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Violence and Victims

Carolyn A Uhl, Katlin J Rhyner, Cheryl A Terrance, Karyn M Plumm
Because of varying legal definitions across jurisdictions, factors that influence judgments of what constitutes stalking are important to identify. In this study, participants (<em>N</em> = 147) were randomly assigned to read 1 of 4 vignettes involving a hypothetical case of stalking, stemming from a 2 (threat level: explicit vs. implicit) × 2 (victim response: fear vs. anger) between-subjects factorial design. Overall, when the threat was implicit or the victim responded with anger, participants were less inclined to view the scenario as representative of stalking...
January 27, 2017: Violence and Victims
Christelle Robert-Mazaye, Marie-Ève Clément, Katie Cyr, Claire Chamberland
Although the scope of violence against children has been well documented, the reality of this phenomenon remains to beexamined. Using data collected during a population-based survey on the polyvictimization of children between 2 and 11 years old, this study explores the profiles of 972 children who are victims of many forms of violence (in family, school, and/or community). Cluster analyses identified 4 groups (minimal victimization, generalized victimization, threatening environment, aggressive environment), which differ according to the forms and extent of the violence experienced...
January 27, 2017: Violence and Victims
James D Kelsay, Marie Skubak Tillyer, Rob Tillyer, Jeffrey T Ward
This study explores the nature and outcome of violent incidents experienced by child, adolescent, adult, and elderly victims. Data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) are used to determine whether there are differences in the situational characteristics—including location, time of day, weapons, and the victim–offender relationship—of violent victimization experiences across the 4 age groups, including whether situational characteristics influence the likelihood of victim injury...
January 27, 2017: Violence and Victims
Donna M Kazemi, David G Jacobs, Sharon G Portwood, Laura Veach, Weihua Zhou, Melissa Johnson Hurley
Every day, 16 American youths between the ages of 10 and 24 years are murdered; 84% of these fatalities involve a firearm. Nearly half of traumatic youth deaths result from violence-related injuries. In 2013, 580,250 youth suffered nonfatal, assault-related injuries, necessitating emergency department treatment. The aim of this multisite pilot study was to examine the process, feasibility, and challenges of violence brief interventions (VBIs). The participants were youth between 15 and 25 years of age, at 2 major Level 1 trauma centers (TCs; TC1, TC2) in the Southeastern United States...
January 27, 2017: Violence and Victims
Arlene N Weisz, Beverly M Black, Alicia C Hawley
Although adolescent dating violence (ADV) is recognized as a significant public health problem, little is known about how parents respond to it. This article analyzes exploratory, qualitative data from a public opinion survey of 529 Midwestern, U.S. parents’ ideas about how they would respond to a daughter victimized by ADV. It examines differing responses between mothers and fathers across 3 vignettes. Most parents viewed the ADV as serious, meriting deeper discussions with the daughter, boyfriend, or his parents...
January 27, 2017: Violence and Victims
Brooke A de Heer, Lynn C Jones
Using a nationwide sample of reported rape cases collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI; 389 victims; 89% stranger rapes), this study investigates assumptions about self-protective behaviors for rape victims. Past research on victim resistance strategies often specifies active resistance as self-protective, inadvertently underestimating the potential for biologically based reactions, such as tonic immobility, to be self-protective as well. Results confirm that rape victims who were verbally and physically immobile during the attack were less likely to be injured and have force used against them...
January 27, 2017: Violence and Victims
Julia F Hammett, Emilio C Ulloa, Donna M Castañeda, Audrey Hokoda
This study examined the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and romantic relationship distress in a sample of 100 heterosexual White and Mexican American couples. Data were collected during the first and during the third year of marriage. In the overall sample, wives’ own IPV victimization was associated with wives’ increased distress and husbands’ IPV victimization was associated with wives’ decreased distress. Among Mexican Americans, wives’ IPV victimization was related to husbands’ increased distress, whereas among White Americans, wives’ IPV victimization was related to husbands’ decreased distress...
January 27, 2017: Violence and Victims
Monique M LeBlanc, Seandra J Cosgrove, Kimberly B David
Witnessing violence is associated with negative outcomes for preschool-aged children, including lowered school readiness; however, not all children evidence negative outcome, indicating the presence of protective factors. This study examined social skills as a moderator of the relation between violence exposure and school readiness in preschool-aged children. Seventy-eight children completed a measure of school readiness, and their caregiver completed measures of social skills, witnessed violence exposure, and direct victimization...
January 27, 2017: Violence and Victims
C J Eubanks Fleming, Patricia A Resick
This study examined individual behavioral predictors of help-seeking using the frameworks of the Andersen model and thetheory of planned behavior in a sample of help-seeking female survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). In-person interviews were conducted with 372 women (<em>M</em><sub>age</sub> = 34.41 years, 66% African American). Results indicated that variables suggested by the Andersen model, including age, depression, psychological aggression, and posttraumatic stress-related arousal symptoms, were significant predictors of help-seeking...
January 27, 2017: Violence and Victims
Tara N Richards, Angela R Gover, Elizabeth A Tomsich, Jesse Hansen, Cheryl R Davis
The current research examines Colorado’s experience implementing evidence-based mandated treatment <em>Standards</em>, which use a uniform risk assessment, differentiated treatment levels, offender competencies, and a multidisciplinary treatment team (MTT) composed of a victim advocate, probation officer, and treatment provider to manage offender treatment. Using data from MTT member surveys (<em>n</em> = 107) and follow-up interviews (<em>n</em> = 14), the study investigates perceptions of implementation and treatment fidelity, MTT decision making and communication, and the process of successful treatment completion...
