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Laura Camoni, Mariangela Raimondo, Roberta Urciuoli, Simone Iacchini, Barbara Suligoi, Patrizio Pezzotti
We conducted a second National survey in all Italian Infectious Disease clinics to assess the number of people diagnosed and linked to care and, among these, the number of people on antiretroviral therapy and viral load suppressed. In 2014, 100,049 (0.16 per 100 residents) people diagnosed and linked to care were estimated, corresponding to an increase of 6.3% compared to the survey conducted in 2012. Among people diagnosed and linked to care, 91.9% were on antiretroviral therapy (increase of 11.4% compared to 2012), and among these, 87...
November 14, 2017: AIDS Care
Hongfei Du, Peilian Chi, Xiaoming Li
Despite substantial global efforts to reduce HIV-related stigma, stigma and discrimination remain widespread and are among the most poorly understood aspects of the epidemic. However, there has been little research on whether HIV stigma in a country is associated with HIV prevalence. This article offers a socioecological perspective for understanding HIV stigma in a context of HIV prevalence. Using two international data sets (the UNAIDS 2009 HIV Epidemiological Report and the World Values Survey), we investigated whether and how HIV prevalence is associated with individual- and country-level HIV stigma...
November 13, 2017: AIDS Care
Christine J McGrath, Benson Singa, Agnes Langat, John Kinuthia, Keshet Ronen, Danvers Omolo, Benjamin Elly Odongo, Rose Wafula, Prisca Muange, Abraham Katana, Lucy Ng'anga', Grace C John-Stewart
Health worker experience and community support may be higher in high HIV prevalence regions than low prevalence regions, leading to improved prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs. We evaluated 6-week and 9-month infant HIV transmission risk (TR) in a high prevalence region and nationally. Population-proportionate-to-size sampling was used to select 141 clinics in Kenya, and mobile teams surveyed mother-infant pairs attending 6-week and 9-month immunizations. HIV DNA testing was performed on HIV-exposed infants...
November 11, 2017: AIDS Care
Anderson Jambeiro de Souza, Isaac Suzart Gomes-Filho, Carlos Alberto Lima da Silva, Johelle de Santana Passos-Soares, Simone Seixas da Cruz, Soraya Castro Trindade, Ana Claudia Morais Godoy Figueiredo, Yvonne de Paiva Buischi, Gregory J Seymour, Eneida de Moraes Marcílio Cerqueira
This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with oral diseases in individuals with HIV/AIDS. A cross sectional study was carried out which included 312 individuals registered in the Specialized Care Services for HIV/AIDS in three municipalities of the State of Bahia: Feira de Santana, Santo Antonio de Jesus and Juazeiro, Brazil. Socioeconomic-demographic characteristics related to life style and to dental caries, periodontitis and intra-oral mucosal lesions were investigated in patients with HIV/AIDS infection...
November 10, 2017: AIDS Care
Pamela Payne-Foster, Erin L P Bradley, Natasha Aduloju-Ajijola, Xin Yang, Zaneta Gaul, Jason Parton, Madeline Y Sutton, Susan Gaskins
Eliminating racial/ethnic HIV disparities requires HIV-related stigma reduction. African-American churches have a history of addressing community concerns, including health issues, but may also contribute to stigma. We developed and pilot tested a faith-based, anti-stigma intervention with 12 African-American churches in rural Alabama. We measured HIV-related stigma held by 199 adults who participated in the intervention (individual-level) and their perception of stigma among other congregants (congregational-level)...
November 9, 2017: AIDS Care
Firoza Haffejee, Ndumiso Daluxolo Ngidi, Deepak Singh
Marriage rates in South Africa have dropped to approximately 37% in recent years. This is particularly marked in the Black African population compared to other race groups. In tandem, the prevalence of HIV in this country has risen to 12.7%, with the highest prevalence among Black Africans. However, no data associates marriage decline with high HIV prevalence. We bridge this gap in knowledge by investigating young students' aspirations to marry in the context of high national HIV rates. A cross-sectional study was conducted among university students (n = 384) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, between October and November 2014...
November 8, 2017: AIDS Care
Linlin Lindayani, Kusman Ibrahim, Jung-Der Wang, Nai-Ying Ko
Stigma has a potential impact on the quality of life of HIV-infected individuals over time. There is little empirical evidence regarding the first appearance and dynamic changes among different types of stigma, self-stigma and public-stigma, and their impacts on quality of life over time in HIV-infected persons. The purpose of this study was to assess the dynamic changes in self-stigma and public-stigma along the time course and determined their independent and synergistic impacts on quality of life. A Cross-sectional study was conducted at Two HIV-designed hospitals and two branches of non-government an-AIDS organizations in Wes Java, Indonesia...
