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European Journal of Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406538/acetylcholine-modulates-gamma-frequency-oscillations-in-the-hippocampus-by-activation-of-muscarinic-m1-receptors
#1
Ruth T Betterton, Lisa M Broad, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova, Jack R Mellor
Modulation of gamma oscillations is important for the processing of information and the disruption of gamma oscillations is a prominent feature of schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Gamma oscillations are generated by the interaction of excitatory and inhibitory neurons where their precise frequency and amplitude are controlled by the balance of excitation and inhibition. Acetylcholine enhances the intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons and supresses both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission but the net modulatory effect on gamma oscillations is not known...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394483/corticobulbar-projections-from-distinct-motor-cortical-areas-to-the-reticular-formation-in-macaque-monkeys
#2
Michela Fregosi, Alessandro Contestabile, Adja Hamadjida, Eric M Rouiller
Corticospinal and corticobulbar descending pathways act in parallel with brainstem systems, such as the reticulospinal tact, to ensure the control of voluntary movements via direct or indirect influences onto spinal motoneurons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the corticobulbar projections from distinct motor cortical areas onto different nuclei of the reticular formation. Seven adult macaque monkeys were analyzed for the location of corticobulbar axonal boutons, and one monkey for reticulospinal neurons' location...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394475/dynamical-entrainment-of-corticospinal-excitability-during-rhythmic-movement-observation-a-tms-study
#3
Manuel Varlet, Giacomo Novembre, Peter E Keller
Spontaneous modulations of corticospinal excitability during action observation have been interpreted as evidence for the activation of internal motor representations equivalent to the observed action. Alternatively or complementary to this perspective, growing evidence shows that motor activity during observation of rhythmic movements can be modulated by direct visuomotor couplings and dynamical entrainment. In-phase and anti-phase entrainment spontaneously occur, characterized by cyclic movements proceeding simultaneously in the same (in-phase) or opposite (anti-phase) direction...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394458/the-retrosplenial-cortex-and-object-recency-memory-in-the-rat
#4
Anna L Powell, Seralynne D Vann, Cristian M Olarte-Sánchez, Lisa Kinnavane, Moira Davies, Eman Amin, John P Aggleton, Andrew J D Nelson
It has been proposed that the retrosplenial cortex forms part of a "where/when" information network. The present study focussed on the related issue of whether retrosplenial cortex also contributes to "what/when" information, by examining object recency memory. In Experiment 1, rats with retrosplenial lesions were found to be impaired at distinguishing the temporal order of objects presented in a continuous series ('Within-Block' condition). The same lesioned rats could, however, distinguish between objects that had been previously presented in one of two discrete blocks ('Between-Block' condition)...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394447/mu-opioid-receptor-signaling-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-increases-responsiveness-of-satiety-modulated-lateral-hypothalamus-neurons
#5
Shashank Tandon, Kristen A Keefe, Sharif A Taha
Opioid signaling in the nucleus accumbens shell (sNAcc) has been implicated in hedonic feeding and binge-eating behavior. The sNAcc projects to the lateral hypothalamus (LH), and this pathway has been suggested to modulate palatability-driven feeding behavior. In this study, we investigated the effects of sNAcc mu opioid receptor stimulation on firing rates of LH neurons in previously sated rats. Neural firing in the LH was recorded while food-deprived rats performed an operant task to obtain sweetened Intralipid (a 4% fat emulsion containing 5% sucrose) before and after bilateral sNAcc infusion of either a mu opioid receptor (MOR) agonist, [D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO), or a saline control solution...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394438/stimulus-processing-and-error-monitoring-in-more-able-kindergarteners-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-a-short-review-and-a-preliminary-erp-study
#6
So Hyun Kim, Jennie Grammer, Nurit Benrey, Frederick Morrison, Catherine Lord
Deficits in executive functions (EF) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been identified. However, there is limited evidence about patterns of deficits in EF-related skills, especially at the neurobiological level, in young children with ASD and little is known about how these skills are related to other domains of functioning and symptom severity. In this study, we provide a focused review of EF-related Event-Related Potentials (ERP) studies in children with ASD, accompanied by preliminary data for neurophysiological correlates of EF on a child-friendly Go/No-go task...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394432/immunofluorescence-reveals-unusual-patterns-of-labelling-for-connexin43-localized-to-calbindin-d28k-positive-interstitial-cells-in-the-pineal-gland
#7
D D Tsao, S G Wang, B D Lynn, J I Nagy
Gap junctions between cells in the pineal gland have been described ultrastructurally, but their connexin constituents have not been fully characterized. We used immunofluorescence in combination with markers of pineal cells to document the cellular localization of connexin43 (Cx43). Immunofluorescence labelling of Cx43 with several different antibodies was widely distributed throughout the pineal, whereas another connexin examined, connexin26, was not found in pineal but only in surrounding leptomeninges. Labelling apparently associated with plasma membranes was visualized either as fine Cx43-puncta (1-2 μm) or as unusually large pools of Cx43 ranging up to 4-7 μm in diameter or length...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391647/probabilistic-versus-deterministic-fiber-tracking-and-the-influence-of-different-seed-regions-to-delineate-cerebellar-thalamic-fibers-in-deep-brain-stimulation
#8
Juergen R Schlaier, Anton L Beer, Rupert Faltermeier, Claudia Fellner, Kathrin Steib, Max Lange, Mark W Greenlee, Alexander T Brawanski, Judith M Anthofer
This study compared tractography approaches for identifying cerebellar-thalamic fiber bundles relevant for planning target sites for deep brain stimulation (DBS). In particular, probabilistic and deterministic tracking of the dentate-rubro-thalamic tract (DRTT) and differences between the spatial courses of the DRTT and the cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTC) tract were compared. Six patients with movement disorders were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including two sets of diffusion-weighted images (12 and 64 directions)...
