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Theresa W Kim, Alexander Y Walley, Alicia S Ventura, Gregory J Patts, Timothy C Heeren, Gabriel B Lerner, Nicholas Mauricio, Richard Saitz
Although people with HIV infection (PLWH) are at higher risk of polypharmacy and substance use, there is limited knowledge about potential harms associated with polypharmacy such as falls and fractures in this population. The study objective was to determine whether polypharmacy, as measured by the number and type of medication, is associated with falls and fractures among PLWH and DSM-IV substance dependence in the past year or ever injection drug use (IDU). We identified the number of medications by electronic medical record review in the following categories: (i) systemically active, (ii) non-antiretroviral (non-ARV), (iii) sedating, (iv) non-sedating as well as any opioid medication and any non-opioid sedating medication...
October 16, 2017: AIDS Care
C C Landefeld, L A Fomenou, F Ateba, P Msellati
Most HIV-infected children in Sub-Saharan Africa are born where programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) exist but are not universally operational. The expansion of PMTCT programs in Cameroon was among the largest in francophone Africa, but despite highly variable estimates of PMTCT uptake (ranging from 20% to 66%), it is clear that not enough HIV-infected pregnant Cameroonian women benefit from treatment to prevent HIV transmission to their children. The reasons why HIV-infected women in Cameroon do not use treatments to prevent this transmission remain partially unidentified...
October 16, 2017: AIDS Care
Yuchen Mao, Xiaoming Li, Shan Qiao, Qun Zhao, Yuejiao Zhou, Zhiyong Shen
Both stigma and social support have been identified to be associated with HIV status disclosure among people living with HIV. This study aimed to examine cross-sectional associations of perceived social support and multiple types of stigma with both disclosure to various target groups and timing of disclosure among parents living with HIV (PLHIV) in Guangxi, China. Cross-sectional data from 1254 PLHIV in Guangxi, China were analyzed. Measures included demographics, disclosure to specific groups (steady partner/spouse, children, family and others) and timing of disclosure, perceived social support, and three types of HIV-related stigma (perceived, internalized, and enacted stigma)...
October 11, 2017: AIDS Care
Jeremy C Kane, Paul Bolton, Sarah M Murray, Judith K Bass, Daniel Lakin, Kathryn Whetten, Stephanie Skavenski van Wyk, Laura K Murray
Social desirability bias and underreporting of HIV risk behaviors are significant challenges to the accurate evaluation of HIV prevention programs for orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in sub-Saharan Africa. Valid and reliable HIV risk behavior instruments are critical to address these challenges. We assessed the psychometric properties of two risk behavior measures, the World Aids Foundation Survey (WAF) and the Peer HIV Risk Behavior Screener (PHRBS), administered to 210 OVC in Zambia using Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interviewing...
October 11, 2017: AIDS Care
Greer Waldrop, Suraj Sarvode, Srirama Rao, V H T Swamy, Sunil Suhas Solomon, Shruti H Mehta, S N Mothi
We characterized the impact of a Private-Public Partnership (PPP) on the continuum of HIV care (e.g., treatment initiation, ART effectiveness and loss to follow-up) among adults enrolled at a private hospital/ART link center in the southern state of Karnataka, India from 2007 through 2012. Data on 2326 adults in care were compiled using an electronic database supplemented with medical chart abstraction. Survival methods with staggered entries were used to analyze time to ART initiation and loss to follow-up as well as associated factors...
October 9, 2017: AIDS Care
Angeline Chepchirchir, Walter Jaoko, Joshua Nyagol
There is paucity of data on prevalence of hypertension and its effects on HIV/AIDS progression among patients at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Kenya. This was a cross sectional study conducted between January and May 2015 at the KNH HIV Care Centre. Ethical approval was obtained from institutional ethics review board. HIV positive adult patients were recruited sequentially, and written informed consent obtained from each participant. Systematic sampling was used to select participants who were screened for blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) and lifestyle characteristics...