November 8, 2017: AIDS Care
Wayne T Steward, Veena A Satyanarayana, Elsa Heylen, Aylur K Srikrishnan, Canjeevaram K Vasudevan, Gopal Krishnan, Davidson Solomon, Maria L Ekstrand
Male migrant workers (MMWs) in India are vulnerable to developing alcohol-related problems and engaging in unprotected sex, putting them at risk of HIV. Research has shown that alcohol-related expectancies mediate vulnerability to alcoholism. We examined which expectancies were associated with sexual risk and drinking. We surveyed 1085 heterosexual MMWs in two South Indian municipalities, assessing expectancies, sex under the influence, and unprotected sex with female sex workers (FSW) and casual female partners in the prior 30 days...
October 30, 2017: AIDS Care
Tsegaye Bekele, Jason Globerman, James Watson, Murray Jose-Boebridge, Richard Kennedy, Keith Hambly, Aranka Anema, Robert S Hogg, Sean B Rourke
Up to half of people living with HIV in resource-rich settings experience moderate to severe food insecurity. Food insecurity, in turn, has been linked to adverse health outcomes including poor antiretroviral adherence, poor HIV viral suppression, frailty, and mortality. We estimated the prevalence of food insecurity among 649 adults living with HIV and recruited from community-based AIDS service organizations in Ontario, Canada. Food security was assessed using the Canadian Household Food Security module. We used logistic regression modeling to identify demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial factors independently associated with food insecurity...
October 28, 2017: AIDS Care
J Carlo Hojilla, Megha Mehrotra, Hong-Ha M Truong, David V Glidden, K Rivet Amico, Vanessa McMahan, David Vlahov, Suwat Chariyalertsak, Juan Vicente Guanira, Robert M Grant
HIV pre-exposure prophyalxis (PrEP) might lead individuals to view serodisclosure as unnecessary. We examined the prevalence of non-disclosure and lack of knowledge of partner status in a global cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) enrolled in the iPrEx Open Label Extension (OLE). We calculated prevalence ratios by fitting a logistic model and estimating predicted probabilities using marginal standardization. Prevalence of non-disclosure and lack of knowledge of partner status were highest in Thailand (73% and 74%, respectively) and lowest in the USA (23% and 37%, respectively)...
October 28, 2017: AIDS Care
Kate Clouse, Constance Mongwenyana, Melda Musina, Dorah Bokaba, Lawrence Long, Mhairi Maskew, Aima Ahonkhai, Matthew P Fox
Women initiating antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy are at high risk of dropping out of HIV care after delivery. We assessed the acceptability and feasibility of a financial incentive - a one-time R50 (∼USD4) supermarket voucher for completing one postpartum visit ≤10 weeks of delivery - to improve postpartum retention. We enrolled 100 pregnant, HIV-positive women at a primary health clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. Participants were interviewed at enrollment and we reviewed files to assess retention ≥14 weeks postpartum...
October 25, 2017: AIDS Care
Sylvia Ayon, James Ndimbii, Fatma Jeneby, Taib Abdulrahman, Onesmus Mlewa, Bangyuan Wang, Allan Ragi, Gitau Mburu
There is limited data regarding women who inject drugs, and how harm-reduction services can be made more women-centered. This study explored experiences of Kenyan women who inject drugs, with regard to access to HIV, harm reduction and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. A total of 45 women who inject drugs and 5 key stakeholders participated in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Thematic analysis of the data revealed that stigma, long distances, lack of confidentiality, user fees, multiple appointments, drug users' unfamiliarity with health facilities, disconnect in communication with healthcare providers, and healthcare providers' lack of understanding of women's needs were factors that impede women's access to health services...
October 25, 2017: AIDS Care
Kerry A Thomson, Shireesha Dhanireddy, Michele Andrasik, Kerry Hancuch, Lindsay Legg, Jacob Keane-Candib, Renee Heffron
Understanding fertility desires and preferences for HIV prevention among individuals living with HIV, including the potential use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by HIV uninfected partners, can inform the delivery of safer conception counseling to reduce the risk of HIV transmission during pregnancy attempts. Men and women, predominantly heterosexual, engaged in HIV care in Seattle, WA, self-administered a questionnaire and we abstracted antiretroviral therapy (ART) status and HIV viral levels from medical records...
