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European Journal of Protistology

Martin Kváč, Gabriela Vlnatá, Jana Ježková, Michaela Horčičková, Roman Konečný, Lenka Hlásková, John McEvoy, Bohumil Sak
Cryptosporidium parvum VF383 has been reported in humans, domesticated ruminants, and wild rats worldwide and described under several names including Cryptosporidium suis-like, based on its close phylogenetic relationship to C. suis. Unlike C. suis, however, it has never been detected in pigs. In the present work, C. parvum VF383 originating from wild brown rats was not infectious for piglets or calves but was infectious for laboratory brown rats, BALB/c mice, and Mongolian gerbils. The prepatent period was 4-5 days for all rodents...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Natalya Bondarenko, Anna Glotova, Elena Nassonova, Alexey Masharsky, Alexander Kudryavtsev, Alexey Smirnov
Vannella simplex (Amoebozoa, Discosea, Vannellida) is one of the commonest freshwater free-living lobose amoebae, known from many locations worldwide. In the present study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome of this species. The circular mitochondrial DNA of V. simplex has 34,145öbp in length and contains 27 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 16 transfer RNAs and 4 open reading frames. Mitochondiral genome of V. simplex is one of the most gene compact due to overlapping genes and reduced intergenic space...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Lihong Song, Hongkai Li, Kehong Wang, Xiumin Yan, Donghui Wu
Peatlands cover 3% of the earth's land surface but contain 30% of the world's soil carbon pool. Microbial communities constitute a crucial detrital food web for nutrient and carbon cycling in peatlands. Heterotrophic protozoans are considered top predators in the microbial food web; however, they are not yet well understood. In this study, we investigated seasonal dynamics in the community and the trophic structure of testate amoebae in four peatlands. Testate amoebae density and biomass in August were significantly higher than those in May and October...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Alexander Kudryavtsev, Ekaterina Volkova
We isolated and described a brackish-water amoeba, Clydonella sawyeri n. sp. (Amoebozoa, Vannellida), from the littoral habitat in Kandalaksha Bay (The White Sea, northwestern Russia). Morphology of this amoeba corresponds to the initially proposed diagnosis of the genus Clydonella Sawyer, 1975, although it is sufficiently different from other described species of this genus to warrant a distinct species designation. Phylogenetic analysis based on the small-subunit rRNA gene shows that this species is closely related to the two previously studied ATCC strains identified as Clydonella sp...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Giovanni Cilia, Riccardo Cabbri, Giacomo Maiorana, Ilaria Cardaio, Raffaele Dall'Olio, Antonio Nanetti
Nosema ceranae is now a widespread honey bee pathogen with high incidence in apiculture. Rapid and reliable detection and quantification methods are a matter of concern for research community, nowadays mainly relying on the use of biomolecular techniques such as PCR, RT-PCR or HRMA. The aim of this technical paper is to provide a new qPCR assay, based on the highly-conserved protein coding gene Hsp70, to detect and quantify the microsporidian Nosema ceranae affecting the western honey bee Apis mellifera. The validation steps to assess efficiency, sensitivity, specificity and robustness of the assay are described also...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Ran Li, Nianzhi Jiao, Alan Warren, Dapeng Xu
Protists make up an important component of aquatic ecosystems, playing crucial roles in biogeochemical processes on local and global scales. To reveal the changes of diversity and community structure of protists along the salinity gradients, community compositions of active protistan assemblages were characterized along a transect from the lower Pearl River estuary to the open waters of the South China Sea (SCS), using high-throughput sequencing of the hyper-variable V9 regions of 18S rRNA. This study showed that the alpha diversity of protists, both in the freshwater and in the coastal SCS stations was higher than that in the estuary...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Mamun Abdullah Al, Yangyang Gao, Guangjian Xu, Zheng Wang, Alan Warren, Henglong Xu
