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American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752749/preliminary-evidence-that-androgen-signaling-is-correlated-with-men-s-everyday-language
#1
Jennifer S Mascaro, Kelly E Rentscher, Patrick D Hackett, Adriana Lori, Alana Darcher, James K Rilling, Matthias R Mehl
OBJECTIVES: Testosterone (T) has an integral, albeit complex, relationship with social behavior, especially in the domains of aggression and competition. However, examining this relationship in humans is challenging given the often covert and subtle nature of human aggression and status-seeking. The present study aimed to investigate whether T levels and genetic polymorphisms in the AR gene are associated with social behavior assessed via natural language use. METHODS: We used unobtrusive, behavioral, real-world ambulatory assessments of men in partnered heterosexual relationships to examine the relationship between plasma T levels, variation in the androgen receptor (AR) gene, and spontaneous, everyday language in three interpersonal contexts: with romantic partners, with co-workers, and with their children...
May 11, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752748/epstein-barr-virus-antibody-titer-as-a-stress-biomarker-and-its-association-with-social-capital-in-rural-fujian-communities-china
#2
Aki Yazawa, Yosuke Inoue, Guoxi Cai, Raoping Tu, Meng Huang, Fei He, Jie Chen, Taro Yamamoto, Chiho Watanabe
OBJECTIVES: There has been little research on the association between social capital and psychological stress measured by a biomarker, particularly in developing countries. Our objective was to investigate the association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody titer, an indicator of cellular immune function previously shown to be associated with psychological stress, and social capital among rural community dwellers in Fujian Province, China. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in seven rural communities in Fujian in 2015...
May 11, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744957/mitochondrial-lineage-a2ah-found-in-a-pre-hispanic-individual-from-the-andean-region
#3
M G Russo, C B Dejean, S A Avena, V Seldes, P Ramundo
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of pre-Hispanic Andean mitochondrial diversity by analyzing an individual from the archaeological site Pukara de La Cueva (North-western Argentina). The date of the discovery context (540 ± 60 BP) corresponds to the Regional Developments II period. METHODS: Two separate DNA extractions were performed from dentin powder of one tooth. HVR I was amplified by PCR from each extract in three overlapping fragments and the haplotype was determined by consensus among all obtained sequences...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744967/measuring-digit-lengths-with-3d-digital-stereophotogrammetry-a-comparison-across-methods
#4
Allison Gremba, Seth M Weinberg
OBJECTIVES: We compared digital 3D stereophotogrammetry to more traditional measurement methods (direct anthropometry and 2D scanning) to capture digit lengths and ratios. METHODS: The length of the second and fourth digits was measured by each method and the second-to-fourth ratio was calculated. For each digit measurement, intraobserver agreement was calculated for each of the three collection methods. Further, measurements from the three methods were compared directly to one another...
May 9, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722093/geophagic-earths-consumed-by-women-in-western-kenya-contain-dangerous-levels-of-lead-arsenic-and-iron
#5
Joshua D Miller, Shalean M Collins, Moshood Omotayo, Stephanie L Martin, Katherine L Dickin, Sera L Young
OBJECTIVES: Geophagy is commonly reported by pregnant women and children, yet its causes and consequences remain poorly understood. Therefore, we sought to determine if geophagy could contribute micronutrients and/or be a source of heavy metal exposure by examining the elemental composition of earths consumed in Kakamega, Kenya. METHODS: Ten samples of earths commonly consumed during pregnancy were collected by study enumerators and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702739/midfacial-growth-patterns-in-males-from-newborn-to-5-years-old-based-on-computed-tomography
#6
Andrej Evteev, Anatoliy Anikin, Leonid Satanin
OBJECTIVES: Growth patterns of the human facial skeleton have been of great interest and importance for biological anthropologists, forensic scientists, craniofacial surgeons, and orthopedists. Nevertheless, growth trends of the facial skeleton in infancy and early childhood are still poorly known and clinical CT data have been insufficiently used for studying craniofacial ontogeny. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive quantitative description of human midfacial ontogeny in infancy and early childhood, and to contribute to debates regarding the role of modularity vs...
April 27, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700885/social-networks-cooperative-breeding-and-the-human-milk-microbiome
#7
Courtney L Meehan, Kimberly A Lackey, Edward H Hagen, Janet E Williams, Jennifer Roulette, Courtney Helfrecht, Mark A McGuire, Michelle K McGuire
OBJECTIVES: We present the first available data on the human milk microbiome (HMM) from small-scale societies (hunter-gatherers and horticulturalists in the Central African Republic [CAR]) and explore relationships among subsistence type and seasonality on HMM diversity and composition. Additionally, as humans are cooperative breeders and, throughout our evolutionary history and today, we rear offspring within social networks, we examine associations between the social environment and the HMM...
