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European Journal of Neuroscience

Enrico Bagnoli, Una FitzGerald
The olfactory bulb (OB) is often affected at very early stages of neurodegenerative disorders, in the so-called 'prodromal' phase. In Parkinson's disease (PD), olfactory disturbances appear years before motor symptoms arise. Additionally, pathological alpha-synuclein aggregates are found in olfactory regions before spreading to other areas of the brain. Being positioned at the frontier between the brain and a potentially hostile environment, could explain the particular vulnerability of the OB. Mitral cells (MCs), the principal projecting neurons of the olfactory system, are involved in the pathogenesis and in the prion-like progression of PD...
August 18, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Veronica Guadagni, Ford Burles, Michele Ferrara, Giuseppe Iaria
The human ability to vicariously share someone else's emotions (i.e., emotional empathy) relies on an extended neural network including regions in the anterior cingulate and insular cortex. Here, we tested the hypothesis that good sleep quality is associated with increased activation in the brain areas underlying emotional empathy. To this aim, we assessed subjective sleep quality in a large sample of healthy young volunteers, and asked participants to complete a computerized emotional empathy task. Then, we asked 16 participants to complete the same task while undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Cole Vonder Haar, Jacqueline-Marie N Ferland, Sukhbir Kaur, Lara-Kirstie Riparip, Susanna Rosi, Catharine A Winstanley
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been linked to the development of numerous psychiatric diseases, including substance use disorder. However, it can be difficult to ascertain from clinical data whether the TBI is cause or consequence of increased addiction vulnerability. Surprisingly few studies have taken advantage of animal models to investigate the causal nature of this relationship. In terms of a plausible neurobiological mechanism through which TBI could magnify the risk of substance dependence, numerous studies indicate that TBI can cause widespread disruption to monoaminergic signaling in striatal regions, and also increases neuroinflammation...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Yoko Momose-Sato, Katsushige Sato
Facial motor neurons of the rat embryo are first generated in rhombomere 4 and then migrate in the caudo-ventral direction. This migration forms a unique axonal trajectory called the genu, a loop of facial motor axons around the abducens nucleus. It is still unclear when and how this unique structure is functionally established during ontogenesis. Using voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) recording and the DiI staining method, we identified neural responses evoked by facial nerve (N.VII) stimulation and examined developmental processes of the facial motor nucleus in E12-E17 rat brainstems...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Dorine Tan, Alvaro Nuno-Perez, Manuel Mameli, Frank J Meye
Lateral habenula (LHb) hyperactivity plays a pivotal role in the emergence of negative emotional states, including those occurring during withdrawal from addictive drugs. We have previously implicated cocaine-driven adaptations at synapses from the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN) to the LHb in this process. Specifically, ionotropic GABAA receptor (R)-mediated neurotransmission at EPN-to-LHb synapses is reduced during cocaine withdrawal, due to impaired vesicle filling. Recent studies have shown that metabotropic GABAB R signaling also controls LHb activity, although its role at EPN-to-LHb synapses during drug withdrawal is unknown...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
E L Lane
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the gold standard treatment for Parkinson's disease. It has earned that title through its highly effective treatment of some of the motor symptoms in the early stages of the disease but it is a far from perfect drug. The inevitable long term treatment that comes with this chronic neurodegenerative condition raises the risk significantly of the development of motor fluctuations including disabling L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Being unsurpassed as a therapy means that understanding the mechanisms of dyskinesia priming and induction is vital to the search for therapies to treat these side effects and allow optimal use of L-DOPA...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Takashi Handa, Akichika Mikami
Human and non-human primates can readily perceive the shape of objects using visual motion. Classically, shape and motion are considered to be separately processed via ventral and dorsal cortical pathways, respectively. However, many lines of anatomical and physiological evidence have indicated that these two pathways are likely to be interconnected at some stage. For motion-defined shape perception, these two pathways should interact with each other because the ventral pathway must utilize motion, which the dorsal pathway processes, to extract shape signal...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Efstratios K Kosmidis, Yiannis F Contoyiannis, Costas Papatheodoropoulos, Fotios K Diakonos
Evidence that neural circuits are operating near criticality has been provided at various levels of brain organization with a presumed role in maximizing information processing and multiscale activity association. Criticality has been linked to excitation at both the single cell and network levels, as action potential generation marks an obvious phase transition from a resting to an excitable state. Using in vitro intracellular recordings, we examine irregular, small amplitude membrane potential fluctuations from CA1 pyramidal neurons of Wistar male rats...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Francesco Turco, Andrea Canessa, Chiara Olivieri, Nicolò G Pozzi, Chiara Palmisano, Gabriele Arnulfo, Giorgio Marotta, Jens Volkmann, Gianni Pezzoli, Ioannis U Isaias
Levodopa-induced dyskinesias are a common and disabling side effect of dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease, but their neural mechanisms in vivo are still poorly understood. Besides striatal pathology, the importance of cortical dysfunction has been increasingly recognized. The supplementary motor area in particular may have a relevant role in dyskinesia onset given its involvement in endogenously-generated actions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the levodopa-related cortical excitability changes along with the emergence of levodopa-induced peak-of-dose dyskinesias in subjects with Parkinson's disease...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Carlotta Fossataro, Valentina Bruno, Serena Giurgola, Nadia Bolognini, Francesca Garbarini
A fundamental component of the self-awareness is the sensation that we are acting with our own body. Thus, a coherent sense of self implies the existence of a tight link between the sense of body ownership and the motor system. Here, we investigated this issue by taking advantage of a well-known experimental manipulation of body ownership, i.e. the rubber hand illusion (RHI), during which the subjects perceive a fake hand as part of their own body. To test the effect of the motor system down-regulation on the RHI-susceptibility, we designed a sham-controlled study, where the primary motor cortex (M1) excitability was modulated by off-line low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)...
