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European Journal of Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044874/information-processing-from-the-motor-cortices-to-the-subthalamic-nucleus-and-globus-pallidus-and-their-somatotopic-organizations-revealed-electrophysiologically-in-monkeys
#1
Hirokazu Iwamuro, Yoshihisa Tachibana, Yoshikazu Ugawa, Nobuhito Saito, Atsushi Nambu
To understand how the information derived from different motor cortical areas representing different body parts is organized in the basal ganglia, we examined the neuronal responses in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and the external (GPe) and internal (GPi) segments of the globus pallidus, input, relay, and output nuclei, respectively, to stimulation of the orofacial, forelimb, and hindlimb regions of the primary motor cortex (MI) and supplementary motor area (SMA) in macaque monkeys under awake state. Most STN and GPe/GPi neurons responded exclusively to stimulation of either the MI or SMA, and one-fourth to one-third of neurons responded to both...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044872/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-right-inferior-parietal-cortex-causally-influences-prefrontal-activation-for-visual-detection
#2
Joana Leitão, Axel Thielscher, Hwee Ling Lee, Johannes Tuennerhoff, Uta Noppeney
For effective interactions with the environment the brain needs to form perceptual decisions based on noisy sensory evidence. Accumulating evidence suggests that perceptual decisions are formed by widespread interactions amongst sensory areas representing the noisy sensory evidence and fronto-parietal areas integrating the evidence into a decision variable that is compared to a decisional threshold. This concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-fMRI study applied 10 Hz bursts of four TMS (or Sham) pulses to the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) to investigate the causal influence of IPS on the neural systems involved in perceptual decision making...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044823/the-many-characters-of-visual-alpha-oscillations
#3
Michael S Clayton, Nick Yeung, Roi Cohen Kadosh
A central feature of human brain activity is the alpha rhythm: a 7 - 13 Hz oscillation observed most notably over occipitoparietal brain regions during periods of eyes-closed rest. Alpha oscillations covary with changes in visual processing, and have been associated with a broad range of neurocognitive functions. In this article, we review these associations and suggest that alpha oscillations can be thought to exhibit at least five distinct 'characters': those of the inhibitor, perceiver, predictor, communicator, and stabiliser...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044804/comparison-of-visual-receptive-fields-in-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-dlpfc-and-ventral-intraparietal-area-vip-in-macaques
#4
Pooja Viswanathan, Andreas Nieder
The concept of receptive field (RF) describes the responsiveness of neurons to sensory space. Neurons in the primate association cortices have long been known to be spatially selective but a detailed characterization and direct comparison of RFs between frontal and parietal association cortices is missing. We sampled the RFs of a large number of neurons from two interconnected areas of the frontal and parietal lobes, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and ventral intraparietal area (VIP), of rhesus monkeys by systematically presenting a moving bar during passive fixation...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044802/differential-and-complementary-roles-of-medial-and-lateral-septum-in-the-orchestration-of-limbic-oscillations-and-signal-integration
#5
Marian Tsanov
Anatomical differences between the medial and lateral septum have associated these nuclei with dissimilar functional roles and behaviors. While the medial septum has been implicated, predominantly, in theta rhythm generation along the septo-hippocampal axis, the lateral septum has mainly been investigated in the context of septo-hypothalamic dialogue. Recent advances suggest that medial and lateral septum are more closely functionally-related than previously appreciated. Here, we explore the hypothesis that the medial septum mediates ascending septo-hippocampal theta propagation, while the lateral septum processes a descending hippocampo-septal and septo-hypothalamic reinforcement signal that mediates navigation during motivated behavior...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044780/-hot-versus-cold-behavioral-cognitive-styles-motivational-dopaminergic-versus-cognitive-cholinergic-processing-of-a-pavlovian-cocaine-cue-in-sign-and-goal-tracking-rats
#6
Kyle K Pitchers, Louisa F Kane, Youngsoo Kim, Terry E Robinson, Martin Sarter
Discrete Pavlovian reward cues acquire more potent incentive motivational properties (incentive salience), in some animals (sign-trackers; STs) compared to others (goal trackers; GTs). Conversely, GTs appear to be better than STs in processing more complex contextual cues, perhaps reflecting their relatively greater bias for goal-directed cue processing. Here we investigated the activity of two major prefrontal neuromodulatory input systems, dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh), in response to a discrete Pavlovian cue that was previously paired with cocaine administration in STs and GTs...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044773/integrated-analysis-of-microrna-and-mrna-expression-profiles-in-the-rat-spinal-cord-under-inflammatory-pain-conditions
#7
