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International Review of Psychiatry

Albert Garcia-Romeu, William A Richards
Humans have used serotonergic hallucinogens (i.e. psychedelics) for spiritual, ceremonial, and recreational purposes for thousands of years, but their administration as part of a structured therapeutic intervention is still a relatively novel practice within Western medical and psychological frameworks. In the mid-20th century, considerable advances were made in developing therapeutic approaches integrating administration of low (psycholytic) and high (psychedelic) doses of serotonergic hallucinogens for treatment of a variety of conditions, often incorporating psychoanalytic concepts prevalent at that time...
November 13, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Nicolas J Schlienz, Andrew S Huhn, Traci J Speed, Mary M Sweeney, Denis G Antoine
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is an important treatment tool for the opioid epidemic. One challenge is that many persons who present for MMT also have co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Individually, both methadone and psychiatric medications carry risk of weight gain. Therefore, concurrent prescribing of methadone and psychiatric medications places dual diagnosis patients at even greater risk. As a parallel obesity epidemic grows, results from clinical trials assessing weight gain and weight management strategies among MMT and psychiatric patients can both inform and guide clinical practice...
November 6, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Traci J Speed, Vinay Parekh, William Coe, Denis Antoine
Chronic pain (CP) and opioid use disorder (OUD) remain challenging complex public health concerns. This is an updated review on the relationship between CP and OUD and the use of stepped care models for assessment and management of this vulnerable population. A literature search was conducted from 2008 to the present in PubMed, Embase, and PsycInfo using the terms pain or chronic pain and opioid-related disorders, opiate, methadone, buprenorphine, naltrexone, opioid abuse, opioid misuse, opioid dependen*, heroin addict, heroin abuse, heroin misuse, heroin dependen*, or analgesic opioids, and stepped care, integrated services, multidisciplinary treatment, or reinforcement-based treatment...
November 6, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Peter S Hendricks
A psychological model of classic psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy informed by contemporary scientific data is presented in this paper. It is suggested that classic psychedelic-occasioned mystical experience is characterized by profound awe, a discrete emotion experienced in the presence of a vast stimulus requiring accommodation of mental structures. Awe, in turn, promotes the small self, a construct that, in the extreme, is analogous to those of unitive experience and ego dissolution. The small self is conceptualized as key to understanding the downstream effects of mystical experience occasioned in the context of classic psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy...
September 27, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Zach Walsh, Michelle S Thiessen
This narrative review examines evidence related to the potential for third wave behaviour therapies to serve as adjuncts to psychedelic-assisted therapy. It identifies shared theoretical foundations for both approaches, and notes enhanced mindfulness, decentering, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance as common mechanisms of action. It also identifies potential targets for which both approaches have demonstrated therapeutic potential, including problematic substance use, self-directed and other-directed violence, and mood disorders...
September 25, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Frederick S Barrett, Katrin H Preller, Mendel Kaelen
From the beginning of therapeutic research with psychedelics, music listening has been consistently used as a method to guide or support therapeutic experiences during the acute effects of psychedelic drugs. Recent findings point to the potential of music to support meaning-making, emotionality, and mental imagery after the administration of psychedelics, and suggest that music plays an important role in facilitating positive clinical outcomes of psychedelic therapy. This review explores the history of, contemporary research on, and future directions regarding the use of music in psychedelic research and therapy, and argues for more detailed and rigorous investigation of the contribution of music to the treatment of psychiatric disorders within the novel framework of psychedelic therapy...
September 21, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Stephen Ross
Cancer is highly prevalent and one of the leading causes of global morbidity and mortality. Psychological and existential suffering is common in cancer patients, associated with poor psychiatric and medical outcomes. Promising early-phase clinical research (1960s to early 1970s) suggested a therapeutic signal for serotoninergic psychedelics (e.g. psilocybin, LSD) in treating cancer-related psychiatric distress. After several decades of quiescence, research on psychedelic-assisted therapy to treat psychiatric disorders in cancer patients has resumed within the last 2 decades in the US and Europe...
August 13, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Thomas W Flanagan, Charles D Nichols
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)2A receptor agonists have recently emerged as promising new treatment options for a variety of disorders. The recent success of these agonists, also known as psychedelics, like psilocybin for the treatment of anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and addiction, has ushered in a renaissance in the way these compounds are perceived in the medical community and populace at large. One emerging therapeutic area that holds significant promise is their use as anti-inflammatory agents...
