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Psychological Assessment

Michael Weinborn, Romola S Bucks, Hamid R Sohrabi, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Belinda M Brown, Samantha L Gardener, Aleksandra Gozt, Daniel Christensen, Greg Savage, Simon M Laws, Kevin Taddei, Paul Maruff, Joanne S Robertson, Kathryn A Ellis, David Ames, Colin L Masters, Christopher C Rowe, Ralph N Martins
The ability to read irregularly spelled words is commonly used to estimate premorbid intelligence, as this ability has been thought to be resistant to early effects of neurodegenerative disorders. However, studies evaluating decline of this skill in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have produced conflicting results. Irregular word reading was assessed three times over 36 months in a large (N = 995) sample, including healthy control, AD, and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) groups. At baseline, MCI and AD groups read correctly an average of 3...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Alexander J Millner, Daniel D L Coppersmith, Bethany A Teachman, Matthew K Nock
Assessing suicidal thoughts and behaviors is difficult because at-risk individuals often fail to provide honest or accurate accounts of their suicidal thoughts or intentions. Research has shown that the Death Implicit Association Test (D-IAT), a behavioral test that measures implicit (i.e., outside of conscious control) associations between oneself and death concepts, can differentiate among people with different suicidal histories, such as those with different severity or recency of suicidal behaviors. We report here on the development and evaluation of a shorter and simpler version of the D-IAT called the Death Brief Implicit Association Test (D-BIAT)...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Yvonne Wells, Jamie Lee, Xia Li, Evelyn S Tan, Jennifer E McIntosh
Conflicted parental separation is associated with escalating risks to wellbeing and safety for all family members. The Family Law DOORS (FL-DOORS, Detection Of Overall Risk Screen) is a three-part framework designed to assist frontline workers to identify, evaluate, and respond to these risks in separated families. The FL-DOORS system includes a 10-domain parent self-report screening measure, covering child and parent wellbeing, cultural and social risks, and safety risks experienced by and initiated by each parent...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Marcus G Wild, Remo Ostini, Magdalena Harrington, Kerri L Cavanaugh, Kenneth A Wallston
Self-efficacy, or perceived competence, has been identified as an important factor in self-management behaviors and health outcomes in patients with chronic disease. Measures of self-management self-efficacy are currently available for multiple forms of chronic disease. One established measure is the 8-item Perceived Medical Condition Self-Management Scale (PMCSMS). This study investigated the use of the PMCSMS in samples of patients with a chronic disease to develop an abbreviated version of the scale that could be more readily used in clinical contexts or in large population health cohort studies...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Morgan N McCredie, Leslie C Morey
As the research literature on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) has expanded, several supplemental indicators have been introduced to aid in the interpretation of PAI results for the purpose of addressing particular assessment questions, such as protocol validity or treatment-related considerations. However, many of these indicators have remained largely unexamined beyond the initial validation studies in which they were derived. The purpose of the present study was to provide normative data for these new supplemental indicators, as well as to cross-validate these indicators in other existing PAI data sets and provide information about incremental validity beyond existing PAI scales and indices...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Elizabeth A Nick, David A Cole, Sun-Joo Cho, Darcy K Smith, T Grace Carter, Rachel L Zelkowitz
A new measure, the Online Social Support Scale, was developed based on previous theory, research, and measurement of in-person social support. It includes four subscales: Esteem/Emotional Support, Social Companionship, Informational Support, and Instrumental Support. In college and community samples, factor analytic and item response theory results suggest that subtypes of in-person social support also pertain in the online world. Evidence of reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity provide excellent psychometric support for the measure...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Christopher M Napolitano, Veronika Job
Why do some people struggle with self-control (colloquially called willpower) whereas others are able to sustain it during challenging circumstances? Recent research showed that a person's implicit theories of willpower-whether they think self-control capacity is a limited or nonlimited resource-predict sustained self-control on laboratory tasks and on goal-related outcomes in everyday life. The present research tests the Implicit Theory of Willpower for Strenuous Mental Activities Scale (or ITW-M) Scale for measurement invariance across samples and gender within each culture, and two cultural contexts (the U...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Michael L Crowe, Elizabeth A Edershile, Aidan G C Wright, W Keith Campbell, Donald R Lynam, Joshua D Miller