Chien Cheng Liu, Jiin Tsuey Cheng, Tien Yui Li, Ping Heng Tan
Recent studies using microarray-based approaches have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in pain processing pathways. However, a significant proportion of computational predictions of miRNA targets are false-positive interactions. To increase the chance of identifying biologically relevant targets, we performed an integrated analysis of both miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in the rat spinal cord during complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain. We generated miRNA and mRNA arrays from the same corresponding samples on Days 5 and 14 after CFA injection...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044770/effects-of-forced-passive-and-voluntary-exercise-on-spinal-motoneurons-changes-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#8
Ariadna Arbat-Plana, Xavier Navarro, Esther Udina
After peripheral nerve injury, there are important changes at the spinal level that can lead to disorganization of the central circuitry and thus, compromise functional recovery even if axons are able to successfully regenerate and reinnervate their target organs. Physical rehabilitation is a promising strategy to modulate these plastic changes and thus, to improve functional recovery after damage of the nervous system. Forced exercise in a treadmill is able to partially reverse the synaptic stripping and the loss of perineuronal nets that motoneurons suffer after peripheral nerve injury in animal models...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044763/theta-band-oscillations-reflect-more-than-entrainment-behavioral-and-neural-evidence-demonstrate-an-active-chunking-process
#9
Xiangbin Teng, Xing Tian, Keith Doelling, David Poeppel
Parsing continuous acoustic streams into perceptual units is fundamental to auditory perception. Previous studies have uncovered a cortical entrainment mechanism in the delta and theta bands (~1-8 Hz) that correlates with formation of perceptual units in speech, music, and other quasi-rhythmic stimuli. Whether cortical oscillations in the delta-theta bands are passively entrained by regular acoustic patterns or play an active role in parsing the acoustic stream is debated. Here we investigate cortical oscillations using novel stimuli with 1/f modulation spectra...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044737/chronic-bmy7378-treatment-alters-behavioral-circadian-rhythms
#10
Jhenkruthi Vijaya Shankara, Angélique Orr, Richelle Mychasiuk, Michael C Antle
The mammalian circadian clock is synchronized to the day:night cycle by light. Serotonin modulates the circadian effects of light, with agonists inhibiting response to light and antagonists enhancing responses to light. A special class of serotonergic compounds, the mixed 5-HT1A agonist/antagonists, potentiate light-induced phase advances by up to 400% when administered acutely. In this study, we examine the effects of one of these mixed 5-HT1A agonist/antagonists, BMY7378, when administered chronically. Thirty adult male hamsters were administered either vehicle or BMY7378 via surgically implanted osmotic minipumps over a period of 28 days...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977718/sustained-cell-body-reactivity-and-loss-of-neun-in-a-subset-of-axotomized-bulbospinal-neurons-after-a-chronic-high-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Fannie Darlot, Stéphane Vinit, Valéry Matarazzo, Anne Kastner
Following central nervous system lesion, the ability of injured axons to regrowth may depend on the level and duration of the injured cell body response (CBR). Therefore, in order to investigate whether axotomized brainstem neurons maintain a durable growth-competent state after spinal cord injury, we studied the effect of a chronic C2 hemisection in rats on the expression of various CBR markers involved in axon regeneration, such as c-Jun, ATF-3, HSP27, NO synthase (NOS), and also of the neural mature phenotype marker NeuN, in the bulbospinal respiratory neurons as compared to the Gigantocellularis nucleus...
October 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977701/developmental-origin-of-long-range-neurons-in-the-superficial-dorsal-spinal-cord
#12
Kazuhiko Nishida, Seiji Ito
The dorsal spinal cord, which is essential for somatosensory transmission, comprises a heterogeneous population of neurons with distinct axonal lengths and projection patterns. Although the developmental origin of local-circuit interneurons in the dorsal spinal cord has been well characterized, that of long-range neurons extending axons over a long distance such as supraspinal projection neurons and propriospinal neurons is largely unknown. In the present study, we performed birthdate and lineage analyses of these long-range neurons in the mouse dorsal spinal cord...
October 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976045/electrophysiological-evidence-for-differences-between-fusion-and-combination-illusions-in-audiovisual-speech-perception
#13
Martijn Baart, Alma Lindborg, Tobias S Andersen
Incongruent audiovisual speech stimuli can lead to perceptual illusions such as fusions or combinations. Here, we investigated the underlying audiovisual integration process by measuring ERPs. We observed that visual speech-induced suppression of P2 amplitude (which is generally taken as a measure of audiovisual integration) for fusions was comparable to suppression obtained with fully congruent stimuli, whereas P2 suppression for combinations was larger. We argue that these effects arise because the phonetic incongruency is solved differently for both types of stimuli...
