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European Journal of Neuroscience

Mario Buffelli, Enrico Tognana, Alberto Cangiano, Giuseppe Busetto
Evoked electrical muscle activity suppresses the transcription of mRNAs for acetylcholine receptors in extrajunctional myonuclei. Muscle denervation or disuse release such inhibition and extrajunctional receptors appear. However, in soleus muscles paralyzed with nerve-applied tetrodotoxin, a restricted perijunctional region has been described where myonuclei remain inhibited, a finding attributed to nerve-derived trophic factor(s). Here, we reinvestigate extrajunctional acetylcholine receptor expression in soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles up to 90 days after denervation or up to 20 days of disuse, to clarify the role of trophic factors, if any...
June 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Asghar Talebian, Rachel Britton, Mark Henkemeyer
To explore roles for ephrin-B/EphB signaling in cortical interneurons we previously generated ephrin-B (Efnb1/b2/b3) conditional triple mutant (TMlz ) mice using a Dlx1/2.Cre inhibitory neuron driver and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporters for the two main inhibitory interneuron groups distinguished by expression of either glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 (GAD1; GAD67-GFP) or 2 (GAD2; GAD65-GFP). This work showed a general involvement of ephrin-B in migration and population of interneurons into the embryonic neocortex...
June 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Matthew A Weber, Eric T Graack, Jamie L Scholl, Kenneth J Renner, Gina L Forster, Michael J Watt
Adult psychiatric disorders characterized by cognitive deficits reliant on prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine are promoted by teenage bullying. Similarly, male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to social defeat in mid-adolescence (P35-39) show impaired working memory in adulthood (P56-70), along with decreased medial PFC (mPFC) dopamine activity that results in part from increased dopamine transporter-mediated clearance. Here, we determined if dopamine synthesis and D2 autoreceptor-mediated inhibition of dopamine release in the adult mPFC are also enhanced by adolescent defeat to contribute to later dopamine hypofunction...
June 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Philip A Spechler, Nicholas Allgaier, Bader Chaarani, Robert Whelan, Richard Watts, Catherine Orr, Matthew D Albaugh, Nicholas D'Alberto, Stephen T Higgins, Kelsey E Hudson, Scott Mackey, Alexandra Potter, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Anna Cattrell, Patricia J Conrod, Sylvane Desrivières, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Jürgen Gallinat, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Gunter Schumann, Robert R Althoff, Hugh Garavan
Cannabis use initiated during adolescence might precipitate negative consequences in adulthood. Thus, predicting adolescent cannabis use prior to any exposure will inform the etiology of substance abuse by disentangling predictors from consequences of use. In this prediction study, data were drawn from the IMAGEN sample, a longitudinal study of adolescence. All selected participants (n=1,581) were cannabis-naïve at age 14. Those reporting any cannabis use (out of 6 ordinal use levels) by age 16 were included in the outcome group (N=365, males n=207)...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Anne Marije Kaag, Reinout W Wiers, Taco de Vries, Tommy Pattij, Anna E Goudriaan
Despite apparent sex differences in the development and treatment of alcohol use disorder, relatively little is known about the underlying neural mechanisms. In this study we therefore investigated neural cue-reactivity in a sample of male (n=28) and female (n=27) problem drinkers (matched on age and alcohol use severity) with an average alcohol use disorder identification test score of 12 which is indicative of a likely alcohol use disorder. Neural cue-reactivity data were extracted from four regions of interest: the ventral and dorsal striatum and the ventral and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, with a significance level set at p<0...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
C Micheli, I M Schepers, M Ozker, D Yoshor, M S Beauchamp, J W Rieger
During natural speech perception, humans must parse temporally continuous auditory and visual speech signals into sequences of words. However, most studies of speech perception present only single words or syllables. We used electrocorticography (subdural electrodes implanted on the brains of epileptic patients) to investigate the neural mechanisms for processing continuous audiovisual speech signals consisting of individual sentences. Using partial correlation analysis, we found that posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) and medial occipital cortex tracked both the auditory and visual speech envelopes...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Laura Angioletti, Chiara Siri, Nicoletta Meucci, Gianni Pezzoli, Michela Balconi
