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Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212358/artificial-ultraviolet-b-radiation-raises-plasma-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-3-concentrations-in-burmese-pythons-python-bivittatus
#1
Jan H Bos, Fokko C Klip, Dennis G A B Oonincx
Deficiency of vitamin D can contribute to health complications that present as metabolic bone disease. The aim of this small-scale study was to determine if a high UVb irradiance would affect an increase in plasma vitamin D3 concentrations in Burmese pythons ( Python bivittatus). There have been inconsistent results throughout the literature concerning the usefulness of UVb radiation regarding vitamin D3 synthesis. Blood samples of four healthy Burmese pythons were taken at day 0 and day 310. After the first blood sample was taken, an Arcadia Superzoo T5 ASZ01 lamp was fitted in the enclosure...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212357/retrospective-analysis-and-validation-of-serum-symmetric-dimethylarginine-sdma-concentrations-in-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus
#2
Lynnette Waugh, Shane Lyon, Gretchen A Cole, Jennifer D'Agostino, Julie Cross, Marilyn Strong-Townsend, Maha Yerramilli, Jun Li, Andrei Rakitin, Sean Hardy, João Brandão
Kidney disease is common among captive cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus). Serum creatinine is the most common measurement to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) because of the ease of its clinical use, but it is a crude estimate that only increases after significant disease is already present and is affected by extrarenal factors. Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) is a renal biomarker in humans, dogs, and cats that correlates with serum creatinine and GFR and appears to be an earlier and more specific biomarker for kidney disease...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212356/pharmacokinetics-of-oral-gabapentin-in-caribbean-flamingos-phoenicopterus-ruber-ruber
#3
Geoffrey R Browning, James W Carpenter, Geraldine C Magnin, Butch KuKanich
Gabapentin is a first-line treatment for neuropathic pain and adjunct anticonvulsant medication in humans and other species. Gabapentin may have advantages over other analgesics because of its broad therapeutic range with limited adverse effects and wide availability as an oral formulation. This study determined the pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in Caribbean flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ruber) after a single-dose oral administration of either 15 mg/kg ( n = 6) or 25 mg/kg ( n = 6). Plasma gabapentin concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using noncompartmental methods...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212355/effects-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-antagonist-degarelix-on-musth-and-serum-testosterone-concentrations-in-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus
#4
Indunil N Pathirana, Chandana Rajapaksa, Noritoshi Kawate, Anuradha Wimalarathne, Lakshitha Fonseka, Priyangika Nilmini Weerakoon, Minhaj A Hannan, Basil Alexander, Anil Pushpakumara, Siril Ariyaratne, Hiromichi Tamada
Two male Asian elephants (bulls 1 and 2) in musth were subcutaneously injected with a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist, degarelix acetate (240 μg/kg; total dose of 960 mg). Musth behavior (MB) and temporal gland secretions (TGS) were monitored and serum testosterone concentrations were determined. In bull 1, MB and TGS ceased on day 1 and reappeared 5.5 mo after the treatment (day 0). During the subsequent musth cycle, MB and TGS ceased on day 1 and did not appear for 4 mo. In bull 2, MB and TGS ceased at day 7 after the treatment...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212354/reproductive-hormone-patterns-in-male-and-female-cownose-rays-rhinoptera-bonasus-in-an-aquarium-setting-and-correlation-to-ultrasonographic-staging
#5
Julie D Sheldon, Matthew C Allender, Robert H George, Frank Bulman, Kim Abney
Reproductive management of cownose rays ( Rhinoptera bonasus) under professional care plays an important role in conservation of the species, but hormone and ultrasonographic analyses of their 12-mo reproductive cycle have not been documented previously. Plasma reproductive hormone concentrations (17B-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and androstenedione) were measured monthly via radioimmunoassay for 1 yr in an aquarium-managed population of adult females ( n = 15) and males ( n = 5). Ultrasounds of the uterus were performed each month at the time of sample collection to identify gestation stage (0-5) based on a previously developed in-house staging system...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212353/evaluation-of-the-ophthalmic-disease-and-histopathologic-effects-due-to-the-ocular-trematode-philophthalmus-zalophi-on-juvenile-galapagos-sea-lions-zalophus-wollebaeki
#6
Brianne E Phillips, Diego Páez-Rosas, James R Flowers, John M Cullen, Jerry M Law, Carmen Colitz, Diane Deresienski, Kenneth J Lohmann, Gregory A Lewbart
The Galapagos sea lion ( Zalophus wollebaeki) is an otariid species endemic to the Galapagos archipelago and is currently listed as endangered. The ocular trematode Philophthalmus zalophi was recently reported to affect the survival of juvenile Galapagos sea lions on Santa Cruz Island, resulting in marked ophthalmic changes. This study evaluated the ophthalmic disease and histopathologic effects of P. zalophi on juvenile Galapagos sea lions in the largest rookery located on San Cristóbal Island. Twenty juvenile Galapagos sea lions (10 male and 10 female) were evaluated among five sites in the rookery El Malecón...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212352/review-of-mortality-and-effectiveness-of-neonatal-treatment-in-captive-attwater-s-prairie-chickens-tympanuchus-cupido-attwateri
