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Violence and Victims

Bridget Freisthler, Jennifer Price Wolf
OBJECTIVES: Parental alcohol use and alcohol outlet density are both associated with child abuse. Guided by alcohol availability theory, this article examines whether alcohol outlet density moderates the relationship between parental alcohol use and child physical abuse. METHODS: A general population telephone survey of 3,023 parents or legal guardians 18 years or older was conducted across 50 California cities, whereas densities of alcohol outlets were measured for by zip code...
September 16, 2016: Violence and Victims
Jeannette L Raymond, Rachael A Spencer, Alice O Lynch, Cari Jo Clark
African American women who are victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) often rely on faith when exposed to IPV; however, the role of the faith community in the lives of IPV victims is less clear. This study uses a community-based approach to examine the role of the faith community in addressing IPV in heterosexual relationships in North Minneapolis where rates of poverty and IPV among African Americans are disproportionately high compared to other cities in Minnesota. Five focus group discussions (FGDs) were held with 34 lay and secular leaders of mixed genders in the North Minneapolis community...
September 16, 2016: Violence and Victims
Calli M Cain, Amy L Anderson
Traditional gender roles, sex scripts, and the way female sex offenders are portrayed in the media may lead to misconceptions about who can commit sexual offenses. Sexual crimes by women may go unnoticed or unreported if there is a general lack of awareness that females commit these crimes. Data from the 2012 Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey were used to determine whether the public perceives women as capable sex offenders and the perceived causes of female sex offending. The traditional focus on male sex offenders by researchers, media, and politicians, in addition to gender stereotypes, introduces the possibility of group differences (e...
September 16, 2016: Violence and Victims
Daniela Marzana, María L Vecina, Sara Alfieri
The phenomenon of abuse toward women is a prevalent social problem in most societies. In the present work, we take into consideration the abusive man's point of view with particular reference to the sphere of their morality and set as aims: (a) to show that high levels of self-deception are mediating between an extreme moral worldview, called moral absolutism, and a functional high moral self-concept, (b) to analyze the relation of the five moral foundations (Harm, Fairness, Ingroup, Authority, and Purity) with this moral absolutism, and (c) to test a comprehensive model of the relationships between the individuated variables in the preceding hypotheses...
September 16, 2016: Violence and Victims
Delphine Theobald, David P Farrington, Jeremy W Coid, Alex R Piquero
Using data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of more than 400 males in the United Kingdom followed from age 8 years to age 48 years, we investigated the role of Cluster B personality traits and the association with violent offending groups based on a typology theory of male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators: those who committed family-only violence and the generally violent offender. We also considered whether offending/violent groups could be predicted using risk factors measured in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood...
September 16, 2016: Violence and Victims
Jennifer C D MacGregor, C Nadine Wathen, Laura P Olszowy, Michael D Saxton, Barbara J MacQuarrie
Although domestic violence is increasingly identified as a workplace issue, little is known about workplace supports and the role of gender in workplace disclosure experiences. Using a subset of 2,831 people who experienced domestic violence, we examined (a) who discloses at work and to whom, and reasons for not disclosing; (b) helpfulness of disclosure recipients, including types of supports received; and (c) overall outcomes of disclosing, including negative consequences. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis...
September 16, 2016: Violence and Victims
Gregory M Zimmerman, Steven F Messner
Research suggests that street efficacy-the perceived ability to avoid dangerous situations in one's neighborhood-is related to violent outcomes. We investigated change in street efficacy using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Measures of street efficacy and violence (offending, victimization, secondary exposure) were constructed at Waves 2 (1997-2000) and 3 (2000-2002) from youth interviews and parent reports. Results from hierarchical overdispersed Poisson models indicated that street efficacy was a malleable construct with stronger contemporaneous than enduring effects...
September 16, 2016: Violence and Victims
Chih-Ming Chang, Yinlan Chen, Huei-Chuan Wei, Chien Chou
Cyberbullying has emerged as a new threat to adolescents' well-being in modern society; yet, little is known about adolescents' alternative views on this virtual form of aggression. This study investigated Taiwanese students' misconceptions about cyberbullying and the logics behind. We first surveyed 8,547 students nationwide (4th-12th grades) on potential misconceptions. Then, we administrated 6 focus group interviews to further explore students' adverse beliefs on justifying cyberbullying, not reporting, and disseminating cyberbullying contents...
September 16, 2016: Violence and Victims
Lauren H Wong, Martha Shumway, Annesa Flentje, Elise D Riley
This study examined the relationship between different forms of childhood violence (emotional, physical, and sexual) and these same forms of violence in adulthood, using a cross-sectional baseline survey of 298 homeless and unstably housed women in San Francisco, California. We also examined other related factors, including mental illnesses diagnosis, sex exchange, jail time, HIV status, and sociodemographic information. Regression analysis indicated that although several of these factors were associated with experiences of violence as an adult, specific types of child violence (e...
September 16, 2016: Violence and Victims
Emilio C Ulloa, Julia F Hammett, Danielle N O'Neal, Emily E Lydston, Leslie F Leon Aramburo
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health concern. Thus, it is vital to identify factors, such as individuals' personality traits, that may place men and women at risk for experiencing IPV. This study used data from Wave 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N 5 7,187), to examine the association between the Big Five personality traits and IPV perpetration and victimization among men and women. High openness, extraversion, and neuroticism emerged as the three most important risk factors associated with IPV...
