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International Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637300/commercial-rodent-diets-differentially-regulate-autoimmune-glomerulonephritis-epigenetics-and-microbiota-in-mrl-lpr-mice
#1
Michael R Edwards, Rujuan Dai, Bettina Heid, Thomas E Cecere, Deena Khan, Qinghui Mu, Catharine Cowan, Xin M Luo, S Ansar Ahmed
The course and severity of lupus in spontaneous murine lupus models varies among laboratories, which may be due to variations in diet, housing and/or local environmental conditions. In this study, we investigated the influence of common rodent diets while keeping other factors constant. Female lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice were subjected to the same housing conditions and given one of the three diets: Teklad 7013 containing isoflavone rich soy and alfalfa, Harlan 2018 isoflavone rich soy-based diet, or ResearchDiets Inc...
June 15, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575522/identification-of-biomarker-sets-for-predicting-the-efficacy-of-sublingual-immunotherapy-against-pollen-induced-allergic-rhinitis
#2
Minoru Gotoh, Osamu Kaminuma, Akihiro Nakaya, Kazufumi Katayama, Yuji Motoi, Nobumasa Watanabe, Mayumi Saeki, Tomoe Nishimura, Noriko Kitamura, Kazuko Yamaoka, Kimihiro Okubo, Takachika Hiroi
Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is effective against allergic rhinitis, although a substantial proportion of individuals is refractory. Herein, we describe a predictive modality to reliably identify SLIT non-responders. We conducted a 2-year clinical study in 193 adult patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis, with biweekly administration of 2000 Japanese allergy units of cedar pollen extract as the maintenance dose. After identifying high-responder (HR) patients with improved severity scores and non-responder (NR) patients with unchanged or exacerbated symptoms, differences in 33 HR and 34 NR patients were evaluated in terms of peripheral blood cellular profiles by flow cytometry and serum factors by ELISA and cytokine bead array, both pre- and post-SLIT...
June 2, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541554/activation-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-exacerbates-and-confers-corticosteroid-resistance-to-mouse-nasal-type-2-inflammation
#3
Taiyo Morikawa, Ayumi Fukuoka, Kazufumi Matsushita, Koubun Yasuda, Naruhito Iwasaki, Shoko Akasaki, Shigeharu Fujieda, Tomohiro Yoshimoto
Both Th2 cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) contribute to allergic diseases. However, their exact role and relationship in nasal allergic disorders is unclear. In this study, we investigated the cooperation of Th2 cells and ILC2s in a mouse model of nasal allergic disorder. To differentially activate Th2 cells and/or ILC2s in nasal mucosa, mice were intranasally administered ovalbumin (OVA) antigen, papain, an ILC2-activator, or both for 2 weeks. Epithelial thickness and number of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa were evaluated at 24 hours after the final challenge...
May 25, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541437/hyperferritinemia-and-inflammation
#4
Kate Kernan, Joseph A Carcillo
Understanding of ferritin biology has traditionally centered on its role in iron storage and homeostasis, with low ferritin levels indicative of deficiency and high levels indicative of primary or secondary hemochromatosis. However, further work has shown that iron, redox biology and inflammation are inexorably linked. During infection, increased ferritin levels represent an important host defense mechanism that deprives bacterial growth of iron and protect immune cell function. It may also be protective, limiting the production of free radicals and mediating immunomodulation...
May 25, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541425/corrigendum
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 25, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541550/integrity-of-immunoglobulin-variable-region-is-supported-by-ganp-during-aid-induced-somatic-hypermutation-in-germinal-center-b-cells
#6
Mohammed Mansour Abbas Eid, Mayuko Shimoda, Shailendra Kumar Singh, Sarah Ameen Almofty, Phuong Pham, Myron F Goodman, Kazuhiko Maeda, Nobuo Sakaguchi
Immunoglobulin (Ig) affinity maturation depends on somatic hypermutation (SHM) in variable (V) regions initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). AID induces transition mutations by C→U deamination on both strands, causing C:G→T:A. Error-prone repairs of U by base excision and mismatch repairs create transversion mutations at C/G and mutations at A/T sites. In Neuberger's model, it remained to clarify how transition/transversion repair is regulated. We investigate role of AID-interacting GANP (germinal-center associated nuclear protein) in IgV SHM profile...
