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International Journal of Developmental Biology

Duygu Payzin-Dogru, Jessica L Whited
Appendage regeneration is not a simple task. The animal must harness all of its energy and resources to orchestrate perhaps one of the most complicated events since its development. Balancing the immune response, wound healing, proliferation, patterning and differentiation is an elegant job, and how some animals achieve that still leaves researchers enchanted today. In this work, we review some of the molecular aspects of regeneration, with a focus on the axolotl, the champion of tetrapod limb regeneration, and the mouse, an excellent mammalian model for digit tip regeneration...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Maximina H Yun
Cellular senescence, a form of stable cell cycle arrest induced by cellular stress, constitutes a major factor leading to the promotion of pathologies and physiological decays that take place during ageing. However, in recent years evidence has started to emerge supporting a positive role for senescent cells in various physiological processes, from embryonic development to tissue injury responses such as wound healing and tissue repair. Here, we provide an overview of cellular senescence, its negative as well as positive outcomes, with a focus on its impact on tissue repair...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Pedro Sousa-Victor, Laura García-Prat, Pura Muñoz-Cánoves
Stem cells must preserve their function in order to sustain organ and tissue formation, homeostasis and repair. Adult stem cells, particularly those resident in tissues with little turnover, remain quiescent for most of their life, activating only in response to regenerative demands. Among the best studied long-lived quiescent stem cells are skeletal muscle stem cells, which are fully equipped to sustain repair in response to tissue trauma. Recent evidence indicates that the preservation of muscle stem-cell quiescence and regenerative capacity depends on intracellular networks linking metabolism and protein homeostasis...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Daria Belokhvostova, Ieva Berzanskyte, Ana-Maria Cujba, Geraldine Jowett, Lucy Marshall, Johanna Prueller, Fiona M Watt
The epidermis is the outer covering of the skin and provides a protective interface between the body and the environment. It is well established that the epidermis is maintained by stem cells that self-renew and generate differentiated cells. In this review, we discuss how recent technological advances, including single cell transcriptomics and in vivo imaging, have provided new insights into the nature and plasticity of the stem cell compartment and the differing roles of stem cells in homeostasis, wound repair and cancer...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Tetsuya Bando, Taro Mito, Yoshimasa Hamada, Yoshiyasu Ishimaru, Sumihare Noji, Hideyo Ohuchi
This review summarizes recent advances in leg regeneration research, focusing on the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Recent studies have revealed molecular mechanisms on blastema formation, establishment of positional information, and epigenetic regulation during leg regeneration. Especially, these studies have provided molecular bases in classical conceptual models such as the polar coordinate model, the intercalation model, the boundary model, the steepness model, etc., which were proposed to interpret regeneration processes of the cockroach legs...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Stijn Mouton, Jakub Wudarski, Magda Grudniewska, Eugene Berezikov
Understanding the process of regeneration has been one of the longstanding scientific aims, from a fundamental biological perspective, as well as within the applied context of regenerative medicine. Because regeneration competence varies greatly between organisms, it is essential to investigate different experimental animals. The free-living marine flatworm Macrostomum lignano is a rising model organism for this type of research, and its power stems from a unique set of biological properties combined with amenability to experimental manipulation...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Francesc Cebrià, Teresa Adell, Emili Saló
Why some animals can regenerate and others not has fascinated biologists since the first examples of regeneration were reported. Although many animal phyla include species with some regenerative ability, mainly restricted to particular cell types or tissues, there are some other species capable of regenerating complex structures, such as the vertebrate limb and heart. More remarkably, there are some examples of animals that can regenerate the whole body from a tiny piece of them. Understanding how regeneration is triggered and achieved in these animals is fundamental not only to understand this fascinating primary biological question, but also because of its implications for the field of regenerative medicine...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Alyssa M Molinaro, Bret J Pearson
Historically, planarian neoblasts were thought to be a homogeneous population of pluripotent stem cells; however, recent population and single-cell level analyses have refuted this idea. Evidence for lineage commitment at the neoblast level has been provided via a number of independent studies using a variety of methods. In situ hybridization experiments first demonstrated the co-expression of lineage-specific markers in neoblasts (marked by piwi-1 expression) isolated by FACS. Subsequently, single cell transcriptomic analyses of FACS-isolated neoblasts uncovered broad lineage-primed neoblast classes based on the clustering of transcriptional profiles and expression of known tissue-specific markers...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Noriko Funayama
The evolution of multicellular organisms is generally thought (and seems likely) to have been accompanied by the evolution of a stem cell system. Sponges, some of the early-evolved metazoans, have totipotent/pluripotent stem cells. Thus, uncovering the cellular and molecular bases of the sponge stem cells will not only be crucial for understanding the ancestral gene repertoire of animal stem cells, but will also give us clues to understanding the evolution of molecular mechanisms for maintaining multipotency (pluripotency) and differentiation ability during animal evolution...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Raquel Martín, Ginés Morata
Thanks to the introduction of new methods to induce massive damage under controlled conditions, much information about regeneration in Drosophila imaginal discs has accumulated in recent years. In this review, we discuss results concerning primarily the wing disc, putting emphasis on the different regenerative responses of the wing appendage, which exhibits a robust regenerative potential, and the trunk region, the notum, which regenerates very poorly. The wing disc may be a paradigm of a tissue in which a common original lineage generates cells with distinct regenerative potential...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Laura Vibert, Anne Daulny, Sophie Jarriault