#7
Lauren Mulreany, Joseph Flanagan, Christine Molter, Lauren Howard, Maryanne Tocidlowski, Stephen Werre, Stanley Vanhooser, Michael Morrow
A retrospective study of mortality and neonatal treatment for 975 Attwater's prairie chickens ( Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) was conducted from 2009-2015. Gross necropsy, histopathology, and medical records for chicks less than 8 wk of age at the Houston Zoo were reviewed and summarized. The total mortality rate was 36% ( n = 352). Yolk sac infection was the most common cause of death (21%; n = 73) followed by maladaptation (19%; n = 68), musculoskeletal abnormalities (19%; n = 66), necrotic enteritis (13%; n = 44), and mucoid enteritis (11%; n = 39)...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212351/squamous-cell-carcinomas-with-pulmonary-metastasis-and-endocardiosis-in-the-siberian-chipmunk-eutamias-sibiricus-two-necropsy-cases
#8
Hirotaka Kondo, Sou Mitani, Shinichi Suzuki, Hisashi Shibuya
Reports of neoplastic diseases in the Siberian chipmunk ( Eutamias sibiricus) are limited. The authors describe herein two necropsy cases of Siberian chipmunks with squamous cell carcinoma; both of which showed self-biting behaviors on presentation to the clinician. In both cases, the neoplasms comprised trabeculae and islands of polyhedral cells, supported by moderate amounts of fibrous stroma. Anisocytosis and anisokaryosis were moderate to prominent. Neoplastic cells were occasionally keratinized, with a keratin pearl formation...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212350/plasma-concentrations-of-vitamin-a-1-b-1-d-3-and-e-in-humboldt-penguins-spheniscus-humboldti-before-and-after-dietary-vitamin-supplementation-of-their-fish-diet
#9
Jan H Bos, Fokko C Klip, Marja J L Kik
In a practical feeding trial at Ouwehand Zoo, plasma concentrations of vitamin A1 , calcidiol (D3 ), α-tocopherol (E), and B1 in 17 Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti) were measured before and after supplementation to gain insight into the effect of supplementing these vitamins in animals being fed thawed frozen-fish diets. None of the penguins received vitamin supplements for at least 6 mo before the supplementation trial, which was conducted prior to their normal nesting and molting period. During the trial period, eight penguins received daily vitamin A1 , D3 , tocopheryl acetate, and B1 supplementation placed in their fish immediately prior to feeding and nine control penguins received no supplementation...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212348/anatomy-histology-and-diagnostic-imaging-of-the-reproductive-tract-of-male-aardvark-orycteropus-afer
#10
Kimberlee B Wojick, Jennifer N Langan, Karen A Terio, Alison Righton, Randi Drees
The reproductive tracts of three captive male aardvark ( Orycteropus afer) were evaluated to characterize the gross and histological anatomy, with correlations to ultrasonographic and computed tomographic imaging. Observations were made from a reproductive tract examined at necropsy, with subsequent evaluation of tissues histologically. Two living specimens were evaluated via ultrasonography with a 10-MHz linear transducer. One living animal was also evaluated via computed tomography. Prominent external scent glands were present at the base of the prepuce...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212347/aazv-publications-available
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212346/diagnostic-performance-of-inflammatory-markers-in-gopher-tortoises-gopherus-polyphemus
#12
Justin F Rosenberg, Jorge A Hernandez, James F X Wellehan, Sarah E Crevasse, Carolyn Cray, Nicole I Stacy
The lack of sensitive and specific markers of inflammation poses a diagnostic challenge in sick or injured reptile patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of blood analytes associated with inflammation in healthy ( n = 24) and sick ( n = 38) gopher tortoises ( Gopherus polyphemus). Receiver operating characteristic analysis identified the following as the best-performing diagnostic tests: erythrocyte sedimentation rate (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.812; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212345/comparison-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-medetomidine-ketamine-versus-medetomidine-azaperone-alfaxalone-combination-in-free-ranging-rocky-mountain-bighorn-sheep-ovis-canadensis
#13
Maggie Williams, Nigel Caulkett, Peter Neuhaus, Kathreen Ruckstuhl, Soren Boysen, Åsa Fahlman
Chemical immobilization is a key aspect of wildlife management. To minimize dose-dependent adverse effects, immobilization protocols often include two or more synergistic agents, which allows for reductions in individual drug dosages. Free-ranging bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis) in Canada ( n = 74) were remotely injected with a combination of medetomidine (0.16 ± 0.04 mg/kg) and ketamine (4.0 ± 1.4 mg/kg) (MK), or combination of medetomidine (0.14 ± 0.06 mg/kg), azaperone (0.21 ± 0.11 mg/kg), and alfaxalone (0...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212344/inhalant-anesthetic-recovery-following-intramuscular-epinephrine-in-the-loggerhead-sea-turtle-caretta-caretta
#14
Julie A Balko, Bonnie J Gatson, Eli B Cohen, Emily H Griffith, Craig A Harms, Kate M Bailey
