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European Journal of Protistology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388476/motile-behaviour-of-the-free-living-planktonic-ciliate-zoothamnium-pelagicum-ciliophora-peritrichia
#1
Fernando Gómez
Zoothamnium pelagicum is the only free-floating species among ∼1000 peritrich ciliates that develops its complete life cycle in the open ocean. In the NW Mediterranean Sea, Z. pelagicum was usually associated with ectobiotic bacteria, while in the South Atlantic Ocean was sometimes fouled by the diatom Licmophora. Each colony constituted a radial branch that joined at its base with other colonies to form a lens-shaped pseudocolony of up to 400 zooids. The cilia beat slowly, propelling the expanded pseudocolony in the direction of the concave face...
March 23, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427742/investigating-the-biodiversity-of-ciliates-in-the-age-of-integration
#2
REVIEW
John C Clamp, Denis H Lynn
Biology is now turning toward a more integrative approach to research, distinguished by projects that depend on collaboration across hierarchical levels of organization or across disciplines. This trend is prompted by the need to solve complex, large-scale problems and includes disciplines that could be defined as integrative biodiversity. Integrative biodiversity of protists, including that of ciliates, is still partially in its infancy. This is the result of a shortage of historical data resources such as curated museum collections...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376380/morphological-descriptions-of-five-scuticociliates-including-one-new-species-of-falcicyclidium
#3
Xinpeng Fan, Yuan Xu, Jiamei Jiang, Khaled A S Al-Rasheid, Yangang Wang, Xiaozhong Hu
Five scuticociliates, collected from China, were morphologically studied using standard methods One represents a new member of the genus Falcicyclidium, F. citriforme nov. spec., which can be recognised mainly by a combination of the following characters: usually two macronuclear nodules, buccal field about half of body length, ten somatic kineties, about 22 kinetal units in somatic kinety 1 and n, and excretory pore near posterior end of somatic kinety n. A redescription for Biggaria bermudensis was provided to include the feature of scutica and argyrome based on new isolate, and variations between different isolates were also discussed...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363138/origin-and-diversity-of-testate-amoebae-shell-composition-example-of-bullinularia-indica-living-in-sphagnum-capillifolium
#4
Maxence Delaine, Nadine Bernard, Daniel Gilbert, Philippe Recourt, Eric Armynot du Châtelet
Testate amoebae are free-living shelled protists that build a wide range of shells with various sizes, shapes, and compositions. Recent studies showed that xenosomic testate amoebae shells could be indicators of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) deposition. However, no study has yet been conducted to assess the intra-specific mineral, organic, and biologic grain diversity of a single xenosomic species in a natural undisturbed environment. This study aims at providing new information about grain selection to develop the potential use of xenosomic testate amoebae shells as bioindicators of the multiple-origin mineral/organic diversity of their proximal environment...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376381/effects-of-experimental-addition-of-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-on-microbial-and-metazoan-communities-in-a-peatbog
#5
Tomasz Mieczan, Małgorzata Adamczuk, Monika Tarkowska-Kukuryk, Pęczuła Wojciech, Barbara Pawlik-Skowrońska
Interactions between microbial communities and the classical grazing food chain are essential for understanding the functioning of peatbog ecosystems. However, little is known of how short-term intensification of eutrophication processes may influence microbial and metazoan communities in transitional peatbog. We addressed the hypothesis that an increase in the concentration of nutrients will affect the species richness and abundance of microorganisms and small metazoans and cause changes in the food web structure in a peatbog...