Regeneration and wound healing are complex processes that allow organs and tissues to regain their integrity and functionality after injury. Wound healing, a key property of epithelia, involves tissue closure that in some cases leads to scar formation. Regeneration, a process rather limited in mammals, is the capacity to regrow (parts of) an organ or a tissue, after damage or amputation. What are the properties of organs and the features of tissue permitting functional regrowth and repair? What are the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these processes? These questions are crucial both in fundamental and applied contexts, with important medical implications...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Chang-Ru Tsai, Yan Wang, Michael J Galko
For animals, injury is inevitable. Because of this, organisms possess efficient wound healing mechanisms that can repair damaged tissues. However, the molecular and genetic mechanisms by which epidermal repair is accomplished remain poorly defined. Drosophila has become a valuable model to study epidermal wound healing because of the comprehensive genetic toolkit available in this organism and the similarities of wound healing processes between Drosophila and vertebrates. Other reviews in this Special Issue cover wound healing assays and pathways in Drosophila embryos, pupae and adults, as well as regenerative processes that occur in tissues such as imaginal discs and the gut...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Henry Hamilton Roehl
The study of regenerative biology aims to elucidate the innate ability of organisms to replace tissues or organs after they have been removed or damaged. The zebrafish is a powerful model for the analysis of intracellular signalling and cell behaviour and as such has made major contributions to our understanding of regenerative biology. The larval fin fold is an emerging model to understand how different signalling pathways interact to coordinate regeneration. Tissue damage causes the immediate release of signals that initiate wound closure and inflammation...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Silvia Schwartz, Christa Rhiner
Adult stem cells in mammals are important for normal tissue renewal (homeostasis) and regeneration after injury. In the past ten years, different types of homeostatic adult stem cells have also been identified in the genetically accessible fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), among which intestinal stem cells have taken centre stage. Recent studies provide evidence that adult fly tissues may also harbor quiescent stem cells, which can enter cell cycle upon injury to regenerate compromised tissue. Such damage-responsive stem cells have been described in flight muscles, the adult brain and in a narrow region of the fly hindgut...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Sumeet P Singh, Nikolay Ninov
On 11 January 1922 insulin injection was used for the first time in the treatment of diabetes. Even today, daily insulin injections are the life-saving treatment for patients with Type 1 diabetes and advanced Type 2 diabetes. However, insulin injections often fail to achieve full glucose control, which in the long-term leads to multiple complications and mortality. Beta-cells, the natural producers and secretors of insulin, remain the gold-standard in regulating blood glucose levels. In this review, we focus on three strategies aiming at counteracting beta-cell loss in order to gain insulin independence: replacement, replication and protection...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Judit López-Luque, Isabel Fabregat
The liver is structurally and functionally heterogeneous and complex, and it accomplishes crucial functions for the organism. Its most remarkable potential is its capacity to regenerate after injury in order to maintain whole body homeostasis and guarantee the survival of the individual. Under normal conditions, liver regeneration (LR) is attributed to adult hepatocytes, the main cells in the liver which are able to proliferate in response to different stimuli or injuries. Nevertheless, when liver injury is severe and/or hepatocytes are prevented from proliferation, liver stem/progenitor cells (LS/PCs) participate directing LR to maintain liver mass and functions...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Leonardo Guasti, Sophie E New, Irene Hadjidemetriou, Miriam Palmiero, Patrizia Ferretti
In contrast to cold blooded vertebrates, the ability to regenerate morphologically and functionally complex structures is limited in adult mammals. Recruitment of progenitor cells is a key step in the regenerative process. The possibility of repairing missing or diseased tissues in humans has been potentiated by the increasing understanding of somatic stem cells, their plasticity and the possibility of modulating it, that could be harnessed either to stimulate endogenous repair or to engineer the required tissue...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Thomas Bates, Uta Naumann, Beate Hoppe, Christoph Englert
Age-related diseases, such as kidney diseases, are becoming more prevalent in aging societies. Currently, patients with reduced kidney function require dialysis or organ transplants. Those who suffer from kidney disease would benefit from regenerative therapies. Thus, one of the ultimate goals of regeneration research is to enhance an individual's capacity of self-repairing damaged tissue; something that fish models can contribute towards. Kidney structures are conserved among vertebrates highlighting the opportunities for fish to act as human disease models...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Viktoria Bosak, Kei Murata, Oliver Bludau, Michael Brand
The mammalian central nervous system is not able to regenerate neurons lost upon injury. In contrast, anamniote vertebrates show a remarkable regenerative capacity and are able to replace damaged cells and restore function. Recent studies have shown that in naturally regenerating vertebrates, such as zebrafish, inflammation is a key processes required for the initiation of regeneration. These findings are in contrast to many studies in mammals, where the central nervous system has long been viewed as an immune-privileged organ with inflammation considered one of the key negative factors causing lack of neuronal regeneration...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Nadia Mercader, Florenci Serras
This interview, performed by the guest editors of this Int. J. Dev. Biol. Special Issue on Regeneration, narrates the story of Elly M. Tanaka on her regeneration research journey. The main goal is to get a glimpse of the thoughts and scientific history of this leading figure in regeneration biology. In addition to her scientific history, we will learn about her captivating determination to ask relevant questions in science and her use of animal models for solving complex problems.
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
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