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European Journal of Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741792/bilateral-lesions-of-the-paraventricular-hypothalamic-nucleus-disrupt-nursing-behavior-in-rabbits
#1
Miguel Domínguez, Raúl Aguilar-Roblero, Gabriela González-Mariscal
Rabbit maternal behavior begins in late pregnancy as the doe constructs a maternal nest where she will deliver the litter and nurse the kits throughout lactation (González-Mariscal et al., 1994, 2016). Nursing occurs only once a day, inside the maternal nest, (González-Mariscal et al., 2013 a; Jilge, 1995) and lasts around three min (González-Mariscal et al., 1994, 2013 b; Lincoln, 1974). These temporal characteristics of nursing remain unchanged throughout lactation despite a marked increase in milk output across the first 20 days and a gradual decline over the following 10 days (González-Mariscal et al...
July 25, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741714/abnormal-fronto-parietal-white-matter-organisation-in-the-superior-longitudinal-fasciculus-branches-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#2
Jacqueline Fitzgerald, Alexander Leemans, Elizabeth Kehoe, Erik O'Hanlon, Louise Gallagher, Jane McGrath
Core features of ASD may be underpinned by disrupted functional and structural neural connectivity. Abnormal fronto-parietal functional connectivity has been widely reported in the literature; this may be underpinned by disrupted microstructural organisation of white matter. The Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus (SLF) is a major fronto-parietal white matter tract, the structure of which has been little studied in ASD. The fronto-parietal projections of this tract (SLF I, II and III) are thought to play an important role in a number of cognitive functions including attention and visuospatial processing...
July 25, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715135/chronic-pharmacological-blockade-of-the-na-ca-2-exchanger-modulates-the-growth-and-development-of-the-purkinje-cell-dendritic-arbor-in-mouse-cerebellar-slice-cultures
#3
Pradeep Sherkhane, Josef P Kapfhammer
The Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) is a bi-directional plasma membrane antiporter involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis in eukaryotes. NCX has three isoforms, NCX1-3, and all of them are expressed in the cerebellum. Immunostaining on cerebellar slice cultures indicates that NCX is widely expressed in the cerebellum, including expression in Purkinje cells. The pharmacological blockade of the forward mode of NCX (Ca(2+) efflux mode) by Bepridil moderately inhibited growth and development of Purkinje cell dendritic arbor in cerebellar slice cultures...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715131/transcriptome-analysis-suggests-a-role-for-the-differential-expression-of-cerebral-aquaporins-and-the-mapk-signalling-pathway-in-human-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#4
Mootaz M Salman, Mariam A Sheilabi, Dev Bhattacharyya, Philip Kitchen, Alex C Conner, Roslyn M Bill, M Nicola Woodroofe, Matthew T Conner, Alessandra P Princivalle
Epilepsies are common disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), affecting up to 2% of the global population. Pharmaco-resistance is a major clinical challenge affecting about 30% of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. Water homeostasis has been shown crucial for regulation of neuronal excitability. The control of water movement is achieved through a family of small integral membrane channel proteins called aquaporins (AQPs). Despite the fact that changes in water homeostasis occur in sclerotic hippocampi of people with TLE, the expression of AQPs in the epileptic brain is not fully characterised...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715119/lateral-prefrontal-orbitofrontal-cortex-has-different-roles-in-norm-compliance-in-gain-and-loss-domains-a-transcranial-current-stimulation-tdcs-study
#5
Yunlu Yin, Hongbo Yu, Zhongbin Su, Yuan Zhang, Xiaolin Zhou
Sanction is used by almost all known human societies to enforce fairness norm in resource distribution. Previous studies have consistently shown that the lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) and the adjacent orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) play a causal role in mediating the effect of sanction threat on norm compliance. However, most of these studies were conducted in the gain domain in which resources are distributed among members. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying norm compliance in the loss domain in which individual sacrifices are needed...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715094/drosophila-mutants-lacking-octopamine-exhibit-impairment-in-aversive-olfactory-associative-learning
#6
Konstantin G Iliadi, Natalia Iliadi, Gabrielle L Boulianne
Octopamine is a biogenic amine in invertebrates that is considered a functional homolog of vertebrate norepinephrine, acting as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator and neurohormone. Octopamine regulates many physiological processes such as metabolism, reproduction and different types of behaviour including learning and memory. Previous studies in insects led to the notion that acquisition of an olfactory memory depends on the octopaminergic system during appetitive (reward-based) learning, but not in the case of aversive (punishment-based) learning...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715089/drosophila-mutants-lacking-octopamine-exhibit-impairment-in-aversive-olfactory-associative-learning-commentary-on-iliadi-et%C3%A2-al-2017
#7
Timothy J Mosca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708260/effect-of-optogenetic-manipulation-of-accumbal-medium-spiny-neurons-expressing-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-cocaine-induced-behavioral-sensitization
#8
Byeong Jun Kang, Shelly Sooyun Song, Lei Wen, Ki-Pyo Hong, George J Augustine, Ja-Hyun Baik
Repetitive exposure to addictive drugs causes synaptic modification in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system. Dopamine D1 receptors (D1R) or D2 receptors (D2R) expressed in the medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) play critical roles in the control of addictive behaviors. Optogenetic activation of D2R-expressing MSNs (D2R-MSNs) in the NAc previously demonstrated that these neurons play a key role in withdrawal-induced plasticity. Here, we examined the effect of optogenetic inhibition of D2R-MSNs in the NAc on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization...
