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International Journal of Developmental Biology

M Natalia Vergara, George Tsissios, Katia Del Rio-Tsonis
The idea of regenerating injured body parts has captivated human imagination for centuries, and the topic still remains an area of extensive scientific research. This review focuses on the process of lens regeneration: its history, our current knowledge, and the questions that remain unanswered. By highlighting some of the milestones that have shaped our understanding of this phenomenon and the contributions of scientists who have dedicated their lives to investigating these questions, we explore how regeneration enquiry evolved into the science it is today, and how technological advances accelerated our understanding of these remarkable processes...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Jae Yong Han, Hyo Gun Lee, Young Sun Hwang, Hyung Chul Lee, Sang Kyung Kim, Deivendran Rengaraj
Initial embryological development in avian species, consisting of cleavage and area pellucida formation, occurs prior to oviposition. In chickens, the first lineage segregation is known to occur during the last 10 hours of intrauterine development, a finding which has primarily been identified on the basis of morphological perspectives. We traced the early expression of the transcription factors NANOG, POUV and EOMES at Eyal-Giladi and Kochav (EGK) stages VI through X using in situ hybridization. At EGK.VI, NANOG and EOMES were heterogeneously expressed in a salt-and-pepper manner...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
J Eli Robins, Anthony A Capehart
Matrix remodeling associated 5 (MXRA5) is an extracellular protein that is upregulated in several cancers, but little is known regarding its spatial and temporal localization in the developing embryo. The present study was undertaken to investigate MXRA5 transcript expression in the trunk and limb of the embryonic chick to provide groundwork for future investigation of its developmental function. In situ hybridization utilizing digoxigenin-labeled sense control and experimental antisense probes was performed in paraffin sections of chick embryos from Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) stages 18-38...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Camille Cosse-Etchepare, Isabelle Gervi, Isabelle Buisson, Laurent Formery, Michael Schubert, Jean-François Riou, Muriel Umbhauer, Ronan Le Bouffant
The POU (Pit-Oct-Unc) genes encode a large transcription factor family comprising 6 classes (pou1f to pou6f ) involved in many developmental processes, such as cell commitment and differentiation. The pou3f class contains four members (pou3f1, pou3f2, pou3f3, pou3f4) characterized by expression in ectodermal tissue derivatives, such as nervous system and otic vesicle, during mammalian development. In order to obtain insights into the potential conservation of this class of transcription factors in vertebrates, we carried out a phylogenetic analysis and a comprehensive comparative study of pou3f expression in the frog Xenopus laevis...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Herbert Neuhaus, Florian Gaul, Thomas Hollemann
LRPAP1, also known as receptor associated protein (RAP) is a small protein of 40 kDa associated with six of the seven members of the evolutionary conserved family of LDL receptors. Numerous studies showed that LRPAP1 has a dual function, initially as a chaperone insuring proper formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds during biogenesis of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors and later as an escort protein during trafficking through the endoplasmic reticulum and the early Golgi compartment, preventing premature interaction of receptor and ligand...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Roberta Iachetta, Alfredo Ambrosone, Alexander Klimovich, Jörg Wittlieb, Giada Onorato, Alessia Candeo, Cosimo D'andrea, Daniela Intartaglia, Nunzia Scotti, Martina Blasio, Angela Tino, Andrea Bassi, Claudia Tortiglione
Understanding the dynamic cellular behaviours driving morphogenesis and regeneration is a long-standing challenge in biology. Live imaging, together with genetically encoded reporters, may provide the necessary tool to address this issue, permitting the in vivo monitoring of the spatial and temporal expression dynamics of a gene of interest during a variety of developmental processes. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling controls a plethora of cellular activities during development, regeneration and adulthood throughout the animal kingdom...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Antonio S J Lee, Nara Yoon, Maree Gould, Ming Zhang
Formation of an organ is governed by both the genetic programming of individual cells and dynamic interactions amongst different cell communities or the 'community effect'. Using the developing vertebrate limb muscle, we identified myogenic stem cell communities derived from migratory somitic cells. These cells express Pax3, a gene from the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors and Pax7, a paralog of Pax3. Both Pax genes act upstream of myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) whose activation marks a specified myogenic lineage and subsequent differentiation...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Yuji Taya, Kaori Sato, Youichi Shirako, Yuuichi Soeno
Lymphatic development in mice is initiated in the trunk at embryonic day (E) 9.5. This study aimed to examine the origin of craniofacial lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and the developmental process of lymphatic vessels in the mouse craniofacial region. Serial sections from ICR mouse embryos at E9.5-E14.5 were immunolabeled with LEC and venous endothelial cell (VEC) markers. These markers included prospero homeobox protein 1 (Prox1), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (Vegfr3), lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (Lyve1), and C-C motif chemokine 2 (Ccl21) for LEC, and COUP transcription factor 2 (CoupTF2) and endomucin (Emcn) for VEC...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Xiao-Ning Cheng, Ming Shao, De-Li Shi
Eye formation in vertebrates involves highly coordinated processes, and the differentiation of various eye tissues is regulated by conserved transcription factors and signalling pathways. Mutations in key genes of the regulatory hierarchy lead to congenital disorders and ocular diseases. The Wnt signalling pathway plays a key role in different aspects of eye development, and several Wnt receptors of the Frizzled family are required for eye specification and differentiation. However, their precise function in these processes remains elusive...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Neha Gupta, Shweta Saran
