Read by QxMD icon Read

International Immunology

Shunsuke Kawamura, Toshiaki Ohteki
Monocytes are a widely conserved cell population in vertebrates with important roles in both inflammation and homeostasis. Under both settings, monocytes continuously arise from hematopoietic progenitors in the bone marrow and, on demand, migrate into tissues through the bloodstream. Monocytes are classified into three subsets - classical, intermediate and non-classical - based on their cell-surface expression of CD14 and CD16 in humans and Ly6C, CX3CR1 and CCR2 in mice. In tissues, monocytes differentiate further into monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells to mediate innate and adaptive immune responses and maintain tissue homeostasis...
September 21, 2018: International Immunology
Takeshi Tsuda, Yohei Maeda, Masayuki Nishide, Shohei Koyama, Yoshitomo Hayama, Satoshi Nojima, Hyota Takamatsu, Daisuke Okuzaki, Yuhei Kinehara, Yasuhiro Kato, Takeshi Nakatani, Sho Obata, Hitoshi Akazawa, Takashi Shikina, Kazuya Takeda, Masaki Hayama, Hidenori Inohara, Atsushi Kumanogoh
Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) is a subtype of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) that is characterized by intractable nasal polyp formation. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) is an eosinophil granule protein that is closely related to allergic inflammation, but the pathological implications of EDN in ECRS remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated the function of EDN in ECRS pathogenesis and assessed its potential as a disease activity marker. Serum EDN levels were significantly higher in patients with ECRS than in those with other nasal and paranasal diseases, and were positively correlated with clinical disease activity...
September 15, 2018: International Immunology
Toshihisa Nagao, Yoshinori Yamanishi, Kensuke Miyake, Mio Teranishi, Saori Takahashi, Soichiro Yoshikawa, Yohei Kawano, Hajime Karasuyama
Hapten is a small molecule that is not immunogenic on its own but can stimulate the production of antibodies at the sensitization phase when conjugated to carrier proteins. The hapten then reacts specifically with the antibodies generated against it to elicit an immune or allergic response at the challenge phase. Here we compared various carrier proteins conjugated with the same hapten in their ability to induce hapten-specific IgE-mediated allergic responses in vitro and in vivo, and characterized the nature of carrier proteins that determines the magnitude of response at the challenge phase of allergic reactions...
September 15, 2018: International Immunology
Koji Yasutomo
Immunoproteasomes degrade ubiquitin-coupled proteins and play a role in creating peptides for presentation by MHC class I proteins. Studies of gene-deficient mice in which each immunoproteasomal subunit was affected have demonstrated that dysfunction of immunoproteasomes leads to immunodeficiency, i.e., reduced expression of MHC class I and attenuation of CD8 T cell responses. Recent studies, however, have uncovered a new type of autoinflammatory syndrome characterized by fever, nodular erythema and progressive partial lipodystrophy that is caused by genetic mutations in immunoproteasome subunits...
August 31, 2018: International Immunology
Tatsuki Sugiyama, Yoshiki Omatsu, Takashi Nagasawa
The special microenvironments, termed niches, with which hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are in contact, have been thought to be required for the maintenance of HSCs and the generation of immune cells in bone marrow. Although the identity of the HSC niche has been a subject of long-standing debate, recent findings demonstrate that a population of mesenchymal stem cells, termed CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells or leptin receptor-expressing (LepR +) cells, are the major cellular components of niches for HSCs and lymphoid progenitors, which express specific transcription factors, including Foxc1 and Ebf3, and cytokines, including CXCL12 and stem cell factor (SCF), essential for their niche functions...
August 29, 2018: International Immunology
Michihito Katayama, Kaori Ota, Noriko Nagi-Miura, Naohito Ohno, Norikazu Yabuta, Hiroshi Nojima, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Toru Hirano
Previously, we reported that mRNA expression of ficolin-1 (FCN1), a component of the complement lectin pathway, is elevated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with vasculitis syndrome, and that FCN1-positive cells infiltrate into inflamed regions in patient specimens. In addition, we reported that serum FCN1 concentration is elevated in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD), a pediatric vasculitis, but dramatically decreases after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment. Furthermore, we showed that FCN1 binds to IgG1 in a pull-down assay...
August 28, 2018: International Immunology
Masaaki Kawano, Rie Takagi, Kikue Saika, Masanori Matsui, Sho Matsushita
Dopamine (DA) is synthesized by various immune cells. DA receptors, which comprise five isoforms, are expressed on the surface of these cells. Therefore, it is likely that DA plays a role in regulating innate and adaptive responses. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) is largely unknown. Here, we found that, during innate immune responses, DA suppressed secretion of IFN-#0947;, TNF-α, and IL-1β but promoted secretion of IL-10 and CXCL1 by LPS-stimulated mouse splenocytes, suggesting that DA regulates cytokine secretion...
