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International Journal of Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695967/expression-of-the-alk1-family-of-type-i-bmp-admp-receptors-during-gastrula-stages-in-xenopus-embryos
#1
Avi Leibovich, Herbert Steinbeißer, Abraham Fainsod
Multiple members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) family of secreted factors play central inductive and patterning roles during embryogenesis. During gastrulation in vertebrates, the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) sub-family is linked to formation of the embryonic organizer, Spemann's organizer in Xenopus, and dorsal-ventral mesoderm patterning. Our knowledge regarding the BMP receptors mediating this signaling is still very incomplete. The BMPR1A (ALK3) and BMPR1B (ALK6) receptors are known to mediate the BMP4 signal...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695966/dyrk2-displays-muscle-fiber-type-specific-function-during-zebrafish-early-somitogenesis
#2
Wei Sun, Shuang Jiao, Xungang Tan, Peijun Zhang, Feng You
Dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase 2 (DYRK2) is a serine/threonine kinase. In zebrafish, DYRK2 is expressed in the lateral somites and adaxial cells at the early stage of embryo development. However, its role in early myogenesis had not been elucidated yet. Here, we report that DYRK2 mRNA and MyoD mRNA were colocalized in the muscle progenitor cells in somites, including both the posterior compartment of the lateral somites and adaxial cells. Knockdown of DYRK2 reduced the levels of MyoD transcripts in the muscle progenitor cells in somites...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695965/role-of-mad2-expression-during-the-early-development-of-the-sea-urchin
#3
Odile Bronchain, Wael Jdey, Laetitia Caraty, Brigitte Ciapa
Mitotic arrest deficient 2 (Mad2) belongs to the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), a mechanism that blocks progression of the cell cycle until microtubule attachment to kinetochores is complete. It has been found to be involved in the resistance of cancer cells to "anti-mitotic" drugs such as paclitaxel. Mad2 controls meiotic progression, but its role during sea urchin development had never been investigated. Furthermore, the existence of a SAC in this species had never been proved. The present data show that a Mad2 protein, highly homologous to that of humans, is expressed in this species...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695964/segmentation-gene-expression-patterns-in-bactrocera-dorsalis-and-related-insects-regulation-and-shape-of-blastoderm-and-larval-cuticle
#4
Worramin Suksuwan, Xiaoli Cai, Lertluk Ngernsiri, Stefan Baumgartner
The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is regarded as a severe pest of fruit production in Asia. Despite its economic importance, only limited information regarding the molecular and developmental biology of this insect is known to date. We provide a detailed analysis of B. dorsalis embryology, as well as the expression patterns of a number of segmentation genes known to act during patterning of Drosophila and compare these to the patterns of other insect families. An anterior shift of the expression of gap genes was detected when compared to Drosophila...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695963/differential-regulation-of-cumulus-cell-transcription-during-oocyte-maturation-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#5
Giovanni Coticchio, Libby Ophir, Yuval Yung, Micha Baum, Mariabeatrice Dal Canto, Mario Mignini-Renzini, Fausta Brambillasca, Rubens Fadini, Ariel Hourvitz
Differences in cumulus cell gene expression after oocyte maturation in vitro (IVM) or in vivo have been described in previous studies. However, the possible impact of follicle stage on gene expression deregulation during human oocyte IVM remains unknown. Expression of selected genes of interest was compared in cumulus cell of three classes of human cumulus cell-oocyte complexes (COCs): a) COCs derived from human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-triggered IVM cycles, collected at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage from mid-sized follicles (4-12 mm) and matured in vitro (IVM-GV); b) COCs derived from hCG-triggered IVM cycles, collected from mid-sized follicles (4-12 mm) and matured in vivo (IVM-MII); c) COCs derived from controlled ovarian stimulation in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, collected from large/preovulatory follicles and matured in vivo (IVF-MII)...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695962/gdf11-smad-signalling-and-cdx-proteins-cooperate-to-activate-the-hoxc8-early-enhancer-in-hepg2-cells
#6
Stephen J Gaunt
Developing anatomy along the head-tail axis of bilaterian embryos is specified, to a large extent, by the overlapping patterns of expression of the Hox genes. Hox gene enhancers respond to a variety of signals in order to regulate these discreet domains of expression. For mouse Hoxc8, the 399bp "early enhancer" plays a major role. Activation of this enhancer is now examined using luciferase expression constructs transfected into HepG2 cells. Constructs are activated by the combined actions of Gdf11/Smad and Cdx protein signalling pathways, both of which are functional in early embryos...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695961/apolipoprotein-c-i-mediates-wnt-ctnnb1-signaling-during-neural-border-formation-and-is-required-for-neural-crest-development
#7
Chika Yokota, Carolina Åstrand, Shuji Takahashi, Daniel W Hagey, Jan M Stenman