Vertical variations in trophic-functional patterns of biofilm-dwelling ciliates were studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China. A total of 50 species were identified and assigned to four trophic-functional groups (TFgrs): algivores (A), bacterivorous (B), non-selective (N) and raptors (R). The trophic-functional structures of the ciliate communities showed significant variability among different water depths: (1) with increasing water depth, relative species numbers and relative abundances of groups A and R decreased sharply whereas those of groups B and N increased gradually; (2) in terms of the frequency of occurrences, group A dominated at depths of 1-3...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Xinglong Cai, Chundi Wang, Xuming Pan, Hamed A El-Serehy, Weijie Mu, Feng Gao, Zijian Qiu
The morphology and infraciliature of two Frontonia species, F. shii spec. nov. and F. paramagna Chen et al., 2014, isolated from a freshwater pond in northeastern China, were investigated using living observation and silver staining methods Frontonia shii spec. nov. is recognized by the combination of the following characters: freshwater Frontonia, size in vivo about 220-350 × 130-250 μm, elliptical in outline; 128-142 somatic kineties; three or four vestibular kineties, six or seven postoral kineties; peniculi 1-3 each with four kineties; single contractile vacuole with about 10 collecting canals...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Zhanneta Zalutskaya, Valentina Filina, Mariya Ostroukhova, Elena Ermilova
The mitochondrial respiratory chain in plants, some protists and many fungi consists of the ATP-coupling cyanide-sensitive cytochrome pathway and the cyanide-resistant alternative respiratory pathway. The alternative pathway is mediated by alternative oxidase (AOX). Although AOX has been proposed to play essential roles in nutrient stress tolerance of plants and protists, the effects of sulfur (S) deprivation, on AOX are largely unknown. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reacts to S limitation conditions with the induced expression of many genes...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Šárka Čondlová, Michaela Horčičková, Bohumil Sak, Dana Květoňová, Lenka Hlásková, Roman Konečný, Michal Stanko, John McEvoy, Martin Kváč
Faecal samples from striped field mice (n = 72) and yellow-necked mice (n = 246) were screened for Cryptosporidium by microscopy and PCR/sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of small-subunit rRNA, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein and actin gene sequences revealed the presence of C. parvum, C. hominis, C. muris and two new species, C. apodemi and C. ditrichi. Oocysts of C. apodemi are smaller than C. ditrichi and both are experimentally infectious for yellow-necked mice but not for common voles. Additionally, infection by C...
January 4, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Xumiao Chen, Lifang Li, Saleh A Al-Farraj, Honggang Ma, Hongbo Pan
The morphology, including the ciliary pattern, of two cyrtophorid ciliates, namely Aegyria apoliva sp. nov. and Trithigmostoma cucullulus (Müller, 1786) Jankowski, 1967, were investigated. They were isolated from coastal water off Qingdao and from an estuarine habitat in south China, respectively. Aegyria apoliva sp. nov. is characterized as following: body size 100-120 × 50-70 μm in vivo with dark pigment spot on anterior left part of cell; 48-69 somatic kineties; one preoral and four or five circumoral kineties; 9-13 transpodial segments; 26-40 nematodesmal rods; 6-10 contractile vacuoles...
December 28, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
Joaquina María García-Martín, Juan Mosquera, Carlos Lado
A new plasmodiocarpic and sporocarpic species of myxomycete in the genus Physarum is described and illustrated. This new species appeared on decayed leaves and remains of succulent plants (Agave, Opuntia, Yucca) growing in arid zones. It differs from all other species in the genus in having polyhedral spores linked in chains like a string of beads, a unique feature within all known myxomycetes. Apart from detailed morphological data, partial sequences of both the small-subunit ribosomal RNA and elongation factor 1-alpha genes, generated from four isolates collected in two distant regions, i...
December 22, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
Adrien Grimonprez, Audrey Molza, Mélina C Z Laurent, Jean-Louis Mansot, Olivier Gros
Ciliates represent a diversified group of protists known to establish symbioses with prokaryotic micro-organisms. They are mainly phagotrophs and symbiotic relationships with bacteria can give them an important advantage in chemosynthetic environments. The aim of this study is to describe the thiotrophic association that occurs between the peritrich ciliate Pseudovorticella sp. and potential sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Investigations at microscopic scale (LM, SEM, TEM) showed ectosymbiotic bacteria covering the surface of the body of Pseudovorticella sp...