October 9, 2017: AIDS Care
Seetha Lakshmi, Susan E Beekmann, Philip M Polgreen, Allan Rodriguez, Maria L Alcaide
Models of care for people living with HIV (PLWH) have varied over time due to long term survival, development of HIV-associated non-AIDS conditions, and HIV specific primary care guidelines that differ from those of the general population. The objectives of this study are to assess how often infectious disease (ID) physicians provide primary care for PLWH, assess their practice patterns and barriers in the provision of primary care. We used a 6-item survey electronically distributed to ID physician members of Emerging Infections Network (EIN)...
October 9, 2017: AIDS Care
Nthabiseng A Phaladze, Barbara N Ngwenya, Lesego Gabaitiri
This paper seeks to examine orphaned children's experiences on grief and loss in Botswana, and its impact on their well-being and make policy recommendations. A cross sectional design which utilized survey questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 11 districts (3 urban and 8 rural) among orphan children aged 10-18 years. Chi-squared test was used to identify variables believed to be associated with loss and grief. Unadjusted (simple) and adjusted multiple logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with loss...
October 4, 2017: AIDS Care
Andrea H Weinberger, Elizabeth K Seng, Hannah Esan, Jonathan Shuter
Persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) smoke at high prevalences and experience significant smoking-related consequences. In community samples, perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking are related to quit motivation and outcomes and are more strongly endorsed by women. This study examined perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking and the relationship between risks and benefits and quit motivation and confidence in male and female PLWH. One hundred seven PLWH who reported current cigarette smoking completed measures of demographics, smoking, perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking, motivation to quit smoking, and confidence in ability to quit smoking...
October 4, 2017: AIDS Care
Emma G Hainsworth, Maryam Shahmanesh, Fiona Stevenson
A systematic review of the literature was conducted to find out what is known about patients' experiences of a dual diagnosis of HIV and cancer. We systematically searched the following databases; MEDLINE (Ovid Version); CINAHL Plus; PsycINFO and EMBASE from inception to June 2016 for studies that included patients with a dual diagnosis of cancer and HIV and focused on patient experiences. Studies with a focus on one illness rather than a dual diagnosis, those that focused on treatment strategies and medical management, epidemiology and pathology studies and comparison studies were all excluded...
October 4, 2017: AIDS Care
Catherine Ford, Carla J Chibwesha, Jennifer Winston, Choolwe Jacobs, Mwansa Ketty Lubeya, Patrick Musonda, Jeffrey S A Stringer, Benjamin H Chi
Women's empowerment is associated with engagement in some areas of healthcare, but its role in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services has not been previously considered. In this secondary analysis, we investigated the association of women's decision-making and uptake of health services for PMTCT. Using data from population-based household surveys, we included women who reported delivery in the 2-year period prior to the survey and were HIV-infected. We measured a woman's self-reported role in decision-making in her own healthcare, making of large purchases, schooling of children, and healthcare for children...
October 3, 2017: AIDS Care
Meredith E Clement, Jessica Seidelman, Jiewei Wu, Kareem Alexis, Kara McGee, N Lance Okeke, Gregory Samsa, Mehri McKellar
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention method, but many primary care physicians (PCPs) have not incorporated PrEP into practice. While PrEP may be a key strategy to reducing high HIV transmission rates in the southern US, knowledge about PrEP prescribing patterns among PCPs in this region is lacking. An online survey was sent to a large network of PCPs at an academic medical center in North Carolina in October 2015. The survey was repeated in September 2016, after an educational intervention that included on-site trainings at 14 PCP offices...
October 3, 2017: AIDS Care
Sharlene Beckford Jarrett, Winston De La Haye, Zahra Miller, J Peter Figueroa, Jacqueline Duncan, Kevin Harvey
This cross-sectional study explored the range of psychiatric and substance use disorders and unmet need for mental health care among 84 HIV-positive and 44 HIV-negative public clinic attendees in Jamaica. We used a brief interviewer-administered diagnostic tool, the Client Diagnostic Questionnaire. Two-thirds (65.6%) screened positive for at least one psychiatric disorder; 30.5% screened positive for multiple disorders. The most common disorders were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (41.4%), alcohol abuse (22...
