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European Journal of Neuroscience

Lydia Hannou, Pierre-Gabriel Roy, Maria Neus Ballester Roig, Valérie Mongrain
Circadian rhythms are generated in mammals by a central clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, which regulates the homeostasis of many biological processes. At the molecular level, the regulation of circadian rhythms is under the control of transcriptional-translational feedback loops composed of clock factors, including transcription factors. In the brain, synaptic plasticity has been shown to vary with a 24h rhythm. Also, when measured at a given time-of-day, synaptic plasticity has been observed to be disrupted by dysregulation of clock factors...
December 2, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Giulia Zerbini, Thomas Kantermann, Martha Merrow
The timing of sleep is under the control of the circadian clock, which uses light to entrain to the external light-dark cycle. A combination of genetic, physiological and environmental factors produces individual differences in chronotype (entrained phase as manifest in sleep timing). A mismatch between circadian and societal (e.g. work) clocks leads to a condition called social jetlag, which is characterized by changing sleep times over work and free days and accumulation of sleep debt. Social jetlag, which is prevalent in late chronotypes, has been related to several health issues...
December 2, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Johanna Alexopoulos, Christian Steinberg, Nora Ellen Liebergesell-Kilian, Berit Hoeffkes, Stephan Doering, Markus Junghöfer
Biased motivated attention towards phobia-relevant pictures is a typical finding in specific phobia. In the visual system, the allocation of motivated attention is indexed by two event-related potential components - the Early Posterior Negativity and the Late Positive Potential. Enhanced Early Posterior Negativity and Late Positive Potential amplitudes are reliably observed in specific phobia such as, for instance, snake, spider or blood-injection-injury phobia and to some extent also in dental phobia. However, regarding dental phobia results are sparse and its theoretical concept is not undisputed...
December 1, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Christopher Allen
A function of oscillatory brain activity may be to align activity relative to threshold potentials and in doing so provide limited opportunities for representational neuronal assemblies to form. This low-level function could apply across frequency bands and potentially affect the temporal dynamics of experience. To test these possibilities a magnetoencephalography protocol was developed where capacity to form discrete auditory representations over time was assessed relative to oscillatory brain activity. Three sets of pre-registered analyses were conducted...
November 25, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Malú G Tansey, Marina Romero-Ramos
The neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) are the degeneration and death of dopamine-producing neurons in the ventral midbrain, the widespread intraneuronal aggregation of alpha-synuclein (a-syn) in Lewy bodies and neurites, neuroinflammation, and gliosis. Signs of microglia activation in the PD brain postmortem as well as during disease development revealed by neuroimaging, implicate immune responses in the pathophysiology of the disease. Intensive research during the last two decades has advanced our understanding of the role of these responses in the disease process, yet many questions remain unanswered...
November 25, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Johannes Keyser, Rob E F S Ramakers, W Pieter Medendorp, Luc P J Selen
Feedback corrections in reaching have been shown to be task-dependent for proprioceptive, visual and vestibular perturbations, in line with predictions from optimal feedback control theory. Mechanical perturbations have been used to elicit proprioceptive errors, but have the drawback to actively alter the limb's trajectory, making it non-trivial to dissociate the subject's compensatory response from the perturbation itself. In contrast, muscle vibration provides an alternative tool to perturb the muscle afferents without changing the hands trajectory, inducing only changes in the estimated, but not the actual, limb position and velocity...
November 25, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Davide Paoletti, Christoph Braun, Elisabeth Julie Vargo, Wieske van Zoest
Previous behavioural studies have accrued evidence that response time plays a critical role in determining whether selection is influenced by stimulus saliency or target template. In the present work, we investigated to what extent the variations in timing and consequent oculomotor control are influenced by spontaneous variations in prestimulus alpha oscillations. We recorded simultaneously brain activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and eye movements while participants performed a visual search task...
November 25, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Yixi Chen, Karamjit Singh Dolt, Marco Kriek, Terry Baker, Patrick Downey, Nicola J Drummond, Maurice A Canham, Ammar Natalwala, Susan Rosser, Tilo Kunath
An emerging treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) is cell replacement therapy. Authentic midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neuronal precursors can be differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). These laboratory-generated mDA cells have been demonstrated to mature into functional dopaminergic neurons upon transplantation into preclinical models of PD. However, clinical trials with human fetal mesenchephalic cells have shown that cell replacement grafts in PD are susceptible to Lewy body formation suggesting host-to-graft transfer of α-synuclein pathology...
November 25, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Valérie Simonneaux
Reproduction, like many other biological functions, exhibits marked daily and seasonal rhythms in order to anticipate and adapt breeding activity to environmental challenges. In recent years, studies investigating the neuroendocrine mechanisms driving rhythms in reproduction have unveiled the pivotal role of hypothalamic neurons expressing kisspeptin in integrating and forwarding daily and seasonal cues to the reproductive system. The objective of this review is to summarize the knowledge on the effect and role of this neuropeptide on the mammalian hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis and describe how it is involved in the daily control of ovulation in females and long term adaptation of reproduction in seasonal breeders...
November 25, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Sandra M Holley, Laurie Galvan, Talia Kamdjou, Carlos Cepeda, Michael S Levine
The pathological hallmark of Huntington's disease (HD) is the massive loss of striatal and cortical neurons. Until recently, it was believed that striatal interneurons were spared from degeneration. This view has changed after the demonstration that parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons also are vulnerable in humans. Here we compared morphological and functional changes of striatal fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) and low-threshold spiking (LTS) interneurons in the Q175 mouse model of HD at pre-symptomatic (2 months) and symptomatic (12 months) stages of the disease...