There is an ongoing debate regarding the nature of narcissism such that some argue that narcissistic individuals oscillate between grandiose and vulnerable states, whereas others argue these dimensions are stable traits (e.g., grandiose individuals remain in grandiose states). Scales sensitive to fluctuations in narcissistic states are necessary to address this question. The current study (N = 1,613 across three samples) validates the newly developed Narcissistic Vulnerability Scale (NVS), a brief (11-item) adjective-based measure of vulnerable narcissism...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Dominique P Harrison, Werner G K Stritzke, Nicolas Fay, Abdul-Rahman Hudaib
Previous research suggests implicit cognition can predict suicidal behavior. This study examined the utility of the death/suicide implicit association test (d/s-IAT) in acute and prospective assessment of suicide risk and protective factors, relative to clinician and patient estimates of future suicide risk. Patients (N = 128; 79 female; 111 Caucasian) presenting to an emergency department were recruited if they reported current suicidal ideation or had been admitted because of an acute suicide attempt. Patients completed the d/s-IAT and self-report measures assessing three death-promoting (e...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Lauren M Schaefer, J Kevin Thompson
Appearance comparison processes are implicated in the development of body-image disturbance and disordered eating. The Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised (PACS-R) assesses the simple frequency of appearance comparisons; however, research has suggested that other aspects of appearance comparisons (e.g., comparison direction) may moderate the association between comparisons and their negative outcomes. In the current study, the PACS-R was revised to examine aspects of comparisons with relevance to body-image and eating outcomes...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Frederick G Lopez, Katherine Ramos, Mijin Kim
Attachment theory-guided studies of older adults have generally relied on self-report measures that were validated on young adult samples and that focus on fears of rejection by romantic partners and on experiences of chronic discomfort with romantic intimacy as the key indicators of adult attachment security. These assessment characteristics raise important questions as to whether these measures are appropriate for use with older adults. Unlike their younger adult counterparts, older adults may face distinctive life stage-related threats to their attachment security such as declining health and autonomy, spousal loss, and increased dependence on younger family members for instrumental and emotional support...
May 10, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Mark E Olver, James C Mundt, David Thornton, Sarah M Beggs Christofferson, Drew A Kingston, Justina N Sowden, Terry P Nicholaichuk, Audrey Gordon, Stephen C P Wong
The present study sought to develop updated risk categories and recidivism estimates for the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offense version (VRS-SO; Wong, Olver, Nicholaichuk, & Gordon, 2003-2017), a sexual offender risk assessment and treatment planning tool. The overarching purpose was to increase the clarity and accuracy of communicating risk assessment information that includes a systematic incorporation of new information (i.e., change) to modify risk estimates. Four treated samples of sexual offenders with VRS-SO pretreatment, posttreatment, and Static-99R ratings were combined with a minimum follow-up period of 10-years postrelease (N = 913)...
April 30, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Howard N Garb, James M Wood, Monty Baker
Screening for public safety positions (e.g., police officers, fire fighters, military service members) is a difficult and challenging task. Notably, the military has been widely criticized because of the general lack of an empirically based system or program for mental health screening. The purpose of the present study is to describe the use of statistical prediction rules for this task. Prediction rules were derived and validated using U.S. Air Force (USAF) recruits in basic military training (N = 50,322)...
April 30, 2018: Psychological Assessment
David A Cole, Sherryl H Goodman, Judy Garber, Katherine A Cullum, Sun-Joo Cho, Jason D Rights, Julia W Felton, Farrah M Jacquez, Katherine E Korelitz, Hannah F M Simon
Understanding parenting from both parent and child perspectives is critical to child clinical and developmental research. Similarities and differences between parents' and children's reports can be highly informative, but only if they derive from psychometrically sound measures that assess the same parenting constructs. We examined the psychometric properties of the child and parent forms of the Parenting Perception Inventory (Bruce et al., 2006), which measures perceptions of two higher-order dimensions: positive, warm, supportive parenting; and negative, harsh, critical parenting...