January 27, 2017: Violence and Victims
B S Sandra F Masci, Sonya Sanderson
Prior research has been limited in examining at what degree aggressive actions are initially perceived negatively. Thepresent research examined whether anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were associated with prior abuse or with being attributed to past or present relationships. Scales such as the Dating Relationship Profile (DRP) and hypothetical scenarios of abuse perpetration were used. This study hypothesized that acceptability ratings from hypothetical scenarios would predict answers on DRP items measuring whether physical or psychological abuse is considered acceptable in relationships...
January 27, 2017: Violence and Victims
Mnica Guzmn-Gonzlez, Marie-France Lafontaine, Christine Levesque
Despite evidence that adult attachment insecurity has been linked to the perpetration of physical intimate violence, the mechanisms underlying this link need further exploration. The goal of this study was to evaluate the mediating role of emotion regulation difficulties in the association between romantic attachment and the use of physical intimate partner violence. To this end, 611 students recruited from Chilean universities completed the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire, the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales...
October 2016: Violence and Victims
Bridget Freisthler, Jennifer Price Wolf
OBJECTIVES: Parental alcohol use and alcohol outlet density are both associated with child abuse. Guided by alcohol availability theory, this article examines whether alcohol outlet density moderates the relationship between parental alcohol use and child physical abuse. METHODS: A general population telephone survey of 3,023 parents or legal guardians 18 years or older was conducted across 50 California cities, whereas densities of alcohol outlets were measured for by zip code...
September 16, 2016: Violence and Victims
Jeannette L Raymond, Rachael A Spencer, Alice O Lynch, Cari Jo Clark
African American women who are victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) often rely on faith when exposed to IPV; however, the role of the faith community in the lives of IPV victims is less clear. This study uses a community-based approach to examine the role of the faith community in addressing IPV in heterosexual relationships in North Minneapolis where rates of poverty and IPV among African Americans are disproportionately high compared to other cities in Minnesota. Five focus group discussions (FGDs) were held with 34 lay and secular leaders of mixed genders in the North Minneapolis community...
September 16, 2016: Violence and Victims
Calli M Cain, Amy L Anderson
Traditional gender roles, sex scripts, and the way female sex offenders are portrayed in the media may lead to misconceptions about who can commit sexual offenses. Sexual crimes by women may go unnoticed or unreported if there is a general lack of awareness that females commit these crimes. Data from the 2012 Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey were used to determine whether the public perceives women as capable sex offenders and the perceived causes of female sex offending. The traditional focus on male sex offenders by researchers, media, and politicians, in addition to gender stereotypes, introduces the possibility of group differences (e...
September 16, 2016: Violence and Victims
Daniela Marzana, María L Vecina, Sara Alfieri
The phenomenon of abuse toward women is a prevalent social problem in most societies. In the present work, we take into consideration the abusive man's point of view with particular reference to the sphere of their morality and set as aims: (a) to show that high levels of self-deception are mediating between an extreme moral worldview, called moral absolutism, and a functional high moral self-concept, (b) to analyze the relation of the five moral foundations (Harm, Fairness, Ingroup, Authority, and Purity) with this moral absolutism, and (c) to test a comprehensive model of the relationships between the individuated variables in the preceding hypotheses...
September 16, 2016: Violence and Victims
Delphine Theobald, David P Farrington, Jeremy W Coid, Alex R Piquero
Using data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of more than 400 males in the United Kingdom followed from age 8 years to age 48 years, we investigated the role of Cluster B personality traits and the association with violent offending groups based on a typology theory of male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators: those who committed family-only violence and the generally violent offender. We also considered whether offending/violent groups could be predicted using risk factors measured in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood...
September 16, 2016: Violence and Victims
Jennifer C D MacGregor, C Nadine Wathen, Laura P Olszowy, Michael D Saxton, Barbara J MacQuarrie
Although domestic violence is increasingly identified as a workplace issue, little is known about workplace supports and the role of gender in workplace disclosure experiences. Using a subset of 2,831 people who experienced domestic violence, we examined (a) who discloses at work and to whom, and reasons for not disclosing; (b) helpfulness of disclosure recipients, including types of supports received; and (c) overall outcomes of disclosing, including negative consequences. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis...
September 16, 2016: Violence and Victims
Gregory M Zimmerman, Steven F Messner
Research suggests that street efficacy-the perceived ability to avoid dangerous situations in one's neighborhood-is related to violent outcomes. We investigated change in street efficacy using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Measures of street efficacy and violence (offending, victimization, secondary exposure) were constructed at Waves 2 (1997-2000) and 3 (2000-2002) from youth interviews and parent reports. Results from hierarchical overdispersed Poisson models indicated that street efficacy was a malleable construct with stronger contemporaneous than enduring effects...
September 16, 2016: Violence and Victims
Chih-Ming Chang, Yinlan Chen, Huei-Chuan Wei, Chien Chou
Cyberbullying has emerged as a new threat to adolescents' well-being in modern society; yet, little is known about adolescents' alternative views on this virtual form of aggression. This study investigated Taiwanese students' misconceptions about cyberbullying and the logics behind. We first surveyed 8,547 students nationwide (4th-12th grades) on potential misconceptions. Then, we administrated 6 focus group interviews to further explore students' adverse beliefs on justifying cyberbullying, not reporting, and disseminating cyberbullying contents...
September 16, 2016: Violence and Victims
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