November 25, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Sabine Morris Hey, Pia Jensen, Matias Ryding, Alberto Martínez-Serrano, Bjarne W Kristensen, Morten Meyer
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease resulting in degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Exploratory studies using human fetal tissue or predifferentiated stem cells have suggested that intracerebral transplantation of dopaminergic precursor cells may become an effective treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease. However, strategies for dopaminergic stem cell differentiation vary widely in efficiency, and better methods still need to be developed. Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of genes important for cellular adaption to hypoxia and low glucose supply...
November 24, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Lindsay Naef, Lauren Seabrook, Jeff Hsiao, Calvin Li, Stephanie L Borgland
Mesolimbic dopamine circuits, implicated in incentive motivation, are sensitive to changes in metabolic state such as weight loss and diet-induced obesity. These neurons are important targets for metabolic hormones such as leptin, glucagon-like peptide-1, ghrelin and insulin. Insulin receptors are located on dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and we have previously demonstrated that insulin induces long-term depression of excitatory synapses onto VTA dopamine neurons. While insulin can decrease dopamine concentration in somatodendritic regions, it can increase dopamine in striatal slices...
November 24, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Eve H Limbrick-Oldfield, Robert Leech, Richard J S Wise, Mark A Ungless
Neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) play central roles in reward-related behaviours. Non-human animal studies suggest that these neurons also process aversive events. However, our understanding of how the human VTA and SNC responds to such events is limited and has been hindered by the technical challenge of using fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) to investigate a small structure where the signal is particularly vulnerable to physiological noise. Here we show, using methods optimised specifically for the midbrain (including high resolution imaging, a novel registration protocol, and physiological noise modelling), a BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) signal to both financial gain and loss in the VTA and SNC, along with a response to nil outcomes that are better or worse than expected in the VTA...
November 24, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Sarah M Haigh, Brian A Coffman, Timothy K Murphy, Christiana D Butera, Justin R Leiter-McBeth, Dean F Salisbury
Complex rule-based auditory processing is abnormal in individuals with long-term schizophrenia (SZ), as demonstrated by reduced mismatch negativity (MMN) to deviants in rule-based patterns and reduced auditory sustained potential (ASP) that appears when grouping tones together. Together this suggests deficits later in the auditory processing hierarchy in Sz. Here, MMN and ASP were elicited by deviations from a complex zig-zag pitch pattern that cannot be predicted by simple linear rules. Twenty-seven SZ and 26 matched healthy controls (HC) participated...
November 24, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Matan Mazor, Noam Mazor, Roy Mukamel
Often researchers wish to mark an objective line between study plans that were specified before data acquisition and decisions that were made following data exploration. Contrary to common perception, registering study plans to an online platform prior to data collection does not by itself provide such an objective distinction, even when the registration is time-stamped. Here we adapt a method from the field of cryptography to allow encoding of study plans and predictions within random aspects of the data acquisition process...
November 21, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Elizabeth S Maywood
The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the principal circadian pacemaker in mammals. Cells in the SCN contain cell-autonomous transcriptional-translational feedback loops, which are synchronised to each other and thereby provide a coherent output to direct synchrony of peripheral clocks located in the brain and body. A major difference between these peripheral clocks and the SCN is the requirement for intercellular coupling mechanisms, which confer robustness, stability and amplitude to the system...
November 21, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Saikata Sengupta, Thanh Tu Le, Adam Adam, Vedrana Tadić, Beatrice Stubendorff, Silke Keiner, Linda Kloss, Tino Prell, Otto W Witte, Julian Grosskreutz
Motor neurons are markedly vulnerable to excitotoxicity mostly by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic receptor (AMPAR) stimulation and are principal targets in the neurodegenerative disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, can independently cause neuronal dysfunction by triggering calcium influx through a calcium-permeable complex of IFN-γ receptor 1(IFNGR1) subunit and AMPAR subunit GluR1. This receptor complex is formed via a non-canonical neuron-specific IFN-γ pathway that involves Jak1/Stat1 and Protein Kinase A...
November 20, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Karoline Hovde, Michele Gianatti, Menno P Witter, Jonathan R Whitlock
The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is a multifaceted region of cortex, contributing to several cognitive processes including sensorimotor integration and spatial navigation. Although recent years have seen a considerable rise in the use of rodents, particularly mice, to investigate PPC and related networks, a coherent anatomical definition of PPC in the mouse is still lacking. To address this, we delineated the mouse PPC using cyto- and chemoarchitectural markers from Nissl-, parvalbumin- and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2-staining...
November 20, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Zhujing Shen, Peiyu Huang, Chao Wang, Wei Qian, Xiao Luo, Quanquan Gu, Huan Chen, Hongjuan Wang, Yihong Yang, Minming Zhang
The monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) enzyme metabolizes monoamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine, and its genetic polymorphism (rs1137070) influences its activity level and is associated with smoking behaviors. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of the gene × environment interactions remain largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to explore the interactive effects of the rs1137070 and cigarette smoking on gray matter volume (GMV) and functional connectivity strength (FCS)...
November 20, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Natalie N Nawarawong, Megan Slaker, Matt Muelbl, Alok S Shah, Rachel Chiariello, Lindsay D Nelson, Matthew D Budde, Brian D Stemper, Christopher M Olsen
Each year, traumatic brain injuries (TBI) affect millions worldwide. Mild TBIs (mTBI) are the most prevalent and can lead to a range of neurobehavioral problems, including substance abuse. A single blast exposure, inducing mTBI alters the medial prefrontal cortex, an area implicated in addiction, for at least 30 days post injury in rats. Repeated blast exposures result in greater physiological and behavioral dysfunction than single exposure, however, the impact of repeated mTBI on addiction is unknown. In this study, the effect of mTBI on various stages of oxycodone use was examined...
November 20, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
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