In vertebrates, the neural crest and placodes originate in the neural border, which is located between the neural plate and epidermal ectoderm. The neural crest and placodes give rise to a vast array of cell types. Formation of neural crest is a multi-step process, in which Wnt signals are used reiteratively, but it is currently not clear if a Wnt signal is required for neural border formation. Here, we have identified apolipoprotein C-I (apoc1) in a screen for genes regulated by Wnt/Ctnnb1 signaling in late blastula stage Xenopus tropicalis embryos...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695960/galectin-1-enhances-the-generation-of-neural-crest-cells
#8
Tsutomu Motohashi, Masahiro Nishioka, Daisuke Kitagawa, Norito Kawamura, Natsuki Watanabe, Takanori Wakaoka, Toshihiko Kadoya, Takahiro Kunisada
Neural crest (NC) cells are multipotent cells that emerge from the dorsal region of the neural tube. After delaminating from the neural tube, NC cells migrate throughout the developing embryo and differentiate into various cells: neurons and glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, melanocytes of skin, and skeletal elements of the face and head. We previously analyzed the gene expression profile of a NC subpopulation isolated from Sox10-IRES-Venus mice and found that the carbohydrate-binding protein, Galectin-1 (Gal-1) was strongly expressed in generating NC cells...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695959/migration-behavior-of-pgcs-and-asymmetrical-gonad-formation-in-pond-smelt-hypomesus-nipponensis
#9
Eisuke Takahashi, Yu Shimizu, Hirotaro Urushibata, Yutaka Kawakami, Katsutoshi Arai, Etsuro Yamaha
In teleost fish, the gonad originates from primordial germ cells (PGCs) and somatic cells. However, it is not clear whether the final gonadal position is determined by anteroposterior and dextrosinistral differentiation of endodermal organs or by the distribution of PGCs. The pond smelt has a transparent body even after hatching, enabling clear observation of PGC distribution and endodermal differentiation. Here, we first examined normal embryonic development to define the spatio-temporal characteristics of our developmental model...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695958/identification-and-characterization-of-the-autophagy-related-genes-atg12-and-atg5-in-hydra
#10
Nishikant S Dixit, Bhupendra V Shravage, Surendra Ghaskadbi
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process in eukaryotic cells that is involved in the degradation of cytoplasmic contents including organelles via the lysosome. Hydra is an early metazoan which exhibits simple tissue grade organization, a primitive nervous system, and is one of the classical non-bilaterian models extensively used in evo-devo research. Here, we describe the characterization of two core autophagy genes, Atg12 and Atg5, from hydra. In silico analyses including sequence similarity, domain analysis, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrate the conservation of these genes across eukaryotes...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695957/interactions-among-gibberellins-brassinosteroids-and-genes-regulate-stomatal-development-in-the-arabidopsis-hypocotyl
#11
Diego González, Sonia Fuentes, Laura Serna
Stomata are pores on the plant surface that enable gas exchange with the atmosphere. In Arabidopsis thaliana, brassinosteroids, which function upstream of the TTG/bHLHs/MYBs/GL2 transcriptional network, positively regulate stomatal formation in the hypocotyl. Gibberellins also promote stomatal development in the embryonic stem. Here, we investigated the hypothetical interactions between the gibberellin and brassinosteroid signaling pathways during stomatal formation. By combining genetics and gene expression studies, we found that gibberellins promote stomatal development, functioning upstream of both brassinosteroids and the TTG/bHLHs/MYBs/GL2 network...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695956/regulation-of-body-size-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-effects-of-environmental-factors-and-the-nervous-system
#12
Takashi Nagashima, Shoichi Ishiura, Satoshi Suo
Body size is one of the basic traits of animals and is regulated to adapt to the environment. Animals perceive environmental stimuli with sensory neurons, and signals from the nervous system alter the size of organs, thus regulating body size. The model animal Caenorhabditis elegans is particularly suited for genetic analysis of body size regulation, and has already contributed to the elucidation of various genetic pathways that regulate body size. In this review, we summarize the available literature regarding environmental factors that regulate body size and the role of the nervous system in such regulation...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695955/states-of-g0-and-the-proliferation-quiescence-decision-in-cells-tissues-and-during-development
#13
Dan Sun, Laura Buttitta
While cellular proliferation is fundamental to the development of all multicellular organisms, the slowing or stopping of proliferation at the right places and times is equally important for proper tissue and organ development. The non-cycling state of cellular quiescence or "G0" is relatively understudied compared to proliferation, given its prevalence in nature. It may seem that actively proliferating cells undergo a series of dynamic events, while quiescent cells are in a passive, static state. However, studies over the last 10-15 years suggest that quiescence may be more dynamic than previously thought and must also be actively regulated and maintained...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621432/regulatory-heterochronies-and-loose-temporal-scaling-between-sea-star-and-sea-urchin-regulatory-circuits
#14
Tsvia Gildor, Veronica Hinman, Smadar Ben-Tabou-De-Leon
