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International Review of Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540750/neurobiology-of-emotions-an-update
#1
Vanderson Esperidião-Antonio, Marilia Majeski-Colombo, Diana Toledo-Monteverde, Glaciele Moraes-Martins, Juliana José Fernandes, Marjorie Bauchiglioni de Assis, Stefânia Montenegro, Rodrigo Siqueira-Batista
The 'nature' of emotions is one of the archaic themes of Western thought, thematized in different cultural manifestations - such as art, science, philosophy, myths and religion -, since Ancient times. In the last decades, the advances in neurosciences have permitted the construction of hypotheses that explain emotions, especially through the studies involving the limbic system. To present an updated discussion about the neurobiology of processes relating to emotions - focusing (1) on the main neural structures that relate to emotions, (2) the paths and circuits of greater relevance, (3) the implicated neurotransmitters, (4) the connections that possess neurovegetative control and (5) the discussion about the main emotions - is the objective of this present article...
May 25, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492091/the-schizophrenia-stigma-and-mass-media-a-search-for-news-published-by-wide-circulation-media-in-brazil
#2
Francisco Bevilacqua Guarniero, Ruth Helena Bellinghini, Wagner Farid Gattaz
Schizophrenia is the most common illness used today as a metaphor in the media and routinely appears associated with crime and violence with no medical or scientific rigor, reinforcing the stigma against this disorder. Evaluation of the presence of structural stigma in the Brazilian media by means of a survey of printed news and the Internet using the term schizophrenia and its correlates under three aspects: (a) medical and scientific uses, (b) assigning a diagnosis of schizophrenia to crime suspects with little or no medical or scientific rigor, and (c) the metaphorical use...
May 11, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443696/the-development-and-modelling-of-devices-and-paradigms-for-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#3
Stefan M Goetz, Zhi-De Deng
Magnetic stimulation is a non-invasive neurostimulation technique that can evoke action potentials and modulate neural circuits through induced electric fields. Biophysical models of magnetic stimulation have become a major driver for technological developments and the understanding of the mechanisms of magnetic neurostimulation and neuromodulation. Major technological developments involve stimulation coils with different spatial characteristics and pulse sources to control the pulse waveform. While early technological developments were the result of manual design and invention processes, there is a trend in both stimulation coil and pulse source design to mathematically optimize parameters with the help of computational models...
April 26, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430535/transcranial-focused-ultrasound-a-new-tool-for-non-invasive-neuromodulation
#4
Maria Fini, William J Tyler
Ultrasound (US) is widely known for its utility as a biomedical imaging modality. An abundance of evidence has recently accumulated showing that US is also useful for non-invasively modulating brain circuit activity. Through a series of studies discussed in this short review, it has recently become recognized that transcranial focused ultrasound can exert mechanical (non-thermal) bioeffects on neurons and cells to produce focal changes in the activity of brain circuits. In addition to highlighting scientific breakthroughs and observations that have driven the development of the field of ultrasonic neuromodulation, this study also provides a discussion of mechanisms of action underlying the ability of ultrasound to physically stimulate and modulate brain circuit activity...
April 21, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430533/new-directions-in-the-rational-design-of-electrical-and-magnetic-seizure-therapies-individualized-low-amplitude-seizure-therapy-ilast-and-magnetic-seizure-therapy-mst
#5
Thomas Radman, Sarah H Lisanby
Electroconvulsive therapy remains a key treatment option for severe cases of depression, but undesirable side-effects continue to limit its use. Innovations in the design of novel seizure therapies seek to improve its risk benefit ratio through enhanced control of the focality of stimulation. The design of seizure therapies with increased spatial precision is motivated by avoiding stimulation of deep brain structures implicated in memory retention, including the hippocampus. The development of two innovations in seizure therapy-individualized low-amplitude seizure therapy (iLAST) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST), are detailed...
