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Prehospital and Disaster Medicine

Sujarwo, Noorhamdani, Mukhamad Fathoni
IntroductionLocated in the Sunda Megathrust zone, Mentawai Island is known as the epicenter of an active earthquake that has the potential to cause a tsunami. Students would be one of the most vulnerable groups during the disaster.ProblemThe low-level of School-Based Disaster Preparedness/Sekolah Siaga Bencana (SSB) of students' preparedness in disaster risk reduction (DRR) can lead to increased vulnerability of students in facing disaster threats, especially a tsunami. METHODS: The study employed observational, correlative analytics with a cross-sectional approach...
September 21, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Eli Jaffe, Ziv Dadon, Evan Avraham Alpert
Multi-casualty incidents (MCIs) continue to occur throughout the world, whether they be mass shootings or natural disasters. Prehospital emergency services have done a professional job at stabilizing and transporting the victims to local hospitals. When there are multiple casualties, there may not be enough professional responders to care for the injured. Bystanders and organized volunteer first responders have often helped in extricating the victims, stopping the bleeding, and aiding in the evacuation of the victims...
September 17, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Eric J Linskens, Abby E Neu, Emily J Walz, Kaitlyn M St Charles, Marie R Culhane, Amos Ssematimba, Timothy J Goldsmith, David A Halvorson, Carol J Cardona
IntroductionForeign animal disease (FAD) outbreaks can have devastating impacts, but they occur infrequently in any specific sector anywhere in the United States (US). Training to proactively discuss implementation of control and prevention strategies are beneficial in that they provide stakeholders with the practical information and educational experience they will need to respond effectively to an FAD. Such proactive approaches are the mission of the Secure Food System (SFS; University of Minnesota; St. Paul, Minnesota USA)...
September 13, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Makayla Bullock, Jamie Ranse, Alison Hutton
BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of literature relating to mass-gathering events. A common thread amongst this literature, particularly the literature relating to music festivals, is the incidence of patients presenting with substance and/or alcohol intoxication. However, the impact of alcohol and/or drugs on the provision of in-event health care services has not been explored in detail.AimThe goal of this review was to develop an understanding of the impact of alcohol and/or drugs on in-event health care services at mass-gathering events...
September 13, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Jonas Karlsson, Joacim Linde, Christer Svensen, Mikael Gellerfors
IntroductionInvasive blood pressure (IBP) monitoring could be of benefit for certain prehospital patient groups such as trauma and cardiac arrest patients. However, there are disadvantages with using conventional IBP devices. These include time to prepare the transducer kit and flush system as well as the addition of long tubing connected to the patient. It has been suggested to simplify the IBP equipment by replacing the continuous flush system with a syringe and a short stopcock.HypothesisIn this study, blood pressures measured by a standard IBP (sIBP) transducer kit with continuous flush was compared to a transducer kit connected to a simplified and minimized flush system IBP (mIBP) using only a syringe...
August 31, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Heidie R Rothschild, Kathleen Mathieson
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated how Tactical Emergency Casualty Care (TECC) training prepared law enforcement officers (LEOs) with the tools necessary to provide immediate, on-scene medical care to successfully stabilize victims of trauma. METHODS: This was a retrospective, de-identified study using a seven-item Fairfax County (Virginia USA) TECC After-Action Questionnaire and Arlington County (Virginia USA) police reports. RESULTS: Forty-six encounters were collected from 2015 through 2016...
August 31, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Roberto Faccincani, Francesco Della Corte, Giovanni Sesana, Riccardo Stucchi, Eric Weinstein, Itamar Ashkenazi, Pierluigi Ingrassia
IntroductionHospital Acute Care Surge Capacity (HACSC), Hospital Acute Care Surge Threshold (HACST), and Total Hospital Capacity (THC) are scales that were developed to quantify surge capacity in the event of a multiple-casualty incident (MCI). These scales take into consideration the need for adequate care for both critical (T1) and moderate (T2) trauma patients. The objective of this study was to verify the validity of these scales in nine hospitals of the Milano (Italy) metropolitan area that prepared for a possible MCI during EXPO 2015...
August 29, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Timmy Li, Jeremy T Cushman, Manish N Shah, Adam G Kelly, David Q Rich, Courtney M C Jones
IntroductionIschemic stroke treatment is time-sensitive, and barriers to providing prehospital care encountered by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers have been under-studied.Hypothesis/ProblemThis study described barriers to providing prehospital care, identified predictors of these barriers, and assessed the impact of these barriers on EMS on-scene time and administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke (GWTG-S; American Heart Association [AHA]; Dallas, Texas USA) registry at two hospitals to identify ischemic stroke patients arriving by EMS...
August 29, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Fatih Aydin, Ozge Turgay Yildirim, Evrin Dagtekin, Ayse Huseyinoglu Aydin, Ercan Aksit
Lightning strike is an infrequent natural phenomenon with serious medical complications, like multiple organ damage, and it is associated with increased risk of mortality. Cardiovascular complications are among the most hazardous complications of lightning strike. Lightning strike can cause various serious consequences ranging from electrocardiographic changes to death. We reported a 21-year-old patient with no cardiovascular risk factors struck by lightning and presented by inferior ST elevated myocardial infarction (MI)...
