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International Review of Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443696/the-development-and-modelling-of-devices-and-paradigms-for-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#1
Stefan M Goetz, Zhi-De Deng
Magnetic stimulation is a non-invasive neurostimulation technique that can evoke action potentials and modulate neural circuits through induced electric fields. Biophysical models of magnetic stimulation have become a major driver for technological developments and the understanding of the mechanisms of magnetic neurostimulation and neuromodulation. Major technological developments involve stimulation coils with different spatial characteristics and pulse sources to control the pulse waveform. While early technological developments were the result of manual design and invention processes, there is a trend in both stimulation coil and pulse source design to mathematically optimize parameters with the help of computational models...
April 26, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430535/transcranial-focused-ultrasound-a-new-tool-for-non-invasive-neuromodulation
#2
Maria Fini, William J Tyler
Ultrasound (US) is widely known for its utility as a biomedical imaging modality. An abundance of evidence has recently accumulated showing that US is also useful for non-invasively modulating brain circuit activity. Through a series of studies discussed in this short review, it has recently become recognized that transcranial focused ultrasound can exert mechanical (non-thermal) bioeffects on neurons and cells to produce focal changes in the activity of brain circuits. In addition to highlighting scientific breakthroughs and observations that have driven the development of the field of ultrasonic neuromodulation, this study also provides a discussion of mechanisms of action underlying the ability of ultrasound to physically stimulate and modulate brain circuit activity...
April 21, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430533/new-directions-in-the-rational-design-of-electrical-and-magnetic-seizure-therapies-individualized-low-amplitude-seizure-therapy-ilast-and-magnetic-seizure-therapy-mst
#3
Thomas Radman, Sarah H Lisanby
Electroconvulsive therapy remains a key treatment option for severe cases of depression, but undesirable side-effects continue to limit its use. Innovations in the design of novel seizure therapies seek to improve its risk benefit ratio through enhanced control of the focality of stimulation. The design of seizure therapies with increased spatial precision is motivated by avoiding stimulation of deep brain structures implicated in memory retention, including the hippocampus. The development of two innovations in seizure therapy-individualized low-amplitude seizure therapy (iLAST) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST), are detailed...
April 21, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362541/can-neurophysiologic-measures-serve-as-biomarkers-for-the-efficacy-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder
#4
Brian Kobayashi, Ian A Cook, Aimee M Hunter, Michael J Minzenberg, David E Krantz, Andrew F Leuchter
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective treatment for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). There are clinical data that support the efficacy of many different approaches to rTMS treatment, and it remains unclear what combination of stimulation parameters is optimal to relieve depressive symptoms. Because of the costs and complexity of studies that would be necessary to explore and compare the large number of combinations of rTMS treatment parameters, it would be useful to establish reliable surrogate biomarkers of treatment efficacy that could be used to compare different approaches to treatment...
March 31, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587557/the-madness-epidemic-of-canudos-antonio-conselheiro-and-the-jagun%C3%A3-os-1897
#5
Raimundo Nina-Rodrigues
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587556/methodological-guidelines-to-investigate-altered-states-of-consciousness-and-anomalous-experiences
#6
Alexander Moreira-Almeida, Francisco Lotufo-Neto
Anomalous experiences (AE) (uncommon experiences or one that is believed to deviate from the usually accepted explanations of reality: hallucinations, synesthesia, experiences interpreted as telepathic…) and altered states of consciousness (ASC) have been described in all societies of all ages. Even so, scientists have long neglected the studies on this theme. To study AE and ASC is not necessary to share the beliefs we explore, they can be investigated as subjective experiences and correlated with other data, like any other human experience...
June 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587555/editorial
#7
Dinesh Bhugra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587554/quality-of-life-and-spirituality
#8
Raquel Gehrke Panzini, Bruno Paz Mosqueiro, Rogério R Zimpel, Denise Ruschel Bandeira, Neusa S Rocha, Marcelo P Fleck
Spirituality has been identified as an important dimension of quality-of-life. The objective of this study was to review the literature on quality-of-life and spirituality, their association, and assessment tools. A search was conducted of the keyterms 'quality-of-life' and 'spirituality' in abstract or title in the databases PsycINFO and PubMed/Medline between 1979-2005, complemented by a new search at PUBMED from 2006-2016. Quality-of-life is a new concept, which encompasses and transcends the concept of health, being composed of multiple domains: physical, psychological, environmental, among others...
June 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587553/guidelines-of-the-brazilian-association-of-studies-on-alcohol-and-other-drugs-abead-for-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-psychiatric-comorbidity-with-alcohol-and-other-substance-and-dependence
#9
Marcos Zaleski, Ronaldo Ramos Laranjeira, Ana Cecília Petta Roselli Marques, Lílian Ratto, Marcos Romano, Hamer Nastasy Palhares Alves, Márcia Britto de Macedo Soares, Valter Abelardino, Félix Kessler, Sílvia Brasiliano, Sérgio Nicastri, Patrícia Brunferntrinker Hochgraf, Analice de Paula Gigliotti, Tadeu Lemos
In recent years, several studies have been focused on the comorbidity of psychiatric disorders with alcohol and other substance dependence. In this context, the Brazilian Association of Studies on Alcohol and Other Drugs initiated a project to establish Brazilian Guidelines. The aim of this study was to review diagnostic and therapeutic criteria for the most prevalent psychiatric comorbidities. Randomized clinical trials, epidemiological studies, animal testing and other forms of research are reviewed herein...
