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European Journal of Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644914/the-role-of-expectation-in-multisensory-body-representation-neural-evidence
#1
Francesca Ferri, Ettore Ambrosini, Paola Pinti, Arcangelo Merla, Marcello Costantini
Sensory events contribute to body ownership, the feeling that the body belongs to me. However, the encoding of sensory events is not only reactive, but also proactive in that our brain generates prediction about forthcoming stimuli. In previous studies we have shown that prediction of sensory events is a sufficient condition to induce the sense of body ownership. In this study we investigate the underlying neural mechanisms. Participants were seated with their right arm resting upon a table just below another smaller table...
June 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644911/interictal-oscillations-and-focal-epileptic-disorders
#2
Maxime Lévesque, Pariya Salami, Zahra Shiri, Massimo Avoli
Neuronal network oscillations represent a main feature of the brain activity recorded in the EEG under normal and pathological conditions such as epilepsy. Specific oscillations occur between seizures in patients and in animal models of focal epilepsy, and thus they are termed interictal. According to their shape and intrinsic signal frequency, interictal oscillations are classified as spikes and high frequency oscillations (HFOs). Interictal spikes are recorded in the "wideband" EEG signal and consist of large-amplitude events that usually last less than 1 s; HFOs, in contrast, are extracted by amplifying the appropriately filtered EEG signal, and are usually categorized as ripples (80-200 Hz) and fast ripples (250-500 Hz)...
June 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639261/the-effects-of-ethanol-on-diverse-components-of-choice-in-the-rat-reward-discrimination-preference-and-relative-valuation
#3
Justin J McGraw, Luke C Zona, Howard C Cromwell
Alcohol consumption impairs judgment and choice. How alcohol alters these crucial processes is primarily unknown. Choice can be fractionated into different components including reward discrimination, preference and relative valuation that can function together or in isolation depending upon diverse factors including choice context. We examined the diverse components and contextual effects by analyzing the effects of alcohol drinking on choice behavior in a task with a reduced level of temporal and spatial constraints...
June 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612996/crf1-and-crf2-receptors-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-stria-terminalis-differently-modulate-the-baroreflex-function-in-unanesthetized-rats
#4
Leandro A Oliveira, Jeferson Almeida, Lucas Gomes-de-Souza, Ricardo Benini, Carlos C Crestani
The baroreflex is an important blood pressure regulating mechanism. The bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) modulates the baroreflex function. However, the local BNST neurochemical mechanisms involved in control of baroreflex responses are not completely understood. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors within the BNST in baroreflex control of heart rate in unanesthetized rats. For this, we evaluated effects of bilateral microinjection into the BNST of either the selective CRF1 receptor antagonist CP376395 (5nmol/100nL) or the selective CRF2 receptor antagonist antisauvagine-30 (5nmol/100nL) in bradycardiac response evoked by blood pressure increases caused by intravenous infusion of phenylephrine as well as tachycardiac response to blood pressure decrease caused by intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612962/amygdalar-expression-of-the-microrna-mir-101a-and-its-target-ezh2-contribute-to-rodent-anxiety-like-behavior
#5
Joshua L Cohen, Nateka L Jackson, Mary E Ballestas, William M Webb, Farah D Lubin, Sarah M Clinton
A greater understanding of neural mechanisms contributing to anxiety is needed in order to develop better therapeutic interventions. The current study interrogates a novel molecular mechanism that shapes anxiety-like behavior, demonstrating that the microRNA miR-101a-3p and its target, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2) in the amygdala, contribute to rodent anxiety-like behavior. We utilized rats that were selectively-bred for differences in emotionality and stress reactivity, showing that high novelty responding (HR) rats, which display low trait anxiety, have lower miR-101a-3p levels in the amygdala compared to low novelty responding (LR) rats that characteristically display high trait anxiety...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612959/early-life-decline-in-neurogenesis-markers-and-age-related-changes-of-trkb-splice-variant-expression-in-the-human-subependymal-zone
#6
Christin Weissleder, Mari A Kondo, Chunhui Yang, Samantha J Fung, Debora A Rothmond, Matthew W Wong, Glenda M Halliday, Mary M Herman, Joel E Kleinman, Maree J Webster, Cynthia Shannon Weickert
Neurogenesis in the subependymal zone (SEZ) declines across the human lifespan and reduced local neurotrophic support is speculated to be a contributing factor. While tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) signalling is critical for neuronal differentiation, maturation and survival, little is known about subependymal TrkB expression changes during postnatal human life. In this study, we used quantitative PCR and in situ hybridisation to determine expression of the cell proliferation marker Ki67, the immature neuron marker doublecortin (DCX) and both full-length (TrkB-TK+) and truncated TrkB receptors (TrkB-TK-) in the human SEZ from infancy to middle age (n=26-35, 41 days-43 years)...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612953/eye-movements-sensori-motor-adaptation-and-cerebellar-dependent-learning-in-autism-towards-potential-biomarkers-and-sub-phenotypes
