a very high cost." Since then, disaster risk reduction has become the mainstay for international development related to disasters.According to the National Research Council (Washington, DC USA), "Disaster research, which has focused historically on emergency response and recovery, is incomplete without the simultaneous study of the societal hazards and risks associated with disasters, which includes data on the vulnerability of people living in hazard prone areas...
June 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29855399/assessing-disaster-related-health-risk-appraisal-for-prevention
#13
Mark Keim
Risk assessment is a key component of public health interventions intended to prevent or reduce adverse health effects. Health risk assessments are widely used to guide public health programming, as well as multi-sectoral studies of environmental impact and developmental decision making. Analytical risk assessment is a well-validated tool that is routinely used among certain subsets of public health, including those for chemical, radiological, and microbiological risk assessment. However, this is not the case for risk assessments involving disasters in general, or more specifically, for public health emergencies involving environmental hazards (eg, technological, hydro-meteorological, and seismic)...
June 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29855398/defining-disaster-related-health-risk-a-primer-for-prevention
#14
Mark Keim
Effective disaster risk management requires not only management of the immediate problem (disaster-related injuries and disease), but also of the patient's risk factors and of the underlying health determinants. This requires an accurate and well-validated process for assessment of the determinants of disease.Ideally, disaster risk management is based on a prioritization process. Once hazards have been identified, they are assessed in terms of the probability and impact in terms of losses. The hazards associated with the greatest probability and impact loss are prioritized...
June 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29855397/efficacy-of-prehospital-analgesia-with-fascia-iliaca-compartment-block-for-femoral-bone-fractures-a-systematic-review
#15
Marcus Hards, Andrew Brewer, Gareth Bessant, Sumitra Lahiri
IntroductionFemoral fractures are painful injuries frequently encountered by prehospital practitioners. Systemic opioids are commonly used to manage the pain after a femoral fracture; however, regional techniques for providing analgesia may provide superior targeted pain relief and reduce opioid requirements. Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block (FICB) has been described as inexpensive and does not require special skills or equipment to perform, giving it the potential to be a suitable prehospital intervention.ProblemThe purpose of this systematic review is to summarize published evidence on the prehospital use of FICB in patients of any age suffering femoral fractures; in particular, to investigate the effects of a prehospital FICB on pain scores and patient satisfaction, and to assess the feasibility and safety of a prehospital FICB, including the success rates, any delays to scene time, and any documented adverse effects...
June 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729684/paramedics-perspectives-on-factors-impacting-on-scene-times-for-trauma-calls
#16
Mark Levitan, Madelyn P Law, Richard Ferron, Karen Lutz-Graul
IntroductionAccording to Ontario, Canada's Basic Life Support Patient Care Standards, Emergency Medical Services (EMS) on-scene time (OST) for trauma calls should not exceed 10 minutes, unless there are extenuating circumstances. The time to definitive care can have a significant impact on the morbidity and mortality of trauma patients. This is the first Canadian study to investigate why this is the case by giving a voice to those most involved in prehospital care: the paramedics themselves. It is also the first study to explore this issue from a complex, adaptive systems approach which recognizes that OSTs may be impacted by local, contextual features...
June 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708085/weekly-checks-improve-real-time-prehospital-ecg-transmission-in-suspected-stemi
#17
Nicole T D'Arcy, Nichole Bosson, Amy H Kaji, Quang T Bui, William J French, Joseph L Thomas, Yvonne Elizarraraz, Natalia Gonzalez, Jose Garcia, James T Niemann
IntroductionField identification of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and advanced hospital notification decreases first-medical-contact-to-balloon (FMC2B) time. A recent study in this system found that electrocardiogram (ECG) transmission following a STEMI alert was frequently unsuccessful.HypothesisInstituting weekly test ECG transmissions from paramedic units to the hospital would increase successful transmission of ECGs and decrease FMC2B and door-to-balloon (D2B) times. METHODS: This was a natural experiment of consecutive patients with field-identified STEMI transported to a single percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-capable hospital in a regional STEMI system before and after implementation of scheduled test ECG transmissions...
June 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699595/skills-and-core-competencies-of-pharmacists-in-humanitarian-assistance
#18
Hamaspyur Vardanyan, Gabriela Bittencourt Gonzalez Mosegui, Elaine Silva Miranda
BACKGROUND: Pharmacists' participation in health care within multi-disciplinary teams in Humanitarian Assistance (HA) shall be encouraged. Limited literature exists on their role in the humanitarian context. The objective of this paper is to evidence the skill-specific, comprehensive core competencies that pharmacists must demonstrate working in humanitarian interventions. METHODS: The literature search laid the groundwork for the development of interview guides and further analysis of the data...
June 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697044/international-emergency-medical-teams-training-workshop-special-report
#19
Anthony Albina, Laura Archer, Marlène Boivin, Hilarie Cranmer, Kirsten Johnson, Gautham Krishnaraj, Anali Maneshi, Lisa Oddy, Lynda Redwood-Campbell, Rebecca Russell
The World Health Organization's (WHO; Geneva, Switzerland) Emergency Medical Team (EMT) Initiative created guidelines which define the basic procedures to be followed by personnel and teams, as well as the critical points to discuss before deploying a field hospital. However, to date, there is no formal standardized training program established for EMTs before deployment. Recognizing that the World Association of Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM; Madison, Wisconsin USA) Congress brings together a diverse group of key stakeholders, a pre-Congress workshop was organized to seek out collective expertise and to identify key EMT training competencies for the future development of training programs and protocols...
June 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697042/dispatcher-cpr-instructions-across-the-age-continuum
#20
Kristi L Weinmeister, E Brooke Lerner, Clare E Guse, Khalid A Ateyyah, Ronald G Pirrallo
BACKGROUND: Survival rates following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) increase two to three times when cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is started by bystanders, as compared to starting CPR when Emergency Medical Services (EMS) arrives. Municipalities that have implemented dispatcher-assisted bystander CPR programs have seen increased rates of bystander CPR. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation instructions are given for victims of all ages, but it is unknown if offering instructions results in similar rates of EMS-documented bystander CPR across the age continuum in these municipalities...
June 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
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