According to the somatic marker hypothesis, autonomic measures and arousal modulation can reveal a difference in subgroups of patients developing impaired decision-making because of addictions. Previously, Pathological Gambling (PG) and Parkinson's Disease (PD) have been associated with differential arousal levels during gambling behavior. However, no research considered the specific autonomic responses of Parkinson's Disease patients with pathological gambling and with a previous history of gambling. Thus, this study investigated Skin Conductance Responses (SCRs), Skin Conductance Level (SCL) and Heart Rate (HR) during the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in two groups of PD patients with gambling disorder, active (PD Gamblers; n=14) or remitted (PD Non-Gamblers; n=13) and a control group of patients with Parkinson's Disease only (n=13)...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Anusha Mohan, Dirk De Ridder, Rajith Idiculla, Clisha DSouza, Sven Vanneste
Tinnitus is the perception of a phantom sound characterized behaviorally by a loudness and a distress component. Although a wealth of information is available about the relationship between these behavioral correlates and changes in static functional connectivity, its relationship with dynamic changes in network connectivity is yet unexplored. The aim of the current study is thus to investigate changes in the flexibility and stability of temporal variability in tinnitus and its relation to loudness and distress using continuous resting state EEG...
June 10, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Marco Oreste Finocchio Pagliusi Junior, Ivan José Magayewski Bonet, Elayne Vieira Dias, André Schwambach Vieira, Claudia Herrera Tambeli, Carlos Amilcar Parada, Cesar Renato Sartori
Epidemiological studies have shown a close association between pain and depression. There is evidence showing this association since patients with depression show a high chronic pain prevalence and vice-versa. Considering that social stress is critical for the development of depression in humans, we used a social defeat stress (SDS) model which induces depressive-like behavior in mice. In this model, mice are exposed to an aggressor mouse for ten days, suffering brief periods of agonistic contact and long periods of sensory contact...
June 9, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Sandra Carvalho, Melanie French, Aurore Thibaut, Wilrama Lima, Marcel Simis, Jorge Leite, Felipe Fregni
Median Nerve Stimulation (MNS) has been shown to change brain metaplasticity over the somatosensory networks, based on a bottom-up mechanism and may improve motor learning. This exploratory study aimed to test the effects of MNS on implicit and explicit motor learning as measured by the Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT) using a double-blind, sham-controlled, randomized trial, in which participants were allocated to one of three groups: 1) online active MNS during acquisition, 2) offline active MNS during early consolidation, and 3) sham MNS...
June 9, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Ziliang Wang, Lingdan Wu, Kai Yuan, Yanbo Hu, Hui Zheng, Xiaoxia Du, Guangheng Dong
Although online gaming may lead to Internet gaming disorder (IGD), most players are recreational game users (RGUs) who do not develop IGD. Thus far, little is known about brain structural abnormalities in IGD subjects relative to RGUs. The inclusion of RGUs as a control group could minimize the potential effects of gaming experience and gaming-related cue familiarity on the neural mechanism of IGD subjects. In the current study, structural magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 38 IGD subjects and 66 RGUs with comparable age, gender, and educational level...
June 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Y Kate Hong, Eliza F Burr, Joshua R Sanes, Chinfei Chen
The retinogeniculate synapse transmits information from retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in the eye to thalamocortical relay neurons in the visual thalamus, the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). Studies in mice have identified genetic markers for distinct classes of RGCs encoding different features of the visual space, facilitating the dissection of RGC subtype-specific physiology and anatomy. In this study, we examine the morphological properties of axon arbors of the BD-RGC class of ON-OFF direction selective cells that, by definition, exhibit a stereotypic dendritic arbor and termination pattern in the retina...
June 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Anthony-Samuel LaMantia
The organization and function of sensory systems, especially the mammalian visual system, has been the focus of philosophers and scientists for centuries-from Descartes and Newton onward. Nevertheless, the utility of understanding development and its genetic foundations for deeper insight into neural function has been debated: do you need to know how something is assembled-a car, for example-to understand how it works or how to use it-to turn on the ignition and drive? This review addresses this issue for sensory pathways...
