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International Journal of Developmental Biology

Ibon Alonso, Antonio Baroja, Blanca Fernández, Raquel Vielba, Jon Elorriaga, Jairo Pérez-Sanz, Juan Aréchaga, Juan J Goiriena de Gandarias, Carmen de la Hoz
The mechanisms implicated in the differentiation of fibroblastic precursors into adipocytes can be analyzed in vitro using cell models, such as the 3T3-L1 cell line. Since cell differentiation involves an exit from the cell cycle, it is likely that molecules that inhibit proliferation participate in the control of adipogenesis. This study was aimed at determining the role, if any, of several cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-inhibitors and the transcription factor C/EBPα in the process of adipocyte differentitation...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Bei Zheng, Jiadan Wang, Leilei Tang, Jiana Shi, Danyan Zhu
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase and functions through two distinct complexes, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and complex 2 (mTORC2), with their key components Raptor and Rictor, to play crucial roles in cellular survival and growth. However, the roles of mTORC1 and mTORC2 in regulating cardiomyocyte differentiation from mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells are not clear. In this study, we performed Raptor or Rictor knockdown experiments to investigate the roles of mTORC1 and mTORC2 in cardiomyocyte differentiation...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Alejandro González-Sastre, Nídia De Sousa, Teresa Adell, Emili Saló
How adult stem cells differentiate into different cell types remains one of the most intriguing questions in regenerative medicine. Pioneer factors are transcription factors that can bind to and open chromatin, and are among the first elements involved in cell differentiation. We used the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea as a model system to study the role of the gata456 family of pioneer factors in gut cell differentiation during both regeneration and maintenance of the digestive system. Our findings reveal the presence of two members of the gata456 family in the Schmidtea mediterranea genome; Smed-gata456-1 and Smed-gata456-2...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Guillermo A Vega-Lopez, Santiago Cerrizuela, Manuel J Aybar
Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a multipotent, migratory cell population that generates an astonishingly diverse array of cell types during vertebrate development. The trunk neural crest has long been considered of particular significance. First, it has been held that the trunk neural crest has a morphogenetic role, acting to coordinate the development of the peripheral nervous system, secretory cells of the endocrine system and pigment cells of the skin. Second, the trunk neural crest additionally has skeletal potential...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Linda Balestrini, Alessia Di Donfrancesco, Leonardo Rossi, Silvia Marracci, Maria E Isolani, Anna M Bianucci, Renata Batistoni
The natural alkaloid sanguinarine has remarkable therapeutic properties and has been used for centuries as a folk remedy. This compound exhibits interesting anticancer properties and is currently receiving attention as a potential chemotherapeutic agent. Nevertheless, limited information exists regarding its safety for developing organisms. Planarians are an animal model known for their extraordinary stem cell-based regenerative capabilities and are increasingly used for toxicological and pharmacological studies...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Yoko Yamada, Chris Sugden, Jeffrey G Williams
DIF-1 (differentiation-inducing factor1) is a polyketide produced by Dictyostelium prespore cells which induces initially uncommitted cells to differentiate as prestalk cells. Exposure of cells to DIF-1 causes transitory hypo-phosphorylation of seven serine residues in YelA, a protein with a region of strong homology to the MIF4G domain of the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF4G. Based upon its domain architecture, which in one important aspect closely resembles that of Death-Associated Protein 5 (DAP5), we predict a role in stimulating internal ribosome entry-driven mRNA translation...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Giulietta Roël, Olaf Van Den Broek, Olivier Destrée
In Xenopus gastrula stage embryos, four isoforms of Tcf1 (B, C, D and E) are present with high amino acid sequence conservation compared to fish, mice and human. We studied possible functional differences between these Tcf1 isoforms during early Xenopus development. After overexpression of single Tcf1 isoforms, two distinct phenotypes were observed. Overexpression of the B or D isoforms of Tcf1, which both lack a C-clamp, enhances early canonical Wnt signaling and induces ectopic dorsal mesoderm at the expense of ventrolateral mesoderm prior to gastrulation, causing severe antero-dorzalization of embryos...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Leokadia Kiełbwna, Marta Migocka-Patrzałek
Several different models of myogenesis describing early stages of amphibian paraxial myotomal myogenesis are known. Myoblasts of Xenopus laevis and Hymenochirus boettgeri change their position from perpendicular to parallel, in relation to axial organs, and differentiate into mononucleate myotubes. In Bombina variegate the myotomal myoblasts change their shape from round to elongate and then differentiate into mononuclear, morphologically mature myotubes. In Pelobates fuscus and Triturus vulgaris, myoblasts fuse into multinuclear myotubes...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Bradly Alicea
Review of: Embryogenesis Explained written by Natalie K. Gordon and Richard Gordon.
