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European Journal of Protistology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609684/taxonomic-revision-of-freshwater-foraminifera-with-the-description-of-two-new-agglutinated-species-and-genera
#1
Ferry Siemensma, Laure Apothéloz-Perret-Gentil, Maria Holzmann, Steffen Clauss, Eckhard Völcker, Jan Pawlowski
Most foraminifera inhabit marine habitats, but some species of monothalamids have been described from freshwater environments, mainly from Swiss water bodies over 100 years ago. Recent environmental DNA surveys revealed the presence of four major phylogenetic clades of freshwater foraminifera. However, until now only one of them (clade 2) has been associated to a morphologically described taxon-the family Reticulomyxidae. Here, we present morphological and molecular data for the genera representing the three remaining clades...
May 31, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595933/morphologic-and-phylogenetic-studies-of-two-hypotrichous-ciliates-with-notes-on-morphogenesis-in-gastrostyla-steinii-engelmann-1862-ciliophora-hypotrichia
#2
Xiaotian Luo, Lifang Li, Chundi Wang, William Bourland, Xiaofeng Lin, Xiaozhong Hu
Two oxytrichid ciliates, Stylonychia (Metastylonychia) nodulinucleata Shi and Li, 1993 and Gastrostyla steinii Engelmann, 1862; collected from Huguangyan Maar Lake and Shenzhen Mangrove Nature Protection Area, southern China, respectively, were investigated using standard methods. The uncommon species Stylonychia (Metastylonychia) nodulinucleata can be recognized by its large body size, the conspicuous caudal cirri in vivo, and a moniliform macronucleus. We provide the first record of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence for the species...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595932/characterization-of-ciliate-diversity-in-bromeliad-tank-waters-from-the-brazilian-atlantic-forest
#3
Taiz L L Simão, Adriana Giongo Borges, Kelsey A Gano, Austin G Davis-Richardson, Christopher T Brown, Jennie R Fagen, Eric W Triplett, Raquel Dias, Claudio A Mondin, Renata M da Silva, Eduardo Eizirik, Laura R P Utz
Bromeliads are a diverse group of plants that includes many species whose individuals are capable of retaining water, forming habitats called phytotelmata. These habitats harbor a diversity of organisms including prokaryotes, unicellular eukaryotes, metazoans, and fungi. Among single-celled eukaryotic organisms, ciliates are generally the most abundant. In the present study, we used Illumina DNA sequencing to survey the eukaryotic communities, especially ciliates, inhabiting the tanks of the bromeliads Aechmea gamosepala and Vriesea platynema in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545995/systematic-studies-on-ciliates-alveolata-ciliophora-in-china-progress-and-achievements-based-on-molecular-information
#4
REVIEW
Feng Gao, Jie Huang, Yan Zhao, Lifang Li, Weiwei Liu, Miao Miao, Qianqian Zhang, Jiamei Li, Zhenzhen Yi, Hamed A El-Serehy, Alan Warren, Weibo Song
Due to complex morphological and convergent morphogenetic characters, the systematics of ciliates has long been ambiguous. Since 1990, the Laboratory of Protozoology, Ocean University of China, in collaboration with other research groups worldwide, has carried out a series of integrative investigations on ciliate systematics. To date, genomic DNA has been extracted from about 1700 ciliate strains, and phylogenetic analyses have been performed for two-thirds of orders. Main findings are: (1) Classifications of about 50 hypotrichous species have been resolved, although the monophylies of three hypotrichous orders remain unconfirmed; (2) Euplotia and two orders and all seven families within them are monophyletic assemblages; (3) Lynnella represents an order-level taxon, and is separated from two sister monophyletic subclasses Oligotrichia and Choreotrichia; (4) the peritrich families Zoothamniidae and Vorticellidae are separated from each other, and Zoothamnium exhibits a high genetic diversity; (5) the scuticociliate order Philasterida is monophyletic and separated from loxocephalids, and the thigmotrichids is a suborder within Pleuronematida; (6) 14 classes were recovered including one new class Protocruziea, and Mesodiniea is basal to subphyla Intramacronucleata and Postciliodesmatophora; (7) mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I heteroplasmy was reported in ciliates for the first time, and candidate barcoding genes for Frontonia species identification were identified...