July 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700113/na-k-atpase-coupled-to-endothelin-receptor-type-b-stimulates-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-via-lactate-signaling
#9
Nguyen H Tu, Tayo Katano, Shinji Matsumura, Nobuo Funatsu, Vuong Minh Pham, Jun-Ichi Fujisawa, Seiji Ito
We have recently demonstrated that endothelin (ET) is functionally coupled to Nax , a Na(+) concentration-sensitive Na(+) channel for lactate release via ET receptor type B (ETB R) and is involved in peripheral nerve regeneration in a sciatic nerve transection-regeneration mouse model. Nax is known to interact directly with Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, leading to lactate production in the brain. To investigate the role of Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase in peripheral nerve regeneration, in the present study we applied ouabain, a Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase inhibitor, to the cut site for 4 weeks with an osmotic pump...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700099/potential-avenues-for-exercise-to-activate-episodic-memory-related-pathways-a-narrative-review
#10
REVIEW
Paul D Loprinzi, Meghan K Edwards, Emily Frith
Memory function plays an important role in activities of daily living, and consequently, quality and quantity of life. In this narrative review, we discuss the anatomical components of episodic memory, including the structure of the hippocampus and the routes of communication to and from this structure. We also highlight cellular traces of memory, such as the engram cell and pathway. To provide etiological insight, the biological mechanisms of episodic memory are discussed, including factors subserving memory encoding (e...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700096/peak-alpha-frequency-is-a-neural-marker-of-cognitive-function-across-the-autism-spectrum
#11
Abigail Dickinson, Charlotte DiStefano, Damla Senturk, Shafali Spurling Jeste
Cognitive function varies substantially and serves as a key predictor of outcome and response to intervention in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet we know little about the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie cognitive function in children with ASD. The dynamics of neuronal oscillations in the alpha range (6-12 Hz) are associated with cognition in typical development. Peak alpha frequency is also highly sensitive to developmental changes in neural networks, which underlie cognitive function, and therefore, it holds promise as a developmentally sensitive neural marker of cognitive function in ASD...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699247/advance-mr-imaging-in-sports-related-concussion-and-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-ready-for-clinical-use-commentary-on-tremblay-et%C3%A2-al-2017
#12
Sven Haller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699218/impaired-corticomuscular-coherence-during-isometric-elbow-flexion-contractions-in-humans-with-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Sylvain Cremoux, Jessica Tallet, Fabien Dal Maso, Eric Berton, David Amarantini
After spinal cord injury (SCI), the reorganization of the neuromuscular system leads to increased antagonist muscles' co-activation-that is, increased antagonist vs. agonist muscles activation ratio-during voluntary contractions. Increased muscle co-activation is supposed to result from reduced cortical influences on spinal mechanisms inhibiting antagonist muscles. The assessment of the residual interactions between cortical and muscles activity with corticomuscular coherence (CMC) in participants with SCI producing different force levels may shed new lights on the regulation of muscle co-activation...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699187/does-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-enhance-corticospinal-excitability-of-the-motor-cortex-in-healthy-individuals-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Thusharika Dissanayaka, Maryam Zoghi, Michael Farrell, Gary F Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Numerous studies have explored the effects of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) - including anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS), cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (c-tDCS), transcranial alternative current stimulation (tACS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) - on corticospinal excitability (CSE) in healthy populations. However, the efficacy of these techniques and their optimal parameters for producing robust results has not been studied...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677242/striatal-cholinergic-interneurons-and-parkinson-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
Asami Tanimura, Tristano Pancani, Sean Austin O Lim, Cecilia Tubert, Alexandra E Melendez, Weixing Shen, Dalton James Surmeier
Giant, aspiny cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) have long been known to be key nodes in the striatal circuitry controlling goal-directed actions and habits. In recent years, new experimental approaches, like optogenetics and monosynaptic rabies virus mapping, have expanded our understanding of how ChIs contribute to the striatal activity underlying action selection and the interplay of dopaminergic and cholinergic signaling. These approaches also have begun to reveal how ChI function is distorted in disease states affecting the basal ganglia, like Parkinson's disease (PD)...