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Prusothman Yoganantharjah, Avinesh R Byreddy, Daniel Fraher, Munish Puri, Yann Gibert
The zebrafish is a useful vertebrate model to study lipid metabolism. Oil Red-O (ORO) staining of zebrafish embryos, though sufficient for visualizing the localization of triglycerides, was previously inadequate to quantify neutral lipid abundance. For metabolic studies, it is crucial to be able to quantify lipids during embryogenesis. Currently no cost effective, rapid and reliable method exists to quantify the deposition of neutral lipids and triglycerides. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be used to accurately measure lipid levels, but are time consuming and costly in their use...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Ewa Borsuk, Małgorzata Waksmundzka, Katarzyna Szczepańska, Anna Ajduk, Marek Maleszewski, Aneta Suwińska, Monika Humięcka, Katarzyna Bożyk, Marcin Szpila, Renata Czołowska, Teresa Rogulska, Wacław Ożdżeński, Jacek A Modliński, Jacek Z Kubiak, Maria A Ciemerych
Professor Andrzej Krzysztof Tarkowski passed away last September (2016) at the age of 83. His findings, have become indispensable tools for immunological, genetic, and oncological studies, as well as for generating transgenic animals which are instrumental for studying gene function in living animals. His work and discoveries provided a tremendous input to the contemporary developmental biology of mammals.
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Puspendra S Mahapatra, Renu Singh, Kuldeep Kumar, Nihar R Sahoo, Pranjali Agarwal, Bhabesh Mili, Kinsuk Das, Mihir Sarkar, Subrat K Bhanja, Bikash C Das, Sujoy K Dhara, Sadhan Bag
Generation of pluripotent stem cells by reprogramming somatic cells of quality animals has numerous potential applications in agricultural and biomedical sciences. Unfortunately, till now, reprogramming of buffalo fetal fibroblast cells (bFFs) has been very ineffient despite intensive efforts. Here, we attempted to enhance reprogramming efficiency by using the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) in bFFs transfected with pLentG-KOSM pseudo virus carrying mouse specific pluripotent genes. FACS analysis revealed that VPA treatment significantly increased (p < 0...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Rakhee Lohia, Punita Jain, Mukul Jain, Pradeep Kumar Burma, Anju Shrivastava, Shweta Saran
Sirtuins (SIRTs) belong to class III histone deacetylases and require NAD(+) for their activity. Their activity is associated with the nutritional status of the cell and they directly link cellular metabolic signalling to the state of protein post-translational modifications. Sirtuins play an important role in healthy aging, longevity and age-related diseases, as well as in cell survival mechanisms, such as autophagy. Here, we investigate the functions of Dictyostelium discoideum Sir2D which shows similarity to human SIRT1...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Dong-Hyeon Shin, Joung-Woo Hong
It remains unclear how a limited amount of maternal transcription factor Dorsal (Dl) directs broad expression of short gastrulation (sog) throughout the presumptive neurogenic ectoderm in the Drosophila early embryo. Here, we present evidence that the sog shadow enhancer employs dual modes of transcriptional synergy to produce this broad pattern. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that a minimal enhancer region, systematically mapped in vivo, contains five Dl-, three Zelda (Zld)-, and three Bicoid (Bcd)-binding sites; four of these five Dl-binding sites are closed linked to two Zld- and two Bcd-binding sites...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Liya He, Jiao Feng, Sha Lu, Zhiwen Chen, Chunmei Chen, Ya He, Xiuwen Yi, Liyan Xi
Transferring DNA into cells is an essential method of research on molecular cloning and gene function. As the molecular biology and materials physics develop, more and more new transformation methods have been applied in mammalian cells. Some techniques have been successfully developed for several types of fungi, but their efficiencies are extremely low. To better study on functional genes of fungi, and to improve the characteristics of fungi in an easy, safe and reliable way, many research are made to effectively develop such technologies in a wide variety of species and to increase the efficiency and reproducibility of genetic transformation...