June 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Tilo Gschwind, Carlos Lafourcade, Tim Gfeller, Mariana Zaichuk, Lukas Rambousek, Irene Knuesel, Jean-Marc Fritschy
Aberrant epileptic activity is detectable at early disease stages in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in AD mouse models. Here, we investigated in young ArcticAβ mice whether AD-like pathology renders neuronal networks more susceptible to development of acquired epilepsy induced by unilateral intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid (IHK). In this temporal lobe epilepsy model, IHK induces a status epilepticus followed after two weeks by spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). ArcticAβ mice exhibited more severe status epilepticus and early onset of SRS...
June 4, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Anne Bergt, Anne E Urai, Tobias H Donner, Lars Schwabe
At any time, we are processing thousands of stimuli, but only few of them will be remembered hours or days later. Is there any way to predict which ones? Here, we tested whether the pupil response to ongoing stimuli, an indicator of physiological arousal known to be relevant for memory formation, is a reliable predictor of long-term memory for these stimuli, over at least one day. Pupil dilation was tracked while participants performed visual and auditory encoding tasks. Memory was tested immediately after encoding and 24 hours later...
June 4, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Angela Josupeit, Esther Schoenmaker, Steven van de Par, Volker Hohmann
Human listeners robustly decode speech information from a talker of interest that is embedded in a mixture of spatially distributed interferers. A relevant question is which time-frequency segments of the speech are predominantly used by a listener to solve such a complex Auditory Scene Analysis task. A recent psychoacoustic study investigated the relevance of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) components of a target signal on speech intelligibility in a spatial multi-talker situation. For this, a three-talker stimulus was manipulated in the spectro-temporal domain such that target speech time-frequency units below a variable SNR threshold (SNRcrit ) were discarded while keeping the interferers unchanged...
June 1, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Sarinah Sutojo, Steven van de Par, Esther Schoenmaker
In situations with competing talkers or in the presence of masking noise, speech intelligibility can be improved by spatially separating the target speaker from the interferers. This advantage is generally referred to as spatial release from masking (SRM) and different mechanisms have been suggested to explain it. One proposed mechanism to benefit from spatial cues is the binaural masking release, which is purely stimulus driven. According to this mechanism, the spatial benefit results from differences in the binaural cues of target and masker, which need to appear simultaneously in time and frequency to improve the signal detection...
June 1, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Samantha Mahabir, Dipashree Chatterjee, Keith Misquitta, Diptendu Chatterjee, Robert Gerlai
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is one of the leading causes of mental health issues worldwide. Analysis of zebrafish exposed to alcohol during embryonic development confirmed that even low concentrations of alcohol for a short period of time may have lasting behavioral consequences at the adult or old age. The mechanism of this alteration has not been studied. Here, we immersed zebrafish embryos into 1% alcohol solution (vol/vol%) at 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf) for 2 hours, and analyze potential changes using immunohistochemistry...
May 30, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Yoritaka Akimoto, Ryuichi Yamazaki, Motoaki Sugiura, Rui Nouchi, Chiaki Terao, Takashi Tsukiura, Ryuta Kawashima
Intelligence is among the key determinants of power and social status in modern societies. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined the neural correlates of intelligence evaluation from faces. Participants underwent scans while they evaluated the perceived intelligence and friendliness of faces. We found that medial orbitofrontal cortex activity increased linearly with friendliness ratings. The relationship between perceived intelligence and brain activity was positively linear in the right caudate nucleus, and U-shaped (i...
May 28, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Zoltán Molnár
I am presenting some personal accounts of my interactions with Ray Guillery during his time in Oxford, from 1988-1996 and then from 2000-2017. This essay provides specific examples of how my scientific interactions with Ray influenced my way of thinking about brain structure and function, how it helped me to develop my scientific rigour and stimulated ideas about thalamocortical development. I shall also review some of the key contributions that Ray Guillery made to the field of thalamocortical organization and interactions and how his insight is providing some guidelines for our work today...
May 28, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
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