April 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391639/temporal-properties-of-colour-opponent-receptive-fields-in-the-cat-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#9
Péter Kóbor, Zoltán Petykó, Ildikó Telkes, Paul R Martin, Péter Buzás
The primordial form of mammalian colour vision relies on opponent interactions between inputs from just two cone types, "blue" (S-) and "green" (ML-) cones. We recently described the spatial receptive field structure of colour opponent blue-ON cells from the lateral geniculate nucleus of cats. Functional inputs from the opponent cone types were spatially coextensive and equally weighted, supporting their high chromatic and low achromatic sensitivity. Here, we studied relative cone weights, temporal frequency tuning and visual latency of cat blue-ON cells and non-opponent achromatic cells to temporally modulated cone-isolating and achromatic stimuli...
April 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378515/cross-sensory-modulation-of-alpha-oscillatory-activity-suppression-idling-and-default-resource-allocation
#10
Rosanne Maria van Diepen, Ali Mazaheri
Alpha oscillations (~10 Hz) have been suggested to have an inhibitory influence on stimulus processing within the context of attention being coordinated across space, with an increase in the power of alpha activity occurring in spatially irrelevant regions. However, with respect to cross-sensory attention (distribution of attention to different sensory modalities) an increase in alpha activity from baseline has not yet been definitively linked to active inhibition of distraction. In the current study, we examined the role of top-down alpha modulation in facilitating and suppressing stimulus processing between the visual and auditory domain...
April 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378435/a-single-administration-of-the-hallucinogen-4-acetoxy-dimethyltryptamine-prevents-the-shift-to-a-drug-dependent-state-and-the-expression-of-withdrawal-aversions-in-rodents
#11
Hector Vargas-Perez, Taryn E Grieder, Ryan Ting-A-Kee, Geith Maal-Bared, Michal Chwalek, Derek van der Kooy
Despite several studies suggesting the therapeutic use of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors type 2A (5-HT2A ) agonists in the treatment of substance use disorders, the neurobiological basis accounting for such effects are still unknown. It has been observed that chronic exposure to drugs of abuse produces molecular and cellular adaptations in ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons, mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These BDNF-induced adaptations in the VTA are associated with the establishment of aversive withdrawal motivation that leads to a drug-dependent state...
April 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378375/dopaminergic-activation-anticipates-daily-nursing-in-the-rabbit
#12
J Aguirre, E Meza, M Caba
Maternal care is a motivated behavior and in the rabbit it is restricted to the spontaneous return of the mother to nurse her pups for just a few minutes once a day. Previously we have reported neural activation of brain areas and neuroendocrine cells after nursing. However, this daily spontaneous return suggests that the mother is in a high motivational state to nurse her pups. Here we hypothesized that during anticipation of nursing there is an activation of dopaminergic neurons of the mesolimbic system and in their target areas...
April 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370664/an-acute-bout-of-exercise-modulates-both-intracortical-and-interhemispheric-excitability
#13
J L Neva, K E Brown, C S Mang, B A Francisco, L A Boyd
Primary motor cortex (M1) excitability is modulated following a single session of cycling exercise. Specifically, short-interval intracortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation are altered following a session of cycling, suggesting that exercise affects the excitability of varied cortical circuits. Yet we do not know whether a session of exercise also impacts the excitability of interhemispheric circuits between, and other intracortical circuits within, M1. Here we present two experiments designed to address this gap in knowledge...
