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American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923288/social-genomics-of-healthy-and-disordered-internet-gaming
#1
Jeffrey G Snodgrass, H J François Dengah Ii, Michael G Lacy, Robert J Else, Evan R Polzer, Jesusa M G Arevalo, Steven W Cole
OBJECTIVES: To combine social genomics with cultural approaches to expand understandings of the somatic health dynamics of online gaming, including in the controversial nosological construct of internet gaming disorder (IGD). METHODS: In blood samples from 56 U.S. gamers, we examined expression of the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA), a leukocyte gene expression profile activated by chronic stress. We compared positively engaged and problem gamers, as identified by an ethnographically developed measure, the Positive and Negative Gaming Experiences Scale (PNGE-42), and also by a clinically derived IGD scale (IGDS-SF9)...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752749/preliminary-evidence-that-androgen-signaling-is-correlated-with-men-s-everyday-language
#2
Jennifer S Mascaro, Kelly E Rentscher, Patrick D Hackett, Adriana Lori, Alana Darcher, James K Rilling, Matthias R Mehl
OBJECTIVES: Testosterone (T) has an integral, albeit complex, relationship with social behavior, especially in the domains of aggression and competition. However, examining this relationship in humans is challenging given the often covert and subtle nature of human aggression and status-seeking. The present study aimed to investigate whether T levels and genetic polymorphisms in the AR gene are associated with social behavior assessed via natural language use. METHODS: We used unobtrusive, behavioral, real-world ambulatory assessments of men in partnered heterosexual relationships to examine the relationship between plasma T levels, variation in the androgen receptor (AR) gene, and spontaneous, everyday language in three interpersonal contexts: with romantic partners, with co-workers, and with their children...
May 11, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752748/epstein-barr-virus-antibody-titer-as-a-stress-biomarker-and-its-association-with-social-capital-in-rural-fujian-communities-china
#3
Aki Yazawa, Yosuke Inoue, Guoxi Cai, Raoping Tu, Meng Huang, Fei He, Jie Chen, Taro Yamamoto, Chiho Watanabe
OBJECTIVES: There has been little research on the association between social capital and psychological stress measured by a biomarker, particularly in developing countries. Our objective was to investigate the association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody titer, an indicator of cellular immune function previously shown to be associated with psychological stress, and social capital among rural community dwellers in Fujian Province, China. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in seven rural communities in Fujian in 2015...
May 11, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744957/mitochondrial-lineage-a2ah-found-in-a-pre-hispanic-individual-from-the-andean-region
#4
M G Russo, C B Dejean, S A Avena, V Seldes, P Ramundo
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of pre-Hispanic Andean mitochondrial diversity by analyzing an individual from the archaeological site Pukara de La Cueva (North-western Argentina). The date of the discovery context (540 ± 60 BP) corresponds to the Regional Developments II period. METHODS: Two separate DNA extractions were performed from dentin powder of one tooth. HVR I was amplified by PCR from each extract in three overlapping fragments and the haplotype was determined by consensus among all obtained sequences...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744967/measuring-digit-lengths-with-3d-digital-stereophotogrammetry-a-comparison-across-methods
#5
Allison Gremba, Seth M Weinberg
OBJECTIVES: We compared digital 3D stereophotogrammetry to more traditional measurement methods (direct anthropometry and 2D scanning) to capture digit lengths and ratios. METHODS: The length of the second and fourth digits was measured by each method and the second-to-fourth ratio was calculated. For each digit measurement, intraobserver agreement was calculated for each of the three collection methods. Further, measurements from the three methods were compared directly to one another...
May 9, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722093/geophagic-earths-consumed-by-women-in-western-kenya-contain-dangerous-levels-of-lead-arsenic-and-iron
#6
Joshua D Miller, Shalean M Collins, Moshood Omotayo, Stephanie L Martin, Katherine L Dickin, Sera L Young
OBJECTIVES: Geophagy is commonly reported by pregnant women and children, yet its causes and consequences remain poorly understood. Therefore, we sought to determine if geophagy could contribute micronutrients and/or be a source of heavy metal exposure by examining the elemental composition of earths consumed in Kakamega, Kenya. METHODS: Ten samples of earths commonly consumed during pregnancy were collected by study enumerators and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702739/midfacial-growth-patterns-in-males-from-newborn-to-5-years-old-based-on-computed-tomography
#7
Andrej Evteev, Anatoliy Anikin, Leonid Satanin
OBJECTIVES: Growth patterns of the human facial skeleton have been of great interest and importance for biological anthropologists, forensic scientists, craniofacial surgeons, and orthopedists. Nevertheless, growth trends of the facial skeleton in infancy and early childhood are still poorly known and clinical CT data have been insufficiently used for studying craniofacial ontogeny. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive quantitative description of human midfacial ontogeny in infancy and early childhood, and to contribute to debates regarding the role of modularity vs...
