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European Journal of Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332742/computational-neuroscience-in-the-european-journal-of-neuroscience
#1
EDITORIAL
Panayiota Poirazi, Stefan Remy, Athanasia Papoutsi
Many of us played computer games during our childhood and youth, and some of us still do, while others decided to do something seemingly more useful - like trying to better understand the mammalian brain. Many computer games have a linear progression; individual levels are subdivisions of a larger, more complex world. The practical advantage of having levels is that they divide a game into manageable sections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278354/online-and-offline-effects-of-cerebellar-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-motor-learning-in-healthy-older-adults-a-randomized-double-blind-sham-controlled-study
#2
Afshin Samaei, Fatemeh Ehsani, Maryam Zoghi, Mohaddese Hafez Yosephi, Shapour Jaberzadeh
The aim of this randomized double blinded sham-controlled study was to determine the effect of cerebellar anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on online and offline motor learning in healthy older individuals. Thirty participants were randomly assigned in experimental (n=15) or sham tDCS (n=15) groups. Participants in experimental group received 2 mA cerebellar a-tDCS for 20 minutes. However, the tDCS was turned off after 30 seconds in sham group. Response time (RT) and error rate (ER) in serial response time test were assessed before, during 35 minutes and 48 hours after the intervention...
March 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267225/ensuring-that-novel-resting-state-fmri-metrics-are-physiologically-grounded-interpretable-and-meaningful-a-commentary-on-canna-et%C3%A2-al-2017
#3
Katharine Dunlop, Jonathan Downar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266751/low-dimensional-representation-of-face-space-by-face-selective-inferior-temporal-neurons
#4
Sina Salehi, Mohammad-Reza A Dehaqani, Hossein Esteky
Representation of visual objects in primate brain is distributed and multiple neurons are involved in encoding each object. One way to understand the neural basis of object representation is to estimate the number of neural dimensions that are needed for veridical representation of object categories. In this study, the characteristics of the match between physical-shape and neural representational spaces in monkey inferior temporal (IT) cortex have been evaluated. Specifically, we examined how the number of neural dimensions, stimulus behavioral saliency and stimulus category selectivity of neurons affect the correlation between shape and neural representational spaces in IT cortex...
March 7, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263445/sustained-release-of-collagen-vi-potentiates-sciatic-nerve-regeneration-by-modulating-macrophage-phenotype
#5
Dan Lv, Lijuan Zhou, Xianyu Zheng, Yongcheng Hu
Although the peripheral nervous system has an intrinsic ability for repair and regeneration after injury, bridging long peripheral nerve defects remains a challenge. Functional nerve regeneration depends on interactions among axons, Schwann cells, fibroblasts and immune cells. Macrophages, as immune cells recruited early in this process, show polarization toward phenotypes that are detrimental or beneficial to tissue remodeling depending on the microenvironment of the scaffolds. In this study, we investigated the effects of macrophage phenotypes modulated by collagen VI on axonal regeneration and functional recovery by bridging a 15 mm long sciatic nerve defect in rats...
March 6, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263416/the-effect-of-reward-expectation-on-the-time-course-of-perceptual-decisions
#6
Annalisa Tosoni, Giorgia Committeri, Cinzia Calluso, Gaspare Galati
Perceptual discriminations can be strongly biased by the expected reward for a correct decision but the neural mechanisms underlying this influence are still partially unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a task requiring to arbitrarily associate a visual stimulus with a specific action, we have recently shown that perceptual decisions are encoded within the same sensorimotor regions responsible for planning and executing specific motor actions. Here we examined whether these regions additionally encode the amount of expected reward for a perceptual decision...
March 6, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263415/very-low-concentrations-of-ethanol-suppress-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-in-rat-visual-cortex
#7
Lucas Luong, Nicholas M Bannon, Andrew Redenti, Marina Chistiakova, Maxim Volgushev
Ethanol is one of the most commonly used substances in the world. Behavioral effects of alcohol are well described, however cellular mechanisms of its action are poorly understood. There is an apparent contradiction between measurable behavioral changes produced by low concentrations of ethanol, and lack of evidence of synaptic changes at these concentrations. Further, effects of ethanol on synaptic transmission in the neocortex are poorly understood. Here we set to determine effects of ethanol on excitatory synaptic transmission in the neocortex...