March 30, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370498/bilateral-rolandic-operculum-processing-underlying-heartbeat-awareness-reflects-changes-in-bodily-self-consciousness
#14
Maria Laura Blefari, Roberto Martuzzi, Roy Salomon, Javier Bello-Ruiz, Bruno Herbelin, Andrea Serino, Olaf Blanke
Exteroceptive bodily signals (including tactile, proprioceptive, and visual signals) are important information contributing to self-consciousness. Moreover, prominent theories proposed that visceral signals about internal bodily states are equally or even more important. Neuroimaging studies have described several brain regions which process signals related to bodily self-consciousness (BSC) based on the integration of exteroceptive signals (e.g. the premotor cortex, the angular gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus and the extrastriate body area), and that another brain region, the insula/operculum which is involved in interoception and interoceptive awareness, processes signals critical for self-awareness...
March 30, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370471/motor-deficits-and-beta-oscillations-are-dissociable-in-an-alpha-synuclein-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Ivani Brys, Jessica Nunes, Romulo Fuentes
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor symptoms resulting from chronic loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway. The over expression of the protein alpha-synuclein in the substantia nigra has been used to induce progressive dopaminergic neuronal loss and to reproduce key histopathological and temporal features of PD in animal models. However the neurophysiological aspects of the alpha-synuclein PD model have been poorly characterized. Hereby we performed chronic in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the corticostriatal circuit of rats injected with viral vector to over express alpha-synuclein in the right substantia nigra...
March 30, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370640/native-vs-second-language-discrimination-in-the-modulation-of-the-n400-n400m
#16
Irina Anurova, Perttu Immonen
The N400 evoked response component, initially proposed as a marker of semantic incongruity, was later demonstrated to be evoked by various potentially meaningful stimuli, such as words or pseudowords. The present study tested whether the N400 elicited by isolated words and pseudowords was modulated by task instructions thus reflecting controlled processing of linguistic information. In two language discrimination tasks, Finnish adults with English as their second language detected either Finnish or English nouns in a list of Finnish and English words and pseudowords...
March 29, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370755/is-territorial-expansion-a-mechanism-for-crossmodal-plasticity
#17
M A Meredith, H R Clemo, S G Lomber
Crossmodal plasticity is the phenomenon whereby, following sensory damage or deprivation, the lost sensory function of a brain region is replaced by one of the remaining senses. One of several proposed mechanisms for this phenomenon involves the expansion of a more active brain region at the expense of another whose sensory inputs have been damaged or lost. This territorial expansion hypothesis was examined in the present study. The cat ectosylvian visual area (AEV) borders the auditory field of the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (FAES), which becomes visually reorganized in the early deaf...
March 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370677/olfactory-evaluation-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-correlation-with-neurocognitive-performance-and-endothelial-function
#18
Alessandro Tonacci, Rosa M Bruno, Lorenzo Ghiadoni, Lorenza Pratali, Nicoletta Berardi, Gloria Tognoni, Simona Cintoli, Leda Volpi, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Rosa Sicari, Stefano Taddei, Lamberto Maffei, Eugenio Picano
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is an intermediate condition between normal aging and dementia, associated with an increased risk of progression into the latter within months or years. Olfactory impairment, a well-known biomarker for neurodegeneration, might be present in the condition early, possibly representing a signal for future pathological onset. Our study aimed at evaluating olfactory function in MCI and healthy controls in relation to neurocognitive performance and endothelial function. A total of 85 individuals with MCI and 41 healthy controls, matched for age and gender, were recruited...
March 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370506/feeding-during-the-rest-phase-promotes-circadian-conflict-in-nuclei-that-control-energy-homeostasis-and-sleep-wake-cycle-in-rats
#19
Oscar D Ramirez-Plascencia, Nadia Saderi, Carolina Escobar, Roberto C Salgado-Delgado
Food intake during the rest phase promotes circadian desynchrony, which has been associated with metabolic diseases. However, the link between circadian rhythm and metabolic alterations is not well understood. To investigate this issue, we explored the circadian rhythm of c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR) in rats fed during the day, during the night or with free access to food for 3 weeks. The analysis was focused on the hypothalamic nuclei, which are interconnected and involved in the control of energy homeostasis and/or arousal: lateral hypothalamus (LH), perifornical area, arcuate, ventrolateral pre-optic (VLPO) and tuberomammillary nuclei...
March 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332742/computational-neuroscience-in-the-european-journal-of-neuroscience
#20
EDITORIAL
Panayiota Poirazi, Stefan Remy, Athanasia Papoutsi
Many of us played computer games during our childhood and youth, and some of us still do, while others decided to do something seemingly more useful - like trying to better understand the mammalian brain. Many computer games have a linear progression; individual levels are subdivisions of a larger, more complex world. The practical advantage of having levels is that they divide a game into manageable sections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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