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Violence and Victims

Rebecca A Vidourek, Kenneth D Woodson, Keith A King
Violent victimization and school safety continues to be a major health concern in the United States. This study examines whether there is an association between school violent victimization and perceived school safety among youth. The PRIDE Questionnaire for 6th-through 12th-grade students, which assesses violent victimization and perceived school safety, was completed voluntarily by students (N = 54,938) in a large Midwestern city. Results indicated that a sizeable percentage of youth felt unsafe at school...
February 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
Corina Schulze, Sarah Koon-Magnin
This study is among the first to examine the relationship between sexual orientation and rape myth adherence using a nationwide survey of primarily lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) respondents (n = 184). The more established Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale and a modified Male Rape Survey serve as the primary instruments to test both rape myth adherence and instrument-appropriateness. Results suggest that respondents were most likely to support myths that discredit sexual assault allegations or excuse rape as a biological imperative and least likely to support myths related to physical resistance...
February 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
Christina K Wilson, Elena Padrón, Kristin W Samuelson
Trauma exposure is associated with various parenting difficulties, but few studies have examined relationships between trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and parenting stress. Parenting stress is an important facet of parenting and mediates the relationship between parental trauma exposure and negative child outcomes (Owen, Thompson, & Kaslow, 2006). We examined trauma type (child maltreatment, intimate partner violence, community violence, and non-interpersonal traumas) and PTSD symptoms as predictors of parenting stress in a sample of 52 trauma-exposed mothers...
February 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
T K Logan
Physical assault is only one tool in partner abuse characterized by coercive control. Coercive control creates an ongoing state of fear and chronic stress. Explicit threats are an important component of coercive control yet have received limited research attention. This study examined 210 women with protective orders (POs) against abusive (ex)partners and their experiences of explicit threats including threats of harm and death, threats about harming friends and family, and actual threats to friends and family...
February 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
Julia Dodd, Heather Littleton
Sexual victimization is associated with risky sexual behaviors. Limited research has examined mechanisms via which victimization affects risk behaviors, particularly following different types of sexual victimization. This study examined self-worth as a mediator of the relationship between sexual victimization history: contact childhood sexual abuse (CSA), completed rape in adolescence/adulthood (adolescent/adulthood sexual assault [ASA]), and combined CSA/ASA, and two sexual risk behaviors: past year partners and one-time encounters...
February 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
Melissa Jonson-Reid, Brett Drake, Patricia L Kohl
Data from a longitudinal cohort study of low-income children reported for maltreatment matched to similarly poor nonreported children were used to examine intentional and unintentional injury deaths in young adulthood. The goal was to examine the unique contribution of maltreatment history and identify other potential systems for preventive efforts. Maltreatment reports were associated with increased risk of injury-related death per 6-month intervals (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.09, p < .05). Young adults with histories of both status offenses and delinquent offenses were at greater risk for later death (HR = 2...
February 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
Shannon M Johnson, Megan J Murphy, Christine A Gidycz
The Sexual Experiences Survey (SES), the most widely used measure of unwanted sexual experiences, was recently updated (Koss et al., 2007). The purpose of this study was to provide psychometric data on the updated Sexual Experiences Survey-Short Form Perpetration (SES-SFP) and the Sexual Experiences Survey-Short Form Victimization (SES-SFV). Men (n = 136) and women (n = 433) were randomly assigned to in-person or Internet formats of administration for 3 measurement points. Women completed victimization surveys and trauma measures...
February 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
Kathryn J Holland, Verónica Caridad Rabelo, Lilia M Cortina
In 2005, the Department of Defense reformed military sexual assault (MSA) prevention and response efforts. However, research suggests that some Service members may not be informed of MSA resources. We examined how lacking such knowledge may undermine psychological well-being (i.e., symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress) among MSA survivors as well as Service members who feel unsafe from MSA. The data were collected by the DoD in 2010 and sampled active duty Service women and men. Experiencing MSA, feeling unsafe from MSA, and lacking knowledge of MSA resources predicted greater psychiatric symptoms...
February 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
R Sean Bannon, John D Foubert
Several characteristics of sexual assault awareness programs for women are associated with meeting the goals of risk reduction. To date, the literature lacks an exploration of how single-sex programs affect women, particularly when they take a bystander intervention focus using women's risk recognition and avoidance as outcome measures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of The Women's Program (Foubert, 2011), a sexual assault awareness program geared toward women. Participants consisted of 103 undergraduate women attending a large, public university in the Midwest United States...
February 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
Sheryl Kubiak, Gina Fedock, Woo Jong Kim, Deborah Bybee
Research on women's perpetration of physical violence has focused primarily on partners, often neglecting perpetration against nonpartners. This study proposes a conceptual model with direct and indirect relationships between childhood adversity and different targets of violence (partners and nonpartners), mediated by victimization experiences (by partner and nonpartners), mental illness, substance abuse, and anger. Using survey data from a random sample of incarcerated women (N = 574), structural equation modeling resulted in significant, albeit different, indirect paths from childhood adversity, through victimization, to perpetration of violence against partners (β = ...
