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NMR in Biomedicine

Daniel Fovargue, David Nordsletten, Ralph Sinkus
Assessment of tissue stiffness is desirable for clinicians and researchers, as it is well established that pathophysiological mechanisms often alter the structural properties of tissue. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) provides an avenue for measuring tissue stiffness and has a long history of clinical application, including staging liver fibrosis and stratifying breast cancer malignancy. A vital component of MRE consists of the reconstruction algorithms used to derive stiffness from wave-motion images by solving inverse problems...
May 18, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Zaki Ahmed, Ives R Levesque
The reference region model (RRM) for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) provides pharmacokinetic parameters without requiring the arterial input function. A limitation of the RRM is that it assumes that the blood plasma volume in the tissue of interest is zero, but this is often not true in highly vascularized tissues, such as some tumours. This study proposes an extended reference region model (ERRM) to account for tissue plasma volume. Furthermore, ERRM was combined with a two-fit approach to reduce the number of fitting parameters, and this was named the constrained ERRM (CERRM)...
May 10, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Renuka Ranjan, Neeraj Sinha
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has emerged as an effective tool in various spheres of biomedical research, amongst which metabolomics is an important method for the study of various types of disease. Metabolomics has proved its stronghold in cancer research by the development of different NMR methods over time for the study of metabolites, thus identifying key players in the aetiology of cancer. A plethora of one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments (in solids, semi-solids and solution phases) are utilized to obtain metabolic profiles of biofluids, cell extracts and tissue biopsy samples, which can further be subjected to statistical analysis...
May 7, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Jens H Jensen, Joseph A Helpern
For large diffusion weightings, the direction-averaged diffusion MRI (dMRI) signal from white matter is typically dominated by the contribution of water confined to axons. This fact can be exploited to characterize intra-axonal diffusion properties, which may be valuable for interpreting the biophysical meaning of diffusion changes associated with pathology. However, using just the classic Stejskal-Tanner pulse sequence, it has proven challenging to obtain reliable estimates for both the intrinsic intra-axonal diffusivity and the intra-axonal water fraction...
May 4, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
P F Beauchemin, P V Bayly, J R Garbow, J L S Schmidt, R J Okamoto, F Chériet, D Périé
Aging and degeneration are associated with changes in mechanical properties in the intervertebral disc, generating interest in the establishment of mechanical properties as early biomarkers for the degenerative cascade. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) of the intervertebral disc is usually limited to the nucleus pulposus, as the annulus fibrosus is stiffer and less hydrated. The objective of this work was to adapt high-frequency needle MRE to the characterization of the shear modulus of both the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus...
May 4, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Charles Gasparovic, Hongji Chen, Paul G Mullins
Accurate measurement of brain metabolite concentrations with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) can be problematic because of large voxels with mixed tissue composition, requiring adjustment for differing relaxation rates in each tissue if absolute concentration estimates are desired. Adjusting for tissue-specific metabolite signal relaxation, however, also requires a knowledge of the relative concentrations of the metabolite in gray (GM) and white (WM) matter, which are not known a priori. Expressions for the estimation of the molality and molarity of brain metabolites with 1 H-MRS are extended to account for tissue-specific relaxation of the metabolite signals and examined under different assumptions with simulated and real data...
May 4, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Alexander Ciritsis, Andreas Boss, Cristina Rossi
The diffusion-weighted (DW) MR signal sampled over a wide range of b-values potentially allows for tissue differentiation in terms of cellularity, microstructure, perfusion, and T2 relaxivity. This study aimed to implement a machine learning algorithm for automatic brain tissue segmentation from DW-MRI datasets, and to determine the optimal sub-set of features for accurate segmentation. DWI was performed at 3 T in eight healthy volunteers using 15 b-values and 20 diffusion-encoding directions. The pixel-wise signal attenuation, as well as the trace and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the diffusion tensor, were used as features to train a support vector machine classifier for gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid classes...
