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International Immunology

Daisuke Kamimura, Takuto Ohki, Yasunobu Arima, Masaaki Murakami
The neural regulation of organs can be categorized as systemic or local. Whereas systemic regulation by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland-mediated release of steroid hormones has been well studied, the mechanisms for local regulation have only recently emerged. Two types of local neural regulation are known, the gateway reflex and the inflammatory reflex. The gateway reflex describes a mechanism that converts regional neural stimulations into inflammatory outputs by changing the state of specific blood vessels...
May 15, 2018: International Immunology
Yuki Usui, Yasumasa Kimura, Takeshi Satoh, Naoki Takemura, Yasuo Ouchi, Hiroko Ohmiya, Kyosuke Kobayashi, Hiromi Suzuki, Satomi Koyama, Satoko Hagiwara, Hirotoshi Tanaka, Seiya Imoto, Gérard Eberl, Yukio Asami, Kosuke Fujimoto, Satoshi Uematsu
The gut is an extremely complicated ecosystem where microorganisms, nutrients and host cells interact vigorously. Although the function of the intestine and its barrier system weakens with age, some probiotics can potentially prevent age-related intestinal dysfunction. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038 and Streptococcus thermophilus 1131, which are the constituents of LB81 yogurt, are representative probiotics. However, it is unclear whether their long-term intake has a beneficial influence on systemic function...
May 15, 2018: International Immunology
Xiuyuan Lu, Masahiro Nagata, Sho Yamasaki
Macrophage-inducible C-type lectin, better known as Mincle, is a member of the C-type lectin receptor family and is encoded by Clec4e. Mincle was an orphan receptor for a long time after having been discovered as a lipopolysaccharide-induced protein, yet later an adjuvant glycolipid in mycobacteria-trehalose dimycolate-was identified as a ligand. Ligands for Mincle were also found existing in bacteria, fungi and even mammals. When confronted with foreign elements, Mincle can recognize characteristic pathogen-associated molecular patterns, mostly glycolipids, from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogens, and thus induce immune responses against infection...
May 2, 2018: International Immunology
Tomoya Narita, Takeshi Nitta, Sachiko Nitta, Tadashi Okamura, Hiroshi Takayanagi
γδT cells develop in the thymus and play important roles in protection against infection and tumor development, but the mechanisms by which the thymic microenvironment supports γδT cell differentiation remain largely unclear. Skint1, a B7-related protein expressed in thymic epithelial cells, was shown to be essential for the development of mouse Vγ5Vδ1 γδT cells. The Skint family in mouse consists of 11 members, Skint1-11. Here we generated mutant mice lacking the entire genomic region that contains all of the Skint genes...
April 26, 2018: International Immunology
Masanobu Kimura, Hiroyuki Nagashima, Yuko Okuyama, Naoto Ishii, Takanori So
TRAF2 and TRAF5 constitutively bind to gp130 and inhibit IL-6-driven activation of STAT3 in CD4+ T cells, which limits the differentiation of pro-inflammatory IL-17-producing helper T cells that require IL-6-receptor signals for their development. However, it is not known how the interaction between TRAF and gp130 negatively regulates STAT3 activity in the IL-6-receptor complex. We hypothesized that TRAF proteins associated with gp130 would limit activation processes of JAK kinases, which are crucial for STAT3 activation...
April 13, 2018: International Immunology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 9, 2018: International Immunology
Hisashi Kanemaru, Fumihiro Yamane, Hiroki Tanaka, Kazuhiko Maeda, Takashi Satoh, Shizuo Akira
Growing evidence has revealed that the transcription factor basic leucine zipper transcription factor ATF-like 2 (BATF2) has unique transcriptional activities, including regulating cytokines via TLR signals in macrophages, which affect mortality due to infection and cancer. Based on genome-wide analyses using the chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing technique, we found that dual-specificity phosphatase 2 (Dusp2) had a significantly lower acetyl-histone status in Batf2-/- bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) compared with wild-type (WT) BMDMs...
