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European Journal of Protistology

Tania Martín-Pérez, Angel Criado-Fornelio, Manuel Ávila-Blanco, Jorge Pérez-Serrano
The isolation and growth in axenic liquid media of Acanthamoeba strains is necessary in order to carry out primary in vitro drug screening. Amoebic isolates which are hard to grow in the current liquid media have been reported. Such circumstances hampers the ability of conducting drug sensitivity tests. Therefore, finding suitable universal growth media for Acanthamoeba species is required. The present study was aimed at the development of liquid medium suitable for growing a fastidious (F) genotype T3 Acanthamoeba isolate, and eventually for other genotypes of this genus as well...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Vasily V Zlatogursky, Daria Drachko, Vladimir I Klimov, Yegor Shishkin
Centrohelid heliozoan Raphidocystis glabra was reisolated for the first time after initial description and put into a clonal culture. Its correct identification was confirmed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy of scales. The first light microscopy data from the living cells were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of its position using 18S rDNA sequences was also performed. This species branches inside of the Polyplacocystis clade, being closely related to the strain HLO4. The latter was isolated from the same sample with R...
April 5, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Zhao Lyu, Jingbao Li, Shuyan Qi, Yuhe Yu, Chen Shao
The living morphology, infraciliature and morphogenetic events of a new soil urostylid ciliate, Australothrix xianiensis nov. spec., collected from Chanba National Wetland Park in Xi'an, China, were studied in vivo and after protargol preparation. Australothrix xianiensis nov. spec. is characterized as follows: about 190-240 × 40-60 μm in life; body pisciform and dark; cortical granules arranged in longitudinal rows on both sides, colourless, rod-shaped and about 2 × 1 μm in size; single contractile vacuole slightly ahead of mid-body with two long collecting canals; macronuclear nodules scattered throughout cytoplasm; adoral zone occupies about 20% of body length, composed of about 32 membranelles; three frontal cirri and one buccal cirrus; two to four midventral pairs and four or five midventral rows, one left and two right marginal rows; four or five dorsal kineties; four or five caudal cirri...
April 5, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Matej Rataj, Peter Vďačný
Morphology, systematic position and time-calibrated phylogeny of Haptophrya planariarum were investigated. This endosymbiont of freshwater turbellarians is characterized by: (i) a length of about 200-900 μm; (ii) a campanulate to truncate claviform body carrying an anterior adhesive sucker; (iii) an ellipsoidal macronucleus localized in the rear body end; (iv) a contractile canal extending along the dorsal margin; and (v) usually more than 150 meridional ciliary rows, a horseshoe-shaped suture line along the sucker, and two inconspicuous secant systems at lateral ends of the suture line...
April 5, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Tomáš Tyml, Martina Lisnerová, Martin Kostka, Iva Dyková
The molecular phylogeny of Flabellula Schaeffer, 1926 has been updated by analysing 18S rRNA and actin gene sequences of 19 new strains collected and characterised by the authors over the past ten years. The genus Flabellula Schaeffer, 1926 (Amoebozoa: Leptomyxida) is a taxon in which species delineation based on morphological data by themselves is insufficient or even misleading. The description of two novel species, F. schaefferi n. sp. and F. sawyeri n. sp., is justified by the congruence of morphological data with 18S rRNA and actin gene sequence phylogenies, in-silico secondary structure prediction of the V2 region in the 18S rRNA, and by recognition of species-specific sequential motifs within this region...