October 3, 2017: AIDS Care
Kelsey A Alexovitz, Roland C Merchant, Melissa A Clark, Tao Liu, Joshua G Rosenberger, Jose Bauermeister, Kenneth H Mayer
Discordance between self-perceived HIV risk and actual risk-taking may impede efforts to promote HIV testing among young adult men-who-have-sex-with-men (YMSM) in the United States (US). Understanding the extent of, and reasons for, the discordance of HIV risk self-perception, HIV risk-taking and voluntary HIV testing among black, Hispanic and white YMSM could aid in the development of interventions to increase HIV testing among this higher HIV risk population. HIV-uninfected 18-24-year-old black, Hispanic, and white YMSM were recruited from across the US through multiple social media websites...
September 29, 2017: AIDS Care
Linn Mehnert, Birte Siem, Stefan Stürmer, Anette Rohmann
This study investigates the effect of similarity of health status between counselors and clients on the acceptance of counseling services among women living with HIV (WLWH). We hypothesized that WLWH should be more willing to seek counseling from an HIV-positive counselor as opposed to one living free of HIV or with another stigmatized disease like Hepatitis C, because a counselor with HIV should be perceived as more empathetic and credible. Moreover, the positive effect of similarity on acceptance should be particularly pronounced among WLWH who perceive high levels of HIV-related stigmatization and low levels of social support...
September 29, 2017: AIDS Care
Jennifer C Elliott, Malka Stohl, Deborah S Hasin
Heavy drinking can cause medical problems for individuals with HIV, and drinking despite medical contraindications indicates problem use. However, little is known about which individuals with HIV drink despite knowledge of health problems. This study utilizes two subsamples of individuals with HIV from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III): those reporting at least one drink (a) in their lifetime (n = 205) or (b) in the past year (n = 166). Participants reported on drinking despite health problems and psychopathology in the past year and in their lifetime, and family history of alcohol problems...
September 25, 2017: AIDS Care
Yu Liu, Sten H Vermund, Yuhua Ruan, Hongjie Liu, Chen Zhang, Lu Yin, Yiming Shao, Han-Zhu Qian
Despite the exacerbating HIV transmission among migrant men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, few epidemiological studies explore their HIV testing/risk profiles. We sought to explore sociodemographic/behavioral correlates of HIV/syphilis and HIV testing among migrant MSM. A study was conducted among 3,588 HIV-uninfected MSM. Participants were recruited via short message services, peer referral, web-advertisement and community outreach. HIV/syphilis infections were lab-confirmed. Migrant MSM were more likely to be HIV-infected compared to local MSM...
September 25, 2017: AIDS Care
Annie L Nguyen, Candice J McNeil, S Duke Han, Scott D Rhodes
For persons living with HIV, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) may be threatened by physical and mental conditions but may be protected by positive psychological traits. We performed an exploratory look at the risk and protective factors for HRQOL in older adults living with HIV. Cross-sectional analyses of baseline data from the Rush Center of Excellence on Disparities in HIV and Aging (CEDHA), a community-based cohort of persons ages ≥50 living with HIV (n = 176) were performed. Analyses examined the relationship between risk/protective factors and two outcomes (i...
September 25, 2017: AIDS Care
Nena do Nascimento, Catherine Barker, Isabel Brodsky
Retention rates in antiretroviral treatment (ART) in low- and middle-income countries are suboptimal for meeting global "90-90-90" treatment targets. Interventions using routinely collected patient data to follow up with ART defaulters is recommended to improve retention; yet, little is documented on how these data are used in practice. This state of the evidence review summarizes how facilities and programmes use patient data to retain adults on ART in low- and middle-income countries, and what effect, if any, these interventions have on retention...
September 25, 2017: AIDS Care
Wei-Ti Chen, Chengshi Shiu, Joyce P Yang, Peing Chuang, Lin Zhang, Meijuan Bao, Hongzhou Lu
Obtaining maximum antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence is critical for maintaining a high CD4 count and strong immune function in PLWHA. Key factors for achieving optimum adherence include good medication self-efficacy, decreased medication-taking difficulties, and positive patient-healthcare provider (HCP) relationships. Limited studies have analyzed the correlation of these factors and ART adherence in Chinese population. In this paper, structural equation modeling was performed to assess the proposed model of relations between patient-HCP relationships and adherence...
September 21, 2017: AIDS Care
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