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Violence and Victims

Christopher St Vil, Joseph Richardson, Carnell Cooper
There is a body of research over the last three decades that has focused on the etiology of violence among victims of violent injury. This body of literature indicates that Black men are disproportionately represented among victims of violent injury seen in emergency departments and trauma centers across the country. Despite the disproportionate number of low-income young Black men treated for violent injury in urban trauma units and the growing body of literature accompanying it, little is known about the unique methodological challenges violent injury researchers face when conducting research on this vulnerable population in a clinical setting...
April 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Ainhoa Izaguirre, Esther Calvete
Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment may have devastating consequences on children's development. The aim of this research was to examine the predictive associations between exposure to violence at home (witnessing violence against the mother and/or direct victimization by the parents) and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. A total of 613 Spanish adolescents (13-18 years) took part in this study. Results indicate that psychological victimization by the parents predicted an increase in anxious/depressive symptoms, aggressive and rule-breaking behavior, and substance abuse at Time 2...
April 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Mary Katherine Twis, Anh Phuong Nguyen, Anne Nordberg
Although much has changed in social and criminal justice system responses to intimate partner violence (IPV) since public awareness campaigns began in the 1970s, stigmatization around IPV offense and victimization remains a barrier to victims obtaining available assistance, including those offered by police forces. Unfortunately, stigma is often perpetuated by mythology about the crime, its offenders, its victims, and overarching gender norms. Since IPV cases are managed under the auspices of the criminal justice system, the manner in which the system itself perpetuates IPV myths is worthy of attention...
April 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
R Barry Ruback, Andrew S Gladfelter, Brendan Lantz
Data on the incidence and prevalence of hate crimes in the United States come primarily from the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR). Although UCR data undercount most crimes, hate crimes are particularly underreported, especially for some groups. We compare 2000-2011 UCR data in Pennsylvania to data from a state agency that came from police, media, and citizen reports. First, we find that the state-agency database is generally consistent with the UCR data, in terms of absolute counts, correlations, and predictors...
April 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Evgenia Milman, Joah L Williams, Kaitlin Bountress, Alyssa A Rheingold
Homicide survivors are at increased risk for mental health disorders, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and complicated grief (CG). Accordingly, this survey study examined how satisfaction with the criminal justice system (CJS) was associated with depression, PTSD, and CG among 47 homicide survivors. It also examined how satisfaction with specific aspects of the CJS related to satisfaction with the overall CJS. Satisfaction with the overall CJS was uniquely associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] = 2...
April 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Hannah Kaplenko, Jennifer E Loveland, Chitra Raghavan
Coercive control, a key element of intimate partner violence (IPV), is defined as an abuse dynamic that intends to strip the target of autonomy and liberty. While coercive control is gaining popularity in the research world, little is known about its correlates and causes. This study sought to examine how shame and men's need for dominance, measured by two trait indexes of dominance, restrictiveness and the need for authority, influence coercive control. The present study used a diverse sample of men (n = 134) who were mandated to attend a domestic violence offenders program...
April 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Ezgi Toplu Demirtaş, Zeynep Hatipoğlu Sümer, Christopher M Murphy
The aim of the current study was to investigate the basic psychometrics of the Multidimensional Measure of Emotional Abuse (MMEA; Murphy & Hoover, 1999) in a Turkish sample. Two hundred and fifty-four college students participated and completed the Turkish version of the MMEA (MMEA-TR) along with the Physical Assault of Conflict Tactics Scale-Revised, Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory, Relationship Assessment Scale, and Social Desirability Questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor structure of the MMEA-TR for both victimization and perpetration reports...
April 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Monic P Behnken, Yinghui Duan, Jeff R Temple, Zhao Helen Wu
This study compared severity of physical violence, intimate partner violence (IPV)-related injury, and lifetime diagnoses of psychiatric disorders among women in relationships with bidirectional, unidirectional, or no IPV. The sample includes 763 low-income women from community-based family planning clinics. Results showed that women in relationships with bidirectional IPV were more likely to experience severe physical violence and severe IPV-related injury compared to women in the unidirectional IPV category...
April 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Elaine Eggleston Doherty, Brittany Jaecques, Kerry M Green, Margaret E Ensminger
The interrelationship between victimization, violence, and substance use/abuse has been well established, yet those who experience victimization do not necessarily respond with violence or substance use or escalate to experiencing substance abuse symptoms. Drawing on literature from both the syndemic research from medical anthropology and the resilience research from psychology, this study examines the interaction between early childhood adversity and young adult violent victimization on later substance use/abuse and violent offending to provide insight into conditional effects...
April 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Patrick Q Brady, Brittany E Hayes
Using data from the Chicago Women's Health Risk Study (N = 464), this study examined the intersection of stalking and the severity of intimate partner abuse while controlling for previously identified risk factors of intimate partner homicide. Findings indicate that (a) victims of life-threatening abuse by an intimate partner were significantly more likely to experience stalking than victims of nonlethal abuse; (b) after controlling for key risk factors, stalking increased the risk of life-threatening abuse; and (c) threats to kill the victim if she left was the only significant stalking-related behavior that increased the risk for life-threatening abuse...
