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American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925585/resemblance-in-physical-activity-levels-the-portuguese-sibling-study-on-growth-fitness-lifestyle-and-health
#1
S Pereira, P T Katzmarzyk, T N Gomes, M Souza, R N Chaves, F K Santos, D Santos, A Bustamante, T V Barreira, D Hedeker, J A Maia
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationships of biological, behavioral, familial, and environmental characteristics with siblings´ physical activity (PA) levels as well as the intrapair resemblance in PA. METHODS: The sample comprises 834 (390 females) biological siblings [brother-brother (BB), sister-sister (SS), brother-sister (BS)] aged 9 to 20 years. Total PA index (TPAI) was estimated by questionnaire. Information on potential behavioral, familial, and environmental correlates was obtained by self-report; body mass index (BMI), biological maturation, and physical fitness were measured...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905440/child-fosterage-and-sex-biased-nutritional-outcomes-among-namibian-pastoralists
#2
Sean P Prall, Brooke A Scelza
OBJECTIVES: Across cultures, fosterage has been shown to impact child health. Contextual factors, such as the reason for fosterage and the relationship between foster parent and child, are known to magnify variance in nutritional outcomes for foster children. Another important, but less studied, factor is the role of gender. Sex-biases in physiology and cultural norms are both known to affect child nutrition, and we posit these effects might be magnified in the presence of fosterage. In this study, we investigate how sex interacts with fosterage to affect nutritional outcomes among Namibian pastoralists...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901657/longitudinal-patterns-in-bmi-and-percent-total-body-fat-from-peak-height-velocity-through-emerging-adulthood-into-young-adulthood
#3
Erin Barbour-Tuck, Marta Erlandson, Nazeem Muhajarine, Heather Foulds, Adam Baxter-Jones
OBJECTIVES: Emerging adulthood, a potential critical period, is an understudied period of fat mass accrual. The aim of this study was to describe patterns of fat mass accrual, and weight status, from adolescence, through emerging adulthood, into young adulthood. METHODS: One-hundred-eighteen participants (59 male) were measured repeatedly for 20 years. Annual measures of height, weight, and body composition (DXA) were taken. Calculated measures included: peak height velocity (PHV), biological age (BA; years from PHV), body mass index (BMI), and percent total body fat (%TBF)...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901592/child-stunting-is-associated-with-weaker-human-capital-among-native-amazonians
#4
Eduardo A Undurraga, Jere R Behrman, Susan D Emmett, Celeste Kidd, William R Leonard, Steven T Piantadosi, Victoria Reyes-García, Abhishek Sharma, Rebecca Zhang, Ricardo A Godoy
OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations between child stunting, recovery, and faltering with schooling and human capital skills in a native Amazonian society of horticulturalists-foragers (Tsimane'). METHODS: We used cross-sectional data (2008) from 1262 children aged 6 to 16 years in 53 villages to assess contemporaneous associations between three height categories: stunted (height-for-age Z score, HAZ<-2), moderately stunted (-2 ≤ HAZ≤-1), and nonstunted (HAZ>-1), and three categories of human capital: completed grades of schooling, test-based academic skills (math, reading, writing), and local plant knowledge...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884861/use-of-idxa-spine-scans-to-evaluate-total-and-visceral-abdominal-fat
#5
J W Bea, C-H Hsu, R M Blew, A P Irving, B J Caan, M L Kwan, I Abraham, S B Going
OBJECTIVES: Abdominal fat may be a better predictor than body mass index (BMI) for risk of metabolically-related diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. We sought to validate the percent fat reported on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) regional spine scans (spine fat fraction, SFF) against abdominal fat obtained from total body scans using the iDXA machine (General Electric, Madison, WI), as previously done on the Prodigy model. METHODS: Total body scans and regional spine scans were completed on the same day (N = 50)...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884857/amerindian-ancestry-and-extended-longevity-in-nicoya-costa-rica
#6
Jorge Azofeifa, Edward A Ruiz-Narváez, Alejandro Leal, Hanna Gerlovin, Luis Rosero-Bixby
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to address the hypothesis that Amerindian ancestry is associated with extended longevity in the admixed population of Nicoya, Costa Rica. The Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica has been considered a "longevity island," particularly for males. METHODS: We estimated Amerindian ancestry using 464 ancestral informative markers in 20 old Nicoyans aged ≥99 years, and 20 younger Nicoyans (60-65 years). We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the association of Amerindian ancestry and longevity...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833849/fifty-years-of-child-height-and-weight-in-japan-and-south-korea-contrasting-secular-trend-patterns-analyzed-by-sitar
#7
T J Cole, H Mori
Objectives Japanese and South Koreans have traditionally been shorter than Europeans, but have recently become appreciably taller. The aim was to quantify the secular trend patterns in height and weight growth in the two countries over 50 years using the SITAR growth curve model. Methods Data on mean height and weight by sex in 1-year age groups from 1 to 20 years were obtained by decade in South Korea (1965-2005) and Japan (1950-2010). The data were analyzed using SITAR (SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation), which estimates a mean curve and three adjustments-size, timing and intensity-reflecting how the individual surveys differ from the mean...