August 25, 2018: International Immunology
Yumiko Oishi, Ichiro Manabe
Tissue injury triggers a complex series of cellular responses, starting from inflammation activated by tissue and cell damage and proceeding to healing. By clearing cell debris, activating and resolving inflammation, and promoting fibrosis, macrophages play key roles in most, if not all, phases of the response to injury. Recent studies of the mechanisms underlying the initial inflammation and later tissue regeneration and repair revealed that macrophages bridge these processes in part by supporting and activating stem/progenitor cells, clearing damaged tissue, remodeling extracellular matrix to prepare scaffolding for regeneration, and promoting angiogenesis...
August 25, 2018: International Immunology
Mahiru Kawano, Shigekazu Nagata
An enormous number of cells in the body die by apoptosis during development and under homeostasis. Apoptotic cells are swiftly engulfed by macrophages and digested into units. This removal of apoptotic cells is called "efferocytosis." For efferocytosis, macrophages recognize phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) exposed on the cell surface as an "eat me" signal. In healthy cells, PtdSer is exclusively localized to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane by the action of flippases. When cells undergo apoptosis, caspase cleaves flippases to inactivate them, while it cleaves pro-scramblases to active scramblases, which quickly translocate PtdSer to the cell surface...
August 24, 2018: International Immunology
Chao-Yuan Tsai, Shuhei Sakakibara, Teruhito Yasui, Takeharu Minamitani, Daisuke Okuzaki, Hitoshi Kikutani
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), which mimics a constitutively active receptor, is required for viral transformation of primary B cells. LMP1 is expressed in EBV-infected germinal center (GC) B cells of immunocompetent individuals, suggesting that it may contribute to persistent EBV infection. In this study, we generated and analyzed mice that expressed LMP1 under the control of the CD19 or activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) promoter. Expression of LMP1 induced activation of B cells but severely inhibited their differentiation into antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) in vitro and GC B cells in vivo...
August 21, 2018: International Immunology
Andrea Franco, Zachary Kraus, Huifang Li, Naomi Seibert, Jessica Dement-Brown, Mate Tolnay
The B cell response to antigen is critically regulated by co-receptors. CD21 (complement receptor 2) amplifies the response to antigen linked to its ligands, specific C3 fragments. In contrast, human Fc receptor-like 5 (FCRL5), a novel IgG receptor, was reported to inhibit B cell receptor (BCR) signaling. Here we show that CD21 and FCRL5 physically associate, suggesting that immune complexes containing both C3 fragment and IgG could simultaneously engage the pre-assembled receptors. We found that activating signaling molecules such as CD19, active PLCγ2 and BTK were rapidly recruited to FCRL5 upon engagement, suggesting a novel activating function for FCRL5...
August 11, 2018: International Immunology
Jastaranpreet Singh, Juan Carlos Zúñiga-Pflücker
T-lymphocytes are critical mediators of the adaptive immune system and they can be harnessed as therapeutic agents against pathogens and in cancer immunotherapy. T-cells can be isolated and expanded from patients and potentially generated in vitro using clinically relevant systems. An ultimate goal for T-cell immunotherapy is to establish a safe, universal effector cell type capable of transcending allogeneic and histocompatibility barriers. To this end, human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) offer an advantage in generating a boundless supply of T-cells that can be readily genetically engineered...
August 9, 2018: International Immunology
Yukiyoshi Mita, Motoko Y Kimura, Koji Hayashizaki, Ryo Koyama-Nasu, Toshihiro Ito, Shinichiro Motohashi, Yoshitaka Okamoto, Toshinori Nakayama
The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer treatment highlights the negative-regulation of anti-tumor immunity, such as effector T cell exhaustion in the tumor microenvironment. However, the mechanisms underlying the induction and prevention of T cell exhaustion remain largely unknown. We found that CD69, a type II glycoprotein known to regulate inflammation through T cell migration and retention in tissues, plays an important role in inducing the exhaustion of tumor-infiltrating T cells. Cd69-/- mice showed reduced tumor growth and metastasis in a 4T1-luc2 murine breast cancer model, in which increased numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, relatively little T cell exhaustion, and enhanced IFNγ production were observed...
August 6, 2018: International Immunology
Elvira Mass
A literature covering 150 years of research indicates that macrophages are a diverse family of professional phagocytes that continuously explore their environment, recognize and scavenge pathogens, unfit cells, cell debris as well as metabolites, and produce a large range of bioactive molecules and growth factors. A new paradigm suggests that most tissue-resident macrophages originate from fetal precursors that colonize developing organs and self-maintain independently of bone-marrow derived cells throughout life...