March 9, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363137/structures-related-to-attachment-and-motility-in-the-marine-eugregarine-cephaloidophora-cf-communis-apicomplexa
#6
Magdaléna Kováčiková, Timur G Simdyanov, Andrei Diakin, Andrea Valigurová
Gregarines represent a highly diversified group of ancestral apicomplexans, with various modes of locomotion and host-parasite interactions. The eugregarine parasite of the barnacle Balanus balanus, Cephaloidophora cf. communis, exhibits interesting organisation of its attachment apparatus along with unique motility modes. The pellicle covered gregarine is arranged into longitudinal epicytic folds. The epimerite is separated from the protomerite by a septum consisting of tubulin-rich filamentous structures and both are packed with microneme-like structures suggestive of their function in the production of adhesives important for attachment and secreted through the abundant epimerite pores...
March 7, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391018/macronuclear-actin-copy-number-variations-in-single-cells-of-different-pseudokeronopsis-alveolata-ciliophora-populations
#7
Lijuan Huang, Xuefen Lu, Changyu Zhu, Xiaofeng Lin, Zhenzhen Yi
Macronuclear chromosomes of ciliates, especially those of Spirotrichea, Armophorea and Phyllopharyngea, are extensively fragmented and their copy numbers vary significantly. A recent study suggested that parental RNA molecules regulate macronuclear copy number in offspring cells after conjugation. However, variations in patterns of macronuclear copy number during vegetative growth are not clear. Previous studies have reported macronuclear copy numbers of population averages, potentially masking individual variation...
March 3, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389155/integrative-taxonomy-of-ciliates-assessment-of-molecular-phylogenetic-content-and-morphological-homology-testing
#8
REVIEW
Peter Vďačný
The very diverse and comparatively complex morphology of ciliates has given rise to numerous taxonomic concepts. However, the information content of the utilized molecular markers has seldom been explored prior to phylogenetic analyses and taxonomic decisions. Likewise, robust testing of morphological homology statements and the apomorphic nature of diagnostic characters of ciliate taxa is rarely carried out. Four phylogenetic techniques that may help address these issues are reviewed. (1) Split spectrum analysis serves to determine the exact number and quality of nucleotide positions supporting individual nodes in phylogenetic trees and to discern long-branch artifacts that cause spurious phylogenies...
February 24, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363139/ophryocystis-anatoliensis-sp-nov-a-new-neogregarine-pathogen-of-the-chrysomelid-beetle-chrysomela-populi
#9
Mustafa Yaman, Renate Radek
Chrysomela populi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is the most abundant and most important pest species that causes damage to poplar trees. Members of the family Chrysomelidae are frequently infected by protist pathogens but no neogregarine has been reported to date at the species level. In the present study we identify a new neogregarine pathogen from the chrysomelid C. populi. The infection was observed in the Malpighian tubules of adult beetles. A reddening of the Malpighian tubules was the most distinctive symptom of the infection...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319806/description-of-flamella-daurica-n-sp-with-notes-on-the-phylogeny-of-the-genus-flamella-and-related-taxa
#10
Anna Glotova, Alexey Smirnov
A new species of naked amoebae, Flamella daurica (Amoebozoa, Conosa, Variosea), from the Russian Far East is studied and described. In addition, we isolated a strain, identified as Flamella aegyptia from Lake Ontario in Canada. Its SSU rRNA gene sequence is almost identical with that of the type strain, except for the presence of an intron in the SSU sequence. The phylogenetic analysis of a variosean alignment after inclusion of a number of environmental sequences found in GenBank confirmed that the species Talaepolella tubasferens Lahr 2012 is closely related to the Flamella clade but probably represents an independent genus and includes no less than two different species...
April 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314219/supplemental-description-of-nyctotheroides-pyriformis-n-comb-macrocytopharynxa-pyriformis-nie-1932-li-et-al-2002-from-frog-hosts-with-consideration-of-the-validity-of-the-genus-macrocytopharynxa-armophorea-clevelandellida
#11
Ming Li, Can Li, J Norman Grim, Francisco Ponce-Gordo, Guitang Wang, Hong Zou, Wenxiang Li, Shangong Wu
The morphological revisions of Macrocytopharynxa pyriformis (Nie, 1932) Li et al., 2002; collected from the rectum of Fejervarya limnocharis (=Rana limnocharis), are presented in this paper: (1) two surfaces of the organism are not identical - left side narrower and convex, right broader and flat or slightly concave; (2) infundibulum is large and well-developed with no "fold" or "plicature" present in the middle or posterior portion; (3) micronucleus is tiny and ovoid shaped and always embedded in the middle concavity of macronucleus, which can be well revealed by ammoniacal silver staining...