April 26, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Till M Schneider, Armin M Nagel, Markus Zorn, Andreas Wetscherek, Martin Bendszus, Mark E Ladd, Sina Straub
Blood clotting is a fundamental biochemical process in post-hemorrhagic hemostasis. Although the varying appearance of coagulating blood in T1 - and T2 -weighted images is widely used to qualitatively determine bleeding age, the technique permits only a rough discrimination of coagulation stages, and it remains difficult to distinguish acute and chronic hemorrhagic stages because of low T1 - and T2 -weighted signal intensities in both instances. To investigate new biomedical parameters for magnetic resonance imaging-based characterization of blood clotting kinetics, sodium imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) were compared with conventional T1 - and T2 -weighted imaging, as well as with biochemical hemolysis parameters...
April 25, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Baiyan Jiang, Weitian Chen
Spin-lock MRI is a valuable diagnostic imaging technology, as it can be used to probe the macromolecule environment of tissues. Quantitative T1ρ imaging is one application of spin-lock MRI that is reported to be promising for a number of clinical applications. Spin-lock is often performed with a continuous RF wave at a constant RF amplitude either on resonance or off resonance. However, both on- and off-resonance spin-lock approaches are susceptible to B1 and B0 inhomogeneities, which results in image artifacts and quantification errors...
April 25, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Kristy Tan, Lauriane Jugé, Alice Hatt, Shaokoon Cheng, Lynne E Bilston
It is important to measure the large deformation properties of skeletal muscle in vivo in order to understand and model movement and the force-producing capabilities of muscle. As muscle properties are non-linear, an understanding of how the deformation state affects the measured shear moduli is also useful for clinical applications of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) to muscle disorders. MRE has so far only been used to measure the linear viscoelastic (small strain) properties of muscles. This study aims to measure the shear moduli of human calf muscles under varying degrees of strain using MRE...
April 19, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Josiah Simeth, Adam Johansson, Dawn Owen, Kyle Cuneo, Michelle Mierzwa, Mary Feng, Theodore S Lawrence, Yue Cao
Dynamic gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows the investigation of liver function through the observation of the perfusion and uptake of contrast agent in the parenchyma. Voxel-by-voxel quantification of the contrast uptake rate (k1 ) from dynamic gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI through the standard dual-input, two-compartment model could be susceptible to overfitting of variance in the data. The aim of this study was to develop a linearized, but more robust, model. To evaluate the estimated k1 values using this linearized analysis, high-temporal-resolution gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI scans were obtained in 13 examinations, and k1 maps were created using both models...
April 19, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
John C Nouls, Alexandra Badea, Robert B J Anderson, Gary P Cofer, G Allan Johnson
The correlation between brain connectivity and psychiatric or neurological diseases has intensified efforts to develop brain connectivity mapping techniques on mouse models of human disease. The neural architecture of mouse brain specimens can be shown non-destructively and three-dimensionally by diffusion tensor imaging, which enables tractography, the establishment of a connectivity matrix and connectomics. However, experiments on cohorts of animals can be prohibitively long. To improve throughput in a 7-T preclinical scanner, we present a novel two-coil system in which each coil is shielded, placed off-isocenter along the axis of the magnet and connected to a receiver circuit of the scanner...
April 19, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Steffen Goerke, Johannes Breitling, Moritz Zaiss, Johannes Windschuh, Patrick Kunz, Patrick Schuenke, Daniel Paech, Dario L Longo, Karel D Klika, Mark E Ladd, Peter Bachert
A novel MRI contrast is proposed which enables the selective detection of endogenous bulk mobile proteins in vivo. Such a non-invasive imaging technique may be of particular interest for many diseases associated with pathological alterations of protein expression, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Specificity to mobile proteins was achieved by the selective measurement of intramolecular spin diffusion and the removal of semi-solid macromolecular signal components by a correction procedure. For this purpose, the approach of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) was extended to a radiofrequency (RF) irradiation scheme at two different frequency offsets (dualCEST)...
April 19, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Guro F Giskeødegård, Torfinn S Madssen, Leslie R Euceda, May-Britt Tessem, Siver A Moestue, Tone F Bathen
This review describes the current status of NMR-based metabolomics of biofluids with respect to cancer risk assessment, detection, disease characterization, prognosis, and treatment monitoring. While the metabolism of cancer cells is altered compared with that of non-proliferating cells, the metabolome of blood and urine reflects the entire organism. We conclude that many studies show impressive associations between biofluid metabolomics and cancer progression, but translation to clinical practice is currently hindered by lack of validation, difficulties in biological interpretation, and non-standardized analytical procedures...
