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Violence and Victims

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021013/a-short-measure-of-social-reactions-to-sexual-assault-the-social-reactions-questionnaire-shortened
#1
Sarah E Ullman, Mark Relyea, Rannveig Sigurvinsdottir, Sidney Bennett
Social reactions to disclosures of sexual assault have significant effects on women's postassault recovery. However, being the most widely used measure of these reactions, the 48-item Social Reactions Questionnaire (SRQ; Ullman, 2000) is too long for some research and evaluation efforts. Thus, we developed a 16-item short version, the Social Reactions Questionnaire-Shortened (SRQ-S). Three preexisting college and community samples of women survivors (N = 1,012; 1,084; and 344) were used to determine which SRQ items were most related to psychological symptoms and could form reliable subscales...
October 11, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021012/the-role-of-entitlement-self-control-and-risk-behaviors-on-dating-violence-perpetration
#2
Kimberly A Tyler, Rachel M Schmitz, Colleen M Ray, Leslie Gordon Simons
Dating violence continues to be pervasive among college students (Stappenbeck & Fromme, 2010). Given the paucity ofresearch investigating the various pathways through which risk factors are linked to dating violence among different college campuses, we use multiple group path analysis to examine the role of child abuse, self-control, entitlement, and risky behaviors on dating violence perpetration among college students from one Southeastern and one Midwestern university. There were 1,482 college students (51% female) enrolled in undergraduate courses at 2 large public universities who completed paper and pencil surveys...
October 11, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021011/intimate-partner-violence-victimization-and-cognitive-function-in-a-mixed-sex-epidemiological-sample-of-urban-adults
#3
Megan R Williams, Christopher M Murphy, Gregory A Dore, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman
Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is associated with a wide range of mental and physical health problems, but little is known about the effect of IPV on cognitive decline. Previous research suggests an association between IPV victimization and cognitive dysfunction, but the few studies that have examined this phenomenon were cross-sectional in design and focused only on female victims of IPV. This study examined cognitive function over time among a diverse population of both male and female victims of IPV...
October 11, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021010/exposure-to-community-violence-among-low-income-african-american-youth-in-chicago-a-latent-class-analysis
#4
Dexter R Voisin, Dong Ha Kim, Lynn Michalopoulos, Sadiq Patel
African American youth are exposed to some of the highest rates of exposure to community violence. However, few studieshave explored factors related to exposures and various subtypes of exposures to community violence (i.e., no exposure, witnessing only and being a witness/victim). Among a matched sample of 129 African American youth and their caregivers, no exposure to community violence was correlated with being heterosexual versus being a lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) person, having parents who owned their homes versus rented, and having higher authoritarian parenting attitudes...
October 11, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017642/random-acts-of-violence-examining-probabilistic-independence-of-the-temporal-distribution-of-mass-killing-events-in-the-united-states
#5
Douglas M King, Sheldon H Jacobson
Recent mass killings, such as those in Newtown, Connecticut, and Aurora, Colorado, have brought new attention to mass killings in the United States. This article examines 323 mass killings taking place between January 1, 2006, and October 4, 2016, to assess how they are distributed over time. In particular, we find that they appear to be uniformly distributed over time, which suggests that their rate has remained stable over the past decade. Moreover, analysis of subsets of these mass killings sharing a common trait (e...
October 10, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017641/family-matters-examining-child-abuse-and-neglect-as-family-dysfunction-for-minority-youth-living-in-extreme-poverty
#6
Richard Spano, Michael A David, Sara R Jeffries, John M Bolland
Two competing models of child abuse and neglect (scapegoat vs. family dysfunction) are used to illustrate how the specification of victims ("index" victim vs. all children in household) from incidents of child abuse and neglect can be used to improve estimates of maltreatment for at-risk minority youth. Child Protection Services records were searched in 2005 for 366 "index" victims who were surveyed for 5 consecutive years (from 1998 to 2002) for the Mobile Youth Survey as well as other siblings in the household...
October 10, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017640/investigating-the-risk-of-date-rape-by-auditory-status
#7
LaVerne McQuiller Williams, Judy L Porter, Jason D Scott, Tony R Smith, Taylor V Vogt
This exploratory study examines the impact of auditory status, gender, and prior sexual victimization on attitudes andbehaviors related to date rape among undergraduate college students (n = 3,352) at a private university in the northeast. An abbreviated version of the College Date Rape Attitude and Behavior Survey (Lanier & Elliot, 1997) and the Sexual Experiences Survey (Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987) were employed. Findings indicated that Deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students were more likely to experience negative sexual experiences than hearing students...
