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European Journal of Neuroscience

Stacey A Bedwell, E Ellen Billett, Jonathan J Crofts, Chris J Tinsley
Prefrontal cortex (PFC) network structure is implicated in a number of complex higher-order functions and with a range of neurological disorders. It is therefore vital to our understanding of PFC function to gain an understanding of its underlying anatomical connectivity. Here, we injected Fluoro-Gold and Fluoro-Ruby into the same sites throughout rat PFC. Tracer injections were applied to two coronal levels within the PFC (anterior +4.7mm to bregma and posterior +3.7mm to bregma). Within each coronal level, tracers were deposited at sites separated by approximately 1mm and located parallel to the medial and orbital surface of the cortex...
January 13, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Griselda M Yvone, Hannah H Zhao-Fleming, Joe C Udeochu, Carmine L Chavez-Martinez, Austin Wang, Megumi Hirose-Ikeda, Patricia E Phelps
The Reelin-signaling pathway is essential for correct neuronal positioning within the central nervous system. Mutant mice with a deletion of Reelin, its lipoprotein receptors, or its intracellular adaptor protein Disabled-1 (Dab1), exhibit nociceptive abnormalities: thermal (heat) hyperalgesia and reduced mechanical sensitivity. To determine dorsal horn alterations associated with these nociceptive abnormalities, we first characterized the correctly Dab1 neurons in wild-type and mispositioned neurons in Reelin-signaling pathway mutant lumbar spinal cord...
January 13, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Roee Holtzer, Chelsea Scheon, Eleni Demetriou, Jeannette R Mahoney, Meltem Izzetoglu, Cuiling Wang, Joe Verghese
The ability to walk is critical for functional independence and wellbeing. The pre-frontal cortex (PFC) plays a key role in cognitive control of locomotion, notably under attention-demanding conditions. Factors that influence brain responses to cognitive demands of locomotion, however, are poorly understood. Herein we evaluated the individual and combined effects of gender and perceived stress on stride velocity and PFC Oxygenated Hemoglobin (HbO2 ) assessed during single and dual-task walking conditions. The experimental paradigm included Normal-Walk (NW); Cognitive Interference (Alpha); and Walk-While-Talk (WWT) tasks...
December 28, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Christopher D Chambers, Birte Forstmann, J Andrew Pruszynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Natalie Kozyrev, Lique M Coolen
The spinal ejaculation generator is comprised of lumbar spinothalamic (LSt) cells and their axonal projections to autonomic and motor neurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord. LSt cells regulate ejaculatory reflexes by release of neuropeptides that are co-expressed in their axons, as previously demonstrated for gastrin releasing peptide and enkephalin. Here, the role of two other neuropeptides co-expressed in LSt cells for ejaculatory reflexes are demonstrated: galanin and cholecystokinin (CCK). Adult male rats were anesthetized, spinalized, and received intrathecal infusions of galanin receptor antagonist Galantide (1 or 10 nmol) or CCK receptor antagonist proglumide (71 or 714 nmol)...
December 21, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Phillip R Zoladz, Alison M Dailey, Hannah E Nagle, Miranda K Fiely, Brianne E Mosley, Callie M Brown, Tessa J Duffy, Amanda R Scharf, McKenna B Earley, Boyd R Rorabaugh
FK506 binding protein 51(FKBP5) is a co-chaperone of heat shock protein 90 and significantly influences glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FKBP5 gene are associated with altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, changes in the structure and function of several cognitive brain areas, and increased susceptibility to post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression, bipolar disorder, and suicidal events. The mechanisms underlying these associations are largely unknown, but it has been speculated that the influence of these SNPs on emotional memory systems may play a role...
December 21, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Brenton Hordacre, Bahar Moezzi, Mitchell R Goldsworthy, Nigel C Rogasch, Lynton J Graetz, Michael C Ridding
Responses to non-invasive brain stimulation are highly variable between subjects. Resting state functional connectivity was investigated as a marker of plasticity induced by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Twenty-six healthy adults (15 male, 26.4±6.5 years) were tested. Experiment 1 investigated whether functional connectivity could predict modulation of corticospinal excitability following anodal tDCS. Experiment 2 determined test-retest reliability of connectivity measures. Three minutes of electroencephalography was recorded and connectivity was quantified with the debiased weighted phase lag index...