May 6, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545996/diversity-of-free-living-marine-ciliates-alveolata-ciliophora-faunal-studies-in-coastal-waters-of-china-during-the-years-2011-2016
#5
REVIEW
Weiwei Liu, Jiamei Jiang, Yuan Xu, Xuming Pan, Zhishuai Qu, Xiaotian Luo, Hamed A El-Serehy, Alan Warren, Honggang Ma, Hongbo Pan
In the period 2011-2016, a series of investigations were carried out on the marine and brackish free-living ciliate fauna of the temperate-tropical coastal waters of China. About 210 morphotypes including over 100 new species within six groups (cyrtophorians, hypotrichs s.l., karyorelicteans, oligotrichs, pleurostomatids, and scuticociliates) were isolated and described in detail from observations of live cells and silver-stained specimens. Based on their morphology, morphogenesis and molecular phylogeny, three new families (Wilbertomorphidae, Kentrophyllidae, Protolitonotidae) and 22 new genera (Apotrachelocerca, Wilbertomorpha, Protolitonotus, Paracyrtophoron, Heterohartmannula, Aporthotrochilia, Falcicyclidium, Paramesanophrys, Pseudodiophrys, Monocoronella, Neourostylopsis, Apobakuella, Parabistichella, Heterokeronopsis, Heterotachysoma, Antiokeronopsis, Apoholosticha, Pseudogastrostyla, Antestrombidium, Sinistrostrombidium, Williophrya, and Varistrombidium) were established...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601725/morphogenesis-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-the-soil-ciliate-rigidohymena-quadrinucleata-dragesco-and-njine-1971-berger-2011-ciliophora-hypotricha-oxytrichidae
#6
Jingyi Wang, Lifang Li, Alan Warren, Chen Shao
Morphogenesis in the soil hypotrich ciliate, Rigidohymena quadrinucleata (Dragesco and Njine, 1971) Berger, 2011; was investigated using protargol staining. The main events during binary fission are as follows: (1) the proter retains the parental adoral zone of membranelles entirely, whereas the old undulating membranes dedifferentiate into an anlage that gives rise to the leftmost frontal cirrus and the new undulating membranes of the proter; (2) six streaks of frontoventral-transverse cirral anlagen are segmented in the pattern 1:3:3:3:4:4 from left to right, which form three frontal, four frontoventral, one buccal, five ventral and five transverse cirri, respectively; (3) the postoral ventral cirrus V/3 is not involved in primordia formation demonstrating that this species belongs to the stylonychines; (4) marginal anlagen are formed intrakinetally and the right marginal anlagen develop much earlier than the left ones; (5) the generation of the dorsal kineties is of typical Oxytricha-pattern and three caudal cirri are formed, one at the posterior end of each of dorsal kineties 1, 2 and 4...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482327/first-description-of-cryptosporidium-ubiquitum-xiia-subtype-family-in-farmed-fur-animals
#7
Klára Kellnerová, Nikola Holubová, Anna Jandová, Antonín Vejčík, John McEvoy, Bohumil Sak, Martin Kváč
This study investigated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in farmed fur animals in the Czech Republic and Poland. A total of 480 faecal samples were collected from fur animals, including 300 American mink (Mustela vison), 60 silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 50 long-tailed chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera), and 70 nutrias (Myocastor coypus), at 14 farms. Samples were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium using microscopy (following aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining) and sequence analysis of PCR amplified products...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486163/morphology-morphogenesis-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-pleurotricha-oligocirrata-nov-spec-ciliophora-spirotrichea-stylonychinae
#8
Mi-Hyun Park, Ji Hye Moon, Ki Nam Kim, Jae-Ho Jung
Pleurotricha oligocirrata nov. spec. was discovered in samples collected from a freshwater wetland in Korea and is described here based on its morphology, morphogenesis, and the nucleotide sequence of its nuclear small subunit ribosomal rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene. In its genus, P. oligocirrata is the only species that possesses one right marginal cirral row. The morphology of P. oligocirrata is as follows: body size 98-148×47-72μm in protargol preparations, colourless and rigid body; contractile vacuole anterior of mid-body near left margin; cortical granules lacking; two macronuclear nodules with two micronuclei; undulating membranes in Oxytricha pattern; 50-62 adoral membranelles, 23-27 frontal-ventral-transverse cirri, one left and one right marginal cirral row; six or seven dorsal kineties, including dorsomarginal rows, with three caudal cirri...