April 3, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Ying Yan, Yangbo Fan, Xiaotian Luo, Hamed A El-Serehy, William Bourland, Xiangrui Chen
The morphology, ontogeny and phylogeny of two Euplotes species, E. estuarinus sp. nov. and a population of E. platystoma Dragesco and Dragesco-Kernéis, 1986, both collected from tropical brackish waters in south China, were investigated based on living morphology, ciliary pattern and molecular data. Euplotes estuarinus sp. nov. is small (about 60 × 40 μm in vivo), has a dargyrome of the double-eurystomus type, and the transverse cirri are arranged in two groups, with two left and three right ones. The original description of the poorly known species, E...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Graeme T Swindles, Thomas J Kelly, Katherine H Roucoux, Ian T Lawson
To date there have only been two studies using testate amoebae as palaeoecological indicators in tropical peatlands. Here we present a new ∼500-year testate amoeba record from San Jorge, a domed peatland in Peruvian Amazonia, which has a well-constrained vegetation history based on pollen analysis. We observe a major shift from Hyalosphenia subflava to Cryptodifflugia oviformis-dominated communities at ∼50 cm depth (c. AD 1760), which suggests a change to drier conditions in the peatland. The application of a statistical transfer function also suggests a deepening of the water table at this time...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Priit Zingel, Fabien Cremona, Tiina Nõges, Yu Cao, Érika M Neif, Jan Coppens, Uğur Işkın, Torben L Lauridsen, Thomas A Davidson, Martin Søndergaard, Meryem Beklioglu, Erik Jeppesen
We analysed changes in the abundance, biomass and cell size of the microbial food web community (bacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, ciliates) at contrasting nutrient concentrations and temperatures during a simulated heat wave. We used 24 mesocosms mimicking shallow lakes in which two nutrient levels (unenriched and enriched by adding nitrogen and phosphorus) and three different temperature scenarios (ambient, IPCC A2 scenario and A2+%50) are simulated (4 replicates of each). Experiments using the mesocosms have been running un-interrupted since 2003...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Lyubov A Shmakova, Sergey A Karpov, Stanislav A Malavin, Alexey V Smirnov
A new species, Phalansterium arcticum sp. n., was isolated from an 8580-year-old Arctic permafrost layer. This organism typically lives as a sedentary uniflagellated cell enclosed in a thin flexible mucilaginous sheath, but can form naked swimming cells and amoeboid cells with eruptive pseudopodia accompanied with the formation of short, filopodia-like projections. In an SSU rDNA phylogenetic tree, it robustly groups with other species of this genus. Along with a description of the species, we also add new details to the description of the cell division of Phalansterium and the feeding process in this organism...
March 3, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Xinglong Cai, Chundi Wang, Xuming Pan, Hamed A El-Serehy, Weijie Mu, Feng Gao, Zijian Qiu
The morphology and infraciliature of two Frontonia species, F. shii spec. nov. and F. paramagna Chen et al., 2014, isolated from a freshwater pond in northeastern China, were investigated using living observation and silver staining methods Frontonia shii spec. nov. is recognized by the combination of the following characters: freshwater Frontonia, size in vivo about 220-350 × 130-250 μm, elliptical in outline; 128-142 somatic kineties; three or four vestibular kineties, six or seven postoral kineties; peniculi 1-3 each with four kineties; single contractile vacuole with about 10 collecting canals...
April 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Martin Kváč, Gabriela Vlnatá, Jana Ježková, Michaela Horčičková, Roman Konečný, Lenka Hlásková, John McEvoy, Bohumil Sak
Cryptosporidium parvum VF383 has been reported in humans, domesticated ruminants, and wild rats worldwide and described under several names including Cryptosporidium suis-like, based on its close phylogenetic relationship to C. suis. Unlike C. suis, however, it has never been detected in pigs. In the present work, C. parvum VF383 originating from wild brown rats was not infectious for piglets or calves but was infectious for laboratory brown rats, BALB/c mice, and Mongolian gerbils. The prepatent period was 4-5 days for all rodents...
April 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Natalya Bondarenko, Anna Glotova, Elena Nassonova, Alexey Masharsky, Alexander Kudryavtsev, Alexey Smirnov
Vannella simplex (Amoebozoa, Discosea, Vannellida) is one of the commonest freshwater free-living lobose amoebae, known from many locations worldwide. In the present study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome of this species. The circular mitochondrial DNA of V. simplex has 34,145öbp in length and contains 27 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 16 transfer RNAs and 4 open reading frames. Mitochondiral genome of V. simplex is one of the most gene compact due to overlapping genes and reduced intergenic space...
April 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Ran Li, Nianzhi Jiao, Alan Warren, Dapeng Xu
Protists make up an important component of aquatic ecosystems, playing crucial roles in biogeochemical processes on local and global scales. To reveal the changes of diversity and community structure of protists along the salinity gradients, community compositions of active protistan assemblages were characterized along a transect from the lower Pearl River estuary to the open waters of the South China Sea (SCS), using high-throughput sequencing of the hyper-variable V9 regions of 18S rRNA. This study showed that the alpha diversity of protists, both in the freshwater and in the coastal SCS stations was higher than that in the estuary...