December 19, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Bin Zhang
Obesity is a worldwide public health epidemic. Research demonstrates that obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing many physical conditions including diabetes and high blood cholesterol (Ogden et al., 2014). Bariatric surgery is one efficient therapy to losing weight. Previous functional MRI (fMRI) studies have found that obese patients undergoing surgery demonstrate aberrant neural activity and resting state functional connectivity (Frank et al., 2014; Lepping et al., 2015). However, no previous studies have tested the difference in resting state neural activity before and after bariatric surgery...
December 19, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Antonietta Canna, Anna Prinster, Alessio Maria Monteleone, Elena Cantone, Palmiero Monteleone, Umberto Volpe, Mario Maj, Francesco Di Salle, Fabrizio Esposito
The functional interplay between hemispheres is fundamental for behavioral, cognitive and emotional control. Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) have been largely studied with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to the functional mechanisms of high-level processing, but not in terms of possible inter-hemispheric functional connectivity anomalies. Using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI), voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) and regional inter-hemispheric spectral coherence (IHSC) were studied in 15 AN and 13 BN patients and 16 healthy controls (HC)...
December 19, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Joanna M Cooper, Ashutosh Rastogi, Jessica A Krizo, Eric M Mintz, Rebecca A Prosser
Glutamate phase shifts the circadian clock in the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) by activating NMDA receptors. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) gates phase shifts by activating plasmin to generate m(ature)BDNF, which binds TrkB receptors allowing clock phase shifts. Here we investigate phase shifting in tPA knockout (tPA(-/-) ; B6.129S2-Plat(tm1Mlg) /J) mice, and identify urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) as an additional circadian clock regulator. Behavioral activity rhythms in tPA(-/-) mice entrain to a light-dark (LD) cycle and phase shift in response to nocturnal light pulses with no apparent loss in sensitivity...
December 19, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Priscila Aparecida Costa Valadão, Bárbara Campos de Aragão, Jéssica Neves Andrade, Matheus Proença S M Gomes, Giselle Foureaux, Julliane Vasconcelos Joviano-Santos, José Carlos Nogueira, Fabíola Mara Ribeiro, Juan Carlos Tapia, Cristina Guatimosim
Involuntary choreiform movements are clinical hallmark of Huntington's disease, an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an increased number of CAG trinucleotide repeats in the huntingtin gene. Involuntary movements start with an impairment of facial muscles and then affect trunk and limbs muscles. Huntington's disease symptoms are caused by changes in cortex and striatum neurons induced by mutated huntingtin. However little is known about the impact of this abnormal protein in spinal cord motoneurons that control movement...
December 19, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Taekjun Kim, Ralph D Freeman
The fine task of stereoscopic depth discrimination in human subjects requires a functional binocular system. Behavioral investigations show that relatively small binocular abnormalities can diminish stereoscopic acuity. Clinical evaluations are consistent with this observation. Neurons in visual cortex represent the first stage of processing of the binocular system. Cells at this level are generally acutely sensitive to differences in relative depth. However, an apparent paradox in previous work demonstrates that tuning for binocular disparities remains relatively constant even when large contrast differences are imposed between left and right eye stimuli...
December 19, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Rafieh Alizadeh, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Mansoureh Soleimani, Fatemeh Moradi, Shahram Mohammadpour, Jahangir Ghorbani, Ali Safavi, Maryam Sarbishegi, Vahid Pirhajati Mahabadi, Leila Alizadeh, Mahmoudreza Hadjighassem
Obtaining new accessible source of neuronal stem cells that can be used in Parkinson's disease cell transplant is the aim of this research. The human olfactory bulb contains neural stem cells (NSCs) that are responsible for the neurogenesis in the brain and the replacement of damaged cellular components throughout life. NSCs are capable of differentiating into neuronal and glial cells. We isolated NSCs from brain-death donor's olfactory bub and differentiate them to dopaminergic neurons. The obtained olfactory bulb tissues were cultured in DMEM12, B27 supplemented with bFGF, EGF, and LIF...