August 29, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Annet Ngabirano Alenyo, Wayne P Smith, Michael McCaul, Daniel J Van Hoving
IntroductionMajor-incident triage ensures effective emergency care and utilization of resources. Prehospital emergency care providers are often the first medical professionals to arrive at any major incident and should be competent in primary triage. However, various factors (including level of training) influence their triage performance.Hypothesis/ProblemThe aim of this study was to determine the difference in major-incident triage performance between different training levels of prehospital emergency care providers in South Africa utilizing the Triage Sieve algorithm...
August 29, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Julián Santaella-Tenorio, Francisco J Bonilla-Escobar, Luis Nieto-Gil, Andrés Fandiño-Losada, María I Gutiérrez-Martínez, Judy Bass, Paul Bolton
Introduction/ProblemFor more than 60 years, Colombia experienced an armed conflict involving government forces, guerrillas, and other illegal armed groups. Violence, including torture and massacres, has caused displacement of entire rural communities to urban areas. Lack of information on the problems displaced communities face and on their perceptions on potential solutions to these problems may prevent programs from delivering appropriate services to these communities. This study explores the problems of Afro-Colombian survivors from two major cities in Colombia; the activities they do to take care of themselves, their families, and their community; and possible solutions to these problems...
July 26, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Penelope C Lema, Michael O'Brien, Juliana Wilson, Erika St James, Heather Lindstrom, John DeAngelis, Jennifer Caldwell, Paul May, Brian Clemency
OBJECTIVES: Rapid identification of esophageal intubations is critical to avoid patient morbidity and mortality. Continuous waveform capnography remains the gold standard for endotracheal tube (ETT) confirmation, but it has limitations. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) may be a useful alternative for confirming ETT placement. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of paramedic-performed POCUS identification of esophageal intubations with and without ETT manipulation...
August 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Erin C Smith, Frederick M Burkle, Peter Aitken, Peter Leggatt
IntroductionThe impact of disasters and large-scale crises continues to increase around the world. To mitigate the potential disasters that confront humanity in the new millennium, an evidence-informed approach to disaster management is needed. This study provides the platform for such an evidence-informed approach by identifying peer-reviewed disaster management publications from 1947 through July 2017. METHODS: Peer-reviewed disaster management publications were identified using a comprehensive search of: MEDLINE (US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA); CINAHL (EBSCO Information Services; Ipswich, Massachusetts USA); EMBASE (Elsevier; Amsterdam, Netherlands); PsychInfo (American Psychological Association; Washington DC, USA); and the Cochrane Library (The Cochrane Collaboration; Oxford, United Kingdom)...
August 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Alexander Hart, Elias Nammour, Virginia Mangolds, John Broach
IntroductionThe most commonly used methods for triage in mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) rely upon providers to take exact counts of vital signs or other patient parameters. The acuity and volume of patients which can be present during an MCI makes this a time-consuming and potentially costly process.HypothesisThis study evaluates and compares the speed of the commonly used Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) triage method with that of an "intuitive triage" method which relies instead upon the abilities of an experienced first responder to determine the triage category of each victim based upon their overall first-impression assessment...
August 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Phung K Pham, Solomon M Behar, Bridget M Berg, Jeffrey S Upperman, Alan L Nager
IntroductionTerrorism and natural catastrophes have made disaster preparedness a critical issue. Despite the documented vulnerabilities of children during and following disasters, gaps remain in health care systems regarding pediatric disaster preparedness. This research study examined changes in knowledge acquisition of pediatric disaster preparedness among medical and non-medical personnel at a children's hospital who completed an online training course of five modules: planning, triage, age-specific care, disaster management, and hospital emergency code response...
August 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Samuel J Stratton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Erin C Smith, Frederick M Burkle
In the years following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks (9/11; New York USA), emergency first responders began experiencing a range of physical health and psychosocial impacts. Publications documenting these tended to focus on firefighters, while emerging reports are starting to focus on other first responders, including paramedics, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), and police. The objective of this research was to explore the long-term impact on another important group of 9/11 responders, the non-emergency recovery workers who responded to the World Trade Center (WTC) site of the 9/11 terrorist attacks...
August 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Greg Scott, Tracey Barron, Isabel Gardett, Meghan Broadbent, Holly Downs, Leslie Devey, E J Hinterman, Jeff Clawson, Christopher Olola
IntroductionImplementation of high-quality, dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DA-CPR) is critical to improving survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). However, despite some studies demonstrating the use of a metronome in a stand-alone setting, no research has yet demonstrated the effectiveness of a metronome tool in improving DA-CPR in the context of a realistic 911 call or using instructions that have been tested in real-world emergency calls.HypothesisUse of the metronome tool will increase the proportion of callers able to perform CPR within the target rate without affecting depth...
August 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Eric M Rottenberg
RottenbergEM. First aid education should be expanded to support the learner to develop both the skill and the will to help. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(4):454-455.
August 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Marlous Lmi Verheul, Michel LA Dückers, Bea B Visser, Ralf Jj Beerens, Joost Jlm Bierens
IntroductionThe central question this study sought to answer was whether the team members of Strategic Crisis Teams (SCTs) participating in mass-casualty incident (MCI) exercises in the Netherlands learn from their participation. METHODS: Evaluation reports of exercises that took place at two different times were collected and analyzed against a theoretical model with several dimensions, looking at both the quality of the evaluation methodology (three criteria: objectives described, link between objective and items for improvement, and data-collection method) and the learning effect of the exercise (one criterion: the change in number of items for improvement)...
August 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
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