Prolonged anesthetic recovery time is a common complication of chelonian inhalant anesthesia and may be exacerbated by right-to-left intracardiac shunting of blood. Epinephrine may decrease intracardiac shunting, which may shorten anesthetic recovery time. The study objective was to assess inhalant anesthetic recovery time following intramuscular epinephrine compared with saline in the loggerhead sea turtle ( Caretta caretta). With the use of a prospective, randomized, blinded, crossover design with a 1-wk washout period, six turtles were anesthetized with intravenous (IV) alfaxalone 3 mg/kg, orotracheally intubated, manually ventilated with 3...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212343/comparison-of-a-smartphone-based-electrocardiogram-device-with-a-standard-six-lead-electrocardiogram-in-the-atlantic-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus
#15
Taylor J Yaw, Marc S Kraus, Allison Ginsburg, Leigh A Clayton, Catherine A Hadfield, Anna R Gelzer
A bipolar, single-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) device is capable of recording ECGs with an integrated smartphone application. To determine the utility of this device, phone-based ECGs (pECG) were compared with standard six-lead ECGs (sECG) in four female Atlantic bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus) at the National Aquarium. Study animals were trained to haul out onto a dry deck in ventral recumbency and allow simultaneous 30-sec ECG acquisition using the two devices. The pECG device was held against the thoracic wall caudal to the left axilla...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212342/antemortem-diagnosis-and-successful-treatment-of-a-complete-molar-pregnancy-in-a-geriatric-bonobo-pan-paniscus
#16
Meredith E Persky, Yousuf S Jafarey, Tracy A Moegenburg, Annette Laubscher, Michael J Lasser, Victoria L Clyde, Michael M Garner
A 47-yr-old multiparous female bonobo ( Pan paniscus) tested positive for pregnancy on a routine urine test. Because this geriatric animal was considered postreproductive, oral contraception had been discontinued. Sequential transabdominal ultrasound evaluations were performed under voluntary behavior and revealed that the uterus contained a mass of heterogenous tissue which was rapidly increasing in size. Due to a lack of normal fetal development and the ultrasonographic appearance of the uterine tissue, a molar pregnancy was suspected...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212341/mammary-fibroadenomatous-hyperplasia-in-a-juvenile-california-sea-lion-zalophus-californianus
#17
Todd L Schmitt, Judy St Leger
A juvenile female California sea lion ( Zalophus californianus) presented with a firm subcutaneous mass in the right caudoventral pelvic region, measuring approximately 15 × 15 cm, and edema in the right hind flipper. The initial diagnostic workup included an ultrasound, blood analysis, and fine-needle aspirate of the mass under manual restraint. While the blood analysis was within normal limits, the ultrasound revealed a large discrete hyperechoic homogeneous mass with anastomosing hypoechoic fluid pockets that, when aspirated, was suggestive of a reactive lymph node...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212340/serum-cobalamin-and-folate-concentrations-as-indicators-of-gastrointestinal-disease-in-killer-whales-orcinus-orca
#18
Karisa N Tang, Hendrik H Nollens, Todd R Robeck, Todd L Schmitt
Cobalamin and folate are water-soluble vitamins that are useful indicators of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) function in humans and some animal species. Serum cobalamin and folate concentrations in an ex situ population of killer whales ( Orcinus orca) were measured and factors that may affect their serum concentrations were identified. Serum samples ( n = 104) were analyzed from killer whales ( n = 10) both while clinically healthy and during periods of clinical GI disease as defined by clinical signs and fecal cytology...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212339/neospora-caninum-specific-antibodies-in-free-ranging-white-lipped-peccaries-tayassu-pecari-from-the-peruvian-amazon-detection-of-antibodies-in-serum-and-evaluation-of-indirect-fluorescent-antibody-test-with-heterologous-secondary-antibody
#19
Marcos Gomes Lopes, Monica Romero Solorio, Herbert Sousa Soares, Gereon Schares, Alfonso Zúñiga Hartley, Paloma Alcázar, Fernando Ferreira, Maria Cecilia Gibral Oliveira Camargo, Fabio Gregori, Solange Maria Gennari
Neospora caninum is a coccidian parasite originally reported in dogs and widely prevalent in numerous species of wild and domestic animals and has as definitive hosts some species of canids. The white-lipped peccary (WLP) ( Tayassu pecari) is a Tayassuidae mammal, found from Mexico to south of Brazil and north of Argentina. It is a game species with great economic importance in the Peruvian Amazon. Blood samples from 101 WLPs were collected from near or within three different conservation reserves located in the southeastern region of the Peruvian Amazon...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212338/risk-analysis-changing-the-quarantine-paradigm
#20
Geoffrey W Pye, Michael J Adkesson, Amanda Guthrie, Leigh A Clayton, Donald L Janssen
As modern zoos evolved from menageries, quarantine practices were developed to protect animal collections from the introduction of diseases that might arrive with new animals from wild populations and, more recently, from other managed populations. As the understanding of, and ability to diagnose, diseases grew tremendously in recent decades, quarantine protocols became more stringent and standardized as the tolerance for disease introduction decreased. These practices resulted in healthier animal collections, and the introduction of transmissible pathogens of concern became rarer...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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