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Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691977/a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-relating-to-captive-great-ape-morbidity-and-mortality
#1
Victoria J Strong, Douglas Grindlay, Sharon Redrobe, Malcolm Cobb, Kate White
Wild bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus, Pongo abelii) are threatened with extinction. In order to help maintain a self-sustaining zoo population, clinicians require a sound understanding of the diseases with which they might be presented. To provide an up-to-date perspective on great ape morbidity and mortality, a systematic review of the zoological and veterinary literature of great apes from 1990 to 2014 was conducted...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691976/nephropathies-in-the-european-captive-cheetah-acinonyx-jubatus-population
#2
Angelika Url, Verena Krutak, Anna Kübber-Heiss, Sonja Chvala-Mannsberger, Nadia Robert, Nora Dinhopl, Peter Schmidt, Chris Walzer
According to previous studies in captive cheetah ( Acinonyx jubatus ) populations, one of the most threatening diseases besides amyloidosis, myelopathy, veno occlusive disease, and gastritis, is renal failure. Contrary to captive cheetahs in North America and South Africa, morphological data concerning renal lesions in the cheetah European Endangered Species Program (EEP) are lacking. This study details the histological characterization as well as immunohistochemical and morphometrical analysis of nephropathies in 35 captive cheetahs from the EEP, which were necropsied between 1985 and 2003...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691975/hepatic-osteodystrophy-in-a-golden-lion-tamarin-leontopithecus-rosalia
#3
Eunju Choi, Sara E Childs-Sanford, Noha Abou-Madi, Erin E King, Brian G Caserto, Heather Priest, Erica Behling-Kelly, Andrew D Miller
An 8-yr-old, captive, female golden lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus rosalia ) with a 6-yr history of hyperbilirubinemia was examined for inappetence and weight loss. Physical examination and blood pressure monitoring under anesthesia revealed hypothermia and hypotension, and blood work revealed hypoglycemia, markedly elevated liver enzymes, including serum alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, and confirmed the hyperbilirubinemia. A complete blood count suggested chronic lymphoid leukemia...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691974/establishment-of-a-fibrinogen-reference-interval-in-ornate-box-turtles-terrapene-ornata-ornata
#4
Lily Parkinson, Francisco Olea-Popelka, Eric Klaphake, Liza Dadone, Matthew Johnston
This study sought to establish a reference interval for fibrinogen in healthy ornate box turtles ( Terrapene ornata ornata). A total of 48 turtles were enrolled, with 42 turtles deemed to be noninflammatory and thus fitting the inclusion criteria and utilized to estimate a fibrinogen reference interval. Turtles were excluded based upon physical examination and blood work abnormalities. A Shapiro-Wilk normality test indicated that the noninflammatory turtle fibrinogen values were normally distributed (Gaussian distribution) with an average of 108 mg/dl and a 95% confidence interval of the mean of 97...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691973/xenotransfusion-in-an-island-fox-urocyon-littoralis-clementae-using-blood-from-a-domestic-dog-canis-lupus-familiaris
#5
Molly E Martony, Kristian J Krause, Scott H Weldy, Stephen A Simpson
Successful xenotransfusion in an island fox ( Urocyon littoralis clementae) has not been previously reported but may be necessary in an emergency. An 11-yr-old male, intact, captive island fox was exhibiting clinical signs of rattlesnake envenomation including hypoperfusion, tachypnea, facial edema, and multifocal facial and cervical ecchymosis. Blood work revealed severe thrombocytopenia (18 K/μl) and anemia (Hct 15.8%). A presumptive diagnosis of rattlesnake ( Crotalus sp.) envenomation was made. Initial treatment included oxygen therapy, fluid therapy, antibiotics, antacids, pain medications, and polyvalent crotalid anti-venom...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691972/surgical-correction-of-traumatic-patellar-luxation-in-an-eurasian-lynx-lynx-lynx
#6
V Devesa-Garcia, A Bañeres-De la Torre, M A Cabezas-Salamanca, N Lucas-Lucas, J Rodriguez-Quiros
The aim of this report is to describe the successful surgical repair of a traumatic medial patellar luxation in a 4-yr-old female Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx ). The animal presented with hind limb lameness. Physical and radiographic examinations were performed under sedation. After diagnosing a medial patellar luxation, surgical repair was recommended. A combination of soft tissue reconstructive techniques was used to repair the medial patellar luxation. The limb was not immobilized postoperatively, but the animal was confined to a cage for 1 mo...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691971/systemic-blastomycosis-in-a-captive-red-ruffed-lemur-varecia-rubra
#7
Michael F Rosser, Dana M Lindemann, Anne M Barger, Matthew C Allender, Shih-Hsuan Hsiao, Mark E Howes