March 6, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263413/species-specific-diversity-in-the-anatomical-and-physiological-organization-of-the-bnst-vta-pathway
#8
Jennifer Kaufling, Delphine Girard, Marlène Maitre, Thierry Leste-Lasserre, François Georges
The anteromedial part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (amBNST) is a limbic structure innervating the ventral tegmental area (VTA) that is remarkably constant across species. The amBNST modulates fear and anxiety, and activation of VTA dopamine (DA) neurons by amBNST afferents seems to be the way by which stress controls motivational states associated with reward or aversion. Because fear learning and anxiety states can be expressed differently between rats and mice, we compared the functional connectivity between amBNST and the VTA-DA neurons in both species using consistant methodological approaches...
March 6, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245070/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling-is-involved-in-immune-modulation-but-not-basal-functioning-of-the-mouse-suprachiasmatic-circadian-clock
#9
S M O'Keeffe, A L Beynon, J S Davies, P N Moynagh, A N Coogan
Circadian rhythms are recurring near-twenty four hour patterns driven by an endogenous circadian timekeeping system. The master pacemaker in this system is the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Recently interest has been drawn to how the SCN clock responds to immune system stimulation. A major signalling component in the immune system is nuclear factor (NF)-κB. In the present study we examined the role of NF-κB in SCN function. Whilst serum shocked fibroblasts showed rhythmic nuclear localisation of p65 and p65-dependent transcription, there were no circadian changes in the SCN in expression of the NF-κB components p65, c-Rel, p-IκB or p-IKK...
February 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245069/synapsins-regulate-bdnf-mediated-synaptic-potentiation-and-axon-elongation-by-acting-on-membrane-rafts
#10
Hung-Teh Kao, Kanghyun Ryoo, Albert Lin, Stephen R Janoschka, George J Augustine, Barbara Porton
In neurons, intracellular membrane rafts are essential for specific actions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which include the regulation of axon outgrowth, growth cone turning and synaptic transmission. Virtually all the actions of BDNF are mediated by binding to its receptor, TrkB. The association of TrkB with the tyrosine kinase, Fyn, is critical for its localization to intracellular membrane rafts. Here, we show that synapsins, a family of highly amphipathic neuronal phosphoproteins, regulate membrane raft lipid composition and consequently, the ability of BDNF to regulate axon/neurite development and potentiate synaptic transmission...
February 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245068/positive-effects-of-neurofeedback-on-autism-symptoms-correlate-with-brain-activation-during-imitation-and-observation
#11
Michael Datko, Jaime Pineda, Ralph-Axel Müller
Autism has been characterized by atypical task-related brain activation and functional connections, coinciding with deficits in sociocommunicative abilities. However, evidence of the brain's experience-dependent plasticity suggests that abnormal activity patterns may be reversed with treatment. In particular, neurofeedback training, an intervention based on operant conditioning resulting in self-regulation of brain electrical oscillations, has shown increasing promise in addressing abnormalities in brain function and behavior...
February 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244163/chemogenetic-enhancement-of-functional-recovery-after-a-sciatic-nerve-injury
#12
Poonam B Jaiswal, Arthur W English
Designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) are chemogenetic tools used to modulate neuronal excitability. We hypothesized that activation of excitatory (Gq) DREADD by its designer ligand, clozapine-N-oxide (CNO), would increase the excitability of neurons whose axons have been transected following peripheral nerve injury, and that this increase will lead to an enhanced functional recovery. The lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscle of adult female Lewis rats was injected unilaterally with AAV9- hsyn- hM3Dq-mCherry (7...
February 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244152/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-regulates-photic-signaling-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#13
Jodi R Paul, Alex S McKeown, Jennifer A Davis, Stacie K Totsch, Eric M Mintz, Timothy W Kraft, Rita M Cowell, Karen L Gamble
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is a serine-threonine kinase that regulates mammalian circadian rhythms at the behavioral, molecular and neurophysiological levels. In the central circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3 exhibits a rhythm across the 24h day. We have recently shown that GSK3 is capable of influencing both the molecular clock and SCN neuronal activity rhythms. However, it is not known whether GSK3 regulates the response to environmental cues such as light...