August 23, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816374/no-change-in-energy-efficiency-in-lactation-insights-from-a-longitudinal-study
#8
Richard L Bender, Heather S Williams, Darna L Dufour
OBJECTIVES: Lactation is the most energy-demanding phase of reproduction for human females, but it is still unclear how women in different environments are able to meet this additional energy demand. Previous studies have investigated whether changes in metabolism could have an energy-sparing effect in lactation, with conflicting results. Here, we asked whether increased energy efficiency in physical activity serves as an energy-sparing mechanism in lactation. METHODS: We used a longitudinal design with a control group...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799680/in-memoriam-alexander-francis-roche-1921-2017
#9
Steven B Heymsfield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786516/secular-trend-and-social-variation-in-age-at-menarche-among-polish-schoolgirls-before-and-after-the-political-transformation
#10
Aleksandra Gomula, Slawomir Koziel
OBJECTIVES: To describe the biological results of the political and economic transformations that took place in Poland between 1966 and 2012, based on an analysis of age at menarche, and to determine changes across social groups. METHODS: Data were collected in 1966, 1978, 1988, and 2012 in several districts of Poland. The study included 34,940 schoolgirls. Age at menarche was assessed with the use of status quo method. Definition of socioeconomic status was based on 4 factors: urbanization level, mother and father education, and family size...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759132/is-early-postnatal-growth-velocity-a-proxy-of-minipubertal-androgen-action-related-to-adult-second-to-fourth-digit-2d-4d-ratios-in-men-a-test-in-cebu-philippines
#11
Alexander V Georgiev, Calen P Ryan, Judith B Borja, Christopher W Kuzawa
OBJECTIVES: The ratio of the length of the second to the fourth digit (2D:4D) of the hand is often used as an index of prenatal androgen exposure but it might also be affected by androgens during "minipuberty," a period of temporarily high testosterone (T) production in the first few months of life. To examine this, we tested the prediction that men with lower 2D:4D ratios had greater weight growth velocities during the first months of life-a metric recently shown to correlate with concurrent T levels...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742271/genetic-genealogy-approach-reveals-low-rate-of-extrapair-paternity-in-historical-dutch-populations
#12
Maarten H D Larmuseau, Sofie Claerhout, Leen Gruyters, Kelly Nivelle, Michiel Vandenbosch, Anke Peeters, Pieter van den Berg, Tom Wenseleers, Ronny Decorte
OBJECTIVE: Evolutionary theory has shown that seeking out extrapair paternity (EPP) can be a viable reproductive strategy for both sexes in pair-bonded species, also in humans. As yet, estimates of the contemporary or historical EPP rate in human population are still rare. In the present study, we estimated the historical EPP rate in the Dutch population over the last 400 years and compared the rate with those obtained for other human populations to determine the evolutionary, cultural, and socio-demographic factors that influence human cuckoldry behavior...