April 23, 2018: Psychological Assessment
John P Louis, Alex M Wood, George Lockwood, Moon-Ho Ringo Ho, Eamonn Ferguson
Negative schemas have been widely recognized as being linked to psychopathology and mental health, and they are central to the Schema Therapy (ST) model. This study is the first to report on the psychometric properties of the Young Positive Schema Questionnaire (YPSQ). In a combined community sample (Manila, Philippines, n = 559; Bangalore, India, n = 350; Singapore, n = 628), we identified a 56-item, 14-factor solution for the YPSQ. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis supported the 14-factor model using data from two other independent samples: an Eastern sample from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (n = 229) and a Western sample from the United States (n = 214)...
April 19, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Wenhui Yang, Ge Xiong, Luis Eduardo Garrido, John X Zhang, Meng-Cheng Wang, Chong Wang
We systematically examined the factor structure and criterion validity across the full scale and 10 short forms of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) with Chinese youth. Participants were 5,434 Chinese adolescents in Grades 7 to 12 who completed the full CES-D; 612 of them further completed a structured diagnostic interview with the major depressive disorder (MDD) module of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-age Children. Using a split-sample approach, a series of 4-, 3-, 2-, and 1-factor models were tested using exploratory structural equation modeling and cross-validated using confirmatory factor analysis; the dimensionality was also evaluated by parallel analysis in conjunction with the scree test and aided by factor mixture analysis...
April 16, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Paula Lopez-Gamundi, Margaret C Wardle
Research in animals suggests that decisions about physical versus cognitive effort have distinct neural bases, but exploration of this question in humans is hampered by lack of parallel measures of physical and cognitive effort for rewards. We developed a novel measure of willingness to exert cognitive effort for rewards, the C-EEfRT, paralleling the validated physical effort expenditure for rewards task (EEfRT). To validate the C-EEfRT we: (a) tested whether EEfRT and C-EEfRT tasks were equivalently difficult; (b) tested whether decisions on the EEfRT and C-EEfRT were equivalently responsive to changes in reward; (c) examined relationships between the C-EEfRT and anhedonia, intelligence, and working memory...
April 5, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Robert R McCrae
The magnitude of components of variance in trait scales-true score, method variance, and error-can be estimated from information on the mono-method correlations among personality traits within a domain and on cross-observer agreement on domains and facets. Estimates of these components in NEO Inventory facet scales were compared with prior estimates that were based on a consideration of internal consistency and retest reliability (McCrae, 2015). Together, results suggested that (a) about 40% of the variance in self-reports and single informant ratings is due to method variance; (b) as with substantive traits, method biases exist on several different levels, some broad, some narrow; and (c) consequently, a large number of distinct biases affect personality scale scores...
March 29, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Antonella Somma, Serena Borroni, Shannon E Kelley, John F Edens, Andrea Fossati
Response inconsistency represents a major component of careless responding. Keeley, J. W., Webb, Peterson, Roussin, and Flanagan (2016) proposed a measure of response inconsistency for the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5-VRIN). In order to evaluate the ability of the PID-5-VRIN scale to detect inconsistent responding, we examined 3 independent archival samples of Italian community-dwelling adolescents (N = 1,264), community-dwelling adults (N = 2,143), and clinical adults (N = 706) who were administered the PID-5...
March 22, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Brian TaeHyuk Keum, Matthew J Miller, Karen Kurotsuchi Inkelas
Today's college students are at increased risk for depression. Therefore, accurate and sustainable assessment of depressive symptoms among college students has become an important issue. One promising instrument for depression screening in college settings is the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), a 9-item self-report measure developed in primary care and designed to assess the presence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) symptom criteria for major depressive disorder. Although the PHQ-9 has been well validated in primary care settings, no studies have examined its factor structure for diverse college populations in the United States...
March 22, 2018: Psychological Assessment
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