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European Journal of Protistology

Helge Abildhauge Thomsen, Jette Buch Østergaard
Sex is found in all major eukaryotic groups of organisms. It has been known for some time that the choanoflagellates also possess the genes involved in meiosis and a full sexual cycle was also recently accounted for in Salpingoeca rosetta. With reference to the loricate choanoflagellates the current status is that only circumstantial evidence, from wild material of Bicosta spinifera, exists in favour of documenting division patterns that go beyond plain asexual division, and that has the potential to represent stages in a sexual life cycle...
December 27, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
William Bourland, Johana Rotterová, Ivan Čepička
Metopid ciliates occupy terrestrial, freshwater, and marine habitats worldwide, playing important roles as predominant consumers of bacteria, flagellates, algae, and diatoms in hypoxic environments. Metopus and Brachonella are the most species-rich metopid genera, however most of their species have not been studied by modern methods Here, we report the morphologic, morphometric and molecular characterization, and phylogeny of Metopus es and Brachonella contorta, both types of their respective genera, collected in a broad global sampling effort...
December 19, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Albert Reñé, Elisabet Alacid, Rosa Isabel Figueroa, Francisco Rodríguez, Esther Garcés
Recent studies of marine protists have revealed parasites to be key components of marine communities. Here we describe a new species of the parasitoid genus Parvilucifera that was observed infecting the dinoflagellate Durinskia baltica in salt marshes of the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean). In parallel, the same species was detected after the incubation of seawater from the Canary Islands (Lanzarote, NE Atlantic). The successful isolation of strains from both localities allowed description of the life cycle, ultrastructure, and phylogeny of the species...
December 13, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Mariya Ostroukhova, Zhanneta Zalutskaya, Elena Ermilova
A feature of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in plants, some protists and many fungi is the presence of two terminal oxidases, the energy-conserving cytochrome oxidase and another termed alternative oxidase (AOX). AOX branches from the main respiratory chain, directly coupling the oxidation of ubiquinol with reduction of oxygen to water. The AOX genes can be divided into two discrete subfamilies, AOX1 and AOX2. Although AOX has been proposed to play essential roles in stress tolerance of organisms, the role of subfamily AOX2 is largely unknown...
December 13, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Alfredo L Porfírio-Sousa, Giulia M Ribeiro, Daniel J G Lahr
Testate amoebae are eukaryotic microorganisms characterized by the presence of an external shell (test). The shell morphology is used as a diagnostic character, but discordance between morphological and molecular data has been demonstrated in groups of arcellinids (Amoebozoa), one of the principal groups of testate amoebae. Morphology of the test is supposed to differentiate genera and species and it is applied in ecological, monitoring and paleontological studies. However, if phenotype does not reflect genotype, conclusions in these types of studies become severely impaired...
November 25, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Alexander O Frolov, Marina N Malysheva, Anna I Ganyukova, Vyacheslav Yurchenko, Alexei Y Kostygov
Blastocrithidia papi sp. n. is a cyst-forming trypanosomatid parasitizing firebugs (Pyrrhocoris apterus). It is a member of the Blastocrithidia clade and a very close relative of B. largi, to which it is almost identical through its SSU rRNA gene sequence. However, considering the SL RNA gene these two species represent quite distinct, not even related typing units. Morphological analysis of the new species revealed peculiar or even unique features, which may be useful for future taxonomic revision of the genus Blastocrithidia...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Ping Sun, Saleh A Al-Farraj, Alan Warren, Honggang Ma
Sessile peritrichs are a large assemblage of ciliates that have a wide distribution in soil, freshwater and marine waters. Here, we document four new and one unidentified species of solitary sessile peritrichs from aquaculture ponds and coastal waters of the northern Yellow Sea, China. Based on their living morphology, infraciliature and silverline system, four of the five forms were identified as new members belonging to one of three genera, Vorticella, Pseudovorticella and Scyphidia, representing two families, Vorticellidae and Scyphidiidae...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Nitsche Frank, Thomsen Helge Abuldhauge, Richter Daniel J
Translating the vast amounts of molecular barcodes from global surveys of microbial eukaryotes into ecological insight depends critically on a well-curated reference database with adequate taxonomic coverage. In this respect, the choanoflagellates resemble other eukaryotic lineages: reasonable coverage at higher taxonomic levels, but missing diversity at the species level. The acanthoecid (loricate) choanoflagellates are well-characterized morphologically, with over 115 species described, but less than 10% with any sequence data...