#7
Edward G Freedman, John J Foxe
Because of the wide range of symptoms expressed in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their idiosyncratic severity it is unlikely that a single remedial approach will be universally effective. Resolution of this dilemma requires identifying subgroups within the autism spectrum, based on symptom set and severity, on an underlying neuro-structural difference, and on specific behavioral dysfunction. This will provide critical insight into the disorder and may lead to better diagnoses, and more targeted remediation in these subphenotypes of people with ASD...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612411/deficits-in-temporal-processing-in-mice-prenatally-exposed-to-valproic-acid
#8
Julieta Acosta, Marcos A Campolongo, Christian Höcht, Amaicha M Depino, Diego A Golombek, Patricia V Agostino
Temporal processing in the seconds-to-minutes range, known as interval timing, is a crucial cognitive function that requires activation of cortico-striatal circuits via dopaminergic-glutamatergic pathways. In humans, both children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) present alterations in their estimation of time intervals. At present, there are no records of interval timing studies in animal models of ASD. Hence, the objective of the present work was to evaluate interval timing in a mouse model of prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) - a treatment used to induce human-like autistic features in rodent models...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612392/linking-activity-dependent-control-of-axon-initial-segment-structure-to-the-cytoskeleton
#9
Oriol Ros, Xavier Nicol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612374/measuring-mimicry-general-corticospinal-facilitation-during-observation-of-naturalistic-behaviour
#10
J E van Schaik, L M Sacheli, H Bekkering, I Toni, S M Aglioti
Mimicry of others' postures and behaviours forms an implicit yet indispensable component of social interactions. However, whereas numerous behavioural studies have investigated the occurrence of mimicry and its social sensitivity, the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure corticospinal facilitation during a naturalistic behaviour observation task adapted from the behavioural mimicry literature. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in participants' right hands were measured as they observed stimulus videos of a confederate describing photographs...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612373/reduced-reward-related-neural-response-to-mimicry-in-individuals-with-autism
#11
C-T Hsu, J Neufeld, B Chakrabarti
Mimicry is a facilitator of social bonds in humans, from infancy. This facilitation is made possible through changing the reward value of social stimuli, e.g. we like and affiliate more with people who mimic us. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are marked by difficulties in forming social bonds. In this study, we investigate whether the reward-related neural response to being mimicked is altered in individuals with ASD, using a simple conditioning paradigm. Multiple studies in humans and nonhuman primates have established a crucial role for the ventral striatal (VS) region in responding to rewards...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608495/controlling-food-seeking-in-the-presence-of-food-cues
#12
Stephanie Baines
Rates of obesity in the human population have reached epidemic proportions (WHO, 2015). It has been suggested that the abundance of available food is one factor underlying increasing rates of weight gain (Hill & Peters, 1998). The preponderance of food "cues", stimuli that elicit food seeking and consumption behaviour, in our obesogenic environment, however, might also be a vital contributor (Hill & Peters, 1998). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570024/commentary-on-article-by-stuart-et%C3%A2-al-2017-direct-and-indirect-effects-of-attention-and-visual-function-on-gait-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease-influence-of-task-and-turning
#13
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570010/targeting-microtubules-in-axonal-re-and-degeneration
#14
Roland Brandt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561933/cx36-cx43-and-cx45-in-mouse-and-rat-cerebellar-cortex-species-specific-expression-compensation-in-cx36-null-mice-and-co-localization-in-neurons-vs-glia
#15
J I Nagy, J E Rash
Electrical synapses formed by connexin36 (Cx36)-containing gap junctions between interneurons in the cerebellar cortex have been well characterized, including those formed between basket cells and between Golgi cells, and there is gene reporter-based evidence for the expression of connexin45 (Cx45) in the cerebellar molecular layer. Here, we used immunofluorescence approaches to further investigate expression patterns of Cx36 and Cx45 in this layer, and to examine localization relationships of these connexins with each other and with glial connexin43 (Cx43)...