The etoposide-induced 2.4 kb transcript (ei24) gene is induced both by p53 and etoposide, an anti-cancer tumour drug. There is no p53 gene present in Dictyostelium discoideum. Thus, the functions of ei24 in the absence of p53 were analysed. Both overexpressor (ei24OE ) and knockout (ei24- ) mutants were made to study its role during growth, development and differentiation. Additionally, cell cycle and its response to DNA-damage were also analysed. We identified, characterized and elucidated the functions of the ei24 gene in Dictyostelium...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
John Abramyan, Joy M Richman
The aim of this review is to highlight some of the key contributions to our understanding of craniofacial research from work carried out with the chicken and other avian embryos. From the very first observations of neural crest cell migration to the fusion of the primary palate, the chicken has proven indispensable in facilitating craniofacial research. In this review we will look back to the premolecular studies where "cut and paste" grafting experiments mapped the fate of cranial neural crest cells, the role of different tissue layers in patterning the face, and more recently the contribution of neural crest cells to jaw size and identity...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Megan G Davey, Matthew Towers, Neil Vargesson, Cheryll Tickle
The chick embryo has a long history in investigations of vertebrate limb development because of the ease with which its limbs can be experimentally manipulated. Early studies elucidated the fundamental embryology of the limb and identified the key signalling regions that govern its development. The chick limb became a leading model for exploring the concept of positional information and understanding how patterns of differentiated cells and tissues develop in vertebrate embryos. When developmentally important molecules began to be identified, experiments in chick limbs were crucial for bridging embryology and molecular biology...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Yoshiko Takahashi, Ryo Kudo, Ryosuke Tadokoro, Yuji Atsuta
During embryogenesis, different tissues develop coordinately, and this coordination is often in harmony with body growth. Recent studies allow us to understand how this harmonious regulation is achieved at the levels of inter-cellular, inter-tissue, and tissue-body relationships. Here, we present an overview of recently revealed mechanisms by which axial growth (tail growth) drives a variety of morphogenetic events, with a focus on the coordinated progression between Wolffian (nephric) duct elongation and somitogenesis...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Anne H Monsoro-Burq, Michael Levin
While the external vertebrate body plan appears bilaterally symmetrical with respect to anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes, the internal organs are arranged with a striking and invariant left-right asymmetry. This laterality is important for normal body function, as alterations manifest as numerous human birth defect syndromes. The left-right axis is set up very early during embryogenesis by an initial and still poorly understood break in bilateral symmetry, followed by a cascade of molecular events that was discovered 20 years ago in the chick embryo model...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Olivier Pourquié
Somites are epithelial blocks of paraxial mesoderm that define the vertebrate embryonic segments. They are responsible for imposing the metameric pattern observed in many tissues of the adult such as the vertebrae, and they give rise to most of the axial skeleton and skeletal muscles of the trunk. Due to its easy accessibility in the egg, the chicken embryo has provided an ideal model to study somite development. Somites were first described in the chicken embryo by Malpighi in the 17th century, soon after the invention of the microscope...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Alice Roycroft, Roberto Mayor
Michael Abercrombie is regarded as one of the principal pioneers of cell biology. Although Abercrombie began his career as an experimental embryologist, working on the avian organizer with C. H. Waddington, questions on how cells in culture migrate and interact dominated his career. Whilst studying the social behaviour of chick heart embryonic fibroblasts, Abercrombie identified a phenomenon whereby colliding cells collapse their protrusions towards the cell-cell contact upon a collision, preventing their continued migration...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Gary C Schoenwolf
The chick embryo has served as a workhorse for experimental embryological studies designed to elucidate mechanisms underlying neurulation, the process that forms the neural tube, the rudiment of the entire adult central nervous system. Early chick embryos developing in whole-embryo culture can be readily manipulated in cut-and-paste-type experiments, and this attribute makes this model system unparalleled for studying the morphogenesis of embryos and their organ rudiments. How the chick embryo and experimental embryology have contributed to our understanding of critical events of neurulation are summarized...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Claudio D Stern
Absolute time elapsed since fertilization, or hours' incubation, is not a good measure of the precise degree of development of an embryo because there is considerable variation. The chick embryo benefits from a detailed, well defined staging system introduced by Hamburger and Hamilton in 1951, perhaps the most precise and detailed available for any species. This paper briefly reviews the background and legacy of this table, including the remarkable work of its predecessors, Mathias Duval and Franz Keibel. It also begs the question of why the mouse embryo still lacks a similarly precise classification...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Lewis Wolpert
Here, I provide some recollections of my life, starting as a civil engineer in South Africa and how I gradually became interested in biology, particularly pattern formation. In retrospect, I think that my decision to work on chick embryos to study limb development back in 1966 turned out to be the right one. The principles discovered in these 50 years, both by my collaborators and by other colleagues, have established the principles of how the limb develops in higher vertebrates, including humans.
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Yuanyuan Cheng, David W Burt
As one of the most economically important species and a unique model organism for biological and medical research, the chicken represents the first non-mammalian amniotic species to have its genome sequenced; and so far, the chicken reference genome represents the best assembled and annotated avian genome. Since the release of the first draft genome sequence, the chicken genome assembly has improved greatly in coverage, contiguity and accuracy owing to the continuous efforts made by the chicken genomics community to generate extensive new data using novel sequencing technologies...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
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