March 9, 2018: International Immunology
Takashi Nomura, Tetsuya Honda, Kenji Kabashima
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common T-cell-mediated inflammatory disease of the skin. Signatures of AD are characterized by an impaired skin barrier, aberrant Th2-type cytokine production and intensive pruritus. Transcriptomic analysis, however, has revealed a heterogeneous pathogenesis and the co-existence of multiple cytokine axes of Th17, Th22 and Th1 types, especially in intrinsic (a subtype of AD without skin barrier impairment), pediatric and Asian types of AD. Furthermore, the therapeutic effect of anti-IL-4 receptor α against AD was not as high as that of IL-17 blockage against psoriasis, which implies a modification of the disease spectrum by non-Th2-type cytokine axes in AD...
March 6, 2018: International Immunology
Scott W Canna, Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2018: International Immunology
Ann Marie Szymanski, Michael J Ombrello
The intersection of granulomatosis and autoinflammatory disease is a rare occurrence that can be generally subdivided into purely granulomatous phenotypes and disease spectra that are inclusive of granulomatous features. NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2)-related disease, which includes Blau syndrome and early-onset sarcoidosis, is the prototypic example of granulomatous inflammation in the context of monogenic autoinflammation. Granulomatous inflammation has also been observed in two related autoinflammatory diseases caused by mutations in PLCG2 (phospholipase Cγ2)...
April 25, 2018: International Immunology
Grant S Schulert, Scott W Canna
Hyperferritinemia and pronounced hemophagocytosis help distinguish a subset of patients with a particularly inflammatory and deadly systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Two clinically similar disorders typify these hyperferritinemic syndromes: hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). HLH is canonically associated with a complete disturbance of perforin/granzyme-mediated cytotoxicity, whereas MAS occurs in the context of the related rheumatic diseases systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis and adult-onset Still's disease, with associated IL-1 family cytokine activation...
April 25, 2018: International Immunology
Yasuo Ouchi, Ashwini Patil, Yusuke Tamura, Hiroshi Nishimasu, Aina Negishi, Sudip Kumar Paul, Naoki Takemura, Takeshi Satoh, Yasumasa Kimura, Makoto Kurachi, Osamu Nureki, Kenta Nakai, Hiroshi Kiyono, Satoshi Uematsu
Immunotherapies have led to the successful development of novel therapies for cancer. However, there is increasing concern regarding the adverse effects caused by non-tumor-specific immune responses. Here, we report an effective strategy to generate high-avidity tumor-antigen-specific CTLs, using Cas9/single-guide RNA (sgRNA) ribonucleoprotein (RNP) delivery. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we selected the gp100 melanoma-associated tumor antigen, and cloned the gp100-specific high-avidity TCR from gp100-immunized mice...
April 3, 2018: International Immunology
Ei Wakamatsu, Hiroki Omori, Yuki Tabata, Yuki Akieda, Shiho Watanabe, Shuhei Ogawa, Ryo Abe
It is well-established that CD28 co-stimulation is required for the development and the proliferation of thymus-derived regulatory T cells (tTregs). Meanwhile, the role of CD28 co-stimulation in the homeostasis of peripherally derived Tregs (pTregs) remains unclear. To clarify this issue, we analyzed Tregs in small and large intestines (SI and LI), the principle sites of pTreg development. Interestingly, and different from in the thymus, Tregs were abundant in the intestines of CD28-/- mice, and most of them were phenotypically pTregs...
April 3, 2018: International Immunology
Caroline Fraga Nunes, Jeane S Nogueira, Pedro Henrique Oliveira Vianna, Bianca Torres Ciambarella, Patrícia Machado Rodrigues, Karla Rodrigues Miranda, Leandro Araújo Lobo, Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pillotto Domingues, Mileane Busch, Georgia Correa Atella, André Macedo Vale, Maria Bellio, Alberto Nóbrega, Fábio B Canto, Rita Fucs
The incidence of allergic diseases, which increased to epidemic proportions in developed countries over the last few decades, has been correlated with altered gut microbiota colonization. Although probiotics may play a critical role in the restoration of gut homeostasis, their efficiency in the control of allergy is controversial. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of probiotic treatment initiated at neonatal or adult ages on the suppression of experimental ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma. Neonatal or adult mice were orally treated with probiotic bacteria and subjected to OVA-induced allergy...
