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International Review of Psychiatry

Cheryl D Wills
Although juveniles have developmental, educational, healthcare, and rehabilitation needs that differ from adults, thousands of them have been confined in adult corrections facilities in the past 30 years. This manuscript will review how and why juveniles end up in adult corrections facilities, who they are, their rehabilitative needs, and how they differ from adults in corrections facilities and youths in the juvenile justice system. The importance of providing developmentally-informed mental health services to youths in adult corrections facilities is examined, along with barriers to traditional adolescent psychiatric practice...
October 5, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Silvana Riggio, Andy Jagoda
A concussion results from a force to the brain that results in a transient loss of connectivity within the brain. Sport psychiatrists are increasingly called to be part of the concussion team and need to be prepared to manage issues related to concussion and its behavioural sequelae. Objectively, the best evidence available suggests that deficits in attention and/or in balance are the most reliable objective findings that a concussion has occurred. Prognosis after a concussion is generally very good, although a sub-set of patients that are yet well defined seem pre-disposed to delayed recovery...
September 27, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Tarita N Collins, Joshua B Avondoglio, Linda M Terry
Mentally ill patients are entering the criminal justice system at alarming rates, representing a significant percentage of those incarcerated. Correctional facilities are mandated to provide mental health treatment to inmates. The increasing number of inmate patients has made psychiatry an important part of institutional operations. Psychiatrists are called to provide psychopharmacological interventions to aid in the safe operation of institutions and provide effective treatment to those with mental illness...
September 27, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Annette Hanson
Due to the growing number of ageing prisoners in the American correctional system, penal institutions are increasingly caring for patients with chronic and potentially terminal medical conditions. To address this problem states have attempted sentencing reform initiatives and adopted compassionate release programmes; however, these efforts have failed to significantly reduce the number of elderly or seriously ill inmates. Correctional mental health services are now called upon to aid in the care of prisoners at the end of life...
September 26, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Ira D Glick, David Brodwin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Caroline J Easton, Cory A Crane
The social and economic cost of intimate partner violence (IPV) is exorbitant and highlights the need for policy reform as it pertains to IPV interventions at a global level. There are multiple variables associated with the aetiology of IPV and, hence, multiple treatment needs must be considered. Substance use is one of several factors likely to influence the occurrence of IPV, but often goes unaddressed in standard treatment approaches. This review will discuss several treatment models for substance using offenders of IPV, including Psycho-educational Models, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, Couples' Treatments, Parenting Programmes, Integration of Care Models, and Pharmacotherapies...
October 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Kelsey Hegarty, Laura Tarzia, Leesa Hooker, Angela Taft
Experiences of domestic and sexual violence are common in patients attending primary care. Most often they are not identified due to barriers to asking by health practitioners and disclosure by patients. Women are more likely than men to experience such violence and present with mental and physical health symptoms to health practitioners. If identified through screening or case finding as experiencing violence they need to be supported to recover from these traumas. This paper draws on systematic reviews published in 2013-2015 and a further literature search undertaken to identify recent intervention studies relevant to recovery from domestic and sexual violence in primary care...
October 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Hind Khalifeh, Siân Oram, David Osborn, Louise M Howard, Sonia Johnson
People with severe mental illness (SMI) have high prevalence of lifetime victimization, but little is known about the extent and risk of recent domestic/sexual violence. The objective was to synthesize evidence on prevalence, odds, and risk factors for recent violence against people with SMI, with a focus on domestic and sexual violence. Relevant studies were identified through literature searches in Medline, Psychinf, Embase (for studies published in 2010-2015), and through existing systematic reviews (for studies published in 2000-2014)...
October 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Christine Barter, Nicky Stanley
This paper provides a narrative review of the knowledge on inter-personal violence and abuse (IPVA) in adolescents' intimate relationships. It draws on the authors' own research, published reviews, and a rapid review on IPVA victimization and mental health outcomes for adolescents. The research reviewed identified associations between adolescent IPVA and substance misuse, depressive symptoms and PTSD, eating disorders and suicidal thinking, and behaviour in young people. Generally, girls appeared more likely to report severe mental health outcomes than boys...