April 21, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406327/key-updates-in-the-clinical-application-of-electroconvulsive-therapy
#6
Richard D Weiner, Irving M Reti
ECT is the oldest and most effective therapy available for the treatment of severe major depression. It is highly effective in individuals with treatment resistance and when a rapid response is required. However, ECT is associated with memory impairment that is the most concerning side-effect of the treatment, substantially contributing to the controversy and stigmatization surrounding this highly effective treatment. There is overwhelming evidence for the efficacy and safety of an acute course of ECT for the treatment of a severe major depressive episode, as reflected by the recent FDA advisory panel recommendation to reclassify ECT devices from Class III to the lower risk category Class II...
April 13, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362541/can-neurophysiologic-measures-serve-as-biomarkers-for-the-efficacy-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder
#7
Brian Kobayashi, Ian A Cook, Aimee M Hunter, Michael J Minzenberg, David E Krantz, Andrew F Leuchter
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective treatment for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). There are clinical data that support the efficacy of many different approaches to rTMS treatment, and it remains unclear what combination of stimulation parameters is optimal to relieve depressive symptoms. Because of the costs and complexity of studies that would be necessary to explore and compare the large number of combinations of rTMS treatment parameters, it would be useful to establish reliable surrogate biomarkers of treatment efficacy that could be used to compare different approaches to treatment...
March 31, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306351/a-review-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-adolescents-with-treatment-resistant-depression
#8
Leela R Magavi, Irving M Reti, Roma A Vasa
This review examines the efficacy and safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a treatment for treatment-resistant depression in adolescents. A systematic review of six databases was conducted. Ten multi-subject trials, all uncontrolled, and five case reports met inclusion criteria. Twelve studies focused on treatment efficacy, whereas three studies focused exclusively on adverse events. All efficacy studies focused on adolescents only; 10 of these studies indicated that rTMS may demonstrate some benefit...
March 17, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523978/closed-loop-neuromodulation-systems-next-generation-treatments-for-psychiatric-illness
#9
Meng-Chen Lo, Alik S Widge
Despite deep brain stimulation's positive early results in psychiatric disorders, well-designed clinical trials have yielded inconsistent clinical outcomes. One path to more reliable benefit is closed-loop therapy: stimulation that is automatically adjusted by a device or algorithm in response to changes in the patient's electrical brain activity. These interventions may provide more precise and patient-specific treatments. This article first introduces the available closed-loop neuromodulation platforms, which have shown clinical efficacy in epilepsy and strong early results in movement disorders...
April 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523977/the-application-of-deep-brain-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-psychiatric-disorders
#10
Ilse Graat, Martijn Figee, Damiaan Denys
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a last-resort treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders that are refractory to standard treatment. Over the last decades, the progress of DBS in psychiatry has been slower than in neurology, in part owing to the heterogenic symptomatology and complex neuroanatomy of psychiatric disorders. However, for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) DBS is now an accepted treatment. This study first reviews clinical outcomes and mechanisms of DBS for OCD, and then discusses these results in an overview of current and future psychiatric applications, including DBS for mood disorders, Tourette's syndrome, addiction, anorexia nervosa, autism, schizophrenia, and anxiety disorders...
April 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523976/the-application-of-tdcs-for-the-treatment-of-psychiatric-diseases
#11
Min-Fang Kuo, Po-See Chen, Michael A Nitsche
Neuroplasticity represents the dynamic structural and functional reorganization of the central nervous system, including its connectivity, due to environmental and internal demands. It is recognized as a major physiological basis for adaption of cognition and behaviour, and, thus, of utmost importance for normal brain function. Cognitive dysfunctions are major symptoms in psychiatric disorders, which are often associated with pathological alteration of neuroplasticity. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a recently developed non-invasive brain stimulation technique, is able to induce and modulate cortical plasticity in humans via the application of relatively weak current through the scalp of the head...