April 17, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623024/functional-diversity-of-aquatic-ciliates
#9
REVIEW
Thomas Weisse
This paper first reviews the concept of functional diversity in general terms and then applies it to free-living aquatic ciliates. Ciliates are extremely versatile organisms and display an enormous functional diversity as key elements of pelagic food webs, acting as predators of bacteria, algae, other protists and even some metazoans. Planktonic ciliates are important food for zooplankton, and mixotrophic and functionally autotrophic species may significantly contribute to primary production in the ocean and in lakes...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583766/integrating-dimensions-of-biodiversity-in-choreotrichs-and-oligotrichs-of-marine-plankton
#10
REVIEW
Luciana F Santoferrara, George B McManus
Choreotrichs and oligotrichs are the main ciliate groups in marine plankton, where they play major roles as trophic intermediaries. We have studied these groups with a variety of approaches to combine the three dimensions of biodiversity-taxonomy, genetics and function. Here we revisit our findings with an integrative perspective, and highlight future directions. In our studies, the correspondence between classical taxonomy (mostly based on morphology) and the increasingly available genetic data (DNA sequences) is examined at the individual, population, species, and assemblage levels...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521174/high-degree-of-specificity-in-the-association-between-symbiotic-betaproteobacteria-and-the-host-euplotes-ciliophora-euplotia
#11
Claudia Vannini, Cristiana Sigona, Martin Hahn, Giulio Petroni, Masahiro Fujishima
The Betaproteobacteria-Euplotes association is an obligatory symbiotic system involving a monophyletic group of ciliate species and two betaproteobacteria species which can be alternatively present. Recent data showed that this relationship has been established more than once and that several symbiont-substitution events took place, revealing a complex and intriguing evolutionary path. Due to the different evolutionary pathways followed by the different symbionts, each bacterial strain could have differentially evolved and/or lost functional traits...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433921/a-contribution-to-the-phylogeny-of-agglutinating-arcellinida-amoebozoa-based-on-ssu-rrna-gene-sequences
#12
Fatma Gomaa, Daniel J G Lahr, Milcho Todorov, Jingchun Li, Enrique Lara
Arcellinid testate amoebae include a wide variety of amoeboid organisms whose test (shell) varies in shape, composition and size. A decade ago, we initiated molecular phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA gene sequences and a taxonomic revision of Arcellinida. However, many lineages within Arcellinida still lack molecular data, and the phylogeny of this group is largely incomplete. In this study, we obtained SSU rRNA gene sequences from seven taxa, of which six have agglutinated shell (Difflugia oblonga, D...
April 3, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319806/description-of-flamella-daurica-n-sp-with-notes-on-the-phylogeny-of-the-genus-flamella-and-related-taxa
#13
Anna Glotova, Alexey Smirnov
A new species of naked amoebae, Flamella daurica (Amoebozoa, Conosa, Variosea), from the Russian Far East is studied and described. In addition, we isolated a strain, identified as Flamella aegyptia from Lake Ontario in Canada. Its SSU rRNA gene sequence is almost identical with that of the type strain, except for the presence of an intron in the SSU sequence. The phylogenetic analysis of a variosean alignment after inclusion of a number of environmental sequences found in GenBank confirmed that the species Talaepolella tubasferens Lahr 2012 is closely related to the Flamella clade but probably represents an independent genus and includes no less than two different species...
April 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314219/supplemental-description-of-nyctotheroides-pyriformis-n-comb-macrocytopharynxa-pyriformis-nie-1932-li-et-al-2002-from-frog-hosts-with-consideration-of-the-validity-of-the-genus-macrocytopharynxa-armophorea-clevelandellida
#14
Ming Li, Can Li, J Norman Grim, Francisco Ponce-Gordo, Guitang Wang, Hong Zou, Wenxiang Li, Shangong Wu
The morphological revisions of Macrocytopharynxa pyriformis (Nie, 1932) Li et al., 2002; collected from the rectum of Fejervarya limnocharis (=Rana limnocharis), are presented in this paper: (1) two surfaces of the organism are not identical - left side narrower and convex, right broader and flat or slightly concave; (2) infundibulum is large and well-developed with no "fold" or "plicature" present in the middle or posterior portion; (3) micronucleus is tiny and ovoid shaped and always embedded in the middle concavity of macronucleus, which can be well revealed by ammoniacal silver staining...