November 9, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Markus Majaneva, Jaanika Blomster, Susann Müller, Riitta Autio, Sanna Majaneva, Kirsi Hyytiäinen, Satoshi Nagai, Janne-Markus Rintala
To determine community composition and physiological status of early spring sea-ice organisms, we collected sea-ice, slush and under-ice water samples from the Baltic Sea. We combined light microscopy, HPLC pigment analysis and pyrosequencing, and related the biomass and physiological status of sea-ice algae with the protistan community composition in a new way in the area. In terms of biomass, centric diatoms including a distinct Melosira arctica bloom in the upper intermediate section of the fast ice, dinoflagellates, euglenoids and the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon sp...
October 24, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
John R Dolan
In the Bay of Villefranche, tintinnid ciliates have been studied since 1879 yielding a unique time series. The species inventory, excluding likely synonymous records, numbers 108. Temporal increases in the inventory appear linearly related to sampling effort up until the 2000s with a cumulative sampling effort of about 200 dates. Subsequently, with a large increase in sampling to currently over 460 dates, the rate of increases in species numbers declines. Surprisingly, the inventory is not highly inflated by unique occurrences, as species found but once are only 17 out of the 108...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Zhishuai Qu, Honggang Ma, Saleh A Al-Farraj, Xiaofeng Lin, Xiaozhong Hu
The morphology, ciliary pattern and small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) sequences of two new cyrtophorian ciliates, Aegyria foissneri sp. n. and Lynchella minuta sp. n., isolated from brackish waters in southern China, were investigated. Aegyria foissneri sp. n. is characterized as follows: cell size 85-170×45-80μm in vivo; body inverted oval with a protrusion and a dark pigment spot on anterior left part; 42-77 somatic kineties; one preoral and three to six circumoral kineties; five to eight transpodial segments; 31-44 nematodesmal rods; 12-16 contractile vacuoles; and single oval macronucleus...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Grzegorz Bełżecki, Neil R McEwan, Barbara Kowalik, Tadeusz Michałowski, Renata Miltko
This study aimed to quantify the engulfed starch and reserve α-glucans (glycogen) in the cells of the ciliates Eudiplodinium maggii, as well the α-glucans in defaunated and selectively faunated sheep. The content of starch inside the cell of ciliates varied from 21 to 183mg/g protozoal DM relative to the rumen fauna composition whereas, the glycogen fluctuated between 17 and 126mg/g dry matter (DM) of this ciliate species. Establishment of the population Entodinium caudatum in the rumen of sheep already faunated with E...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Thomas Cavalier-Smith
Discoveries of numerous new taxa and advances in ultrastructure and sequence phylogeny (including here the first site-heterogeneous 18S rDNA trees) require major improvements to euglenozoan higher-level taxonomy. I therefore divide Euglenozoa into three subphyla of substantially different body plans: Euglenoida with pellicular strips; anaerobic Postgaardia (class Postgaardea) dependent on surface bacteria and with uniquely modified feeding apparatuses; and new subphylum Glycomonada characterised by glycosomes (Kinetoplastea, Diplonemea)...
October 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Andernice Zanetti, Robson C Ferreira, Myrna G Serrano, Carmen S A Takata, Marta Campaner, Marcia Attias, Wanderley de Souza, Marta M G Teixeira, Erney P Camargo
The genus Phytomonas includes trypanosomatids transmitted to the fruits, latex, and phloem of vascular plants by hemipterans. We inferred the phylogenetic relationships of plant and insect isolates assigned to the previously defined genetic groups A-F and H of Phytomonas, particularly those from groups A, C and E comprising flagellates of Solanaceae fruits. Phylogenetic analyses using glycosomal Glyceraldehyde Phosphate Dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) and Small Subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) genes strongly supported the monophyly of the genus Phytomonas and its division into seven main infrageneric phylogenetic lineages (Phy clades)...
