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European Journal of Protistology

Sabine Schiwitza, Hartmut Arndt, Frank Nitsche
With this study we aim to extend the knowledge on the biogeography of craspedid choanoflagellates with additional data from extreme environments. Up to now, very little is known about choanoflagellates from extreme saline environments, as most studies have focused on marine and freshwater habitats. Though previously investigated high saline ice biota communities have indicated a possible adaptation to environments with high salt concentrations. Hypersaline endorheic basins, so-called salt flats or salares from the Atacama Desert in Northern Chile provide an intense environment regarding fluctuating and extreme salinities, which allow for studies on evolutionary adaptations of protists to hypersaline conditions...
August 31, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Lada Hofmannová, Miloslav Jirků, Milada Řeháková, Jana Kvičerová
Philippine tarsier (Tarsius syrichta) is a small nocturnal primate from the Philippines. Little is known about tarsier parasites, including coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), a highly prevalent parasitic protist group in all vertebrate classes. Only 7 valid species of the genus Eimeria, seven species of Isospora and 5 species of Cyclospora have been described in Primates. This study extends the number of coccidia known in primates by two new species obtained from faeces of Philippine tarsiers from Bohol Island...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Julia M Malysh, Yana L Vorontsova, Viktor V Glupov, Alexander A Tsarev, Yuri S Tokarev
An isolate of the microsporidium Vairimorpha ephestiae (originally isolated from Ephestia kühniella) from collection of Prof. J. Weiser was propagated in a laboratory culture of Galleria mellonella. Only disporoblastic sporogony was observed and formation of octospores, characteristic of the genus Vairimorpha, never occurred. A partial nucleotide sequence of the small subunit rRNA gene (1247 bp) for this microsporidium showed 100% identity to the homologous sequences of Vairimorpha (Nosema) necatrix (Genbank accession # U11051 and # DQ996241), a microsporidium with a broad host range within the Lepidoptera...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
John R Dolan
The marine oligotrich ciliate Strombidium sulcatum, the best known marine oligotrich of the marine microozoplankton, was first cultured in Villefranche-sur-Mer 35 years ago. Cultures were maintained from 1983 to 2003 and used in 22 studies investigating a very wide variety of questions. Here we review the major findings of these studies and underline their contributions to our knowledge of planktonic ciliate ecology and microbial ecology in general. We conclude with the observation that while ecophysiology has apparently fallen out of fashion, culture work will likely return as an invaluable resource in our present 'omics' era...
August 15, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Tengyue Zhang, Hongli Qi, Tengteng Zhang, Yalan Sheng, Alan Warren, Chen Shao
The morphology, morphogenesis and small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene-based phylogeny of Neourostylopsis flava paraflava nov. subsp. were investigated. Neourostylopsis flava paraflava nov. subsp. was separated from N. flava flava nov. stat. by habitat (brackish water vs. fresh water), pretransverse cirri (absent in all specimens vs. present in 15% of specimens), the numbers of frontal cirri (8-15 vs. 6-8) and left marginal cirral rows (6-9 vs. 4-5). The main morphogenetic features of N. flava paraflava nov. subsp...
August 2, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
H Zhang, M Väliranta, M J Amesbury, D J Charman, A Laine, E-S Tuittila
It is well established that in ombrotrophic bogs, water-table depth (WTD) is the primary environmental control on testate amoeba distribution. However, the environmental controls on testate amoebae in minerotrophic fens are less well known and successional change in their assemblages associated with fen-bog peatland development has been scarcely investigated. Here we investigate a peatland space-for-time sequence resulting from postglacial rebound on the west coast of Finland, to assess successional patterns in testate amoeba communities and their relationships with environmental variables during peatland development...
July 24, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Daniele Corsaro, Danielle Venditti
Various strains belonging to three Acanthamoeba species, A. griffini (genotype T3), A. lenticulata (T5), and A. jacobsi (T15), have group I introns in their 18S rRNA genes. Group I introns are self-splicing ribozymes that can spread among host lineages either through an intron-encoded endonuclease at the DNA level, or by reverse splicing during the RNA cycle. In Acanthamoeba, introns belong to the subclass IC1, they are located at one out four positions within the rRNA, show low identity values and all lack open reading frames to encode for an endonuclease...