April 19, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Alfonso Mastropietro, Simone Porcelli, Marcello Cadioli, Letizia Rasica, Elisa Scalco, Simonetta Gerevini, Mauro Marzorati, Giovanna Rizzo
The main aim of this paper was to propose triggered intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging sequences for the evaluation of perfusion changes in calf muscles before, during and after isometric intermittent exercise. Twelve healthy volunteers were involved in the study. The subjects were asked to perform intermittent isometric plantar flexions inside the MRI bore. MRI of the calf muscles was performed on a 3.0 T scanner and diffusion-weighted (DW) images were obtained using eight different b values (0 to 500 s/mm2 )...
April 10, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Jack J Miller, Daniel R Ball, Angus Z Lau, Damian J Tyler
The aim of this work was to investigate the use of 13 C-labelled acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate as novel hyperpolarized substrates in the study of cardiac metabolism. [1-13 C]Acetoacetate was synthesized by catalysed hydrolysis, and both it and [1-13 C]β-hydroxybutyrate were hyperpolarized by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Their metabolism was studied in isolated, perfused rat hearts. Hyperpolarized [1-13 C]acetoacetate metabolism was also studied in the in vivo rat heart in the fed and fasted states...
April 10, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Yong Chen, Wei-Ching Lo, Jesse I Hamilton, Kestutis Barkauskas, Haris Saybasili, Katherine L Wright, Joshua Batesole, Mark A Griswold, Vikas Gulani, Nicole Seiberlich
The quantification of cardiac T1 relaxation time holds great potential for the detection of various cardiac diseases. However, as a result of both cardiac and respiratory motion, only one two-dimensional T1 map can be acquired in one breath-hold with most current techniques, which limits its application for whole heart evaluation in routine clinical practice. In this study, an electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered three-dimensional Look-Locker method was developed for cardiac T1 measurement. Fast three-dimensional data acquisition was achieved with a spoiled gradient-echo sequence in combination with a stack-of-spirals trajectory and through-time non-Cartesian generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (GRAPPA) acceleration...
April 10, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Christian Guenthner, Jurgen Henk Runge, Ralph Sinkus, Sebastian Kozerke
Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) utilizes phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is phase locked to externally generated mechanical vibrations, to measure the three-dimensional wave displacement field. At least four measurements with linear-independent encoding directions are necessary to correct for spurious phase contributions if effects from imaging gradients are non-negligible. In MRE, three encoding schemes have been used: unbalanced four- and six-point and balanced four-point ('tetrahedral') encoding...
March 30, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Jamie M Kawadler, Patrick W Hales, Simon Barker, Timothy C S Cox, Fenella J Kirkham, Chris A Clark
Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is associated with chronic anaemia and oxygen desaturation, which elevate cerebral blood flow (CBF) and increase the risk of neurocognitive complications. Arterial spin labelling (ASL) provides a methodology for measuring CBF non-invasively; however, ASL techniques using only a single inflow time are not sufficient to fully characterize abnormal haemodynamic behaviour in SCA. This study investigated haemodynamic parameters from a multi-inflow-time ASL acquisition in younger (8-12 years) and older (13-18 years) children with SCA with and without silent cerebral infarction (SCI+/-) (n = 20 and 19 respectively, 6 and 4 SCI+ respectively) and healthy controls (n = 9 and 7 respectively)...
March 30, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Dan Wu, Qiang Li, Frances J Northington, Jiangyang Zhang
Recent advances in diffusion MRI employ multiple diffusion encoding schemes with varying diffusion direction, weighting, and diffusion time to investigate specific microstructural properties in biological tissues. In this study, we examined time-dependent diffusion kurtosis contrast in adult mouse brains and in neonatal mouse brains after hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury. In vivo diffusion kurtosis maps were acquired with a short diffusion time using an oscillating gradient spin echo (OGSE) sequence at 100 Hz and with a relatively long diffusion time (20 ms) using a pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) sequence...
March 30, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
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