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European Journal of Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244231/differences-in-regional-grey-matter-volumes-in-currently-ill-patients-with-anorexia-nervosa
#1
Andrea Phillipou, Susan Lee Rossell, Caroline Gurvich, David Jonathan Castle, Larry Allen Abel, Richard Grant Nibbs, Matthew Edward Hughes
Neurobiological findings in anorexia nervosa (AN) are inconsistent, including differences in regional grey matter volumes. Methodological limitations often contribute to the inconsistencies reported. The aim of this study was to improve on these methodologies by utilising voxel based morphometry (VBM) analysis with the use of diffeomorphic anatomic registration through an exponentiated lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL), in a relatively large group of individuals with AN. Twenty-six individuals with AN and 27 healthy controls underwent a T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237242/enhanced-cognition-and-dysregulated-hippocampal-synaptic-physiology-in-mice-with-a-heterozygous-deletion-of-psd-95
#2
Alexa E Horner, Catherine L McLaughlin, Nurudeen O Afinowi, Timothy J Bussey, Lisa M Saksida, Noboru H Komiyama, Seth G N Grant, Maksym V Kopanitsa
PSD-95 is one of the most abundant proteins of the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. It functions as the backbone of protein supercomplexes that mediate signalling between membrane glutamate receptors and intracellular pathways. Homozygous deletion of the Dlg4 gene encoding PSD-95 was previously found to cause a profound impairment in operant and Pavlovian conditioning in Dlg4-/- mice studied in touchscreen chambers that precluded evaluation of PSD-95's role in shaping more subtle forms of learning and memory...
December 13, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230896/neurogenomics-towards-a-more-rigorous-science
#3
EDITORIAL
Kevin J Mitchell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205618/different-responses-of-spontaneous-and-stimulus-related-alpha-activity-to-ambient-luminance-changes
#4
Alessandro Benedetto, Diego Lozano-Soldevilla, Rufin VanRullen
Alpha oscillations are particularly important in determining our percepts and have been implicated in fundamental brain functions. Oscillatory activity can be spontaneous or stimulus-related. Furthermore, stimulus-related responses can be phase- or non-phase-locked to the stimulus. Non-phase-locked (induced) activity can be identified as the average amplitude changes in response to a stimulation, while phase-locked activity can be measured via reverse correlation techniques (echo function). However, the mechanisms and the functional roles of these oscillations are far from clear...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205599/postnatal-separation-prevents-the-development-of-prenatal-stress-induced-anxiety-in-association-with-changes-in-estrogen-receptor-and-oxytocin-immunoreactivity-in-female-mandarin-vole-microtus-mandarinus-offspring
#5
Fengqin He, Zijian Wang, Guanlin Guo
Estrogen has both anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects because of variation in opposing action on alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) estrogen receptors in the medial preoptic area (mPOA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial amygdala (MeA). Oxytocin (OT) reverses some of the anxiogenic effects of estrogen in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON). Because anxiety disorders are twice as common in women as in men, and estrogen and OT are more important in females, we examined interactions between prenatal restraint stress (GS) and postnatal early short-term maternal separation (MS) and female mandarin vole behavior, estrogen receptors and OT...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205598/an-auditory-brainstem-nucleus-as-a-model-system-for-neuronal-metabolic-demands
#6
Sonja Brosel, Benedikt Grothe, Lars Kunz
The correlation between neuronal activity and metabolism is essential for coding, plasticity, neurological disorders and the interpretation of functional neuroimaging data. Most likely, metabolic requirements depend upon neuron type and macroscopic energy demands vary with brain region. However, specific needs of individual neuron types are enigmatic. Therefore, we monitored metabolic activity in the lateral superior olive (LSO), an auditory brainstem nucleus containing only one neuron type. LSO neurons exhibit extreme but well described biophysics with firing rates of several hundred hertz and low input resistances of a few megaohms...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205588/machine-learning-for-decoding-listeners-attention-from-eeg-evoked-by-continuous-speech
#7
Tobias de Taillez, Birger Kollmeier, Bernd T Meyer
Previous research has shown that it is possible to predict which speaker is attended in a multi-speaker scene by analyzing a listener's EEG activity. In this study, existing linear models that learn the mapping from neural activity to an attended speech envelope are replaced by a non-linear neural network. The proposed architecture takes into account the temporal context of the estimated envelope, and is evaluated using EEG data obtained from 20 normal-hearing listeners who focused on one speaker in a two-speaker setting...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205574/different-pre-scanning-instructions-induce-distinct-psychological-and-resting-brain-states-during-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#8