February 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
Katie Cyr, Claire Chamberland, Marie-Ève Clément, Jo-Anne Wemmers, Delphine Collin-Vézina, Geneviève Lessard, Marie-Hélène Gagné, Dominique Damant
This study documents lifetime experiences of victimizations, polyvictimization, and trauma symptoms among 1,400 adolescents from the province of Québec. The vast majority (81%) of adolescents were victimized during their lifetime, with most victims (82%) being the target of more than one form of victimization. Polyvictimization accounted for most variability in scores of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anger/ aggression compared to individual victimization categories. Sexual victimization and maltreatment still made an independent contribution in predicting all trauma scores once polyvictimization was considered...
February 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
Carolyn A Uhl, Katlin J Rhyner, Cheryl A Terrance, Karyn M Plumm
Because of varying legal definitions across jurisdictions, factors that influence judgments of what constitutes stalking are important to identify. In this study, participants (<em>N</em> = 147) were randomly assigned to read 1 of 4 vignettes involving a hypothetical case of stalking, stemming from a 2 (threat level: explicit vs. implicit) × 2 (victim response: fear vs. anger) between-subjects factorial design. Overall, when the threat was implicit or the victim responded with anger, participants were less inclined to view the scenario as representative of stalking...
January 27, 2017: Violence and Victims
Christelle Robert-Mazaye, Marie-Ève Clément, Katie Cyr, Claire Chamberland
Although the scope of violence against children has been well documented, the reality of this phenomenon remains to beexamined. Using data collected during a population-based survey on the polyvictimization of children between 2 and 11 years old, this study explores the profiles of 972 children who are victims of many forms of violence (in family, school, and/or community). Cluster analyses identified 4 groups (minimal victimization, generalized victimization, threatening environment, aggressive environment), which differ according to the forms and extent of the violence experienced...
January 27, 2017: Violence and Victims
James D Kelsay, Marie Skubak Tillyer, Rob Tillyer, Jeffrey T Ward
This study explores the nature and outcome of violent incidents experienced by child, adolescent, adult, and elderly victims. Data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) are used to determine whether there are differences in the situational characteristics—including location, time of day, weapons, and the victim–offender relationship—of violent victimization experiences across the 4 age groups, including whether situational characteristics influence the likelihood of victim injury...
January 27, 2017: Violence and Victims
Donna M Kazemi, David G Jacobs, Sharon G Portwood, Laura Veach, Weihua Zhou, Melissa Johnson Hurley
Every day, 16 American youths between the ages of 10 and 24 years are murdered; 84% of these fatalities involve a firearm. Nearly half of traumatic youth deaths result from violence-related injuries. In 2013, 580,250 youth suffered nonfatal, assault-related injuries, necessitating emergency department treatment. The aim of this multisite pilot study was to examine the process, feasibility, and challenges of violence brief interventions (VBIs). The participants were youth between 15 and 25 years of age, at 2 major Level 1 trauma centers (TCs; TC1, TC2) in the Southeastern United States...
January 27, 2017: Violence and Victims
Arlene N Weisz, Beverly M Black, Alicia C Hawley
Although adolescent dating violence (ADV) is recognized as a significant public health problem, little is known about how parents respond to it. This article analyzes exploratory, qualitative data from a public opinion survey of 529 Midwestern, U.S. parents’ ideas about how they would respond to a daughter victimized by ADV. It examines differing responses between mothers and fathers across 3 vignettes. Most parents viewed the ADV as serious, meriting deeper discussions with the daughter, boyfriend, or his parents...
January 27, 2017: Violence and Victims
Brooke A de Heer, Lynn C Jones
Using a nationwide sample of reported rape cases collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI; 389 victims; 89% stranger rapes), this study investigates assumptions about self-protective behaviors for rape victims. Past research on victim resistance strategies often specifies active resistance as self-protective, inadvertently underestimating the potential for biologically based reactions, such as tonic immobility, to be self-protective as well. Results confirm that rape victims who were verbally and physically immobile during the attack were less likely to be injured and have force used against them...
January 27, 2017: Violence and Victims
Julia F Hammett, Emilio C Ulloa, Donna M Castañeda, Audrey Hokoda
This study examined the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and romantic relationship distress in a sample of 100 heterosexual White and Mexican American couples. Data were collected during the first and during the third year of marriage. In the overall sample, wives’ own IPV victimization was associated with wives’ increased distress and husbands’ IPV victimization was associated with wives’ decreased distress. Among Mexican Americans, wives’ IPV victimization was related to husbands’ increased distress, whereas among White Americans, wives’ IPV victimization was related to husbands’ decreased distress...
January 27, 2017: Violence and Victims
Monique M LeBlanc, Seandra J Cosgrove, Kimberly B David
Witnessing violence is associated with negative outcomes for preschool-aged children, including lowered school readiness; however, not all children evidence negative outcome, indicating the presence of protective factors. This study examined social skills as a moderator of the relation between violence exposure and school readiness in preschool-aged children. Seventy-eight children completed a measure of school readiness, and their caregiver completed measures of social skills, witnessed violence exposure, and direct victimization...
January 27, 2017: Violence and Victims
C J Eubanks Fleming, Patricia A Resick
This study examined individual behavioral predictors of help-seeking using the frameworks of the Andersen model and thetheory of planned behavior in a sample of help-seeking female survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). In-person interviews were conducted with 372 women (<em>M</em><sub>age</sub> = 34.41 years, 66% African American). Results indicated that variables suggested by the Andersen model, including age, depression, psychological aggression, and posttraumatic stress-related arousal symptoms, were significant predictors of help-seeking...
January 27, 2017: Violence and Victims
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