A 5-yr-old, intact male red ruffed lemur ( Varecia rubra ) presented for evaluation as the result of a 1-wk history of lethargy and hyporexia. Physical examination findings included thin body condition, muffled heart sounds, harsh lung sounds, and liquid brown diarrhea. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry showed an inflammatory leukogram, mild hyponatremia, and mild hypochloremia. Orthogonal trunk radiographs revealed a severe alveolar pattern in the right cranial lung lobes with cardiac silhouette effacement...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691970/myositis-ossificans-traumatica-in-a-vampire-bat-desmodus-rotundus
#8
Jennifer C Hausmann, Jorden Manasse, Sarah Churgin, Howard Steinberg, Victoria L Clyde, Roberta Wallace
A 15-yr-old sexually intact female vampire bat ( Desmodus rotundus ) was diagnosed with myositis ossificans traumatica of the abdominal wall. The bat presented with a large ulcerated firm mass along the abdomen. Radiographs and cytology were performed, followed by surgical exploration. The mass was determined to be nonresectable and the bat was euthanized. Histopathology showed severe necrotizing, degenerative, and pyogranulomatous myositis with osseous and cartilaginous metaplasia, fibrosis, and ulceration, which were consistent with myositis ossificans traumatica...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691969/medical-management-of-recurrent-eosinophilic-granuloma-in-two-black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis
#9
Greg T Bishop, Jeffery R Zuba, Allan P Pessier, Jane Hopper, Gloria Kendall, Rod A W Rosychuk, K Gary Magdesian
Recurrent eosinophilic granuloma (EG) in two captive eastern black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis michaeli) was effectively managed with glucocorticoids and antihistamines. The first case was a female and the second case was a male. The animals were housed at separate institutions and initially presented with hemorrhagic oral lesions. Multifocal lesions occurred in the second case. Multiple biopsies were taken from each animal, all of which were consistent with EG. Each animal was anesthetized multiple times for surgical treatment but experienced frequent recurrence...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691968/effects-of-exercise-on-the-plasma-lipid-profile-in-hispaniolan-amazon-parrots-amazona-ventralis-with-naturally-occurring-hypercholesterolemia
#10
Kate A Gustavsen, Kimber L Stanhope, Amy S Lin, James L Graham, Peter J Havel, Joanne R Paul-Murphy
Hypercholesterolemia is common in psittacines, and Amazon parrots ( Amazona spp.) are particularly susceptible. Associations have been demonstrated between naturally occurring and experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in psittacines. Daily exercise improves lipid metabolism in humans and other mammals, as well as pigeons and chickens, under varying experimental conditions. Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) with naturally occurring hypercholesterolemia (343-576 mg/dl) were divided into two groups...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691967/isoniazid-and-rifampin-pharmacokinetics-in-two-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus-infected-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
Eric F Egelund, Ramiro Isaza, Abdullah Alsultan, Charles A Peloquin
This report describes the pharmacokinetic profiles of chronically administered oral isoniazid and rifampin in one adult male and one adult female Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus ) that were asymptomatically infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Rifampin's half-life was reduced when compared to previous single-dose pharmacokinetic profiles of healthy uninfected Asian elephants. Both elephants experienced delayed absorption of isoniazid and rifampin as compared to previous pharmacokinetic studies in this species...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691966/investigation-on-cryptosporidium-infections-in-wild-animals-in-a-zoo-in-anhui-province
#12
Youfang Gu, Xiaolong Wang, Cefan Zhou, Peiying Li, Qianming Xu, Changcheng Zhao, Wei Liu, Wenlong Xu
To assess Cryptosporidium infections among wild animals in a zoo located in Anhui province, we conducted an investigation on the fecal samples collected from 44 primates, 41 herbivores, 44 carnivores and omnivores, and 103 birds in the zoo with the use of Sheather's sugar flotation technique and modified acid-fast staining. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in the fecal samples from six primates, two herbivores, four carnivores and omnivores, and seven birds by using Sheather's sugar flotation technique; the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in primates, herbivores, carnivores and omnivores and birds was 13...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691965/anesthesia-in-a-captive-juvenile-black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-computed-tomography
#13
Cameron Ratliff, Rebecca S Sayre, Mauricio Lepiz
A hand-reared, 53-kg, female, 30-day-old black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis ) calf presented for magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography after demonstrating neurologic signs. The rhino was premedicated intramuscularly with butorphanol and midazolam, yielding satisfactory sedation. Induction was achieved using intravenous propofol until the trachea could be intubated. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane in 100% oxygen (mean end-tidal concentration of 2 ± 0.5%). Mean values recorded during anesthesia included were heart rate, end-tidal carbon dioxide, respiratory rate, noninvasive blood pressure, and pulse oximetry...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691964/clinical-challenge