May 24, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535205/a-transcriptional-serenaid-the-role-of-noncoding-rnas-in-class-switch-recombination
#7
William T Yewdell, Jayanta Chaudhuri
During an immune response, activated B cells may undergo class switch recombination (CSR), a molecular rearrangement that allows B cells to switch from expressing IgM and IgD to a secondary antibody heavy chain isotype such as IgG, IgA, or IgE. Secondary antibody isotypes provide the adaptive immune system with distinct effector functions to optimally combat various pathogens. CSR occurs between repetitive DNA elements within the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus, termed switch (S) regions, and requires the DNA modifying enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)...
May 23, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531279/mechanisms-governing-inflammasome-activation-assembly-and-pyroptosis-induction
#8
Sannula Kesavardhana, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Inflammasomes are multimeric protein complexes that regulate inflammatory responses and pyroptotic cell death to exert host defense against microbes. Intracellular pattern-recognition receptors such as nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) and absent in melanoma 2 like receptors (ALRs) assemble the inflammasome complexes in response to pathogens and danger or altered-self signals in the cell. Inflammasome sensors, in association with an adaptor protein - apoptosis associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-activation and -recruitment domain (ASC) - activate inflammatory caspase-1 to enable the release of inflammatory cytokines and induce cell death, conferring host defense against pathogens...
May 20, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498981/splicing-in-immune-cells-mechanistic-insights-and-emerging-topics
#9
Annalisa Schaub, Elke Glasmacher
Differential splicing of mRNAs not only enables regulation of gene expression levels, but also ensures a high degree of gene-product diversity. The extent to which splicing of mRNAs is utilized as a mechanism in immune cells has become evident within the last few years. Still, only a few of these mechanisms have been well studied. In this review we discuss some of the best-understood mechanisms, for instance the differential splicing of CD45 in T cells, as well as immunoglobulin genes in B cells. Beyond that we provide general mechanistic insights on how, when and where this process takes place and discuss the current knowledge regarding these topics in immune cells...
May 12, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472280/diversification-of-igg-effector-functions
#10
Stylianos Bournazos, Jeffrey V Ravetch
IgG is the major immunoglobulin class produced during an immune response against foreign antigens and efficiently provides protection through its bifunctional nature. While the Fab domains confer highly specific recognition of the antigen, the Fc domain mediates a wide range of effector functions that modulate several aspects of the innate and adaptive immunity. Engagement of the various types of Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) by an IgG Fc domain can activate distinct immunomodulatory pathways with pleiotropic functional consequences for several leukocyte types...
May 2, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444293/regulation-of-hematopoiesis-and-immune-responses-by-long-noncoding-rnas
#11
Wooseok Seo, Ichiro Taniuchi
Since the first draft of the human genome sequence was released in 2001, unprecedentedly rapid progress has been made in whole genome-wide approaches by utilizing next-generation-sequencing technologies. The last decade alone has generated enormous data in the forms of exome sequencing, transcriptomes, transcription factor occupancy, genomic variation profiling and epigenetic modifications. One of the most striking realizations from sequencing studies has been the discovery and characterization of noncoding RNAs...
April 22, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431112/long-term-survival-of-the-mouse-es-cell-derived-mast-cell-medmc-brc6-in-mast-cell-deficient-kitw-sh-w-sh-mice
#12
Shohei Shibagaki, Satoko Tahara-Hanaoka, Takashi Hiroyama, Yukio Nakamura, Akira Shibuya
Mast cells (MCs) play pivotal roles in allergic reactions and the host defense against microbial infection through the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent and IgE-independent signaling pathways. MC lines that can be analyzed both in vitro and in vivo would be useful for the study of MC-dependent immune responses. Here we investigated the functional characteristics of a mouse ES cell-derived mast cell-like cell line, MEDMC-BRC6. The cell line expressed FcεRI and c-Kit and showed degranulation and production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine, including TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1, upon crosslinking FcεRI with IgE...
April 18, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387826/clinical-update-on-inflammasomopathies
#13
Hafize Emine Sönmez, Seza Özen
Inflammasomes are important elements of the innate immune defense. The most common autoinflammatory syndromes, as well a number of rare ones, are due to hereditary defects in the inflammasomes, hence are called inflammasomopathies. The recent clinical advances in these diseases will be reviewed, with special emphasis on reflecting the international collaborative work in the field. Recent recommendations for familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) and hyper-IgD syndrome (HIDS) / mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) will be presented and diagnostics tests, treatment alternatives, and follow-up recommendations will be summarized...
April 6, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383678/microrna-mediated-dynamic-control-of-mucosal-immunity
#14
Eun Jeong Park, Motomu Shimaoka, Hiroshi Kiyono
The gastrointestinal tract is a complex and important physiological and immunological organ embodying the first line of defense by which mucosal immunity regulates the immense number and diversity of naturally encountered antigens and commensal microflora. Effective microRNA (miRNA) control of transcription factors or mediators in mucosal immunity is essential to host defense and homeostasis in both physiologic and pathologic states. MiRNA biology has advanced our understanding of the immune regulatory system network at the level of post-transcriptional gene modification...