October 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Jingyi Dong, Xiaoteng Lu, Chen Shao, Jie Huang, Khaled A S Al-Rasheid
The morphology and morphogenesis of a new saline soil hypotrich, Lamtostyla salina n. sp., collected from Longfeng Wetland in Daqing, north China, were studied based on live observations and protargol stained specimens. The new species is characterized as follows: body very flexible but not contractile, lanceolate with anterior end broadly rounded, widest at about 1/3 of body length, posterior end narrowly rounded; cortical granules colourless and scattered; amphisiellid median cirral row ends ahead of mid-body, composed of 5-13 cirri; 4-20 frontoventral cirri arranged in 2-4 rows; three frontal, one buccal and 2-6 transverse cirri; usually one left and one right marginal row, composed of 17-51 and 20-51 cirri respectively; usually two dorsal kineties; two macronuclear nodules and two micronuclei...
October 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Santosh Kumar, Daizy Bharti, Pablo Quintela-Alonso, Mann Kyoon Shin, Antonietta La Terza
The morphology and morphogenesis of two stylonychid ciliates, Stylonychia ammermanniGupta et al., 2001 and Tetmemena bifaria (Stokes, 1887) Berger, 2001, isolated from soil samples of Lombardia region, Northern Italy, and water samples from Cheonggancheon stream, South Korea, were investigated. The Italian population of S. ammermanni was found to be very similar in morphology to the Indian type population and the junior synonym S. harbinensisShi and Ammermann, 2004 since most of the morphometric data overlapped...
October 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Thomas Cavalier-Smith, Ema E Chao, Keith Vickerman
We describe three new phagotrophic euglenoid species by light microscopy and 18S rDNA and Hsp90 sequencing: Scytomonas saepesedens; Decastava edaphica; Entosiphon oblongum. We studied Scytomonas and Decastava ultrastructure. Scytomonas saepesedens feeds when sessile with actively beating cilium, and has five pellicular strips with flush joints and Calycimonas-like microtubule-supported cytopharynx. Decastava, sister to Keelungia forming new clade Decastavida on 18S rDNA trees, has 10 broad strips with cusp-like joints, not bifurcate ridges like Ploeotia and Serpenomonas (phylogenetically and cytologically distinct genera), and Serpenomonas-like feeding apparatus (8-9 unreinforced microtubule pairs loop from dorsal jaw support to cytostome)...
October 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Mariia Berdieva, Dmitry Bogolyubov, Yuliya Podlipaeva, Andrew Goodkov
The presence, spatial distribution and forms of intranuclear and nucleus-associated cytoplasmic actin were studied in Amoeba proteus with immunocytochemical approaches. Labeling with different anti-actin antibodies and staining with TRITC-phalloidin and fluorescent deoxyribonuclease I were used. We showed that actin is abundant within the nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm of A. proteus cells. According to DNase I experiments, the predominant form of intranuclear actin is G-actin which is associated with chromatin strands...
October 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Rodrigo Leite Arrieira, Leilane Talita Fatoreto Schwind, Ciro Yoshio Joko, Geziele Mucio Alves, Luiz Felipe Machado Velho, Fábio Amodêo Lansac-Tôha
Planktonic testate amoebae in floodplains exhibit a broad-range of morphological variability. The variation size is already known, but it is necessary to know how this is for morphological variables. This study aimed to identify the relationships between testate amoebae morphology and environmental factors in four neotropical floodplains. We conducted detailed morphometric analyses on 27 common species of planktonic testate amoebae from genera Arcella, Centropyxis, Cucurbitella, Suiadifflugia, Difflugia, Lesquereusia and Netzelia...
October 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Manfred Wanner, Barbara Seidl-Lampa, Axel Höhn, Daniel Puppe, Ralf Meisterfeld, Michael Sommer
Testate amoebae with self-secreted siliceous shell platelets ("idiosomes") play an important role in terrestrial silicon (Si) cycles. In this context, Si-dependent culture growth dynamics of idiosomic testate amoebae are of interest. Clonal cultures of idiosomic testate amoebae were analyzed under three different Si concentrations: low (50μmolL(-1)), moderate/site-specific (150μmolL(-1)) and high Si supply (500μmolL(-1)). Food (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was provided in surplus. (i) Shell size of four different clones of idiosomic testate amoebae either decreased (Trinema galeata, Euglypha filifera cf...
October 2016: European Journal of Protistology
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