#14
Michael A Linden, Sarah A Williams, Colleen Forster, Paula Croonquist, Jennifer Braido, Scott Danneman, Mark Beckel, Margaret Callahan, Davis Seelig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691963/evaluation-of-potential-risk-factors-associated-with-cataract-in-captive-macaroni-eudyptes-chrysolophus-and-rockhopper-penguins-eudyptes-chrysocome
#15
Sarah J Woodhouse, Edward L Peterson, Todd Schmitt
Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed on 160 Macaroni penguins ( Eudyptes chrysolophus ) and 90 Rockhopper penguins ( Eudyptes chrysocome ) at eight North American zoological institutions. Cataract prevalence in the Macaroni population was 46.5% (n = 74) of penguins and 42.3% (135/319) of eyes. Cataract prevalence in the Rockhopper population was 45.5% (n = 40) of penguins and 40.6% (73/180) of eyes. The mean age of Macaroni penguins without ocular disease was 7.4 ± 5.8 yr, while that of Rockhoppers was 9...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691962/cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-a-panther-chameleon-furcifer-pardalis-and-treatment-with-carboplatin-implantable-beads
#16
James G Johnson, Lisa M Naples, Caroline Chu, Michael J Kinsel, Jennifer E Flower, William G Van Bonn
A 3-yr-old male panther chameleon (Furcifer pardalis) presented with bilateral raised crusted skin lesions along the lateral body wall that were found to be carcinoma in situ and squamous cell carcinoma. Similar lesions later developed on the caudal body wall and tail. A subcutaneous implantable carboplatin bead was placed in the first squamous cell carcinoma lesion identified. Additional new lesions sampled were also found to be squamous cell carcinomas, and viral polymerase chain reaction was negative for papillomaviruses and herpesviruses...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691961/congenital-cleft-palate-and-cardiac-septal-defects-in-a-neonatal-southern-black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis-minor
#17
Stephany Lewis, Mary Duncan, Marlys L Houck, Rebecca Bloch, Holly Haefele
A female Southern black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis minor) calf died unexpectedly at less than 12 hr of age, after an uncomplicated birth and uneventful early postpartum period. Gross necropsy revealed a 15-cm full thickness cleft palate, a patent foramen ovale, and four septal defects ranging from 0.3 to 1 cm in diameter. Histologic findings did not reveal any significant abnormalities. Karyotyping did not indicate any significant numerical or structural chromosomal abnormalities.
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691960/evaluation-of-serum-ferritin-and-serum-iron-in-free-ranging-black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis-as-a-tool-to-understand-factors-affecting-iron-overload-disorder
#18
Michele Miller, Patricia Sue Chavey, Jennifer Hofmeyr, Nomkhosi Mathebula, Alyssa Doering, Peter Buss, Francisco Olea-Popelka
Iron overload disorder (IOD) is a significant health issue for captive black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis ). Measurement of serum ferritin with a validated rhinoceros ferritin ELISA has been used extensively to detect animals in U.S. zoos that are at risk of developing IOD. However, there is limited information on serum ferritin levels in free-ranging black rhinoceros using this same assay. Serum ferritin, iron, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were determined in 194 black rhinoceros from southern Africa...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691959/treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-a-golden-lion-tamarin-leontopithecus-rosalia-with-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-mimetic-exenatide
#19
James G Johnson, Jennifer N Langan, Chen Gilor
An 8-yr-old male golden lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus rosalia ) was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus based on hyperglycemia and persistent glycosuria. Initial treatment consisted of the oral antihyperglycemic medications glipizide and metformin that resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations; however, marked glycosuria persisted. Insufficient improvement on oral antihyperglycemic therapy and poor feasibility of daily subcutaneous insulin therapy led to an investigation into an alternative therapy with extended-release exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetic, at a dosage of 0...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691958/retrospective-analysis-of-adult-onset-cardiac-disease-in-fran%C3%A3-ois-langurs-trachypithecus-francoisi-housed-in-u-s-zoos
#20
John A Flanders, Dana A Buoscio, Bonnie A Jacobs, Kathryn C Gamble
Cardiac disease is a common condition in captive primates, and multiple cases in François' langurs ( Trachypithecus francoisi ) were noted on review of the Species Survival Plan studbook. To determine the prevalence of cardiac disease in this species, surveys were distributed to current and previous holding institutions (n = 23) for the U.S. studbook population (n = 216). After exclusion of stillbirths (n = 48), animals less than 1 yr of age (n = 8), and animals housed internationally (n = 2), a study group (n = 158) was identified for this analysis...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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