July 7, 2018: International Immunology
Takahiro Nagatake, Hidehiko Suzuki, So-Ichiro Hirata, Naomi Matsumoto, Yasuko Wada, Sakiko Morimoto, Ayaka Nasu, Michiko Shimojou, Mitsuo Kawano, Kentaro Ogami, Yusuke Tsujimura, Etsushi Kuroda, Norifumi Iijima, Koji Hosomi, Ken J Ishii, Tetsuya Nosaka, Yasuhiro Yasutomi, Jun Kunisawa
We previously reported that Ag85B-expressing human parainfluenza type 2 virus (Ag85B-rHPIV2) was effective as a nasal vaccine against tuberculosis in mice; however, the mechanism by which it induces an immune response remains to be investigated. In the present study, we found that organogenesis of inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) played a role in the induction of antigen-specific T cells and IgA antibody responses in the lung of mice intra-nasally administered Ag85B-rHPIV2. We found that expression of Ag85B was dispensable for the development of iBALT, suggesting that HPIV2 acted as an iBALT-inducing vector...
September 25, 2018: International Immunology
Yangyan Xiao, Cintia S de Paiva, Zhiyuan Yu, Rodrigo G de Souza, De-Quan Li, Stephen C Pflugfelder
Conjunctival goblet cell loss in ocular surface diseases is accompanied by increased number of interleukin-12 (IL-12)-producing antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and increased interferon-γ (IFN-γ) expression. This study tested the hypothesis that mouse conjunctival goblet cells produce biologically active retinoic acid (RA) that suppresses CD86 expression and IL-12 production by myeloid cells. We found that conditioned media from cultured conjunctival goblet cells (CjCM) suppressed stimulated CD86 expression, NF-κB p65 activation and IL-12 and IFN-γ production in unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cultured bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) containing a mixed population of APCs...
September 25, 2018: International Immunology
Kanako Shimizu, Tomonori Iyoda, Masahiro Okada, Satoru Yamasaki, Shin-Ichiro Fujii
Most tumors employ multiple strategies to attenuate T-cell-mediated immune responses. In particular, immune suppression surrounding the tumor is achieved by interfering with antigen-presenting cells and effector T cells. Controlling both the tumor and the tumor microenvironment (TME) is critical for cancer treatment. Checkpoint blockade therapy can overcome tumor-induced immune suppression, but more than half of the patients fail to respond to this treatment; therefore, more effective cancer immunotherapies are needed...
September 25, 2018: International Immunology
Shogo Tanabe, Toshihide Yamashita
During brain development, the generation of neurons and glial cells is rigorously regulated by diverse mechanisms including the immune system. Dysfunction of the developing system results in the onset of neurodevelopmental disorders and psychological disorders. Recent studies have demonstrated that the immune system is implicated in brain development. As the central nervous system is physically separated from the circulatory system by the blood-brain barrier, circulating immune cells are unable to infiltrate into the brain parenchyma...
September 25, 2018: International Immunology
Hajime Karasuyama, Kensuke Miyake, Soichiro Yoshikawa, Yohei Kawano, Yoshinori Yamanishi
Basophils and mast cells share some features, including basophilic granules in the cytoplasm, cell surface expression of the high-affinity IgE receptor and release of chemical mediators such as histamine. Because of this similarity and their minority status, basophils had often been erroneously considered as minor relatives or blood-circulating precursors of tissue-resident mast cells, and therefore long been neglected or underestimated in immunological studies. Taking advantage of newly developed tools, such as basophil-depleting antibodies and engineered mice deficient for only basophils, recent studies have identified previously unappreciated roles for basophils, distinct from those played by mast cells, in allergic responses, protective immunity against parasitic infections and regulation of other immune cells...
August 30, 2018: International Immunology
Kaori Hitomi, Satoko Tahara-Hanaoka, Haruka Miki, Kanako Iwata, Shiro Shibayama, Masato Kubo, Akira Shibuya
Although airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a prominent feature of asthma, how it is regulated remains incompletely understood. Allergin-1, an inhibitory immunoglobulin-like receptor containing an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM), is expressed on human and mouse mast cells (MCs) and inhibits high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI)-mediated signaling. Using MC-deficient KitW-sh/W-sh mice and Mas-TRECK mice, which carries a diphtheria toxin (DT)-induced MC deletion system based on il4 enhancer elements, we demonstrate here that MCs are involved in the induction of house dust mite (HDM)-induced AHR...
August 30, 2018: International Immunology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"