October 25, 2017: AIDS Care
Lindsey Webb, Carisa Perry-Parrish, Jonathan Ellen, Erica Sibinga
HIV-infected youth experience many stressors, including stress related to their illness, which can negatively impact their mental and physical health. Therefore, there is a significant need to identify potentially effective interventions to improve stress management, coping, and self-regulation. The object of the study was to assess the effect of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program compared to an active control group on psychological symptoms and HIV disease management in youth utilizing a randomized controlled trial...
October 25, 2017: AIDS Care
Putu Duff, Josephine Birungi, Sabina Dobrer, Monika Akello, Godfrey Muzaaya, Kate Shannon
While sex workers (SWs) bear the brunt of the epidemic in Uganda, there remains a dearth of empirical research on the structural drivers of HIV prevention among SWs. This study examined the drivers of inconsistent condom use by one-time and regular clients of young women SWs in Gulu, Northern Uganda. Data were drawn from the Gulu Sexual Health Study, a cross-sectional study of young SWs, aged 14 years and older (2011-2012). SWs were recruited using peer/SW-led outreach, in partnership with The AIDS Support Organization and other CBOs...
October 25, 2017: AIDS Care
M E Loades, B Coetzee, S Du Toit, A Kagee
In adults with HIV, fatigue is a common and disabling symptom associated with suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), poor health and well-being, reduced economic productivity, and increased health care resource use. Fatigue among adolescents with HIV is relatively unexplored. We recruited 14 adolescents with HIV receiving ART in South Africa whom we interviewed about fatigue. We used thematic analysis to analyse the data. Participants reported difficulties in maintaining concentration at school and resorting to self-care strategies such as napping during school hours...
October 25, 2017: AIDS Care
Katelyn M Sileo, Michael Kintu, Susan M Kiene
Intimate partner violence (IPV) may increase risk for HIV/AIDS among women engaging in transactional sex in Ugandan fishing communities. In this cross-sectional study, 115 women reporting engaging in transactional sex in Lake Victoria fishing communities completed a computerized interview. We tested associations between IPV and other HIV risk factors, with unprotected sex and HIV status, and tested moderators of the IPV-HIV risk relationship. Women reporting recent sexual IPV reported 3.36 times more unprotected sex acts (AdjExp[B] = 3...
October 24, 2017: AIDS Care
Alan Tai-Wai Li, Kenneth Po-Lun Fung, Eleanor Maticka-Tyndale, Josephine Pui-Hing Wong
Racialized diasporic communities in Canada experience disproportionate burden of HIV infection. Their increased vulnerabilities are associated with interlocking challenges, including barriers in accessing resources, migration and settlement stress, and systemic exclusion. Further, people living with HIV (PLHIV) in these diasporic communities face stigma and discrimination in both mainstream Canadian society as well as their own ethno-racial communities. HIV stigma negatively impacts all aspects of HIV care, from testing to disclosure to treatment and ongoing care...
October 24, 2017: AIDS Care
Kalysha Closson, Janan Dietrich, Nathan J Lachowsky, Busi Nkala, Zishan Cui, Jason Chia, Robert S Hogg, Glenda Gray, Angela Kaida, Cari L Miller
Sexual self-efficacy (SSE) - one's confidence in their ability to perform given sexual behaviours, has been shown to predict adolescents' HIV-prevention practices (e.g., Condom use). Few studies within sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV incidence and prevalence disproportionately affects young women, have examined gendered differences in SSE. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify correlates of high-SSE separately among adolescent men and women (aged 14-19) in Soweto, South Africa using a previously validated SSE scale (high-SSE [>3/6 items]; study-alpha = 0...
October 23, 2017: AIDS Care
Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de Oliveira, Silvia Emiko Shimakura, Dayse Pereira Campos, Yara Hahr Marques Hökerberg, Flaviana Pavan Victoriano, Sayonara Ribeiro, Valdiléa G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Marilia Sá Carvalho
The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy has resulted in changes of comorbidity profile in people living with HIV (PLHIV), increasing non-AIDS-related events. The occurrence of cardiovascular events is greater in PLHIV, but the mechanism responsible for it is still controversial. This article aimed to investigate factors associated with the progression to cardiovascular events in PLHIV using HAART. A 15-years cohort study with 1135 PLHIV was conducted in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil. Clinical progression was stratified in five states: No comorbidities (s1), arterial hypertension (s2), lipid abnormalities (s3), hypertension and lipid abnormalities (s4) and major cardiovascular events (stroke, coronary artery disease, thrombosis or death) (s5)...
October 23, 2017: AIDS Care
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