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European Journal of Neuroscience

Claudia Fuchs, Norma Fustini, Stefania Trazzi, Laura Gennaccaro, Roberto Rimondini, Elisabetta Ciani
Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) disorder is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early-onset epileptic seizures, severe developmental delay, and intellectual disability. To date, no effective pharmacological treatments are available to improve the neurological phenotype that is due to mutations in the CDKL5 gene. Murine models of CDKL5 disorder have recently been generated, making the preclinical testing of pharmacological interventions possible. Using a Cdkl5 knockout (KO) mouse model, we recently demonstrated that deficiency of Cdkl5 causes defects in postnatal hippocampal development and hippocampus-dependent learning and memory...
March 30, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Lena Eipert, Astrid Klinge-Strahl, Georg M Klump
Harmonicity as well as spatial location provide eminent cues for the perceptual grouping of sounds. In general, harmonicity is a strong grouping cue. In contrast, spatial cues such as interaural phase or time difference provide for strong grouping of stimulus sequences but weak grouping for simultaneously presented sounds. By studying the neuronal basis underlying the interaction of these cues in processing simultaneous sounds using van Rossum spike train distance measures, we aim at explaining the interaction observed in psychophysical experiments...
March 30, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Tomomi Shindou, Mayumi Shindou, Sakurako Watanabe, Jeffery Wickens
Dopamine dependent synaptic plasticity is a candidate mechanism for reinforcement learning. A silent eligibility trace - initiated by synaptic activity and transformed into synaptic strengthening by later action of dopamine - has been hypothesized to explain the retroactive effect of dopamine in reinforcing past behaviour. We tested this hypothesis by measuring time-dependent modulation of synaptic plasticity by dopamine in adult mouse striatum, using whole-cell recordings. Presynaptic activity followed by postsynaptic action potentials (pre-post) caused spike-time dependent long-term depression in D1-expressing neurons, but not in D2 neurons, and not if postsynaptic activity followed presynaptic activity...
March 30, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jonathan E Robinson, Michael Breakspear, Andrew W Young, Patrick J Johnston
Prediction-error checking processes play a key role in predictive coding models of perception. However, neural indices of such processes have yet to be unambiguously demonstrated. To date, experimental paradigms aiming to study such phenomena have relied upon the relative frequency of stimulus repeats, and/or "unexpected" events that are physically different from "expected" events. These features of experimental design leave open alternative explanations for the observed effects. A definitive demonstration requires that presumed prediction error related responses should show contextual dependency (rather than simply effects of frequency or repetition), and should not be attributable to low-level stimulus differences...
March 30, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Kim T Blackwell, Armando G Salinas, Parul Tewatia, Brad English, Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski, David M Lovinger
The striatum, the input structure of the basal ganglia, is a major site of learning and memory for goal-directed actions and habit formation. Spiny projection neurons of the striatum integrate cortical, thalamic, and nigral inputs to learn associations, with cortico-striatal synaptic plasticity as a learning mechanism. Signaling molecules implicated in synaptic plasticity are altered in alcohol withdrawal, which may contribute to overly strong learning and increased alcohol seeking and consumption. To understand how interactions among signaling molecules produce synaptic plasticity, we implemented a mechanistic model of signaling pathways activated by dopamine D1 receptors, acetylcholine receptors, and glutamate...
March 30, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Roberta Aralla, Go Ashida, Christine Köppl
The auditory midbrain is the location in which neurons represent binaural acoustic information necessary for sound localization. The external nucleus of the midbrain inferior colliculus (IC) of the barn owl is a classic example of an auditory space map, but it is unknown to what extent the principles underlying its formation generalize to other, less specialized animals. We characterized the spiking responses of 139 auditory neurons in the IC of the chicken (Gallus gallus) in vivo, focusing on their sensitivities to the binaural localization cues of interaural time (ITD) and level (ILD) differences...
March 26, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Dana L Helmreich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 25, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jeremy S H Taylor
This brief article looks back on some of the work and interactions I had with Ray Guillery when I started my academic career in Oxford. I review some of the anatomical work we did using a comparative approach to study the development of the visual pathway, and particularly the optic chiasm. I think many of the questions we tried to address many years ago, are still relevant, and still poorly understood. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 25, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Martha Bickford
A half century after Ray Guillery's classic descriptions of cell types, axon types, and synaptic architecture of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, the functional organization of this nucleus, as well as all other thalamic nuclei, is still of enormous interest. This review will focus on 2 classic papers written by Ray Guillery: "A study of Golgi preparations from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the adult cat", and "The organization of synaptic interconnections in the laminae of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat", as well as the studies that most directly followed from the insights these landmark manuscripts provided...
March 25, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jean-Paul Noel, Ryan A Stevenson, Mark T Wallace
Binding across sensory modalities yields substantial perceptual benefits, including enhanced speech intelligibility. The coincidence of sensory inputs across time is a fundamental cue for this integration process. Recent work has suggested that individuals with diagnoses of Schizophrenia (SZ) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) will characterize auditory and visual events as synchronous over larger temporal disparities than their neurotypical counterparts. Namely, these clinical populations possess an enlarged temporal binding window (TBW)...
March 25, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Karthik Soman, Vignesh Muralidharan, V Srinivasa Chakravarthy
Spatial cells in the hippocampal complex play a pivotal role in the navigation of an animal. Exact neural principles behind these spatial cell responses have not been completely unraveled yet. Here we present two models for spatial cells namely the Velocity Driven Oscillatory Network and Locomotor Driven Oscillatory Network. Both models have basically three stages in common such as direction encoding stage, path integration stage and a stage of unsupervised learning of path integration values. In the first model, the following three stages are implemented: head direction layer, frequency modulation by a layer of oscillatory neurons, and an unsupervised stage that extracts the Principal Components from the oscillator outputs...