April 26, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672992/life-in-the-fast-lane-settled-pastoralism-in-the-central-eurasian-steppe-during-the-middle-bronze-age
#8
Margaret A Judd, Jessica L Walker, Alicia Ventresca Miller, Dmitry Razhev, Andrey V Epimakhov, Bryan K Hanks
OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that the purported unstable climate in the South Urals region during the Middle Bronze Age (MBA) resulted in health instability and social stress as evidenced by skeletal response. METHODS: The skeletal sample (n = 99) derived from Kamennyi Ambar 5 (KA-5), a MBA kurgan cemetery (2040-1730 cal. BCE, 2 sigma) associated with the Sintashta culture. Skeletal stress indicators assessed included cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, dental enamel hypoplasia, and tibia periosteal new bone growth...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663637/reproductive-health-obesity-and-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-among-samoan-women
#9
H Maredia, N L Hawley, G Lambert-Messerlian, U Fidow, M S Reupena, T Naseri, S T McGarvey
OBJECTIVES: Obesity leads to deleterious effects on not only cardiovascular health but also on the reproductive health of women. We estimate the prevalence of menstrual irregularity and of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in Samoan women, among whom obesity prevalence is extremely high. We explore the association of these reproductive health conditions with adiposity, cardiometabolic risk factors, and androgen levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of Samoan women 25-39 years of age (n = 470) from a larger population-based genome-wide association study of adiposity and cardiometabolic disease was assessed for the prevalence of oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (OM/AM) using a self-reported questionnaire...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29637643/economic-and-demographic-predictors-of-dietary-variation-and-nutritional-indicators-in-nicaragua
#10
Catherine G Cooper, Jessica L Burns, Jeremy M Koster, Angela R Perri, Michael P Richards
OBJECTIVES: We measured carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios in a contemporary population, and tested how the isotopic variability relates to measures of socioeconomic status (e.g., household wealth) and anthropometric measures (e.g., standardized height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores). METHODS: Hair samples from individuals living in the Bosawas Biosphere Reserve in Nicaragua were analyzed for δ13 C and δ15 N, and these data were examined in relation to individual (e...
April 10, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624794/socio-demographic-differences-in-colombian-children-s-muscular-fitness-does-scaling-for-differences-in-body-size-present-a-challenge-to-conventional-thinking
#11
Alan M Nevill, Gavin Sandercock, Michael J Duncan, Ian Lahart, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Robinson Ramirez-Velez
OBJECTIVES: In low- to middle-income countries, children from less-deprived areas (from families of higher socio-economic status [SES]) have superior muscular fitness than those from low-SES groups. They are also taller and heavier, factors associated with muscular fitness. The purpose of this study was to identify any socio-demographic differences in Colombian children's muscular fitness and examine how these conclusions can be modified by scaling for differences in body size. METHODS: A total of 38,098 youths (46% girls), ninth grade students (aged 14-15 years), participated in a study of cross-sectional design...
April 6, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624785/relationship-between-adrenal-steroid-hormones-in-cord-blood-and-birth-weight-the-sapporo-cohort-hokkaido-study-on-environment-and-children-s-health
#12
Takahiko Mitsui, Atsuko Araki, Houman Goudarzi, Chihiro Miyashita, Sachiko Ito, Seiko Sasaki, Takeya Kitta, Kimihiko Moriya, Kazutoshi Cho, Keita Morioka, Reiko Kishi, Nobuo Shinohara, Masayuki Takeda, Katsuya Nonomura
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between steroid hormone levels in cord blood and birth weight. METHODS: Among 514 participants in a prospective birth cohort study in Sapporo, the following hormone levels were measured in 294 stored cord blood samples from 135 males and 159 females: androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), cortisol, and cortisone. Birth weight information was obtained from medical records. RESULTS: Androstenedione/DHEA was significantly higher in males than in females, while DHEA was significantly higher in females...