July 18, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Alexander Kudryavtsev, Jan Pawlowski, Alexey Smirnov
Two marine members of the genus Vexillifera Schaeffer, 1926 (Amoebozoa, Dactylopodida) are described. Vexillifera abyssalis n. sp. originates from an abyssal sample of the Western Atlantic 4.5 km deep, which is the first unambiguous record of a deep-sea Vexillifera. The second species, V. kereti n. sp. was isolated from the soft bottom sediments of the White Sea (depth 106 m). An analysis of available data on the genus Vexillifera shows that it comprises many different species, yet they are very unevenly studied...
July 11, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
İsmail Yıldız
A new spathidiid ciliate, Apertospathula oktemae n. sp., was isolated from bottom sediments on the eastern shore of Lake Van, Turkey. The living cells are clavate and 45-80 × 17-30 μm in size. This species is characterized by a lasso-shaped circumoral kinety composed of more than 100 dikinetids, 16 meridionally arranged somatic ciliary rows, a three-rowed dorsal brush with 1.5-2.0 μm long bristles, an oblong and curved macronucleus with an ellipsoidal or globular micronucleus, numerous refractive granules in the anterior portion of the cell, and a single posterior contractile vacuole...
July 10, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Akira Ito, Winnie Eckardt, Tara S Stoinski, Thomas R Gillespie, Toshihiro Tokiwa
Four new species, Troglodytella gracilis, T. virunga, T. dolium, and Gorilloflasca longior were described from the mountain gorillas in Rwanda. The three Troglodytella species share a retractable adoral ciliary zone, four non-retractable ciliary arches, two broad skeletal plates, a skeletal rod plate, numerous longitudinal cortical grooves, and four contractile vacuoles. The anterior ciliary arch is the longest of the four arches, extending transversely on the left body surface. T. gracilis and T. virunga are characterized by an elongated body, a tail flap, and a wedge-shaped macronucleus...
August 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Zhaocui Meng, Kuidong Xu, Renhai Dai, Alan Warren
The diversity of marine benthic ciliates is largely known from the intertidal zone. No comparative data are available for the change of ciliate communities from the intertidal to offshore sediments in the Yellow Sea. We investigated the community composition and diversity of benthic ciliates at two intertidal (sandy and silty-sand) stations and eight offshore stations along a latitudinal transect in the Yellow Sea. The ciliate abundance and biomass decreased almost linearly with increasing water depth and distance from the intertidal zone...
August 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Xiangrui Chen, Shahed Uddin Ahmed Shazib, Ji Hye Kim, Min Seok Kim, Mann Kyoon Shin
Gruberia Kahl, 1932 is a species-poor genus comprising only seven named species. Most of these species have not been reinvestigated since the original reports. In the present work, we investigated the taxonomy and phylogeny of Gruberia lanceolata (Gruber, 1884) Kahl, 1932 based on analyses of morphology and multiple gene sequences from four South Korean populations. This species is mainly characterized by a well-developed peristome region, segmented paroral membrane, and moniliform macronucleus. Some morphological features were not stable among the four populations investigated, such as body shape and size, cell color, and the ratio of oral length to body length...
August 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Lingyun Chen, Weining Wu, Hamed A El-Serehy, Xiaozhong Hu, John C Clamp
A distinct population of Anteholosticha intermedia was isolated from soil in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina, USA, and its morphology, morphogenesis and molecular phylogeny investigated by microscopic observations of live and protargol-prepared specimens and analyses of the sequence of small subunit (SSU) rDNA. Our population closely resembles the populations from Austria and Korea. Members of the genus Anteholosticha have been regarded as ontogenetically diverse, which is confirmed by the present work...
August 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Tania Martín-Pérez, Angel Criado-Fornelio, Manuel Ávila-Blanco, Jorge Pérez-Serrano
The isolation and growth in axenic liquid media of Acanthamoeba strains is necessary in order to carry out primary in vitro drug screening. Amoebic isolates which are hard to grow in the current liquid media have been reported. Such circumstances hampers the ability of conducting drug sensitivity tests. Therefore, finding suitable universal growth media for Acanthamoeba species is required. The present study was aimed at the development of liquid medium suitable for growing a fastidious (F) genotype T3 Acanthamoeba isolate, and eventually for other genotypes of this genus as well...