April 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314218/microfauna-community-during-pulp-and-paper-wastewater-treatment-in-a-unox-system
#12
Katarzyna Bernat, Dorota Kulikowska, Adam Drzewicki
This study characterized the microfauna community during treatment of pulp and paper wastewater in a UNOX system aerated with pure oxygen, and with a high organic loading rate (0.4±0.06kg BOD/kg MLSSday), low sludge retention time (3.73±0.33 day), and high oxygen concentration (≤20mg O2/L) in comparison to municipal treatment systems. In the aeration tank, temperatures were high, averaging 35.7°C (March-May), then 38.9°C (June-August). Effluent quality was acceptable: 180±22mg COD/L, 7.2±2.1mg BOD5/L, and 33±5mg TSS/L...
April 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292672/contrasting-diversity-of-testate-amoebae-communities-in-sphagnum-and-brown-moss-dominated-patches-in-relation-to-shell-counts
#13
Zuzana Lizoňová, Michal Horsák
Ecological studies of peatland testate amoebae are generally based on totals of 150 individuals per sample. However, the suitability of this standard has never been assessed for alkaline habitats such as spring fens. We explored the differences in testate amoeba diversity between Sphagnum and brown-moss microhabitats at a mire site with a highly diversified moss layer which reflects the small-scale heterogeneity in groundwater chemistry. Relationships between sampling efficiency and sample completeness were explored using individual-based species accumulation curves and the effort required to gain an extra species was assessed...
April 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222945/nad9-nad7-mitochondrial-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-dehydrogenase-gene-a-new-holy-grail-phylogenetic-and-dna-barcoding-marker-for-arcellinida-amoebozoa
#14
Quentin Blandenier, Enrique Lara, Edward A D Mitchell, Daniel M C Alcantara, Ferry J Siemensma, Milcho Todorov, Daniel J G Lahr
Molecular phylogeny is an indispensable tool for assessing evolutionary relationships among protists. The most commonly used marker is the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene, a conserved gene present in many copies in the nuclear genomes. However, this marker is not variable enough at a fine-level taxonomic scale, and intra-genomic polymorphism has already been reported. Finding a marker that could be useful at both deep and fine taxonomic resolution levels seemed like a utopic dream. We designed Amoebozoa-specific primers to amplify a region including partial sequences of two subunits of the mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase gene (NAD9/NAD7)...
April 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193597/discomorphella-pedroeneasi-sp-nov-ciliophora-odontostomatida-an-anaerobic-ciliate-hosting-multiple-cytoplasmic-and-macronuclear-endocytobionts
#15
Thiago da Silva Paiva, Gabriela Cristina Küppers, Daniel José Galafasse Lahr, Michael Schweikert, Inácio Domingos da Silva-Neto
Odontostomatids are among the less studied representatives of the Ciliophora. They are anaerobic microeukaryotes usually occurring as rare species in sapropelic environments. Here we describe a novel species of Discomorphella, named Discomorphella pedroeneasi sp. nov., using light and electron microscopy observations. Discomorphella pedroeneasi displays many complex morphological features, for which new terms are introduced, such as the auricules, epistomial fringe spacer, frontal awning, odontostomatid ciliary sockets, oral lips and ventral flap...