October 10, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017639/predicting-grief-reactions-one-year-following-a-mass-university-shooting-evaluating-dose-response-and-contextual-predictors
#8
Andrew J Smith, Christopher M Layne, Patrick Coyle, Julie B Kaplow, Melissa J Brymer, Robert S Pynoos, Russell T Jones
This study identifies risk factors for grief following a mass school shooting. Participants (N = 1,013) completed online questionnaires 3-4 months (Time 1) and 1 year (Time 2) post-shootings. We tested models predicting Time 2 grief reactions, exploring direct and indirect predictive effects of exposure variables (physical and social proximity) through hypothesized peritraumatic mediators (peritraumatic perceived threat to self or others) while controlling for Time 1 grief and posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions, pretrauma vulnerabilities...
October 10, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017638/the-difference-between-living-and-dying-victim-characteristics-and-motive-among-nonfatal-shootings-and-gun-homicides
#9
Natalie Kroovand Hipple, Lauren A Magee
Using both official and unofficial data sources, researchers examined nonfatal (n = 617) and fatal shooting (n = 159) victim characteristics over an 18-month period in Indianapolis. This research revealed that the typical shooting victim was male, non-White, almost 29 years old, had been arrested prior to inclusion in this study, and had been shot more than once. Interestingly, this research supports the notion that nonfatal shooting and homicide victims are different, especially as they relate to victim age, gunshot wound severity, and shooting motive...
October 10, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017637/intimate-terrorism-and-situational-couple-violence-classification-variability-across-five-methods-to-distinguish-johnson-s-violent-relationship-types
#10
Jessica J Eckstein
Johnson's (1995, 2008) theory of violent relationship types represents an opportunity to resolve debates surrounding intimate partner violence (IPV) prevalence and to adapt policy and treatment options for victims accordingly. However, the use of quantitative methods to distinguish between situational couple violence (SCV) and intimate terrorism (IT) remains in its initial stages of discovery. This study included a 2-phase (N = 840; via targeted community and agency sampling) online survey design comparing the utility and grouping variability across 5 methods of IT/SCV classification: victimization-variables and coercive-control-variable hierarchical clustering, vignette-choice, cutoff scoring, and expert coding...
October 10, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017636/psychometric-properties-of-the-lifetime-assessment-of-violent-acts
#11
Alan R King, Tiffany D Russell, Matthew D Bailly
The Lifetime Assessment of Violent Acts (LAVA) inventory provides estimates of the frequency, triggers, and consequences (including injuries to others) of historic acts of aggression. The LAVA also identifies the situational contexts in which prior violence was triggered and allows classifications based on past reactive, intimate partner, alcohol-related, and/or weapon-related violence. Normative and psychometric data were provided from a college (N = 1,133) and general population (N = 545) sample. Around 15% of the general population sample recalled inflicting 5 or more injuries on others at some time in the past...
October 10, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810945/teen-dating-violence-predicting-physical-and-sexual-violence-and-mental-health-symptoms-among-heterosexual-adolescent-males
#12
Peter R Fawson, Timothy Jones, Bobby Younce
This study investigated the prevalence of female-to-male intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health symptoms among 589 male high school students. Participants completed questionnaires asking if they had experienced dating violence victimization, mental health symptoms, and violent attitudes. Correlations revealed strong positive associations between sexual, physical, and psychological IPV among male victims. Multiple regression found significant predictors of negative mental health consequences were experiencing psychological violence, experiencing physical violence, and having attitudes that accept violence...
October 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810944/a-mixed-method-study-of-intimate-partner-violence-how-sex-and-severity-impact-perpetrator-prior-involvement-abnormality-and-responsibility
#13
Matthew W Savage, Jennifer A Scarduzio, Kate Lockwood Harris, Kellie E Carlyle
This study employed a mixed method approach to examine the effects of participant sex, perpetrator sex, and severity of violence on perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Quantitative participants (n = 449) completed a survey and qualitative participants (n = 31) participated in a focus group or an interview. Participants believed that it was more likely male perpetrators had prior involvement in IPV. Participants rated stories of female perpetrators as more abnormal than stories of male perpetrators...