July 5, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677227/the-atypical-dopamine-receptor-agonist-skf-83959-enhances-hippocampal-and-prefrontal-cortical-neuronal-network-activity-in-a-rat-model-of-cognitive-dysfunction
#16
Melissa L Perreault, Theresa Fan, Tomek J Banasikowski, Anthony A Grace, Susan R George
Deficits in neuronal network synchrony in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex have been widely demonstrated in disorders of cognitive dysfunction, including schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The atypical dopamine agonist SKF 83959 has been shown to increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor signalling and suppress activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3 in PFC, two processes important to learning and memory. The purpose of this study was to therefore evaluate the impact of SKF 83959 on oscillatory deficits in methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) rat model of schizophrenia...
July 5, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677201/everyday-memory-towards-a-translationally-effective-method-of-modelling-the-encoding-forgetting-and-enhancement-of-memory
#17
Mio Nonaka, Richard Fitzpatrick, Jennifer Lapira, Damian Wheeler, Patrick A Spooner, Marta Corcoles-Parada, Mónica Muñoz-López, Tim Tully, Marco Peters, Richard G M Morris
The testing of cognitive enhancers could benefit from the development of novel behavioural tasks that display better translational relevance for daily memory and permit the examination of potential targets in a within-subjects manner with less variability. We here outline an optimized spatial 'everyday memory' task. We calibrate it systematically by interrogating certain well-established determinants of memory and consider its potential for revealing novel features of encoding-related gene activation. Rats were trained in an event arena in which food was hidden in sandwells in a different location everyday...
July 5, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661076/identification-of-lateralized-compensatory-neural-activities-within-the-social-brain-due-to-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-adolescent-males
#18
Vigneshwaran Subbaraju, Suresh Sundaram, Sundararajan Narasimhan
Socio-behavioral impairments are important characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and MRI based studies are pursued to identify a neurobiological basis behind these conditions. This paper presents an MRI based study undertaken to (i) identify the differences in brain activities due to ASD, (ii) verify whether such differences exist within the "social brain" circuit which is hypothesized to be responsible for social functions and (iii) uncover potential compensatory mechanisms within the identified differences in brain activities...
June 29, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644911/interictal-oscillations-and-focal-epileptic-disorders
#19
Maxime Lévesque, Pariya Salami, Zahra Shiri, Massimo Avoli
Neuronal network oscillations represent a main feature of the brain activity recorded in the EEG under normal and pathological conditions such as epilepsy. Specific oscillations occur between seizures in patients and in animal models of focal epilepsy, and thus they are termed interictal. According to their shape and intrinsic signal frequency, interictal oscillations are classified as spikes and high frequency oscillations (HFOs). Interictal spikes are recorded in the "wideband" EEG signal and consist of large-amplitude events that usually last less than 1 s; HFOs, in contrast, are extracted by amplifying the appropriately filtered EEG signal, and are usually categorized as ripples (80-200 Hz) and fast ripples (250-500 Hz)...
June 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612996/crf1-and-crf2-receptors-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-stria-terminalis-differently-modulate-the-baroreflex-function-in-unanesthetized-rats
#20
Leandro A Oliveira, Jeferson Almeida, Lucas Gomes-de-Souza, Ricardo Benini, Carlos C Crestani
The baroreflex is an important blood pressure regulating mechanism. The bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) modulates the baroreflex function. However, the local BNST neurochemical mechanisms involved in control of baroreflex responses are not completely understood. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors within the BNST in baroreflex control of heart rate in unanesthetized rats. For this, we evaluated effects of bilateral microinjection into the BNST of either the selective CRF1 receptor antagonist CP376395 (5 nmol/100 nL) or the selective CRF2 receptor antagonist antisauvagine-30 (5 nmol/100 nL) in bradycardiac response evoked by blood pressure increases caused by intravenous infusion of phenylephrine as well as tachycardiac response to blood pressure decrease caused by intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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