August 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jian-Feng Liu, Jingwei Tian, Jun-Xu Li
Drug addiction is an aberrant memory that shares the same memory processes as other memories. Brief exposure to drug-associated cues could result in reconsolidation, a hypothetical process during which original memory could be updated. In contrast, longer exposure times to drug-associated cues could trigger extinction, a process that decreases the conditioned responding. In this review, we discuss the pharmacological and non-pharmacological manipulations on the reconsolidation and extinction that could be used to interfere with drug reward memories...
August 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Eric C Zimmerman, Anthony A Grace
The thalamus has long been recognized for its role in relaying sensory information from the periphery, a function accomplished by its "first-order" nuclei. However, a second category of thalamic nuclei, termed "higher-order" nuclei, have been shown instead to mediate communication between cortical areas. The nucleus reuniens of the midline thalamus (RE) is a higher-order nucleus known to act as a conduit of reciprocal communication between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Alejandro J Estudillo, Jürgen M Kaufmann, Markus Bindemann, Stefan R Schweinberger
Seeing a face being touched in spatial and temporal synchrony with the own face produces a bias in self-recognition, whereby the other face becomes more likely to be perceived as the self. The present study employed event-related potentials to explore whether this enfacement effect reflects initial face encoding, enhanced distinctiveness of the enfaced face, modified self-identity representations, or even later processing stages that are associated with the emotional processing of faces. Participants were stroked in synchrony or asynchrony with an unfamiliar face they observed on a monitor in front of them, in a situation approximating a mirror image...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Gesine Paul, Aideen M Sullivan
Perhaps the most important unmet clinical need in Parkinson's disease (PD) is the development of a therapy that can slow or halt disease progression. Extensive pre-clinical research has provided evidence for the neurorestorative properties of several growth factors, yet only a few have been evaluated in clinical studies. Attempts to achieve neuroprotection by addressing cell-autonomous mechanisms and targeting dopaminergic neurons have been disappointing. Four different trophic factors have so far entered clinical trials in PD: glial cell line-derived growth factor, its close structural and functional analog neurturin, platelet-derived growth factor and cerebral dopaminergic neurotrophic factor...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Boyd R Rorabaugh, Lisanne Sprague, Haval Norman, Sarah L Seeley, Manoranjan S D'Souza
This study assessed the role of regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2) in nicotine-induced anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects using RGS2 wildtype (WT) and RGS2 knockout (KO) mice. RGS2 negatively regulates monoaminergic neurotransmission, which is implicated in the pathology of anxiety and depression. We hypothesized that deletion of RGS2 would enhance nicotine-induced anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects, which were assessed using the elevated plus maze and tail suspension tests, respectively...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Lilach Gorodetski, Reut Zeira, Hagar Lavian, Alon Korngreen
The hyperdirect pathway of the basal ganglia bypasses the striatum, and delivers cortical information directly to the subthalamic nucleus (STN). In rodents, the STN excites the two output nuclei of the basal ganglia, the entopeduncular nucleus (EP) and the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr). Thus, during hyperdirect pathway activation, the STN drives EP firing inhibiting the thalamus. We hypothesized that STN activity could induce long-term changes to the STN->EP synapse. To test this hypothesis, we recorded in the whole-cell mode from neurons in the EP in acute brain slices from rats while electrically stimulating the STN...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Ryan R Wyrofsky, Beverly A S Reyes, Daohai Yu, Lynn G Kirby, Elisabeth J Van Bockstaele
Cannabinoids are capable of modulating mood, arousal, cognition, and behavior, in part via their effects on the noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC). Dysregulation of LC signaling and norepinephrine (NE) efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) can lead to the development of psychiatric disorders, and CB1r deletion results in alterations of α2- and β1-adrenoceptors in the mPFC, suggestive of increased LC activity. To determine how CB1r deletion alters LC signaling, whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was conducted in LC-NE neurons of male and female wild type (WT) and CB1r-knock out (KO) mice...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
M P Medrano, A Pisera Fuster, P Sanchis, N Paez, R O Bernabeu, M P Faillace
The adult zebrafish is considered a useful model for studying mechanisms involved in tissue growth and regeneration. We have characterized cytotoxic damage to the retina of adult zebrafish caused by the injection of cobalt chloride (CoCl2 ) into the vitreous cavity. The CoCl2 concentration we used primarily caused injury to photoreceptors. We observed the complete disappearance of cones, followed by rods, across the retina surface from 28-96 h after CoCl2 injury. The loss of 30% of bipolar cells was also observed by 50 h after lesion (hpl)...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Aleksandra M Herman, Hugo D Critchley, Theodora Duka
Binge drinking is associated with increased impulsivity and altered emotional processing. The current study investigated, in a group of university students who differed in their level of binge drinking, whether the ability to inhibit a pre-potent response and to delay gratification is disrupted in the presence of emotional context. We further tested whether functional connectivity within intrinsic resting-state networks was associated with alcohol use. Higher incidence of binge drinking was associated with enhanced activation of the lateral occipital cortex, angular gyrus, the left frontal pole during successful response inhibition irrespective of emotional context...
August 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Gabrielle C Gregoriou, Sarah A Kissiwaa, Sahil D Patel, Elena E Bagley
Neural circuits in the amygdala are important for associating the positive experience of drug taking with the coincident environmental cues. During abstinence, cue re-exposure activates the amygdala, increases dopamine release in the amygdala and stimulates relapse to drug use in an opioid dependent manner. Neural circuits in the amygdala and the learning that underlies these behaviours are inhibited by GABAergic synaptic inhibition. A specialised subtype of GABAergic neurons in the amygdala are the clusters of intercalated cells...
August 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
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