October 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810943/language-barrier-as-a-risk-factor-for-injuries-from-patient-violence-among-direct-care-workers-in-home-settings-findings-from-a-u-s-national-sample
#14
Ha Do Byon, Shijun Zhu, George J Unick, Carla L Storr, Jane Lipscomb
This study explored potential risk factors for injuries from patient violence among direct care workers in U.S. homes (DCWHs). A national probability sample of 3,377 DCWHs including home health and personal care aides was analyzed using complex sample analysis and generalized estimating equation. Injury from violence was defined as a workrelated injury sustained by aggression, violence, or abuse that was reported to the agency, required medical attention or resulted in absenteeism from work. An association between suffering an injury from patient violence and having a language barrier with patients was noted (OR = 4...
October 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810942/psychosocial-maladjustment-at-student-and-classroom-level-as-indicators-of-peer-victimization
#15
Patrik Söderberg, Johan Korhonen, Kaj Björkqvist
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of aggressive behavior, anxiety, and peer rejection as multilevel indicators of peer victimization. A cross-sectional sample of 1,115 Finnish 9th grade students nested in 76 classrooms (mean age 15 years) were used to conduct multilevel models. All forms of psychosocial maladjustment, as well as student family economy, were found to predict peer victimization within classrooms. In addition, classrooms with more aggressive behavior and a higher proportion of rejected students suffered more peer victimization, beyond compositional effects of aggressive and rejected students being victimized...
October 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810941/coercive-control-and-the-stay-leave-decision-the-role-of-latent-tactics-among-a-sample-of-abused-pregnant-women
#16
Martha Alves, Sandra Graham-Bermann, Erin Hunter, Laura E Miller-Graff, Sarah M Schomer
Prior research on intimate partner violence (IPV) and a survivor's decision whether to remain in or leave a violent relationship has often been framed by the question "why do they stay?" This study looks reframe the discussion and examine one facet of this stay-leave decision: abusers' use of coercive control tactics. Using a qualitative approach with a sample of pregnant women exposed to IPV, we sought to expand on the current knowledge by looking at coercive control more broadly via an open-ended assessment...
October 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810940/unique-associations-among-emotion-dysregulation-dimensions-and-aggressive-tendencies-a-multisite-study
#17
Patrizia Velotti, Robert B Casselman, Carlo Garofalo, Melissa D McKenzie
Although problems with emotion regulation (ER) have long been associated with internalizing symptoms, only recently has an ER framework been applied to the study of aggression. Therefore, little is known about the unique and independent associations between specific domains of the ER construct and different kinds of aggressive tendencies. We sought to explore these associations in two independent samples of young adults. Furthermore, we tested whether gender moderated the proposed emotion dysregulation-aggression link...
October 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810939/roadway-aggression-among-drivers-and-passengers-with-or-without-a-history-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Gabriela Ilie, Christine M Wickens, Robert E Mann, Anca Ialomiteanu, Edward M Adlaf, Hayley Hamilton, Mark Asbridge, Jürgen Rehm, Michael D Cusimano
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between roadway aggression and traumatic brain injury (TBI) among drivers and passengers who reside in the province of Ontario, Canada. METHODS: Data were based on a 3-year cumulated cross-sectional sample of 6,048 adults aged 18 years and older who were surveyed by telephone. The outcome in this study was road rage in the form of verbal/gestural or physical aggression toward other road users and/or their vehicle. RESULTS: Driving status, history of TBI, age, gender, education, and the interaction between history of TBI and education significantly predicted roadway aggression...
October 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810938/social-norms-for-intimate-partner-violence-a-replication-with-college-students
#19
Tricia H Witte, Christine L Hackman, Mazheruddin M Mulla
This study replicated prior research on college students' perceived descriptive norms (i.e., prevalence estimates) for intimate partner violence (IPV). In this study, male and female college students were instructed to estimate the prevalence of physical forms of IPV for "typical students" of their same gender on campus. Perpetrators of IPV-both male and female-made higher estimates than nonperpetrators. When compared to actual prevalence rates, both perpetrators and nonperpetrators overestimated the prevalence of IPV on campus...
October 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810937/tweets-gangs-and-guns-a-snapshot-of-gang-communications-in-detroit
#20
Desmond U Patton, Sadiq Patel, Jun Sung Hong, Megan L Ranney, Marie Crandall, Lyle Dungy
The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of violent and criminal Twitter communications among gang-affiliated individuals in Detroit, Michigan. We analyzed 8.5 million Detroit gang members' tweets from January 2013 to March 2014 to assess whether they contained Internet banging-related keywords. We found that 4.7% of gang-affiliated user tweets consisted of terms related to violence and crime. Violence and crime-related communications fell into 4 main categories: (a) beefing (267,221 tweets), (b) grief (79,971 tweets), (c) guns (3,551 tweets), and (d) substance use and distribution (47,638 tweets)...
October 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
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