May 31, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548285/neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-in-rat-increases-doublecortin-concentration-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid
#16
Catherine Brégère, Urs Fisch, Martin H Sailer, Wolfgang S Lieb, Laurie Chicha, Fabienne Goepfert, Thomas Kremer, Raphael Guzman
Doublecortin (DCX) is a microtubule-associated protein widely used as an indicator of neurogenesis in immunohistochemical analyses of the postmortem adult brain. A recent study reported that DCX can be quantified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from healthy rats between postnatal day 0 (P0) and P30. However, it is currently unclear whether the concentration of DCX in the CSF (CSF-DCX) may represent a measure of endogenous neurogenesis. To address this question, the present study examined the impact of a neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury, known to induce neurogenesis, on CSF-DCX...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548278/neuropeptide-s-precursor-knockout-mice-display-memory-and-arousal-deficits
#17
Xiaobin Liu, Wei Si, Celia Garau, Kay Jüngling, Hans-Christian Pape, Stefan Schulz, Rainer K Reinscheid
Activation of neuropeptide S (NPS) signaling has been found to produce arousal, wakefulness, anxiolytic-like behaviors, and enhanced memory formation. In order to further study physiological functions of the NPS system, we generated NPS precursor knockout mice by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. NPS(-/-) mice were viable, fertile, and anatomically normal, when compared to their wild-type and heterozygous littermates. The total number of NPS neurons-although no longer synthesizing the peptide - was not affected by the knockout, as analyzed in NPS(-/-) /NPS(EGFP) double transgenic mice...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544058/beyond-differences-in-means-robust-graphical-methods-to-compare-two-groups-in-neuroscience
#18
Guillaume A Rousselet, Cyril R Pernet, Rand R Wilcox
If many changes are necessary to improve the quality of neuroscience research, one relatively simple step could have great pay-offs: to promote the adoption of detailed graphical methods, combined with robust inferential statistics. Here we illustrate how such methods can lead to a much more detailed understanding of group differences than bar graphs and t-tests on means. To complement the neuroscientist's toolbox, we present two powerful tools that can help us understand how groups of observations differ: the shift function and the difference asymmetry function...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544049/tone-identification-behavior-in-rattus-norvergicus-muscarinic-receptor-blockage-lowers-responsiveness-in-non-target-selective-neurons-while-nicotinic-receptor-blockage-selectively-lowers-target-responses
#19
Ezekiel P Carpenter-Hyland, Jackson Griffeth, Kristopher Bunting, Alvin Terry, Almira Vazdarjanova, David T Blake
Learning to associate a stimulus with reinforcement causes plasticity in primary sensory cortex. Neural activity caused by the associated stimulus is paired with reinforcement, but population analyses have not found a selective increase in response to that stimulus. Responses to other stimuli increase as much as, or more than, responses to the associated stimulus. Here, we applied population analysis at a new time point, and additionally evaluated whether cholinergic receptor blockers interacted with the plastic changes in cortex...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544147/short-term-fasting-promotes-insulin-expression-in-rat-hypothalamus
#20
Tamara B Dakic, Tanja V Jevdjovic, Mina I Peric, Ivana M Bjelobaba, Milica B Markelic, Bojana S Milutinovic, Iva V Lakic, Nebojsa I Jasnic, Jelena D Djordjevic, Predrag Z Vujovic
In the hypothalamus, insulin takes on many roles involved in energy homoeostasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine hypothalamic insulin expression during the initial phase of the metabolic response to fasting. Hypothalamic insulin content was assessed by both radioimmunoassay and Western blot. The relative expression of insulin mRNA was examined by qPCR. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the distribution of insulin immunopositivity in the hypothalamus. After 6-h fasting, both glucose and insulin levels were decreased in serum but not in the cerebrospinal fluid...
May 20, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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