June 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587552/anorexia-nervosa-and-bulimia-nervosa-a-psychotherapeutic-cognitive-constructivist-approach
#10
Cristiano Nabuco de Abreu, Raphael Cangelli Filho
Of the eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the ones that have made adolescent patients-often females and aged younger and younger-seek for help. This help is provided through a multidisciplinary treatment involving psychiatrists, psychologists and dietists. Psychotherapy has shown to be an efficient component for these patients' improvement. The present article aims at presenting a proposal of psychotherapeutic treatment based on a cognitive-constructivist approach.
June 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587551/conceptualizations-of-illness-among-relatives-of-patients-diagnosed-with-schizophrenia
#11
Cecília C Villares, Cristina P Redko, Jair J Mari
Family concepts of a relative's illness are an important part of the coping process and reveal the cultural construction of the experience of illness. As part of a qualitative study conducted in the Schizophrenia Outpatient Clinic of the Department of Psychiatry, Escola Paulista de Medicina - UNIFESP, 14 relatives of eight outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were interviewed and invited to talk freely about their ideas and feelings concerning their relative's problem. Qualitative analysis was used to identify categories of illness representations...
June 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587550/mental-illnesses-in-tropical-climates-1906
#12
Juliano Moreira, Afrânio Peixoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587549/the-social-action-of-the-psychiatrist-1943
#13
Ulysses Pernambucano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587548/a-brief-panorama-of-brazil-s-contributions-to-psychiatry
#14
Alexander Moreira-Almeida, Fabrício H A Oliveira E Oliveira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540750/neurobiology-of-emotions-an-update
#15
Vanderson Esperidião-Antonio, Marilia Majeski-Colombo, Diana Toledo-Monteverde, Glaciele Moraes-Martins, Juliana José Fernandes, Marjorie Bauchiglioni de Assis, Stefânia Montenegro, Rodrigo Siqueira-Batista
The 'nature' of emotions is one of the archaic themes of Western thought, thematized in different cultural manifestations - such as art, science, philosophy, myths and religion -, since Ancient times. In the last decades, the advances in neurosciences have permitted the construction of hypotheses that explain emotions, especially through the studies involving the limbic system. To present an updated discussion about the neurobiology of processes relating to emotions - focusing (1) on the main neural structures that relate to emotions, (2) the paths and circuits of greater relevance, (3) the implicated neurotransmitters, (4) the connections that possess neurovegetative control and (5) the discussion about the main emotions - is the objective of this present article...
June 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492091/the-schizophrenia-stigma-and-mass-media-a-search-for-news-published-by-wide-circulation-media-in-brazil
#16
Francisco Bevilacqua Guarniero, Ruth Helena Bellinghini, Wagner Farid Gattaz
Schizophrenia is the most common illness used today as a metaphor in the media and routinely appears associated with crime and violence with no medical or scientific rigor, reinforcing the stigma against this disorder. Evaluation of the presence of structural stigma in the Brazilian media by means of a survey of printed news and the Internet using the term schizophrenia and its correlates under three aspects: (a) medical and scientific uses, (b) assigning a diagnosis of schizophrenia to crime suspects with little or no medical or scientific rigor, and (c) the metaphorical use...
June 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523978/closed-loop-neuromodulation-systems-next-generation-treatments-for-psychiatric-illness
#17
Meng-Chen Lo, Alik S Widge
Despite deep brain stimulation's positive early results in psychiatric disorders, well-designed clinical trials have yielded inconsistent clinical outcomes. One path to more reliable benefit is closed-loop therapy: stimulation that is automatically adjusted by a device or algorithm in response to changes in the patient's electrical brain activity. These interventions may provide more precise and patient-specific treatments. This article first introduces the available closed-loop neuromodulation platforms, which have shown clinical efficacy in epilepsy and strong early results in movement disorders...
April 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523977/the-application-of-deep-brain-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-psychiatric-disorders
#18
Ilse Graat, Martijn Figee, Damiaan Denys
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a last-resort treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders that are refractory to standard treatment. Over the last decades, the progress of DBS in psychiatry has been slower than in neurology, in part owing to the heterogenic symptomatology and complex neuroanatomy of psychiatric disorders. However, for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) DBS is now an accepted treatment. This study first reviews clinical outcomes and mechanisms of DBS for OCD, and then discusses these results in an overview of current and future psychiatric applications, including DBS for mood disorders, Tourette's syndrome, addiction, anorexia nervosa, autism, schizophrenia, and anxiety disorders...
April 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523976/the-application-of-tdcs-for-the-treatment-of-psychiatric-diseases
#19
Min-Fang Kuo, Po-See Chen, Michael A Nitsche
Neuroplasticity represents the dynamic structural and functional reorganization of the central nervous system, including its connectivity, due to environmental and internal demands. It is recognized as a major physiological basis for adaption of cognition and behaviour, and, thus, of utmost importance for normal brain function. Cognitive dysfunctions are major symptoms in psychiatric disorders, which are often associated with pathological alteration of neuroplasticity. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a recently developed non-invasive brain stimulation technique, is able to induce and modulate cortical plasticity in humans via the application of relatively weak current through the scalp of the head...
April 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523975/editorial
#20
Irving M Reti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
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