February 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Xiaoteng Lu, Jie Huang, Chen Shao, Helmut Berger
The hypotrich Schmidingerothrix elongata spec. nov., discovered in saline (20‰) soil of the Longfeng Wetland, Daqing, northern China, was studied using live observation and protargol impregnation. It is characterized, inter alia, by colorless cortical granules arranged in short rows, three frontoventral cirral rows with the rightmost extending far posteriorly, and 4-8, usually six macronuclear nodules. Cell division proceeds as in congeners and confirms the lack of dorsal ciliature. In phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA, S...
February 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Janka Melicherová, Lada Hofmannová, Andrea Valigurová
The need for an effective treatment against cryptosporidiosis has triggered studies in the search for a working in vitro model. The peculiar niche of cryptosporidia at the brush border of host epithelial cells has been the subject of extensive debates. Despite extensive research on the invasion process, it remains enigmatic whether cryptosporidian host-parasite interactions result from an active invasion process or through encapsulation. We used HCT-8 and HT-29 cell lines for in vitro cultivation of the gastric parasite Cryptosporidium proliferans strain TS03...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
Alexey Smirnov
The species Leptomyxa flabellata was described by Goodey in 1915 and re-isolated by Pussard and Pons in 1976. It seems that it was never seen (or never recognized) again since that time. The strain designated as "Leptomyxa flabellata CCAP 1546/2" was studied by Cann in 1984, however the quality of the electron microscopic images of that time was poor. Based on the cyst structure and size characters, Page in 1988 suggested that this strain is not co-specific with Goodey's Leptomyxa flabellata, but represents a species 'Ripidomyxa' australiensis Chakraborty and Pussard, 1985, nowadays known as Rhizamoeba australiensis...
December 13, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
E Sabaneyeva, M Castelli, F Szokoli, K Benken, N Lebedeva, A Salvetti, M Schweikert, S Fokin, G Petroni
Newly isolated strains of the ciliate Paramecium calkinsi and their cytoplasmic bacterial endosymbionts were characterized by a multidisciplinary approach, including live observation, ultrastructural investigation, and molecular analysis. Despite morphological resemblance, the characterized P. calkinsi strains showed a significant molecular divergence compared to conspecifics, possibly hinting for a cryptic speciation. The endosymbionts were clearly found to be affiliated to the species "Candidatus Trichorickettsia mobilis" (Rickettsiales, Rickettsiaceae), currently encompassing only bacteria retrieved in an obligate intracellular association with other ciliates...
December 9, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
Dennis G Searcy
Eukaryotic nucleocytoplasm is believed to be descended from ancient Archaea that respired on elemental sulfur. If so, a vestige of sulfur reduction might persist in modern eukaryotic cells. That was tested in Tetrahymena thermophila, chosen as a model organism. When oxygenated, the cells consumed H2S rapidly, but when made anoxic they produced H2S mostly by amino acid catabolism. That could be inhibited by adding aminooxyacetic acid, and then H2S production from elemental sulfur became more evident. Anoxic cell lysates produced H2S when provided with sulfur and NADH, but not with either substrate alone...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
Jae-Ho Jung, Joung Cho, Yoon Hye Jang, Dong Yuen Gil
In a study to investigate ciliate diversity, we discovered a new soil ciliate. Holostichides terrae nov. spec. was examined and identified based on observations of living cells and stained specimens. In addition, the nuclear SSU rRNA gene along with morphology was analyzed to infer its phylogenetic position. The new species closely resembles H. dumonti, but can be distinguished by the morphology of the pharynx (with rod-shaped structure vs. lacking) and the number of frontoterminal cirri (invariably two vs...
November 28, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
Tomasz Mieczan, Małgorzata Adamczuk, Magdalena Pogorzelec
There is almost no information on how restoration of Sphagnum-dominated peatbogs, and in particular removal of reeds, affects the functioning of ciliate communities. Changes in vegetation patterns caused by restoration procedures may take years to be observed, while microbial processes already display effects after short-term exposure to changes in environmental conditions due to restoration. Based on the results of a long-term study, we assumed that mowing down of reeds causes changes in the physicochemical properties of peatbog water and sought to answer the question of how ciliate communities react to these changes and whether these microorganisms can play a significant role as bioindicators in evaluating the restoration process...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
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