April 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Joana Del Hoyo-Bilbao, Manuel Gámez-Guadix, Izaskun Orue, Esther Calvete
The main objective of this study was to validate the child-to-parent aggression questionnaire (CPAQ) in a clinical sample of adolescents who aggress against their parents. The second aim was to analyze the child-to-parent violence (CPV) prevalence and gender and age differences among these adolescents. The third aim was to analyze the frequency of CPV against mothers and fathers. The CPAQ was completed by 169 adolescents (49 girls) with a mean age of 16.26 years (SD = 1.56) who had committed CPV. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good model fit for four related factors (physical-aggression against mother, physical-aggression against father, psychological-aggression against mother, psychological-aggression against father)...
April 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Heather Littleton, Marlee Layh, Kelly Rudolph
Unacknowledged rape, labeling a rape as a nonvictimizing event, remains largely unstudied among non-college women. This study therefore sought to examine differences in assault characteristics, adjustment, and disclosure by rape acknowledgment status among a sample of lower income rape victims (n = 104) recruited from a reproductive health clinic (mean age = 28.8 years). Although unacknowledged rape was infrequent (17.1% of victims), unacknowledged victims reported that the perpetrator used less force and were less likely to have assertively resisted, as compared to acknowledged victims...
February 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Rita Começanha, Ângela Maia
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory-Short Form (PMWI-SF) is a well-established and brief instrument for assessing psychological intimate partner violence (IPV). In the absence of a specific tool to assess psychological IPV in Portuguese women, this study sought to confirm the factor structure of the Portuguese PMWI-SF and analyze its psychometric properties. METHOD: Five hundred and six women filled out the e-survey including the assessment of IPV (Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, Psychological Abuse Survey, and PMWI-SF) and psychopathology through the Brief Symptom Inventory...
February 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Amy L Brown, Jada Horton, Ariel Guillory
Research suggests that victims of incapacitated rape (when someone has sex with a person who is unable to consent to or resist sexual activity, usually because of intoxication) face higher levels of victim blame than do victims of forcible rape (Krahé, Temkin, & Bieneck, 2007). However, it is not clear whether blame is the result of victim alcohol consumption or the lack of force and resistance present during incapacitated rape; both of these factors have been shown to increase victim blame. The current vignette study crossed victim alcohol consumption and perpetrator use of force...
February 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Rachel M Venema
This study examines police officers' perceptions of sexual assault and those who report sexual assault to the police, using a revised version of the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale along with a measure of social desirability bias. The study includes survey responses from 174 officers from 1 mid-sized police department in the Great Lakes region. Results show low to moderate levels of rape myth acceptance scores on the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale, with highest scores related to victim lying. Officers report very high estimates of false reporting, indicating some rape myth acceptance...
February 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Ryan M Labrecque, Heidi Scherer, James T McCafferty
Jail and prison administrators are responsible for ensuring institutional safety and order. Recent estimates indicate violence in correctional institutions is pervasive. One promising approach to reduce institutional violence is using a risk assessment to predict the likelihood of victimization. Once corrections officials identify high victimization risk offenders, these authorities can take steps to triage interventions to mitigate such risks. This strategy, however, requires a classification instrument that is available and predictively valid...
February 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Andreia Machado, Denise Hines, Marlene Matos
International research has established that men can be victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). In Portugal, this phenomenon has not yet received scientific or social attention, although since the 1990s, IPV has been acknowledged as a notable problem. An online cross-sectional study was conducted with 89 heterosexual men who, after completing the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, identified themselves as victims of IPV. We examined the prevalence of IPV, its context, its perceived impact, men's reactions after an episode of violence, men's perceived motives for the partner's aggressive behavior, and reasons that prevented men from leaving the abusive relationship...
February 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Andria B Eisman, Sarah A Stoddard, José A Bauermeister, Cleopatra H Caldwell, Marc A Zimmerman
Relational aggression among early adolescents is a pervasive problem that negatively influences the health and well-being of youth. Strength-based approaches such as positive youth development (PYD) are a promising way to reduce risk of detrimental outcomes such as relational aggression. Participation in organized activities is a key way that youth build assets related to PYD. Yet, few researchers have examined empirically assets related to PYD as a mechanism by which organized activity participation may help reduce risk of relational aggression...
February 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Amanda M Stylianou
This article reviews the literature on the measurement of, impact of, and interventions for economic abuse within intimate partner relationships. Current assessment measures for economic abuse, along with estimates of the prevalence of economic abuse, are reviewed and critiqued. Research exploring the impact of economic abuse on the victim's mental health and psychological well-being, family formations and parenting practices, and children's behaviors and youth outcomes are presented. Recently developed interventions, including financial literacy program models, are discussed and emphasized as a critical service to increase victims' economic self-efficacy, financial literacy, and financial behaviors...
February 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
Melissa R Jonnson, Jennifer I Langille, Zach Walsh
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a substantial health concern and identifying risk factors for IPV is a research priority. We examined the relationship between severe IPV and objectification of the self and other sex across participant sex. A sample of 1,005 male and female university students completed a series of online questionnaires that measure levels of self-objectification, objectification of the other sex, and histories of severe IPV victimization and perpetration. Self-objectification was associated with severe psychological aggression, physical assault, and sexual coercion victimization in females, but not in males...
February 1, 2018: Violence and Victims
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