April 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523975/editorial
#12
Irving M Reti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420271/imaging-tms-antidepressant-mechanisms-and-treatment-optimization
#13
Marc Dubin
With the antidepressant efficacy of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation well-established by several meta-analyses, there is growing interest in its mechanism of action. TMS has been shown to engage, and in some cases, normalize functional connectivity and neurotransmitter levels within networks dysfunctional in the depressed state. In this review, I will suggest candidate biomarkers, based on neuroimaging, that may be predictive of response to TMS. I will then review the effects of TMS on networks and neurotransmitter systems involved in depression...
February 15, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960605/correctional-psychiatry-tools-for-the-trade
#14
Annette Hanson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960604/correctional-mental-health-administration
#15
Anthony Tamburello, Herbert Kaldany, Jeffery Dickert
Mental health administrators in correctional facilities have the complex task of balancing the clinical needs of incarcerated individuals and the safety and security missions of the facilities. This article describes the various structures of mental health administration within correctional facilities, the tasks commonly required of these professionals, and the skills necessary to be effective in this role. This editorial discusses the legal framework for mental healthcare in jails and prisons, staffing, cost containment, quality assurance and quality improvement, accreditation, peer review, morbidity and mortality reviews, utilization management, medication formularies, electronic health records, and innovative strategies as they apply to administrators of mental health services in correctional facilities...
February 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701919/caring-for-juveniles-with-mental-disorders-in-adult-corrections-facilities
#16
Cheryl D Wills
Although juveniles have developmental, educational, healthcare, and rehabilitation needs that differ from adults, thousands of them have been confined in adult corrections facilities in the past 30 years. This manuscript will review how and why juveniles end up in adult corrections facilities, who they are, their rehabilitative needs, and how they differ from adults in corrections facilities and youths in the juvenile justice system. The importance of providing developmentally-informed mental health services to youths in adult corrections facilities is examined, along with barriers to traditional adolescent psychiatric practice...
February 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670976/correctional-psychopharmacology-pitfalls-challenges-and-victories-of-prescribing-in-a-correctional-setting
#17
Tarita N Collins, Joshua B Avondoglio, Linda M Terry
Mentally ill patients are entering the criminal justice system at alarming rates, representing a significant percentage of those incarcerated. Correctional facilities are mandated to provide mental health treatment to inmates. The increasing number of inmate patients has made psychiatry an important part of institutional operations. Psychiatrists are called to provide psychopharmacological interventions to aid in the safe operation of institutions and provide effective treatment to those with mental illness...
February 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665840/psychiatry-and-the-dying-prisoner
#18
Annette Hanson
Due to the growing number of ageing prisoners in the American correctional system, penal institutions are increasingly caring for patients with chronic and potentially terminal medical conditions. To address this problem states have attempted sentencing reform initiatives and adopted compassionate release programmes; however, these efforts have failed to significantly reduce the number of elderly or seriously ill inmates. Correctional mental health services are now called upon to aid in the care of prisoners at the end of life...
February 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609129/narrative-and-reflection-training-in-a-correctional-facility
#19
Kathleen Mary Patchan
This commentary describes the author's experience working at two separate detention centres during her fellowship. She initially describes her experience performing forensic evaluations. The terms 'competency to stand trial' and 'criminal responsibility' are defined. It then describes the author's experience working in an inner city and suburban detention centre. The two environments and patient demographics are compared to a traditional inpatient or outpatient community setting. Fictional patient encounters, based on an amalgamation of actual patients, are discussed...
February 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575754/psychiatric-education-in-the-correctional-setting-challenges-and-opportunities
#20
Brian J Holoyda, Charles L Scott
As the need for mental healthcare services within correctional settings in the US increases, so does the need for a mental health workforce that is motivated to work within such systems. One potentially effective method by which to increase the number of psychiatrists working in jails, prisons, and parole clinics is to provide exposure to these environments during their training. Correctional settings can serve as unique training sites for medical students and psychiatric residents and fellows. Such training experiences can provide a host of benefits to both trainees and staff within the correctional mental health system...
February 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
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