October 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Joanie Mitchell, Megan Wight, Alastair Van Heerden, Tamsen Jean Rochat
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global health problem of epidemic proportions, affecting a third of women across the globe and as many as 60% in heavily affected regions of Africa. There is strong evidence that risk of IPV is heightened in HIV-infected women, and emerging evidence linking experiencing IPV and/or HIV to a higher likelihood of experiencing mental health problems. This triple burden makes women in Africa, living in the epicentre of HIV, all the more vulnerable. In this synthesis, this study reviewed literature pertaining to the overlap of IPV, HIV, and mental health problems...
October 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Beth McCausland, Lucy Knight, Lisa Page, Kylee Trevillion
Little is known about the prevalence of domestic abuse in later life or after the onset of dementia. Given the expanding population of dementia sufferers, it is imperative to identify the degree to which domestic abuse occurs within this population. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence (lifetime and past year), odds, and trajectory of domestic abuse victimization among people with dementia. Systematic searches of 20 electronic databases were performed from inception to June 2016, using a pre-defined search strategy for English language articles containing data on the prevalence and/or odds of adult lifetime or past year domestic abuse among people with dementia...
October 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Lucy Knight, Marianne Hester
Domestic violence affects every age group and is present throughout the life span, but, while the mental health impact of domestic violence is clearly established in working age adults, less is known about the nature and impact of domestic violence among older adults. This review, therefore, aimed to synthesize findings on the prevalence, nature, and impact of domestic violence among older adults, and its identification and management. Electronic searches were conducted of Medline, PsycINFO, Cinahl, and Embase to identify studies reporting on the mental health and domestic violence in older adults...
October 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Kathleen Mary Patchan
This commentary describes the author's experience working at two separate detention centres during her fellowship. She initially describes her experience performing forensic evaluations. The terms 'competency to stand trial' and 'criminal responsibility' are defined. It then describes the author's experience working in an inner city and suburban detention centre. The two environments and patient demographics are compared to a traditional inpatient or outpatient community setting. Fictional patient encounters, based on an amalgamation of actual patients, are discussed...
September 9, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Brian J Holoyda, Charles L Scott
As the need for mental healthcare services within correctional settings in the US increases, so does the need for a mental health workforce that is motivated to work within such systems. One potentially effective method by which to increase the number of psychiatrists working in jails, prisons, and parole clinics is to provide exposure to these environments during their training. Correctional settings can serve as unique training sites for medical students and psychiatric residents and fellows. Such training experiences can provide a host of benefits to both trainees and staff within the correctional mental health system...
August 30, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Ira D Glick, João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 26, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Ian R Tofler
In the sporting context there is a significant nexus between adult workplace harassment and two other critical, developmentally related areas, that of child and adolescent bullying, and college hazing. These are all addressed, albeit obliquely and perhaps inadvertently, in the Miami Dolphins saga and the subsequent NFL Wells Report of 2013-2014. This is a significant document. It is even a brave, if politically expedient milestone. It evaluates the complex inter-personal and inter- and intra-systemic contributions within a sporting organization...
August 19, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Felipe Gil, Arthur Guerra de Andrade, João Maurício Castaldelli-Maia
The consumption of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs has become a concern in high-performance athletes. Professional athletes are more exposed to drugs than the general population. Although some drugs are unquestionably detrimental to performance, several studies have nevertheless shown evidence of increased consumption of these substances within this sub-population. This review aimed to elucidate alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, cannabis, and opioid use among high-performance athletes, discussing the prevalence of substance use, its impacts, and alternatives to treatment in this special population...
August 18, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Mark A Stillman, Tyler Brown, Eva C Ritvo, Ira D Glick
The focus of this paper is to provide an update on the use of psychotherapy as a treatment in sport psychiatry, and the use of this approach to address common psychiatric issues encountered with this population. Specifically, family therapy, individual therapy, and group psychotherapy prescribed alone, or in combination with medication, will be examined as methods to manage issues/disorders often associated with athletes. These include obsessive-compulsive rituals and perfectionism, and aggressive and risky behaviours, such as gambling, infidelity, substance use, and suicidal ideation, narcissism, and aggression in the context of individual and team competitive sports...
August 12, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
David R McDuff, Michelle Garvin
Athletes and coaches at all competitive levels will utilize sports performance and psychiatric services at very high rates if the services are offered on-site and free of charge and are broad in scope and culturally sensitive. Services should be available throughout the team year and cover areas such as team building, mental preparation, stress control, substance prevention, sleep and energy regulation, injury recovery, crisis intervention, and mental disorder treatment. The staff offering these services should be diverse by gender, profession, and culture, and the fees should be paid by the organization...
August 9, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
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