April 5, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369485/regulation-of-mrna-stability-by-ccch-type-zinc-finger-proteins-in-immune-cells
#15
Kazuhiko Maeda, Shizuo Akira
Current studies using knockout mice have revealed that some Cys-Cys-Cys-His (CCCH)-type zinc-finger proteins, namely tristetraprolin (TTP), Roquin, and Regnase-1, play important roles in the immune system. These proteins are closely associated with the fate of their target RNAs in normal immune responses. However, the functions of many RNA-binding proteins have not been characterized precisely. To understand the molecular mechanisms of RNA metabolism in the immune system, investigation of TTP/Roquin/Regnase-1 might provide new knowledge...
March 27, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379391/transcriptional-control-of-monocyte-and-macrophage-development
#16
Daisuke Kurotaki, Haruka Sasaki, Tomohiko Tamura
Monocytes and macrophages play critical roles in immune responses, tissue homeostasis and disease progression. There are a number of functionally and phenotypically distinct subpopulations throughout the body. However, the mechanisms by which macrophage and monocyte heterogeneity is established remain unclear. Recent studies have suggested that most tissue-resident macrophages originate from fetal progenitors but not from hematopoietic stem cells, whereas some subpopulations are derived from adult monocytes...
March 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369442/cd40-cd40l-cross-talk-drives-fascin-expression-in-dendritic-cells-for-efficient-antigen-presentation-to-cd4-t-cells
#17
Diana M Elizondo, Temesgen E Andargie, Dineeta S Kubhar, Ayele Gugssa, Michael W Lipscomb
Fascin is an actin-bundling protein that, among immune cells, is restricted to expression in dendritic cells (DCs). Previous reports have suggested that fascin plays an important role in governing DC antigen presentation to CD4+ T cells. However, no report has clearly linked the receptor-ligand engagement that can direct downstream regulation of fascin expression. In this study, bone marrow-derived DCs from wild-type versus CD40-knockout C57BL/6 mice were used to elucidate the mechanisms of fascin expression and activity upon CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) engagement...
March 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338984/e3-ubiquitin-ligases-siah1-2-regulate-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-hif-1-mediated-th17-cell-differentiation
#18
Akiko Matsui-Hasumi, Yayoi Sato, Ayako Uto-Konomi, Satoshi Yamashita, Junji Uehori, Akihiko Yoshimura, Masakatsu Yamashita, Hiroshi Asahara, Shinobu Suzuki, Masato Kubo
IL-17 is known to be a cytokine mainly secreted from Th17 cells, which well associate with autoimmune inflammatory responses. In the generation of Th17 cells, RORc and RORa have pivotal roles in controlling the transcription of Il17. We speculated additional regulation in Il17a transcription and randomly screened a 6344 clone cDNA library to identify specific modulators for Il17a promoter activity. After the screen, the E3 ubiquitin ligases SIAH1 and SIAH2 were investigated further and confirmed to increase Il17a promoter activity in a T-cell line and to promote Th17 development ex vivo...
March 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338936/establishment-of-a-human-hepatocellular-cell-line-capable-of-maintaining-long-term-replication-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#19
Wan-Ling Yao, Sotaro Ikeda, Yuta Tsukamoto, Keiko Shindo, Yukie Otakaki, Mian Qin, Yoshikazu Iwasawa, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Yuki Kaname, Yu-Chi Chou, Chungming Chang, Koichi Watashi, Takaji Wakita, Takeshi Noda, Hiroki Kato, Takashi Fujita
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a virus whose replication cycle cannot be completely reproduced using cultured cell lines. Here, we report an engineered cell line capable of supporting the complete HBV life cycle. We generated HepG2 cells over-expressing the HBV entry receptor human NTCP (sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide), and defective in RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I)-like receptor signaling, by knocking down the IPS-1 (IFNβ-promoter stimulator-1) adaptor molecule. The resultant NtG20.i7 cells were susceptible to HBV, and its replication was detectable at 14 days post-infection and persisted for at least 35 days with a gradual increase of HBV core expression...
March 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184439/mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-a-glimmer-of-hope-in-treating-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Lee Chuen Liew, Takeshi Katsuda, Luc Gailhouste, Hitoshi Nakagama, Takahiro Ochiya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: International Immunology
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