It has long been argued that heterochrony, a change in relative timing of a developmental process, is a major source of evolutionary innovation. Heterochronic changes of regulatory gene activation could be the underlying molecular mechanism driving heterochronic changes through evolution. Here, we compare the temporal expression profiles of key regulatory circuits between sea urchin and sea star, representative of two classes of Echinoderms that shared a common ancestor about 500 million years ago. The morphologies of the sea urchin and sea star embryos are largely comparable, yet, differences in certain mesodermal cell types and ectodermal patterning result in distinct larval body plans...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621431/adhesion-molecule-kirrel3-neph2-is-required-for-the-elongated-shape-of-myocytes-during-skeletal-muscle-differentiation
#15
Yael Tamir-Livne, Raeda Mubariki, Eyal Bengal
Kirrel/Neph proteins are evolutionarily conserved members of the immunoglobulin superfamily of adhesion proteins. Kirrel3 is the mouse orthologue of Dumbfounded (Duf), a family member that regulates myoblast pre-fusion events in Drosophila. Yet, the role of Kirrel3 in mammalian myogenesis has not been demonstrated. Experiments performed here indicate that the mouse Kirrel3 protein regulates morphological changes of myoblasts that are required for their subsequent fusion into multinucleated myotubes. We show that Kirrel3 is transiently expressed at the tips of myocytes during early myoblast differentiation and that its expression is dependent on the myogenic transcription factor, MyoD...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621430/disruption-of-the-aortic-wall-by-coelomic-lining-derived-mesenchymal-cells-accompanies-the-onset-of-aortic-hematopoiesis
#16
Alaa A Arraf, Marella F T R De Bruijn, Thomas M Schultheiss
In vertebrates, definitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) first emerge in the ventral wall of the aorta in the Aorta-Gonad-Mesonephros (AGM) region of the embryo, where they differentiate from a specialized type of endothelium termed Hemogenic Endothelium (HE). While the transition from HE to hematopoietic tissue has received much experimental attention, much less is known regarding generation of HE itself. The current study investigates the emergence of the HE in the chick embryo aorta. Using the HE marker Runx1 as well as a new chicken-reactive antibody to the endothelial marker VE-Cadherin, we document the relationship between the emerging HE and surrounding tissues, particularly the coelomic epithelium (CE) and CE-derived sub-aortic mesenchyme...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621429/the-sumo-targeted-ubiquitin-ligase-dgrn-is-essential-for-drosophila-innate-immunity
#17
Bella Koltun, Eliza Shackelford, François Bonnay, Nicolas Matt, Jean Marc Reichhart, Amir Orian
The ability of metazoans to combat pathogenic infection involves both systemic and local responses to the invading pathogens. Ubiquitin and SUMO pathways molecularly regulate the response to infection, immune signaling and gene expression. Here, we report that Degringolade (Dgrn, CG10981), a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase connecting the two pathways, is essential for the innate immunity response in Drosophila. dgrn(DK) null and heterozygous mutant adult flies are severely immune-compromised and succumb rapidly to both pathogenic bacteria and fungi infections...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621428/loss-of-thrombospondin-reveals-a-possible-role-for-the-extracellular-matrix-in-chordotonal-cap-cell-elongation
#18
Rina T Greenblatt Ben-El, Abeer Hassan, Adi Salzberg
In the Drosophila larva, major proprioceptive input is provided to the brain by sub-epidermal stretch receptors called chordotonal organs (ChO). Similarly to the body wall muscle that needs to be attached on both of its sides to the larval exoskeleton in order to generate movement, the sensory unit of a ChO must be stably anchored to the cuticle on both of its sides in order to sense the relative displacement of body parts. Through an RNAi screen we have identified thrombospondin (Tsp), a secreted calcium binding glycoprotein, as a critical component in the anchoring of ChOs to the cuticle...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621427/adhfe1-a-novel-enzyme-involved-in-retinoic-acid-dependent-hox-activation
#19
Yehuda Shabtai, Natalie Shukrun, Abraham Fainsod
Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is a central pathway regulating anterior-posterior patterning of the embryo through its targets, the Hox genes. RA is produced by two sequential oxidations from vitamin A (retinol) and this biosynthesis has to be regulated temporally, spatially and quantitatively. Mining Xenopus embryonic expression databases identified a novel component of the RA metabolic network, ADHFe1. Using Xenopus laevis embryos as our experimental system we determined the temporal and spatial pattern of AdhFe1 expression...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621426/foxd1-protein-interacts-with-wnt-and-bmp-signaling-to-differentially-pattern-mesoderm-and-neural-tissue
#20
Hanna Polevoy, Anastasia Malyarova, Yuri Fonar, Sara Elias, Dale Frank
The foxd1 gene (previously known as Brain Factor 2/BF2) is expressed during early Xenopus laevis development. At gastrula stages, foxd1 is expressed in dorsal mesoderm regions fated for muscle and notochord, while at neurula stages, foxd1 is expressed in the forebrain region. Previous studies in the neural plate showed that FoxD1 protein acts as transcriptional repressor downstream of BMP antagonism, neuralizing the embryo to control anterior neural cell fates. FoxD1 mesoderm function was not rigorously analyzed, but ectopic FoxD1 levels increased muscle marker expression in embryos...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
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