August 13, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Ryan Vandrey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Evan S Herrmann, Brantley P Jarvis, Alicia C Sparks, Amy M Cohn, Bartosz Koszowski, Zachary R Rosenberry, Victoria H Coleman-Cowger, Wallace B Pickworth, Erica N Peters
The legalization of medical and recreational cannabis use has occurred ahead of science. The current evidence base has poor utility for determining if cannabis products can meet the standards of safety, efficacy, and quality intrinsic to modern medicine, and for informing regulation of cannabis as a legal intoxicant. Individual jurisdictions that pass cannabis reforms may not have adequate resources to support the level of new scientific research needed to inform regulatory actions; this could make it difficult to keep a rapidly growing multi-billion-dollar cannabis industry in check...
June 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Marcel O Bonn-Miller, Mahmoud A ElSohly, Mallory J E Loflin, Suman Chandra, Ryan Vandrey
Accumulating evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system is a promising target for the treatment of a variety of health conditions. Two paths of cannabinoid drug development have emerged. One approach is focused on developing medications that are directly derived from the cannabis plant. The other utilizes a single molecule approach whereby individual phytocannabinoids or novel cannabinoids with therapeutic potential are identified and synthesized for pharmaceutical development. This commentary discusses the unique challenges and merits of botanical vs single molecule cannabinoid drug development strategies, highlights how both can be impacted by legalization of cannabis via legislative processes, and also addresses regulatory and public health considerations that are important to consider as cannabinoid medicine advances as a discipline...
June 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Jennifer R Rineer, Sarah Duhart Clarke, Laurie A Cluff, Nicholas C Peiper
Nearly one in five US employees reports having used cannabis in the past year. As policies and laws regarding cannabis use rapidly change, concerns have arisen over employees' use of cannabis, for both medical and recreational purposes. While extant workplace research has not distinguished between types of cannabis users, other studies have found that medical users are clinically and socio-demographically different from non-medical users. This study utilized a sample of employed National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) respondents to examine differences in workplace characteristics and health outcomes among employed medical, recreational, and mixed-use cannabis users...
June 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Lauren M Dutra, William J Parish, Camille K Gourdet, Sarah A Wylie, Jenny L Wiley
Although research has established a link between cannabis legalization and use, and cannabis use and mental health, the relationship between medical cannabis legalization and mental health remains uncharacterized. This analysis investigated the relationship between state medical cannabis laws (restrictive, i.e. covering a narrow set of medical conditions; or liberal, i.e. covering a broad range of medical conditions), whether the law permits patients to petition their physician to approve medical cannabis use for specific medical conditions, and state prevalence of serious mental illness (SMI) in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health 2008-2015...
June 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Kelly A Sagar, Staci A Gruber
The neurobiologic effects of cannabis, commonly referred to as 'marijuana' (MJ), have been studied for decades. The impact of recreational MJ use on cognition and measures of brain function and structure is outlined, and variables influencing study results are discussed, including age of the consumer, patterns of MJ use, variations in MJ potency, and the presence of additional cannabinoids. Although evidence suggests that chronic, heavy recreational MJ use is related to cognitive decrements and neural changes, particularly when use begins in adolescence, findings from studies of recreational MJ users may not be applicable to medical marijuana (MMJ) patients given differences in demographic variables, product selection, and reasons for use...
June 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Gregory L Sahlem, Rachel L Tomko, Brian J Sherman, Kevin M Gray, Aimee L McRae-Clark
An increasing proportion of the world has legalized cannabis for medicinal or recreational use. The legalization trend appears to be continuing. These changes in the legislative landscape may have important health, treatment, and research implications. This review discusses public health outcomes that may be impacted by increases in cannabis availability and use. It additionally considers potential research and treatment priorities in the face of widespread cannabis legalization.
June 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Nicolas J Schlienz, Dustin C Lee
Legislative reforms have legalized use of cannabis for medical and recreational purposes. Efforts to evaluate the public health impact of these changes have predominantly focused on determining whether liberalizing cannabis policies has increased cannabis use patterns. Co-use of cannabis and other licit substances, namely tobacco and alcohol, is common during the developmental period of adolescence, which is generally characterized by an increase in risk-taking and novelty-seeking. However, limited research has sought to evaluate the potential implications of reforms to medical and recreational cannabis laws on concurrent and simultaneous use of cannabis, tobacco, and alcohol during adolescence...
June 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Jacob T Borodovsky, Alan J Budney
The evolving legal cannabis landscape in the US continues to present novel regulatory challenges that necessitate the development of a Cannabis Regulatory Science. Two specific issues of concern within Cannabis Regulatory Science are (1) the impact that cannabis use has on the incidence, prevalence, and severity of mental disorders, and (2) how cannabis laws and regulations modify this impact. This paper first provides several conceptual points that are useful for evaluating the relationship between cannabis use and mental disorders...
June 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Bruno Callieri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Franco Basaglia, Franca Basaglia Ongaro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Andrea Fiorillo, Mario Maj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
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