September 16, 2016: Violence and Victims
Megan Alderden, LaDonna Long
This research seeks to examine why victim participation rates in police investigations and prosecution decline following reporting of sexual assault to police. It was hypothesized that several factors would impact victim participation, including whether the incident reflected stereotypical sexual assault scenarios, if the victim used alcohol or illicit drugs prior to the incident, and if the hospital staff initially reported the incident. The study coded victim participation following initial police reporting from police case investigation narratives...
2016: Violence and Victims
Kristen L Hourigan
This article explores the definition of forgiveness from the perspective of individuals who have lost loved ones to homicide. This article draws on 33 in-depth, semistructured interviews that asked participants to define and discuss forgiveness and non-forgiveness both in general and as it relates to homicide. Analysis shows three distinct definitions of, or orientations toward, forgiveness, each learned through interaction with family and/or religion: intrapersonal, interpersonal, and extrapersonal. Analyses suggest that future investigations must include multiple definitions of forgiveness, and victim services must be cognizant of these various pathways toward forgiveness...
2016: Violence and Victims
Mónica Guzmán-González, Marie-France Lafontaine, Christine Levesque
Despite evidence that adult attachment insecurity has been linked to the perpetration of physical intimate violence, the mechanisms underlying this link need further exploration. The goal of this study was to evaluate the mediating role of emotion regulation difficulties in the association between romantic attachment and the use of physical intimate partner violence. To this end, 611 students recruited from Chilean universities completed the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire, the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales...
2016: Violence and Victims
Leah E Daigle, Wendy P Guastaferro, Andia Azimi
OBJECTIVE: Victims' compensation programs are positioned to serve an important therapeutic role. Their use by persons with physical and mental health problems has not been investigated. This study evaluates the extent to which applicants have physical and mental health needs and whether receiving compensation is related to these needs. METHODS: Data were part of a larger study designed to assess satisfaction with victim compensation in Georgia. The sample included 500 victim compensation applicants...
2016: Violence and Victims
Michele R Parkhill, Jeanette Norris, Amanda K Gilmore, Danielle M Hessler, William H George, Kelly Cue Davis, Tina Zawacki
Assertive resistance to sexual assault can decrease the likelihood of completed rape and its subsequent aftermath; however, this relationship may be influenced by situational characteristics. This study examined how 2 manipulated variables, level of consensual sex during an encounter and acute alcohol intoxication, along with sexual victimization history, affected women's responses to a hypothetical sexual assault scenario. Female participants were assigned to a drink condition (alcohol/control) and to a consent history condition (low/high)...
2016: Violence and Victims
Erika N Smith-Marek, Bryan Cafferky, María M Dominguez, Chelsea Spencer, Kimberly Van, Sandra M Stith, Mark A Oliver
This meta-analysis compared risk markers for perpetration of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) among military and civilian males. We also examined strength of risk markers among male and female service members. In total, 36 military studies and 334 civilian studies, which reported 883 effect sizes, were included in the analyses. Results revealed more similarities than differences in risk markers for IPV among military and civilian males and among military males and females. Of the risk markers examined, relationship satisfaction and alcohol problems were significantly stronger risk markers for IPV among civilian males compared to military males...
2016: Violence and Victims
Sesen Negash, Jaclyn D Cravens, Preston C Brown, Frank D Fincham
This study evaluated the impact of a relationship education program, delivered as part of a college course, among students (N = 152) who reported experiencing psychological aggression in their exclusive dating relationship. Preliminary results showed that compared to those in the control group, participants receiving relationship education were significantly more likely to end their romantic relationship, even after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, when relationship termination occurred, those in the intervention group were significantly more likely to attribute the breakup to their participation in the class as compared to those in the control group...
2016: Violence and Victims
Huiping Zhang, William C W Wong, Patrick Ip, Gina W F Lai, T H Lam, Kwok Fai Lam, Susan Fan, Antoinette Lee, Derek Y T Cheung, Yi Zhang, Paul S F Yip
This study aimed to estimate the self-reported prevalence of violence perpetration and victimization among Hong Kong youths and the associated health risk behaviors using a representative sample of 1,126 young adults aged 18-27 years. Perpetrating physical and emotional violence was common in Hong Kong, with prevalences ranging from 20.8% to 38.3% in males and from 6.4% to 21.3% in females. Victimization of physical and emotional violence was also common for both sexes, with prevalences ranging from 16.4% to 36...
2016: Violence and Victims
Christine E Murray, Justin Davis, Lin Rudolph, Kelly N Graves, Robin Colbert, Maria Fryer, Anita Mason, Bernetta Thigpen
There is growing recognition of the interconnections between domestic violence and mental health, especially related to mental health concerns among those who have experienced domestic violence victimization. Despite high rates of mental health concerns among victims and survivors, many mental health professionals lack sufficient training to understand and address domestic violence in their clinical work. The North Carolina Governor's Crime Commission convened a task force to examine training experiences and needs among mental health professionals in the state...
2016: Violence and Victims
Stacey J Bosick, Callie Marie Rennison
Drawing on data from the National Crime Victimization Survey, this article extends on the contributions from developmental and life course criminologists by investigating the relationship between adult role status and police notification. Our findings point to the important gender differences. Age and reporting are curvilinearly related among female victims but linearly related among males. Having children (in the home) increases the odds of police reporting by female victims, whereas being married does so for male victims...
2016: Violence and Victims
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