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European Journal of Neuroscience

Miho Sugioka, Yasuhiko Saito
In the nervous system, adenosine 5'-trisphosphate (ATP) functions as a neurotransmitter and binds to ionotropic P2X receptors and metabotropic P2Y receptors. Although ATP receptors are expressed in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (PHN), which is a brainstem structure involved in controlling horizontal gaze, it is unclear whether ATP indeed affects the activity of PHN neurons. In this study, we investigated the effects of ATP on spontaneous firing of PHN neurons using whole-cell recordings in rat brainstem slices...
October 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Duncan A A MacLaren, Trisha L Ljungberg, Meghan E Griffin, Stewart D Clark
PSP is the most common atypical Parkinsonism. Although Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) shares some symptomology with Parkinson's Disease (PD), PSP has a different underlying pathology characterized by tau aggregation. Furthermore, PSP sufferers respond poorly to PD medications and there are no effective alternative therapeutics. The development of both palliative and disease altering therapeutics has been hampered by the lack of an animal model that displays relevant PSP-like pathology and behavioral deficits...
October 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Soania Mathur
The global Parkinson's community suffered a great loss with the passing of Tom Isaacs, a powerful advocate, spokesperson and visionary, one whose legacy will continue to have a profound impact on our goal to relegate Parkinson's disease to the history books. Fundamental to Tom's beliefs was the power of the patient voice; that central to the expert team of researchers and clinicians dedicated to solving this enigma of a disease, were patients themselves. That every aspect of research from its conception to development including clinical trials and the drug approval process by regulatory bodies, could be expedited and had a greater chance of success if patients were involved...
October 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Li-Ann Leow, Welber Marinovic, Aymar de Rugy, Timothy J Carroll
Perturbations of sensory feedback evoke sensory prediction errors (discrepancies between predicted and actual sensory outcomes of movements), and reward prediction errors (discrepancies between predicted rewards and actual rewards). When our task is to hit a target, we expect to succeed in hitting the target, and so we experience a reward prediction error if the perturbation causes us to miss it. These discrepancies between intended task outcomes and actual task outcomes, termed "task errors", are thought to drive the use of strategic processes to restore success, although their role is incompletely understood...
October 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Changjiu Zhao, Stephen C Gammie
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (Nr1d1) (also known as Rev-erb alpha) has been linked to circadian rhythm regulation, mood-related behavior, and disorders associated with social deficits. Recent work from our laboratory found striking decreases in Nr1d1 in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the maternal condition and indirect evidence that Nr1d1 was interacting with numerous addiction and reward-related genes to modulate social reward. In this study, we applied our insights from the maternal state to non-parental adult mice to determine whether decreases in Nr1d1 expression in the NAc via adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors and short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene knockdown were sufficient to modulate social behaviors and mood-related behaviors...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Lyndsey Isaacs, Roger Barker, Eilís Dowd
This Special Issue of the European Journal of Neuroscience has been put together by NECTAR (the Network for European CNS Transplantation & Restoration) in collaboration with the Cure Parkinson's Trust in memory of the late Tom Isaacs who sadly passed away suddenly last year. Tom was a whirlwind of wit and energy who used his young onset Parkinson's to try and change our thinking and approach to this condition, and who succeeded in changing the landscape on how we treat this condition, forever and for the better...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Robert A Marino, Ron Levy
Dopamine (DA) plays a critical role in cognition, motivation and information processing. DA action has been shown to both improve and/or impair cognition across different receptor types, species, subjects, and tasks. This complex relationship has been described as an inverted U-shaped function and may be due to the differential effects of DA receptor activation in the striatum and prefrontal cortex. We have investigated the effects of selective DA agonists on cognitive performance in healthy monkeys using a touch screen running tasks from the CAmbridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
F Javier Rubio, Richard Quintana-Feliciano, Brandon L Warren, Xuan Li, Kailyn F R Witonsky, Frank Soto Del Valle, Pooja V Selvam, Daniele Caprioli, Marco Venniro, Jennifer M Bossert, Yavin Shaham, Bruce T Hope
Many preclinical studies examined cue-induced relapse to heroin and cocaine seeking in animal models, but most of these studies examined only one drug at a time. In human addicts, however, polydrug use of cocaine and heroin is common. We used a polydrug self-administration relapse model in rats to determine similarities and differences in brain areas activated during cue-induced reinstatement of heroin and cocaine seeking. We trained rats to lever press for cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/infusion, 3-h/d, 18 d) or heroin (0...
October 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Shuyu Zhu, Ben Allitt, Anil Samuel, Leo Lui, Marcello G P Rosa, Ramesh Rajan
The pitch of vocalisations is a key communication feature aiding recognition of individuals and separating sound sources in complex acoustic environments. The neural representation of the pitch of periodic sounds is well defined. However, many natural sounds, like complex vocalisations, contain rich, aperiodic or not strictly periodic frequency content and/or include high frequency components, but still evoke a strong sense of pitch. Indeed, such sounds are the rule, not the exception but the cortical mechanisms for encoding pitch of such sounds are unknown...
October 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Yosuke Saga, Christian C Ruff, Tremblay Léon
The basal ganglia (BG) are involved in motivation and goal-directed behavior. Recent studies suggest that limbic territories of BG not only support reward seeking (appetitive approach) but also the encoding of aversive conditioned stimuli (CS) and the production of aversive-related behaviors (avoidance or escape). This study aimed to identify inside two BG nuclei, the Striatum and Pallidum, the territories involved in aversive behaviors and to compare the effects of stimulating these territories to those resulting from stimulation of the anterior Insula (aIns), a region that is well known to be involved in aversive encoding and associated behaviors...