April 3, 2018: International Immunology
Takefumi Yamashita
Because antibodies have become an important therapeutic tool, rational antibody design is a challenging issue involving various science and technology fields. From the computational aspect, many types of design-assist methods have been developed, but their accuracy is not fully satisfactory. Because of recent advancements in computational power, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has become a helpful tool to trace the motion of proteins and to characterize their properties. Thus, MD simulation has been applied to various systems involving antigen-antibody complexes and has been shown to provide accurate insight into antigen-antibody interactions and dynamics at an atomic resolution...
April 3, 2018: International Immunology
Miwa Sasai, Ariel Pradipta, Masahiro Yamamoto
Toxoplasma gondii can infect homoeothermic animals including humans and cause lethal toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised individuals. When hosts are infected with T. gondii, the cells induce immune responses against T. gondii. The pathogen infection is recognized by immune sensors that directly detect T. gondii structural components, leading to production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells strongly activate T cells and induce development of Th1 cells and antigen-specific killer CD8 T cells...
March 10, 2018: International Immunology
Koubun Yasuda, Kenji Nakanishi
Helminth infection remains common in developing countries, where residents who suffer from the consequences of such infections can develop serious physical and mental disorders and often persist in the face of serious economic problems. Intestinal nematode infection induces the development of Th2-type immune responses including the B-cell IgE response; additionally, this infection induces an increase in the numbers and activation of various types of effector cells, such as mast cells, eosinophils and basophils, as well as the induction of goblet cell hyperplasia, anti-microbial peptide production and smooth-muscle contraction, all of which contribute to expel nematodes...
March 10, 2018: International Immunology
Michelle Sue Jann Lee, Cevayir Coban
Individuals from malaria-endemic regions often acquire partial immunity after multiple repeated infections throughout their lives. This partial immunity prevents them from developing severe complications and they often remain asymptomatic with a persistent, low parasite density in the blood, and therefore the necessity for treatment is neglected. These patients with chronic, asymptomatic malaria serve as a reservoir for Plasmodium parasite transmission, becoming a major obstacle for eradication efforts. The constant exposure to malaria infection may have benefits in the short term by conferring protection from acute, severe malaria; however, it may cause substantially more harm in the long term...
March 10, 2018: International Immunology
Matteo Rossi, Nicolas Fasel
Infection by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania results in the development of leishmaniasis, an increasingly prevalent group of diseases affecting over 12 million people worldwide. Leishmaniasis can have very different outcomes ranging from cutaneous lesions, mucosal lesions to visceralization depending on the species of the infecting parasite and on the immune response developed by the host. As an obligate intracellular parasite, residing within macrophages, Leishmania evolved in strict contact with the host immune system, developing different mechanisms to evade or modulate the immune response...
March 10, 2018: International Immunology
Katsuhiro Nakagawa, Takanori Matsuki, Liang Zhao, Kanako Kuniyoshi, Hiroki Tanaka, Isao Ebina, Kenta J Yoshida, Hiroshi Nabeshima, Kiyoharu Fukushima, Hisashi Kanemaru, Fumihiro Yamane, Takahiro Kawasaki, Tomohisa Machida, Hisamichi Naito, Nobuyuki Takakura, Takashi Satoh, Shizuo Akira
Schlafen-8 (Slfn8) is a member of the Schlafen family of proteins, which harbor helicase domains and are induced by LPS and interferons. It has been reported that the Schlafen family are involved in various cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation and regulation of virus replication. Slfn8 has been implicated in T-cell differentiation in the thymus. However, the roles of Slfn8 in the immune system remains unclear. In this study, we generated Slfn8 knockout mice (Slfn8-/-) and investigated the immunological role of Slfn8 using the T-cell-mediated autoimmune model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
March 8, 2018: International Immunology
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