December 17, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Dante F Wasmuht, Jose L Pena, Yoram Gutfreund
Whether the auditory and visual systems use a similar coding strategy to represent motion direction is an open question. We investigated this question in the barn owl's optic tectum (OT) testing stimulus specific adaptation (SSA) to the direction of motion. SSA, the reduction of the response to a repetitive stimulus that does not generalize to other stimuli, has been well established in OT neurons. SSA suggests a separate representation of the adapted stimulus in upstream pathways. So far, only SSA to static stimuli has been studied in the OT...
December 17, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Mino D C Belle, Hugh D Piggins
Our knowledge of how circadian and homeostatic brain circuits interact to temporally organize physiology and behavior is limited. Progress has been made with the determination that lateral hypothalamic orexin (OXA) neurons control arousal and appetitive states, while suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) neurons function as the master circadian clock. During the day, SCN neurons exhibit heterogeneity in spontaneous resting membrane potential (RMP), with some neurons becoming severely depolarized (hyperexcited) and ceasing to fire action potentials (APs), while other neurons rest at moderate RMP and fire APs...
December 17, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Natalia Bal, Mariia P Rysakova, Alia K Vinarskaya, Violetta Ivanova, Alena B Zuzina, Pavel M Balaban
It is well known that the reactivation of consolidated fear memory under boundary conditions of novelty and protein synthesis blockade results in an impairment of memory, suggesting that the reactivated memory is destabilised and requires synthesis of new proteins for reconsolidation. We tested the hypothesis of nitric oxide (NO) involvement in memory destabilization during the reconsolidation process in rats using memory reactivation under different conditions. We report that administration of NO-synthase selective blockers 3-Br-7-NI or ARL in the conditions of reactivation of memory under a protein synthesis blockade prevented destabilisation of fear memory to the conditioned stimulus...
December 17, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Boglárka Barsy, Gergely G Szabó, Tibor Andrási, Attila Vikór, Norbert Hájos
The perisomatic region of principal neurons in cortical regions is innervated by three types of GABAergic interneuron, including parvalbumin-containing basket cells (PVBCs) and axo-axonic cells (AACs), as well as cholecystokinin and type 1 cannabinoid receptor-expressing basket cells (CCK/CB1BCs). These perisomatic inhibitory cell types can also be found in the basal nucleus of the amygdala, however, their output properties are largely unknown. Here, we performed whole-cell recordings in morphologically identified interneurons in slices prepared from transgenic mice, in which the GABAergic cells could be selectively targeted...
December 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Neha Bhutani, Sonal Sengupta, Debaleena Basu, Nikhil G Prabhu, Aditya Murthy
Behavioral evidences suggest that sequential saccades to multiple stimuli are planned in parallel. However, it remains unclear whether such parallel programmingreflects concurrent processing of goals or whether multiple motor plans coexist, unfolding subsequently during the execution. Here we use midway saccades, directed at intermediate locations between two targets, as a probe toaddress this questionin a novel double-step adaptation task.The task consisted of trials where subjects had to follow the appearance of two targets presented in succession with two sequential saccades...
December 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Evan E Hart, Alicia Izquierdo
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is known to be involved in appetitive behavior, yet its role in cost-benefit choice of qualitatively different rewards (more/less preferred), beyond magnitude differences (larger/smaller), is poorly understood. We assessed the effects of BLA inactivations on effortful choice behavior. Rats were implanted with cannulae in BLA and trained to stable lever pressing for sucrose pellets on a progressive ratio schedule. Rats were then introduced to a choice: chow was concurrently available while they could work for the preferred sucrose pellets...
December 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Wenming Zhang, Xinyu Fang, Chaofan Zhang, Wen Li, Wai Man Wong, Yejun Xu, Wutian Wu, Jianhua Lin
Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) usually results in poor functional recovery. Nerve repair is the common clinical treatment for PNI but is always obstructed by the chronic degeneration of the distal stump and muscle. Cell transplantation can alleviate the muscle atrophy after PNI, but the subsequent recovery of the locomotive function is seldom described. In this study, we combined cell transplantation and nerve repair to investigate whether the transplantation of embryonic spinal cord cells could benefit the delayed nerve repair...
December 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
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