June 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Vasily V Zlatogursky, Daria Drachko, Vladimir I Klimov, Yegor Shishkin
Centrohelid heliozoan Raphidocystis glabra was reisolated for the first time after initial description and put into a clonal culture. Its correct identification was confirmed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy of scales. The first light microscopy data from the living cells were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of its position using 18S rDNA sequences was also performed. This species branches inside of the Polyplacocystis clade, being closely related to the strain HLO4. The latter was isolated from the same sample with R...
June 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Zhao Lyu, Jingbao Li, Shuyan Qi, Yuhe Yu, Chen Shao
The living morphology, infraciliature and morphogenetic events of a new soil urostylid ciliate, Australothrix xianiensis nov. spec., collected from Chanba National Wetland Park in Xi'an, China, were studied in vivo and after protargol preparation. Australothrix xianiensis nov. spec. is characterized as follows: about 190-240 × 40-60 μm in life; body pisciform and dark; cortical granules arranged in longitudinal rows on both sides, colourless, rod-shaped and about 2 × 1 μm in size; single contractile vacuole slightly ahead of mid-body with two long collecting canals; macronuclear nodules scattered throughout cytoplasm; adoral zone occupies about 20% of body length, composed of about 32 membranelles; three frontal cirri and one buccal cirrus; two to four midventral pairs and four or five midventral rows, one left and two right marginal rows; four or five dorsal kineties; four or five caudal cirri...
June 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Matej Rataj, Peter Vďačný
Morphology, systematic position and time-calibrated phylogeny of Haptophrya planariarum were investigated. This endosymbiont of freshwater turbellarians is characterized by: (i) a length of about 200-900 μm; (ii) a campanulate to truncate claviform body carrying an anterior adhesive sucker; (iii) an ellipsoidal macronucleus localized in the rear body end; (iv) a contractile canal extending along the dorsal margin; and (v) usually more than 150 meridional ciliary rows, a horseshoe-shaped suture line along the sucker, and two inconspicuous secant systems at lateral ends of the suture line...
June 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Tomáš Tyml, Martina Lisnerová, Martin Kostka, Iva Dyková
The molecular phylogeny of Flabellula Schaeffer, 1926 has been updated by analysing 18S rRNA and actin gene sequences of 19 new strains collected and characterised by the authors over the past ten years. The genus Flabellula Schaeffer, 1926 (Amoebozoa: Leptomyxida) is a taxon in which species delineation based on morphological data by themselves is insufficient or even misleading. The description of two novel species, F. schaefferi n. sp. and F. sawyeri n. sp., is justified by the congruence of morphological data with 18S rRNA and actin gene sequence phylogenies, in-silico secondary structure prediction of the V2 region in the 18S rRNA, and by recognition of species-specific sequential motifs within this region...
June 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Ying Yan, Yangbo Fan, Xiaotian Luo, Hamed A El-Serehy, William Bourland, Xiangrui Chen
The morphology, ontogeny and phylogeny of two Euplotes species, E. estuarinus sp. nov. and a population of E. platystoma Dragesco and Dragesco-Kernéis, 1986, both collected from tropical brackish waters in south China, were investigated based on living morphology, ciliary pattern and molecular data. Euplotes estuarinus sp. nov. is small (about 60 × 40 μm in vivo), has a dargyrome of the double-eurystomus type, and the transverse cirri are arranged in two groups, with two left and three right ones. The original description of the poorly known species, E...
June 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Graeme T Swindles, Thomas J Kelly, Katherine H Roucoux, Ian T Lawson
To date there have only been two studies using testate amoebae as palaeoecological indicators in tropical peatlands. Here we present a new ∼500-year testate amoeba record from San Jorge, a domed peatland in Peruvian Amazonia, which has a well-constrained vegetation history based on pollen analysis. We observe a major shift from Hyalosphenia subflava to Cryptodifflugia oviformis-dominated communities at ∼50 cm depth (c. AD 1760), which suggests a change to drier conditions in the peatland. The application of a statistical transfer function also suggests a deepening of the water table at this time...
June 2018: European Journal of Protistology
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