March 25, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Sofia Hassiotis, Jim Manavis, Peter C Blumbergs, Kathryn J Hattersley, Julian M Carosi, Makoto Kamei, Timothy J Sargeant
Lysosomal vesicles around neuritic plaques are thought to drive Alzheimer's disease by providing ideal microenvironments for generation of amyloid-β. Although lysosomal vesicles are present at every amyloid plaque in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, the number of amyloid plaques that contain lysosomal vesicles in the human brain remains unknown. This study aimed to quantify lysosomal vesicles at amyloid plaques in the human hippocampus. Lysosome associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1)-positive vesicles accumulated in both diffuse (Aβ42-positive/AT8-negative) and neuritic (Aβ42-positive/AT8-positive) plaques in all regions analysed...
March 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Joana I Real, Ana Patrícia Simões, Rodrigo A Cunha, Samira G Ferreira, Daniel Rial
Prefrontal cortex (PFC) circuits are modulated by dopamine acting on D1 - and D2 -like receptors, which are pharmacologically exploited to manage neuropsychiatric conditions. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2 A R), also control PFC-related responses and A2 A R antagonists are potential anti-psychotic drugs. Since tight antagonistic A2 A R-D2 R and synergistic A2 A R-D1 R interactions occur in other brain regions, we now investigated the cross-talk between A2 A R and D1 /D2 R controlling synaptic transmission between layers II/III and V in mouse PFC coronal slices...
March 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Kathleen S Rockland
Recent commentaries on the role of the thalamus consider a wide sphere of influence beyond sensory-motor transformation, to include task-relevant cognitive processes. In this short review, I reconsider known anatomic features of corticothalamic connectivity, primarily for macaque monkey, and discuss these as part of an intricate network architecture consistent with multiple connectional re-combinations and a diversity of functional tasks. Drawing mainly on results from single axon analysis for the two broad classes of corticothalamic (CT) connections, I review the strikingly complementary spatial parameters of their extrinsic CT arbors in relation to intrinsic cortical collaterals...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Rachael S Allen, Adam M Hanif, Marissa A Gogniat, Brian C Prall, Raza Haider, Moe H Aung, Megan C Prunty, Lukas M Mees, Monica M Coulter, Cara T Motz, Jeffrey H Boatright, Machelle T Pardue
Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of vision loss. Treatment options for early retinopathy are sparse. Exercise protects dying photoreceptors in models of retinal degeneration, thereby preserving vision. We tested the protective effects of exercise on retinal and cognitive deficits in a Type 1 diabetes model and determined whether the TrkB pathway mediates this effect. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jeroen J Stekelenburg, Mirjam Keetels, Jean Vroomen
Numerous studies have demonstrated that the vision of lip movements can alter the perception of auditory speech syllables (McGurk effect). While there is ample evidence for integration of text and auditory speech, there are only a few studies on the orthographic equivalent of the McGurk effect. Here, we examined whether written text, like visual speech, can induce an illusory change in the perception of speech sounds on both the behavioral and neural level. In a sound categorization task, we found that both text and visual speech changed the identity of speech sounds from an /aba/-/ada/ continuum, but the size of this audiovisual effect was considerably smaller for text than visual speech...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Benjamin R Pittman-Polletta, Allison Quach, Ali I Mohammed, Michael Romano, Krishnakanth Kondabolu, Nancy J Kopell, Xue Han, Michelle M McCarthy
Cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic (CBT) β oscillations (15-30 Hz) are ele- vated in Parkinson's disease and correlated with movement disability. To date, no experimental paradigm outside of loss of dopamine has been able to specifically elevate β oscillations in the CBT loop. Here, we show that activation of striatal cholinergic receptors selectively increased β oscillations in mouse striatum and motor cortex. In individuals showing simultaneous β increases in both striatum and M1, β partial directed coherence (PDC) increased from striatum to M1 (but not in the reverse direction)...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
S Murray Sherman
My active collaboration with Ray Guillery started in 1968, when he was a Full Professor at the University of Wisconsin and I was a graduate student at the University of Pennsylvania. The collaboration lasted almost 50 years with virtually no breaks. Among the ideas we proposed are that glutamatergic pathways in thalamus and cortex can be classified into drivers and modulators; that many thalamic nuclei could be classified as higher order, meaning that they receive driving input from layer 5 of cortex and participate in cortico-thalamo-cortical circuits; and that much of the information relayed by thalamus serves as an efference copy for motor commands initiated by cortex...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Henry J Alitto, Daniel L Rathbun, Tucker G Fisher, Prescott C Alexander, W Martin Usrey
Visual information processed in the retina is transmitted to primary visual cortex via relay cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the dorsal thalamus. Although retinal ganglion cells are the primary source of driving input to LGN neurons, not all retinal spikes are transmitted to the cortex. Here, we investigate the relationship between stimulus contrast and retinogeniculate communication and test the hypothesis that both the time course and strength of retinogeniculate interactions are dynamic and dependent on stimulus contrast...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Christine Stubbendorff, Manuel Molano-Mazon, Andrew Mj Young, Todor V Gerdjikov
Rodent striatum is involved in sensory-motor transformations and reward-related learning. Lesion studies suggest dorsolateral striatum, dorsomedial striatum, and nucleus accumbens underlie stimulus-response transformations, goal-directed behaviour and reward expectation respectively. In addition, prefrontal inputs likely control these functions. Here we set out to study how reward-driven behaviour is mediated by the coordinated activity of these structures in the intact brain. We implemented a discrimination task requiring rats to either respond or suppress responding on a lever after the presentation of auditory cues in order to obtain rewards...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
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