Toshikazu Kawagoe, Keiichi Onoda, Shuhei Yamaguchi
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely used to investigate functional brain network connectivity during rest or when the subject is not performing an explicit task. In the standard procedure, subjects are instructed to "let your mind wander" or "think of nothing." While these instructions appear appropriate to induce a "resting-state," they could induce distinct psychological and physiological states during the scan. In this study, we investigated whether different instructions affect mental state and functional connectivity (FC) (i...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178660/motion-contrast-in-primary-visual-cortex-a-direct-comparison-of-single-neuron-and-population-encoding
#9
Sergio A Conde-Ocazionez, Tiago S Altavini, Thomas Wunderle, Kerstin E Schmidt
Features from outside the classical receptive field (CRF) can modulate the stimulus-driven activity of single cells in the primary visual cortex. This modulation, mediated by horizontal and feedback networks, has been extensively described as a variation of firing rate and is considered the basis of processing features as, for example, motion contrast. However, surround influences have also been identified in pairwise spiking or local field coherence. Yet, evidence about co-existence and integration of different neural signatures remains elusive...
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178557/theta-synchronization-over-occipito-temporal-cortices-during-visual-perception-of-body-parts
#10
Quentin Moreau, Enea Francesco Pavone, Salvatore Maria Aglioti, Matteo Candidi
Categorical clustering in the visual system is thought to have evolved as a function of intrinsic (intra-areal) and extrinsic (inter-areal) connectivity and experience. In the visual system, the Extrastriate Body Area (EBA), an occipito-temporal region, responds to full body and body part images under the organizational principle of their functional/semantic meaning. Although frequency-specific modulations of neural activity associated with perceptive and cognitive functions are increasingly attracting the interest of neurophysiologists and cognitive neuroscientists, perceiving single body-parts with different functional meaning and full body images induces time-frequency modulations over occipito-temporal electrodes are yet to be described...
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178548/preservation-of-neuronal-functions-by-exosomes-derived-from-different-human-neural-cell-types-under-ischemic-conditions
#11
Mingyang Deng, Han Xiao, Hongling Peng, Huan Yuan, Yunxiao Xu, Guangsen Zhang, Jianguang Tang, Zhiping Hu
Stem cell based therapies have been reported in protecting cerebral infarction induced neuronal dysfunction and death. However, most studies used rat/mouse neuron as model cell when treated with stem cell or exosomes. Whether these findings can be translated from rodent to humans has been in doubt. Here, we used human embryonic stem cell derived neurons to detect the protective potential of exosomes against ischemia. Neurons were treated with in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 1 hour. For treatment group, different exosomes were derived from neuron, embryonic stem cell, neural progenitor cell and astrocyte differentiated from H9 human embryonic stem cell, and added to culture medium 30 min after OGD (100 μg/ml)...
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178394/maturation-in-auditory-event-related-potentials-explains-variation-in-language-ability-in-children
#12
Elaine Y L Kwok, Marc F Joanisse, Lisa M D Archibald, Margot E Stothers, Heather M Brown, Janis Oram Cardy
Processing of auditory information in the cortex continues to develop into later childhood and adolescence. Recent research has indicated that intraclass correlation (ICC) is the best method for capturing maturation in auditory event-related potentials (AEPs) of school-age children. However, the sensitivity of the ICC approach in discerning AEP changes in children has not been consistently demonstrated and positive results have not been replicated. We attempted this replication and further explored whether AEP maturation estimated using the ICC approach predicts cognitive and linguistic abilities in addition to chronological age...
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178356/effects-of-observing-normal-and-abnormal-goal-directed-hand-movements-on-somatosensory-cortical-activation
#13
Chia-Hsiung Cheng
Existing evidence indicates the importance of observing correct, normal actions on the motor cortical activities. However, the exact neurophysiological mechanisms, particularly in the somatosensory system, remain unclear. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of observing normal and abnormal hand movements on the contralateral primary somatosensory (cSI), contralateral (cSII), and ipsilateral (iSII) secondary somatosensory activities. Experiment I was designed to investigate the effects of motor outputs on the somatosensory processing, in which subjects were instructed to relax or manipulate a small cube...