April 27, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700885/social-networks-cooperative-breeding-and-the-human-milk-microbiome
#8
Courtney L Meehan, Kimberly A Lackey, Edward H Hagen, Janet E Williams, Jennifer Roulette, Courtney Helfrecht, Mark A McGuire, Michelle K McGuire
OBJECTIVES: We present the first available data on the human milk microbiome (HMM) from small-scale societies (hunter-gatherers and horticulturalists in the Central African Republic [CAR]) and explore relationships among subsistence type and seasonality on HMM diversity and composition. Additionally, as humans are cooperative breeders and, throughout our evolutionary history and today, we rear offspring within social networks, we examine associations between the social environment and the HMM...
April 26, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672992/life-in-the-fast-lane-settled-pastoralism-in-the-central-eurasian-steppe-during-the-middle-bronze-age
#9
Margaret A Judd, Jessica L Walker, Alicia Ventresca Miller, Dmitry Razhev, Andrey V Epimakhov, Bryan K Hanks
OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that the purported unstable climate in the South Urals region during the Middle Bronze Age (MBA) resulted in health instability and social stress as evidenced by skeletal response. METHODS: The skeletal sample (n = 99) derived from Kamennyi Ambar 5 (KA-5), a MBA kurgan cemetery (2040-1730 cal. BCE, 2 sigma) associated with the Sintashta culture. Skeletal stress indicators assessed included cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, dental enamel hypoplasia, and tibia periosteal new bone growth...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663637/reproductive-health-obesity-and-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-among-samoan-women
#10
H Maredia, N L Hawley, G Lambert-Messerlian, U Fidow, M S Reupena, T Naseri, S T McGarvey
OBJECTIVES: Obesity leads to deleterious effects on not only cardiovascular health but also on the reproductive health of women. We estimate the prevalence of menstrual irregularity and of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in Samoan women, among whom obesity prevalence is extremely high. We explore the association of these reproductive health conditions with adiposity, cardiometabolic risk factors, and androgen levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of Samoan women 25-39 years of age (n = 470) from a larger population-based genome-wide association study of adiposity and cardiometabolic disease was assessed for the prevalence of oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (OM/AM) using a self-reported questionnaire...
May 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476567/estimating-impacts-of-the-nuclear-family-and-heritability-of-nutritional-outcomes-in-a-boat-dwelling-community
#11
Kathrine E Starkweather, Monica H Keith
OBJECTIVES: General health status is reflected in measures of height, weight, and BMI. Assessing sources of variation in these outcomes reveals population-specific variables of importance to health and nutrition. We characterize the impacts of socioeconomic variables related to the nuclear family on health outcomes of boat-dwelling Shodagor children, mothers, and fathers, and to estimate the proportion of variation in height, weight, and BMI influenced by both genetic variation and nongenetic variation among household environments...
May 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457307/iron-and-infection-an-investigation-of-the-optimal-iron-hypothesis-in-lima-peru
#12
Achsah F Dorsey, Amanda L Thompson, Ronald E Kleinman, Christopher P Duggan, Mary E Penny
OBJECTIVES: This article explores the optimal iron hypothesis through secondary data analysis of the association between hemoglobin levels and morbidity among children living in Canto Grande, a peri-urban community located on the outskirts of Lima, Peru. METHODS: Risk ratios were used to test whether lower iron status, assessed using the HemoCue B-Hemoglobin System, was associated with an increased relative risk of morbidity symptoms compared to iron replete status, controlling for infant age, sex, weight for height z-score, maternal education, and repeated measures in 515 infants aged 6-12 months...
May 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417657/digit-ratio-2d-4d-in-chinese-women-with-gastric-cancer
#13
Lu Wang, Hong Lu, Ke-Ke Li, Chun-Yue Bai, Zhan-Bing Ma
OBJECTIVES: Digit ratio, especially the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), is a proxy indicator for prenatal exposure and sensitivity to sexual hormones which may influence the susceptibility to certain cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is a possible association between 2D:4D and gastric cancer (GCA) in north Chinese women. METHODS: Photographs of the left and right hands of 167 women (controls: 113; patients: 54) were collected...
May 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411454/sex-specific-patterns-in-cortical-and-trabecular-bone-microstructure-in-the-kirsten-skeletal-collection-south-africa
#14
Amy C Beresheim, Susan K Pfeiffer, Marc D Grynpas, Amanda Alblas
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to provide bone histomorphometric reference data for South Africans of the Western Cape who likely dealt with health issues under the apartheid regime. METHODS: The 206 adult individuals (n female = 75, n male = 131, mean = 47.9 ± 15.8 years) from the Kirsten Skeletal Collection, U. Stellenbosch, lived in the Cape Town metropole from the late 1960s to the mid-1990s. To study age-related changes in cortical and trabecular bone microstructure, photomontages of mid-thoracic rib cross-sections were quantitatively examined...