February 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231395/functional-connectivity-in-amygdalar-sensory-pre-motor-networks-at-rest-new-evidence-from-the-human-connectome-project
#14
Nicola Toschi, Andrea Duggento, Luca Passamonti
The word "e-motion" derives from the Latin word "ex-moveo" which literally means "moving away from something / somebody". Emotions are thus fundamental to prime action and goal-directed behavior with obvious implications for individual's survival. However, the brain mechanisms underlying the interactions between emotional and motor cortical systems remain poorly understood. A recent diffusion tensor imaging study in humans has reported the existence of direct anatomical connections between the amygdala and sensory/(pre)motor cortices, corroborating an initial observation in animal research...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231381/hippocampal-prefrontal-theta-phase-synchrony-in-planning-of-multi-step-actions-based-on-memory-retrieval
#15
Seiya Ishino, Susumu Takahashi, Masaaki Ogawa, Yoshio Sakurai
Planning of multi-step actions based on the retrieval of acquired information is essential for efficient foraging. The hippocampus (HPC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) may play critical roles in this process. However, in rodents, many studies investigating such roles utilized T-maze tasks that only require one-step actions (i.e., selection of one of two alternatives), in which memory retrieval and selection of an action based on the retrieval cannot be clearly differentiated. In monkeys, PFC has been suggested to be involved in planning of multi-step actions; however, the synchrony between HPC and PFC has not been evaluated...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231378/unbalanced-synaptic-inputs-underlying-multi-peaked-frequency-selectivity-in-rat-auditory-cortex
#16
Chang Zhou, Can Tao, Guangwei Zhang, Sumei Yan, Lijuan Wang, Yi Zhou, Ying Xiong
By measuring the frequency selectivity at different intensities in the primary auditory cortex of adult rats, we found that a small group of cortical neurons can exhibit relatively weak but robust selectivity at multiple frequencies that are different from the most preferred frequency. Both in vivo multi-unit recordings (26/93 recordings) and single-unit recordings (16/137 neurons) confirmed that the preferred frequencies are periodic and have an averaged bandwidth (BW) of 0.3-0.4 octaves, which leads to multi-peaked frequency selectivity...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226411/the-control-of-eye-movements-by-the-cerebellar-nuclei-polysynaptic-projections-from-the-fastigial-interpositus-posterior-and-dentate-nuclei-to-lateral-rectus-motoneurons-in-primates
#17
Vincent Prevosto, Werner Graf, Gabriella Ugolini
Premotor circuits driving extraocular motoneurons and downstream motor outputs of cerebellar nuclei are well known. However, there is, as yet, no unequivocal account of cerebellar output pathways controlling eye movements in primates. Using retrograde transneuronal transfer of rabies virus from the lateral rectus (LR) eye muscle, we studied polysynaptic pathways to LR motoneurons in primates. Injections were placed either into the central or distal muscle portion, to identify innervation differences of LR motoneurons supplying singly innervated (SIFs) or multiply innervated muscle fibers (MIFs)...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222235/visual-appearance-of-a-virtual-upper-limb-modulates-the-temperature-of-the-real-hand-a-thermal-imaging-study-in-immersive-virtual-reality
#18
G Tieri, A Gioia, M Scandola, E F Pavone, S M Aglioti
To explore the link between Sense of Embodiment (SoE) over a virtual hand and physiological regulation of skin temperature, twenty-four healthy participants were immersed in virtual reality through a Head Mounted Display and had their real limb temperature recorded by means of a high-sensitivity infrared camera. Participants observed a virtual right upper limb (appearing either normally, or with the hand detached from the forearm) or limb-shaped non-corporeal control objects (continuous or discontinuous wooden blocks) from a first-person perspective...
February 21, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199036/edaravone-attenuates-intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-rats
#19
K H Reeta, Devendra Singh, Y K Gupta
Alzheimer's disease is a major cause of dementia worldwide. Edaravone, a potent free radical scavenger, is reported to be neuroprotective. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of chronic edaravone administration on intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) induced cognitive impairment in male Wistar rats. Cognitive impairment was developed by single ICV-STZ (3 mg/kg) injection bilaterally on day 1. Edaravone (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg, orally, once daily) was administered for 28 days. Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used to assess cognitive functions at baseline and on days 14 and 28...
February 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196306/effects-of-isoflurane-anesthesia-and-intravenous-morphine-self-administration-on-regional-glucose-metabolism-18-f-fdg-pet-of-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#20
Thomas Y Park, Kevin S Nishida, Colin M Wilson, Shalini Jaiswal, Jessica Scott, Andrew R Hoy, Reed G Selwyn, Bernard J Dardzinski, Kwang H Choi
Although certain drugs of abuse are known to disrupt brain glucose metabolism (BGluM), the effects of opiates on BGluM are not well characterized. Moreover, preclinical positron emission tomography (PET) studies anesthetize animals during the scan, which limits clinical applications. We investigated the effects of 1) isoflurane anesthesia and 2) intravenous morphine self-administration (MSA) on BGluM in rats. Jugular vein cannulated adult male Sprague-Dawley rats self-administered either saline (SSA) or morphine (0...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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