April 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135687/n-6-methyladenine-dna-modification-in-the-unicellular-eukaryotic-organism-tetrahymena-thermophila
#16
REVIEW
Yuanyuan Wang, Yalan Sheng, Yongqiang Liu, Bo Pan, Jie Huang, Alan Warren, Shan Gao
N(6)-methyladenine DNA (6mA) modification exists in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes in which it plays a crucial role in regulating numerous biological processes. In prokaryotes, 6mA is a marker to distinguish self from foreign DNA. Its role in eukaryotes, however, remains elusive. Ciliates were among the first eukaryotes reported to contain 6mA. In the model organism T. thermophila, cellular localization and features of 6mA have been extensively studied, especially in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) molecules. Here, we summarize the features and potential functions of 6mA in Tetrahymena thermophila and other ciliates, and the major findings and contributions of the Tetrahymena model in studies of 6mA methylation...
April 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131037/the-effect-of-three-different-predatory-ciliate-species-on-activated-sludge-microfauna
#17
Agnieszka Pajdak-Stós, Mateusz Sobczyk, Edyta Fiałkowska, Wioleta Kocerba-Soroka, Janusz Fyda
Bacterivorous ciliates play important roles in the functioning of activated sludge by reducing dispersed bacteria and enhancing flocculation. There are, however, no data on the resistance of this functional group of microorganisms to predation. Our experiment was conducted with activated sludge subsamples subjected to artificially introduced three predatory ciliates species. The two predator species originating from activated sludge were Oxytricha sp. and Spathidium spathula. Dileptus margaritifer was a "foreign" predator species...
April 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131036/morphological-description-of-two-new-ciliates-ciliophora-karyorelictea-cryptopharyngidae-apocryptopharynx-discoidalis-spec-nov-and-cryptopharynx-minutus-spec-nov
#18
Yuan Xu, Xinpeng Fan, Saleh A Al-Farraj, Xiaozhong Hu
The karyorelictids, a highly specialized group of ciliates, mostly inhabit marine biotopes, and there is very little information about their diversity, taxonomy, and systematics. The present paper investigates two new cryptopharyngid ciliates, Apocryptopharynx discoidalis spec. nov. and Cryptopharynx minutus spec. nov., which were isolated from the intertidal zone of Diaosuyuan Beach in Qingdao, China. Apocryptopharynx discoidalis spec. nov. can be distinguished from related species by its oval discoid body shape and highly structured epipellicular scales covering the left lateral surface...
April 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131035/a-huge-diversity-of-metopids-ciliophora-armophorea-in-soil-from-the-murray-river-floodplain-australia-i-description-of-five-new-species-and-redescription-of-metopus-setosus-kahl-1927
#19
Peter Vďačný, Wilhelm Foissner
Six metopid ciliates from soil of the Murray River floodplain in Australia were studied using live observation, various silver impregnation methods, scanning electron microscopy, and multivariate statistics. One of the species is affiliated with M. setosus while the others represent new taxa. Metopus filum nov. spec. is distinguished from most congeners by the slender body, the absence of cortical granules, and the low number of ciliary rows and adoral polykinetids. Metopus palaeformides nov. spec. most resembles Heterometopus palaeformis (Kahl, 1927) Foissner, 2016b but they can be distinguished by body size, the number of adoral polykinetids, and the oral area pattern...
April 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092806/life-cycle-ultrastructure-and-phylogeny-of-parvilucifera-corolla-sp-nov-alveolata-perkinsozoa-a-parasitoid-of-dinoflagellates
#20
Albert Reñé, Elisabet Alacid, Rosa Isabel Figueroa, Francisco Rodríguez, Esther Garcés
Recent studies of marine protists have revealed parasites to be key components of marine communities. Here we describe a new species of the parasitoid genus Parvilucifera that was observed infecting the dinoflagellate Durinskia baltica in salt marshes of the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean). In parallel, the same species was detected after the incubation of seawater from the Canary Islands (Lanzarote, NE Atlantic). The successful isolation of strains from both localities allowed description of the life cycle, ultrastructure, and phylogeny of the species...
April 2017: European Journal of Protistology
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