May 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399912/dental-enamel-defects-predict-adolescent-health-indicators-a-cohort-study-among-the-tsimane-of-bolivia
#15
Erin E Masterson, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Daniel A Enquobahrie, Lloyd A Mancl, Dan T A Eisenberg, Esther Conde, Philippe P Hujoel
OBJECTIVES: Bioarchaeological findings have linked defective enamel formation in preadulthood with adult mortality. We investigated how defective enamel formation in infancy and childhood is associated with risk factors for adult morbidity and mortality in adolescents. METHODS: This cohort study of 349 Amerindian adolescents (10-17 years of age) related extent of enamel defects on the central maxillary incisors (none, less than 1/3, 1/3 to 2/3, more than 2/3) to adolescent anthropometrics (height, weight) and biomarkers (hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, white blood cell count, and blood pressure)...
May 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388286/evaluation-of-childhood-nutrition-by-dietary-survey-and-stable-isotope-analyses-of-hair-and-breath
#16
Luciano O Valenzuela, Shannon P O'Grady, Lindsey E Enright, Maureen Murtaugh, Carol Sweeney, James R Ehleringer
OBJECTIVES: The natural abundances of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur stable isotopes in hair, and of carbon isotopes in breath serve as quantitative biomarkers of protein and carbohydrate sources, but applicability of isotopes for evaluating children's diet has not been demonstrated. In this study, we sought to describe the stable isotope patterns observed in the hair and breath of children and to assess dietary variations in relation to age and ethnicity, hypothesizing that these would reflect dietary differences across age and ethnic groups and would correlate with intake variables derived from a Food Frequency Questionnaire...
May 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383793/nasal-variation-in-relation-to-high-altitude-adaptations-among-tibetans-and-andeans
#17
Lauren N Butaric, Ross P Klocke
OBJECTIVES: High-altitude (>2500 m) populations face several pressures, including hypoxia and cold-dry air, resulting in greater respiratory demand to obtain more oxygen and condition inspired air. While cardiovascular and pulmonary adaptations to high-altitude hypoxia have been extensively studied, adaptations of upper-respiratory structures, e.g., nasal cavity, remain untested. This study investigates whether nasal morphology presents adaptations to hypoxic (larger noses) and/or cold-dry (tall/narrow noses) conditions among high-altitude samples...
May 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363223/the-allometric-scaling-of-body-mass-and-height-in-children-and-adolescents-in-five-countries
#18
Camila Medeiros da Silva Mazzeti, Jéssica Cumpian Silva, Ana Elisa Madalena Rinaldi, Wolney Lisbôa Conde
OBJECTIVE: The purpose a methodology that excludes values outside of the expected spectrum for age (VOESA) of height and body mass in the definition of power (p) to construct an international allometric body mass index (AI) for children and adolescents. METHODS: Datasets of national surveys including individuals (aged 0-19 years) from five countries (Brazil, South Korea, Mexico, England, and the USA) were selected. The p was defined for each country, age range, and sex after exclusion of VOESA for height and weight by log-log linear regression, where β represented p...
May 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359455/ancient-and-recent-middle-eastern-maternal-genetic-contribution-to-north-africa-as-viewed-by-mtdna-diversity-in-tunisian-arab-populations
#19
Sarra Elkamel, Sami Boussetta, Houssein Khodjet-El-Khil, Amel Benammar Elgaaied, Lotfi Cherni
OBJECTIVES: Through previous mitochondrial DNA studies, the Middle Eastern maternal genetic contribution to Tunisian populations appears limited. In fact, most of the studied communities were cosmopolitan, or of Berber or Andalusian origin. To provide genetic evidence for the actual contribution of Middle Eastern mtDNA lineages to Tunisia, we focused on two Arab speaking populations from Kairouan and Wesletia known to belong to an Arab genealogical lineage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 114 samples were sequenced for the mtDNA HVS-I and HVS-II regions...
May 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356191/skeletal-muscle-mass-in-human-athletes-what-is-the-upper-limit
#20
Takashi Abe, Samuel L Buckner, Scott J Dankel, Matthew B Jessee, Kevin T Mattocks, J Grant Mouser, Jeremy P Loenneke
OBJECTIVES: To examine the amount of absolute and relative skeletal muscle mass (SM) in large sized athletes to investigate the potential upper limit of whole body muscle mass accumulation in the human body. METHODS: Ninety-five large-sized male athletes and 48 recreationally active males (control) had muscle thickness measured by ultrasound at nine sites on the anterior and posterior aspects of the body. SM was estimated from an ultrasound-derived prediction equation...
May 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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