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161772/microarray-analysis-of-gene-expression-in-the-cyclooxygenase-cox-knockout-mice-a-connection-to-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Ravneet Rai-Bhogal, Eizaaz Ahmad, Hongyan Li, Dorota A Crawford
The cellular and molecular events that take place during brain development play an important role in governing function of the mature brain. Lipid signalling molecules such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) play an important role in healthy brain development. Abnormalities along the COX/PGE2 signalling pathway due to genetic or environmental causes have been linked to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). This study aims to evaluate the effect of altered COX/PGE2 signalling on development and function of the prenatal brain using male mice lacking cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1(-/-) and COX-2(-/-) ) as potential model systems of ASD...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139213/heterogeneous-neuronal-activity-in-the-lateral-habenula-after-short-and-long-term-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#15
Ping Gao, Henk J Groenewegen, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Pieter Voorn
Cocaine addiction is thought to be the result of drug-induced functional changes in a neural network implicated in emotions, learning, and cognitive control. Recent studies have implicated the lateral habenula (LHb) in drug-directed behavior, especially its aversive aspects. Limited cocaine exposure has been shown to alter neuronal activity in the LHb, but the impact of long-term drug exposure on habenula function has not been determined. Therefore, using c-fos as a marker, we here examined neuronal activity in LHb in rats that self-administered cocaine for either 10 or 60 days...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139159/syntaxin1b-contributes-to-regulation-of-the-dopaminergic-system-through-gaba-transmission-in-the-cns
#16
Tomonori Fujiwara, Takefumi Kofuji, Tatsuya Mishima, Kimio Akagawa
In neuronal plasma membrane, two syntaxin isoforms, HPC-1/syntaxin1A (STX1A) and syntaxin1B (STX1B), are predominantly expressed as soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptors, also known as t-SNAREs. We previously reported that glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission is impaired in Stx1b null mutant (Stx1b(-/-) ) mice, but is almost normal in Stx1a null mutant (Stx1a(-/-) ) mice. These observations suggested that STX1A and STX1B have distinct functions in fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS)...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131464/interferon-regulatory-factor-4-5-signaling-impacts-on-microglial-activation-after-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#17
Abdullah Al Mamun, Anjali Chauhan, Haifu Yu, Yan Xu, Romana Sharmeen, Fudong Liu
Microglial activation is a key element in initiating and perpetuating inflammatory responses to stroke. Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) and IRF4 signaling have been found critical in mediating macrophage pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotypes respectively in peripheral inflammation. We hypothesize that the IRF5/4 regulatory axis also mediates microglial activation after stroke. C57BL6 mice of 8-12 weeks were subject to a 90-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion and the brains evaluated at 24h, 3d, 10d and 30d after reperfusion...
November 13, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131436/gabab-receptors-in-neocortical-and-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons-are-coupled-to-different-potassium-channels
#18
Jean-Didier Breton, Greg J Stuart
Classically, GABAB receptors are thought to regulate neuronal excitability via G-protein coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels. Recent data, however, indicates that GABAB receptors can also activate two-pore domain potassium channels. Here, we investigate which potassium channels are coupled to GABAB receptors in rat neocortical layer 5 and hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Bath application of the non-specific GIRK channel blocker barium (200 μM) abolished outward currents evoked by GABAB receptors in CA1 pyramidal, but only partially blocked GABAB responses in layer 5 neurons...
November 13, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131433/suppressive-effects-of-morphine-injected-into-the-ventral-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-on-the-affective-but-not-sensory-component-of-pain-in-rats
#19
Chikashi Maruyama, Satoshi Deyama, Yusuke Nagano, Soichiro Ide, Katsuyuki Kaneda, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka, Masabumi Minami
Pain is a complex experience with both sensory and affective components. Clinical and preclinical studies have shown that the affective component of pain can be reduced by doses of morphine lower than those necessary to reduce the sensory component. Although the neural mechanisms underlying the effects of morphine on the sensory component of pain have been investigated extensively, those influencing the affective component remain to be elucidated. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) has been implicated in the regulation of various negative emotional states, including aversion, anxiety, and fear...
November 13, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127735/profiles-of-women-in-science-prof-ingrid-olson-of-temple-university
#20
EDITORIAL
Dana L Helmreich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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