April 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314218/microfauna-community-during-pulp-and-paper-wastewater-treatment-in-a-unox-system
#15
Katarzyna Bernat, Dorota Kulikowska, Adam Drzewicki
This study characterized the microfauna community during treatment of pulp and paper wastewater in a UNOX system aerated with pure oxygen, and with a high organic loading rate (0.4±0.06kg BOD/kg MLSSday), low sludge retention time (3.73±0.33 day), and high oxygen concentration (≤20mg O2/L) in comparison to municipal treatment systems. In the aeration tank, temperatures were high, averaging 35.7°C (March-May), then 38.9°C (June-August). Effluent quality was acceptable: 180±22mg COD/L, 7.2±2.1mg BOD5/L, and 33±5mg TSS/L...
April 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292672/contrasting-diversity-of-testate-amoebae-communities-in-sphagnum-and-brown-moss-dominated-patches-in-relation-to-shell-counts
#16
Zuzana Lizoňová, Michal Horsák
Ecological studies of peatland testate amoebae are generally based on totals of 150 individuals per sample. However, the suitability of this standard has never been assessed for alkaline habitats such as spring fens. We explored the differences in testate amoeba diversity between Sphagnum and brown-moss microhabitats at a mire site with a highly diversified moss layer which reflects the small-scale heterogeneity in groundwater chemistry. Relationships between sampling efficiency and sample completeness were explored using individual-based species accumulation curves and the effort required to gain an extra species was assessed...
April 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222945/nad9-nad7-mitochondrial-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-dehydrogenase-gene-a-new-holy-grail-phylogenetic-and-dna-barcoding-marker-for-arcellinida-amoebozoa
#17
Quentin Blandenier, Enrique Lara, Edward A D Mitchell, Daniel M C Alcantara, Ferry J Siemensma, Milcho Todorov, Daniel J G Lahr
Molecular phylogeny is an indispensable tool for assessing evolutionary relationships among protists. The most commonly used marker is the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene, a conserved gene present in many copies in the nuclear genomes. However, this marker is not variable enough at a fine-level taxonomic scale, and intra-genomic polymorphism has already been reported. Finding a marker that could be useful at both deep and fine taxonomic resolution levels seemed like a utopic dream. We designed Amoebozoa-specific primers to amplify a region including partial sequences of two subunits of the mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase gene (NAD9/NAD7)...
April 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193597/discomorphella-pedroeneasi-sp-nov-ciliophora-odontostomatida-an-anaerobic-ciliate-hosting-multiple-cytoplasmic-and-macronuclear-endocytobionts
#18
Thiago da Silva Paiva, Gabriela Cristina Küppers, Daniel José Galafasse Lahr, Michael Schweikert, Inácio Domingos da Silva-Neto
Odontostomatids are among the less studied representatives of the Ciliophora. They are anaerobic microeukaryotes usually occurring as rare species in sapropelic environments. Here we describe a novel species of Discomorphella, named Discomorphella pedroeneasi sp. nov., using light and electron microscopy observations. Discomorphella pedroeneasi displays many complex morphological features, for which new terms are introduced, such as the auricules, epistomial fringe spacer, frontal awning, odontostomatid ciliary sockets, oral lips and ventral flap...
April 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135687/n-6-methyladenine-dna-modification-in-the-unicellular-eukaryotic-organism-tetrahymena-thermophila
#19
REVIEW
Yuanyuan Wang, Yalan Sheng, Yongqiang Liu, Bo Pan, Jie Huang, Alan Warren, Shan Gao
N(6)-methyladenine DNA (6mA) modification exists in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes in which it plays a crucial role in regulating numerous biological processes. In prokaryotes, 6mA is a marker to distinguish self from foreign DNA. Its role in eukaryotes, however, remains elusive. Ciliates were among the first eukaryotes reported to contain 6mA. In the model organism T. thermophila, cellular localization and features of 6mA have been extensively studied, especially in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) molecules. Here, we summarize the features and potential functions of 6mA in Tetrahymena thermophila and other ciliates, and the major findings and contributions of the Tetrahymena model in studies of 6mA methylation...
April 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131037/the-effect-of-three-different-predatory-ciliate-species-on-activated-sludge-microfauna
#20
Agnieszka Pajdak-Stós, Mateusz Sobczyk, Edyta Fiałkowska, Wioleta Kocerba-Soroka, Janusz Fyda
Bacterivorous ciliates play important roles in the functioning of activated sludge by reducing dispersed bacteria and enhancing flocculation. There are, however, no data on the resistance of this functional group of microorganisms to predation. Our experiment was conducted with activated sludge subsamples subjected to artificially introduced three predatory ciliates species. The two predator species originating from activated sludge were Oxytricha sp. and Spathidium spathula. Dileptus margaritifer was a "foreign" predator species...
April 2017: European Journal of Protistology
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