October 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Masaharu Yasuda, Okihide Hikosaka
Many visual objects are attached with values which were created by our long rewarding history. Such stable object values attract gaze. We previously found that the output pathway of basal ganglia from caudal-dorsal-lateral portion of substantia nigra pars reticulata (cdlSNr) to superior colliculus (SC) carries robust stable value signal to execute the automatic choice of valuable objects. An important question here is whether stable value signal in basal ganglia can influence on other inner processing such as perception, attention, emotion or arousal than motor execution...
October 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Megumi Taketo
The hippocampal marginal zone contains Cajal-Retzius (C-R) cells and participates in the regulation of cortical development. Two subtypes of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), mGluR1 and mGluR5, are found in the central nervous system and are considered to regulate neuronal excitability. The release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores is thought to be a main consequence of activation of these receptor subtypes. In hippocampal C-R cells, the expression of mGluR1 has been showed using immunohistochemical techniques but its function has not been elucidated...
October 10, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
B D Lynn, Xinbo Li, S G Hormuzdi, E K Griffiths, C J McGlade, J I Nagy
Electrical synapses in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) are increasingly recognized as highly complex structures for mediation of neuronal communication, both with respect to their capacity for dynamic short and long-term modification in efficacy of synaptic transmission and their multi-molecular regulatory and structural components. These two characteristics are inextricably linked, such that understanding of mechanisms that contribute to electrical synaptic plasticity requires knowledge of the molecular composition of electrical synapses and the functions of proteins associated with these synapses...
October 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Hara Yoshinobu, Fukaya Masahiro, Takeyuki Sugawara, Hiroyuki Sakagami
The class II Rab11 family-interacting proteins, FIP3 and FIP4, also termed Arfophilin-1 and Arfophilin-2, respectively, are endosomal proteins that function as dual effector proteins for Rab11 and ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) small GTPases. In the present study, we examined the expression and role of FIP4 in neuronal migration during cerebral layer formation. FIP4 mRNA was first weakly detected in post-mitotic migrating neurons in the upper intermediate zone, and expression was markedly increased in the cortical layer...
October 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Vanessa M Hill, Reed M O'Connor, Mimi Shirasu-Hiza
A key feature of circadian rhythms is the sleep/wake cycle. Sleep causes reduced responsiveness to the environment, which puts animals in a particularly vulnerable state; yet sleep has been conserved throughout evolution, indicating that it fulfills a vital purpose. A core function of sleep across species has not been identified, but substantial advances in sleep research have been made in recent years using the genetically tractable model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. This review describes the universality of sleep, the regulation of sleep, and current theories on the function of sleep, highlighting a historical and often overlooked theory called the Free Radical Flux Theory of Sleep...
October 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Chin-An Wang, Leanne Tworzyanski, Jeff Huang, Douglas P Munoz
The pupil constricts or dilates in response to a luminance increase or decrease, and these transient pupillary responses are controlled by the parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways. Although pupillary responses of the two eyes are highly correlated, they are not always identical (referred to as anisocoria). For example, there are unequal direct and consensual pupillary constriction responses after an increase in luminance to one eye. While contraction anisocoria (i.e. constriction) has been demonstrated in the pupillary light reflex, it is not yet known if there is also dilation anisocoria in the pupillary darkness reflex...
October 5, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Shikha Prashad, Elizabeth S Dedrick, Wing Ting To, Sven Vanneste, Francesca M Filbey
The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and precuneus are hubs in the default mode network and play a role in processing external salient stimuli. Accordingly, activation in these regions has been associated with response to salient stimuli using drug cue-reactivity paradigms in substance using populations. These studies suggest that the PCC and precuneus may underlie deficits in processing salient stimuli that contribute towards the development of substance use disorders. The goal of this study was to directly test this hypothesis using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)...
October 5, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Wei-Chun Wang, Nadia M Brashier, Erik A Wing, Elizabeth J Marsh, Roberto Cabeza
Depending on a person's goals, different aspects of stored knowledge are accessed. Decades of behavioral work document the flexible use of knowledge, but little neuroimaging work speaks to these questions. We used representational similarity analysis to investigate whether the relationship between brain activity and semantic structure of statements varied in two tasks hypothesized to differ in the degree to which knowledge is accessed: judging truth (semantic task) and judging oldness (episodic task). During truth judgments, but not old/new recognition judgments, a left-lateralized network previously associated with semantic memory exhibited correlations with semantic structure...
October 5, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Wolfgang Klimesch
Research on brain oscillations has brought up a picture of coupled oscillators. Some of the most important questions that will be analyzed are, how many frequencies there are, what the coupling principles are, what their functional meaning is, and whether body oscillations follow similar coupling principles. It is argued that physiologically, two basic coupling principles govern brain as well as body oscillations: (i) amplitude (envelope) modulation between any frequencies m and n, where the phase of the slower frequency m modulates the envelope of the faster frequency n, and (ii) phase coupling between m and n, where the frequency of n is a harmonic multiple of m...
October 3, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Isis Gil-Miravet, Julian Guarque-Chabrera, Maria Carbo-Gas, Francisco Olucha-Bordonau, Marta Miquel
Drug-induced Pavlovian memories are thought to be crucial for drug addiction because they guide behaviour towards environments with drug availability. Drug-related memory depends on persistent changes in dopamine-glutamate interactions in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), basolateral amygdala, nucleus accumbens core and hippocampus. Recent evidence from our laboratory indicated that the cerebellum is also a relevant node for drug-cue associations. In the present study, we tested the role that specific regions of the cerebellum and mPFC play in the acquisition of cocaine-induced preference conditioning...
October 2, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
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