October 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976039/minimal-group-membership-biases-early-neural-processing-of-emotional-expressions
#14
Lucile Gamond, Emma Vilarem, Lou Safra, Laurence Conty, Julie Grèzes
Mere affiliation to a social group alters people's perception of other individuals. One suggested mechanism behind such influence is that group membership triggers divergent visual facial representations for in-group and out-group members, which could constrain face processing. Here, using EEG under fMRI during a group categorization task, we investigated the impact of mere affiliation to an arbitrary group on the processing of emotional faces. The results indicate that in- and out-group members trigger differential event-related potential activity, appearing 150 ms after presentation of group membership information, which correlated with medial prefrontal fMRI activity...
October 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973792/rostro-caudal-maturation-of-glial-cells-in-the-accessory-olfactory-system-during-development-involvement-in-outgrowth-of-gnrh-neurites
#15
Sarah Geller, Didier Lomet, Alain Caraty, Yves Tillet, Anne Duittoz, Pascal Vaudin
During mammalian embryonic development, GnRH neurones differentiate from the nasal placode and migrate through the nasal septum toward the forebrain. We previously showed that a category of glial cells, the olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC), forms the microenvironment of migrating GnRH neurones. Here, to caraterize the quantitative and qualitative importance of this glial, we investigated the spatio-temporal maturation of glial cells in situ and the role of maturing glia in GnRH neurones development ex vivo...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973789/responding-to-sounds-from-unseen-locations-crossmodal-attentional-orienting-in-response-to-sounds-presented-from-the-rear
#16
Charles Spence, Jae Lee, Nathan Van der Stoep
To date, most of the research on spatial attention has focused on probing people's responses to stimuli presented in frontal space. That is, few researchers have attempted to assess what happens in the space that is currently unseen (essentially rear space). In a sense, then, "out of sight" is, very much, "out of mind." In this review, we highlight what is presently known about the perception and processing of sensory stimuli (focusing on sounds) whose source isn't currently visible. We briefly summarize known differences in the localizability of sounds presented from different locations in 3-D space, and discuss the consequences for the crossmodal attentional and multisensory perceptual interactions taking place in various regions of space...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973782/the-effects-of-cerebellar-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-static-and-dynamic-postural-stability-in-older-individuals-a-randomized-double-blind-sham-controlled-study
#17
Fatemeh Ehsani, Afshin Samaei, Maryam Zoghi, Rozita Hedayati, Shapour Jaberzadeh
The aging population is growing rapidly. Risk of falling is higher in older people compared to young adults due to several reasons including poor posture and balance. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cerebellar anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on static and dynamic postural stability in older individuals. Twenty-nine older adults participated in this study and were randomly allocated to two groups of active a-tDCS (experimental) (n=14) or sham tDCS group (n=15)...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965371/increasing-motor-cortex-plasticity-with-spaced-paired-associative-stimulation-at-different-intervals-in-older-adults
#18
Simranjit K Sidhu, Maryam Pourmajidian, George M Opie, John G Semmler
The ability of priming non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) to modulate neuroplasticity induction (i.e. metaplasticity) within primary motor cortex (M1) may be altered in older adults. Previous studies in young subjects suggest that consecutive NIBS protocols interact in a time-dependent manner and involve homeostatic metaplasticity mechanisms. This was investigated in older adults by assessing the response to consecutive blocks of paired-associative stimulation (PAS) separated by different inter-PAS intervals (IPIs)...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965353/corticosterone-regulates-both-naturally-occurring-and-cocaine-induced-dopamine-signaling-by-selectively-decreasing-dopamine-uptake
#19
Daniel S Wheeler, Amanda L Ebben, Beliz Kurtoglu, Marissa E Lovell, Austin T Bohn, Isabella A Jasek, David A Baker, John R Mantsch, Paul J Gasser, Robert A Wheeler
Stressful and aversive events promote maladaptive reward-seeking behaviors such as drug addiction by acting, in part, on the mesolimbic dopamine system. Using animal models, data from our lab and others show that stress and cocaine can interact to produce a synergistic effect on reward circuitry. This effect is also observed when the stress hormone corticosterone is administered directly into the nucleus accumbens (NAc), indicating that glucocorticoids act locally in dopamine terminal regions to enhance cocaine's effects on dopamine signaling...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963783/the-european-journal-of-neuroscience-s-mission-to-increase-the-visibility-and-recognition-of-women-in-science
#20
EDITORIAL
Dana L Helmreich, J Paul Bolam, John J Foxe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 30, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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