July 25, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726338/household-fear-of-deportation-in-mexican-origin-families-relation-to-body-mass-index-percentiles-and-salivary-uric-acid
#13
Airín D Martínez, Lillian Ruelas, Douglas A Granger
OBJECTIVE: Fear of deportation (FOD) is a prevalent concern among mixed-status families. Yet, our understanding of how FOD shapes human health and development is in its infancy. To begin to address this knowledge gap, we examined the relationship between household FOD, body mass index (BMI) percentiles and salivary uric acid (sUA), a biomarker related to oxidative stress/hypertension/metabolic syndrome, among 111 individuals living in Mexican-origin families. METHODS: Participants were 65 children (2 months-17 years, 49% female) and 46 adults (20-58 years, 71% female) living in 30 Mexican-origin families with at least one immigrant parent in Phoenix, AZ...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726295/antioxidant-defense-and-oxidative-damage-vary-widely-among-high-altitude-residents
#14
Allison J Janocha, Suzy A A Comhair, Buddha Basnyat, Maniraj Neupane, Amha Gebremedhin, Anam Khan, Kristin S Ricci, Renliang Zhang, Serpil C Erzurum, Cynthia M Beall
OBJECTIVES: People living at high altitude experience unavoidable low oxygen levels (hypoxia). While acute hypoxia causes an increase in oxidative stress and damage despite higher antioxidant activity, the consequences of chronic hypoxia are poorly understood. The aim of the present study is to assess antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in high-altitude natives and upward migrants. METHODS: Individuals from two indigenous high-altitude populations (Amhara, n = 39), (Sherpa, n = 34), one multigenerational high-altitude population (Oromo, n = 42), one upward migrant population (Nepali, n = 12), and two low-altitude reference populations (Amhara, n = 29; Oromo, n = 18) provided plasma for measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as a marker of antioxidant capacity, and urine for measurement of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a marker of DNA oxidative damage...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719103/associations-between-neighborhood-food-environments-and-deficient-protein-intake-among-elderly-people-in-a-metropolitan-suburb-a-case-study-in-kisarazu-city-japan
#15
Yuri Hamamatsu, Chiho Goto, Masaru Nishitani, Riko Shimadate, Junko Ueno, Yoko Kusakari, Masahiro Umezaki
OBJECTIVES: Living in a poor food environment and its association with an increased risk of inadequate nutrient intake are increasingly important issues in Japan due to an increase in the elderly population. METHODS: The present study examined the relationships between neighborhood food environment and the protein and fat intakes of elderly Japanese individuals (n = 181) living in the metropolitan Tokyo suburb of Kisarazu. RESULTS: A logistic regression analysis adjusted for sociodemographic and shopping behavior variables revealed associations between subjectively evaluated poor neighborhood food environment and deficient protein intake...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712155/economic-activity-and-patterns-of-infant-growth-in-a-high-altitude-district-of-peru
#16
Morgan K Hoke
OBJECTIVES: Changing economic activities bring significant cultural, epidemiological, and nutritional transitions. Infancy represents a critical period when rapid growth and metabolic programming occur, making infants particularly vulnerable to long-lasting biological changes due to such transitions. This paper examines the relationship between residence in distinct economic production zones (urban, herding, and dairy) and early growth in a highland district of Peru. METHODS: The length, weight, body mass index, and triceps skinfold of 93 infants (55 boys and 38 girls, aged 2 to 24 months) from 3 economic zones were measured at two time points 6 months apart...
July 16, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712140/pregnancy-and-immune-stimulation-re-imagining-the-fetus-as-parasite-to-understand-age-related-immune-system-changes-in-us-women
#17
Anna C Rivara, Elizabeth M Miller
OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy can increase production of Immunoglobulin E (IgE), an immune response more often directed towards parasite infections. An absence of parasitism makes the US population ideal to test the hypothesis that the maternal immune system recognizes a fetus as a parasite. We predict that total IgE levels are positively associated with a history of pregnancy across all ages of adult women, mirroring patterns of IgE in parasitized populations. METHODS: Reproductive-aged women (n = 2201) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 were analyzed in a cross-sectional design using complex survey regression and multiple imputation to evaluate associations between total IgE levels, pregnancy history, and interactions between age and pregnancy...
July 16, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699696/scaling-children-s-waist-circumference-for-differences-in-body-size
#18
Alan M Nevill, Michael J Duncan, Ian M Lahart, Paul Davies, Robinson Ramirez-Velez, Gavin Sandercock
OBJECTIVES: Both waist circumference (WC) and body size (height) increase with age throughout childhood. Hence, there is a need to scale WC in children to detect differences in adiposity status (eg, between populations and different age groups), independent of body size/height. METHODS: Using two culturally different samples, 1 English (10-15.9 years n = 9471) and 2 Colombian (14-15 years, n = 37,948), for WC to be independent of height (HT), a body shape index was obtained using the allometric power law WC = a...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699683/agreement-between-specific-measures-of-adiposity-and-associations-with-high-blood-pressure-in-black-south-african-women
#19
Herculina S Kruger, Chrisna Botha-Ravyse, Lize Havemann-Nel, Maretha Doubell, Johannes M van Rooyen
OBJECTIVES: To derive percentage body fat (%BF) cut-points according to body mass index (BMI) categories for adult black South African women and to investigate the agreement between adiposity classifications according to WHO BMI and %BF cut-points. The secondary aim was to determine the association between these different adiposity measures and high blood pressure. METHODS: Black women aged 29-65 years (n = 435) from Ikageng, South Africa, were included in this cross-sectional study...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688197/body-size-of-young-adult-polish-college-age-women-born-before-during-and-after-wwii
#20
Grażyna Liczbińska, Zbigniew Czapla, Robert M Malina, Janusz Piontek
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the young adult body size of Polish female university students born before, during, and after WWII. METHODS: Age, height, and weight of 492 students measured between 1956 and 1972 were accessed from the Department of Anthropology archives (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań). The sample was divided into three birth year cohorts relative to WWII: before (n = 120), during (n = 196), and after (n = 176)...
July 8, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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