April 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Lihong Song, Hongkai Li, Kehong Wang, Xiumin Yan, Donghui Wu
Peatlands cover 3% of the earth's land surface but contain 30% of the world's soil carbon pool. Microbial communities constitute a crucial detrital food web for nutrient and carbon cycling in peatlands. Heterotrophic protozoans are considered top predators in the microbial food web; however, they are not yet well understood. In this study, we investigated seasonal dynamics in the community and the trophic structure of testate amoebae in four peatlands. Testate amoebae density and biomass in August were significantly higher than those in May and October...
April 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Alexander Kudryavtsev, Ekaterina Volkova
We isolated and described a brackish-water amoeba, Clydonella sawyeri n. sp. (Amoebozoa, Vannellida), from the littoral habitat in Kandalaksha Bay (The White Sea, northwestern Russia). Morphology of this amoeba corresponds to the initially proposed diagnosis of the genus Clydonella Sawyer, 1975, although it is sufficiently different from other described species of this genus to warrant a distinct species designation. Phylogenetic analysis based on the small-subunit rRNA gene shows that this species is closely related to the two previously studied ATCC strains identified as Clydonella sp...
April 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Giovanni Cilia, Riccardo Cabbri, Giacomo Maiorana, Ilaria Cardaio, Raffaele Dall'Olio, Antonio Nanetti
Nosema ceranae is now a widespread honey bee pathogen with high incidence in apiculture. Rapid and reliable detection and quantification methods are a matter of concern for research community, nowadays mainly relying on the use of biomolecular techniques such as PCR, RT-PCR or HRMA. The aim of this technical paper is to provide a new qPCR assay, based on the highly-conserved protein coding gene Hsp70, to detect and quantify the microsporidian Nosema ceranae affecting the western honey bee Apis mellifera. The validation steps to assess efficiency, sensitivity, specificity and robustness of the assay are described also...
April 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Mamun Abdullah Al, Yangyang Gao, Guangjian Xu, Zheng Wang, Alan Warren, Henglong Xu
Vertical variations in trophic-functional patterns of biofilm-dwelling ciliates were studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China. A total of 50 species were identified and assigned to four trophic-functional groups (TFgrs): algivores (A), bacterivorous (B), non-selective (N) and raptors (R). The trophic-functional structures of the ciliate communities showed significant variability among different water depths: (1) with increasing water depth, relative species numbers and relative abundances of groups A and R decreased sharply whereas those of groups B and N increased gradually; (2) in terms of the frequency of occurrences, group A dominated at depths of 1-3...
April 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Zhanneta Zalutskaya, Valentina Filina, Mariya Ostroukhova, Elena Ermilova
The mitochondrial respiratory chain in plants, some protists and many fungi consists of the ATP-coupling cyanide-sensitive cytochrome pathway and the cyanide-resistant alternative respiratory pathway. The alternative pathway is mediated by alternative oxidase (AOX). Although AOX has been proposed to play essential roles in nutrient stress tolerance of plants and protists, the effects of sulfur (S) deprivation, on AOX are largely unknown. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reacts to S limitation conditions with the induced expression of many genes...
April 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Joaquina María García-Martín, Juan Mosquera, Carlos Lado
A new plasmodiocarpic and sporocarpic species of myxomycete in the genus Physarum is described and illustrated. This new species appeared on decayed leaves and remains of succulent plants (Agave, Opuntia, Yucca) growing in arid zones. It differs from all other species in the genus in having polyhedral spores linked in chains like a string of beads, a unique feature within all known myxomycetes. Apart from detailed morphological data, partial sequences of both the small-subunit ribosomal RNA and elongation factor 1-alpha genes, generated from four isolates collected in two distant regions, i...
April 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Šárka Čondlová, Michaela Horčičková, Bohumil Sak, Dana Květoňová, Lenka Hlásková, Roman Konečný, Michal Stanko, John McEvoy, Martin Kváč
Faecal samples from striped field mice (n = 72) and yellow-necked mice (n = 246) were screened for Cryptosporidium by microscopy and PCR/sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of small-subunit rRNA, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein and actin gene sequences revealed the presence of C. parvum, C. hominis, C. muris and two new species, C. apodemi and C. ditrichi. Oocysts of C. apodemi are smaller than C. ditrichi and both are experimentally infectious for yellow-necked mice but not for common voles. Additionally, infection by C...
April 2018: European Journal of Protistology
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