August 16, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Sophie Khazanov, Yael Paz, Amit Hefetz, Ben Jerry Gonzales, Yaara Netser, Abed AlFatah Mansour, Nissim Ben-Arie
During embryonic development of the central nervous system (CNS), the expression of the bHLH transcription factor Nato3 (Ferd3l) is unique and restricted to the floor plate of the neural tube. In mice lacking Nato3 the floor plate cells of the spinal cord do not fully maturate, whereas in the midbrain floor plate, progenitors lose some neurogenic activity, giving rise to a reduced population of dopaminergic neurons. Since the floor plate is considered to be disintegrated at the time of birth, Nato3 expression was never tested postnatally and in adult mice...
August 16, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Alexander A Tokmakov, Tetsushi Iwasaki, Ken-Ichi Sato, Shinji Kamada
Differentiated somatic cells and nuclei can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent undifferentiated state in the cytoplasm of oocytes and eggs. The ability of the gamete cells to induce reprogramming is not species-specific, so the extracts prepared from the oocytes and eggs of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis can reprogram somatic mammalian cells. Thus, Xenopus egg extract-mediated reprogramming may constitute an alternative or complement other experimental reprogramming approaches, such as nuclear transfer, cell fusion, and transcription factor transduction...
June 1, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Francesco De Carli, Vincent Gaggioli, Gaël A Millot, Olivier Hyrien
DNA combing is a standard technique to map DNA replication at the single molecule level. Typically, replicating DNA is metabolically labelled with nucleoside or nucleotide analogs, purified, stretched on coverslips and treated with fluorescent antibodies to reveal tracts of newly synthesized DNA. Fibres containing a locus of interest can then be identified by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with DNA probes. These steps are complex and the throughput is low. Here, we describe a simpler, antibody-free method to reveal replication tracts and identify the locus of origin of combed DNA replication intermediates...
May 20, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Amin S M Salehi, Conner C Earl, Christina Muhlestein, Bradley C Bundy
Cell-free protein synthesis has been around for decades but never been so close to becoming a robust tool for the production of biotherapeutics. In this review, we focus on how Escherichia coli-based cellfree protein synthesis can be modified in various ways to produce challenging, complex anticancer biotherapeutics. Here we report progresses in extract preparation and its relation to cell-free cancer research. The future prospects of cell-free technology and its potentials in various areas of cancer therapeutics production are also highlighted...
May 19, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Dominic Poccia
Typically sperm nuclei are genetically inert and contain extremely compacted chromatin. Following fertilization, the first steps in their conversion to somatic nuclei (male pronuclei) which will support further development involve chromatin decondensation and the formation of a new nuclear envelope. We have studied the reactivation of sea urchin sperm nuclei in a cell-free system derived from homogenates of activated sea urchin egg cytoplasm. The cell-free system has provided several novel insights including requirements for sperm-specific histone phosphorylation on N- and C-terminal extensions and disassembly of the sperm nuclear lamina for decondensation, the utilization of remnant regions of the sperm nuclear envelope to direct polarized binding and fusion of egg membranes to form the new nuclear envelope, and a role for phosphoinositide metabolism in initiation of membrane fusion through binding of a minor membrane fraction enriched in PtdIns (4,5)P2, PLCγ and SFK1 which locally produces a fusigenic lipid, diacylglycerol...
April 6, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Biology
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