April 6, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624780/the-association-of-irregular-sleep-habits-with-the-risk-of-being-overweight-obese-in-a-sample-of-portuguese-children-aged-6-9-years
#13
Aristides M Machado-Rodrigues, Rômulo Fernandes, Augusta Gama, Isabel Mourão, Helena Nogueira, Vítor Rosado-Marques, Cristina Padez
OBJECTIVES: The consequences of irregular sleep duration at younger ages remains uncertain, especially when we consider shorter and longer than recommended sleep durations. Therefore, the present study aimed to analyze the association between healthy sleep duration and risk of obesity in Portuguese children. METHODS: The sample for this cross-sectional study comprised 8273 children (4183 females) aged 6-9 years. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated...
April 6, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575561/sex-specific-functional-adaptation-of-the-femoral-diaphysis-to-body-composition
#14
Alizé Lacoste Jeanson, Frédéric Santos, Ján Dupej, Jana Velemínská, Jaroslav Brůžek
OBJECTIVES: The human femoral diaphysis is often used to reconstruct loading histories (mobility, activity, body mass). The proximal femur is known to be differentially affected by changes in total fat-mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and body fat percentage (BF%), but the adaptation of the entire diaphysis to body composition has not been thoroughly characterized to date. Understanding how the femoral diaphysis adapts to body components would benefit biomechanical interpretations of the femoral variation and nutrition-related studies...
March 24, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573011/is-age-of-menarche-among-school-girls-related-to-breastfeeding-during-infancy
#15
Radhia Al-Mathkoori, Ahmed Albatineh, Maryam Al-Shatti, Abdullah Al-Taiar
OBJECTIVES: Breastfeeding has been linked to various disease conditions in adulthood. Age of menarche has been proposed to be an intermediary factor on the life-course path to these disease conditions, but the link between breastfeeding and age of menarche remains under debate. This study aimed to investigate the association between age of menarche and breastfeeding during infancy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 775 female high school students were randomly selected from private and public high schools in all provinces in Kuwait...
March 23, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532544/validation-of-endotoxin-core-antibodies-in-dried-blood-spots-as-a-measure-of-environmental-enteropathy-and-intestinal-permeability
#16
Morgan K Hoke, Kimberly A McCabe, Aaron A Miller, Thomas W McDade
OBJECTIVE: To validate a method for measuring endotoxin-core antibodies (EndoCAb) from dried blood spots (DBS)-drops of capillary whole blood collected and dried on filter paper-as an indicator of environmental enteropathy (EE) in infancy and early childhood. METHODS: A commercially available enzyme immunoassay kit was adapted for use with DBS, with optimized steps for sample elution. Technical validation included analysis of linearity/recovery, precision and reliability, lower limit of detection, and correspondence between matched plasma and DBS samples...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527774/a-novel-pooled-sample-multiplex-luminex-assay-for-high-throughput-measurement-of-relative-telomere-length
#17
Farzana Jasmine, Justin Shinkle, Mekala Sabarinathan, Habibul Ahsan, Brandon L Pierce, Muhammad G Kibriya
OBJECTIVES: Relative telomere length (RTL) is a potential biomarker of aging and risk for chronic disease. Previously, we developed a probe-based RTL assay on Luminex platform, where probes for Telomere (T) and reference gene (R) for a given DNA sample were tested in a single well. Here, we describe a method of pooling multiple samples in one well to increase the throughput and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: We used four different microbeads for the same T-probe and four different microbeads for the same R-probe...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479761/circadian-cortisol-dynamics-across-reproductive-stages-and-in-relation-to-breastfeeding-in-the-philippines
#18
Zaneta M Thayer, Sonny Agustin Bechayda, Christopher W Kuzawa
OBJECTIVE: An increase in cortisol during human pregnancy helps coordinate the onset of parturition, and can have long-term effects on offspring biology. Maternal cortisol can also be transferred to offspring via breast milk during lactation. However, little is known about how diurnal cortisol profiles vary by trimester of pregnancy or during the postpartum period. Here, we describe diurnal cortisol profiles among a large cross-sectional sample of healthy Filipino young adult women varying in reproductive status and, during the postpartum period, in whether or not they are breastfeeding...
February 26, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476576/prenatal-stress-exposure-and-early-childhood-bmi-exploring-associations-in-a-new-zealand-context
#19
Charlotte V Farewell, Zaneta M Thayer, David P Tracer, Susan Morton
OBJECTIVES: The primary purpose of this study was to (i) examine associations between prenatal objective vulnerability and subjective stress, and (ii) investigate the relationships between prenatal vulnerability and subjective stress and early childhood BMI at 24- and 54- months of age after controlling for covariates. METHODS: The Growing Up in New Zealand (GUiNZ) longitudinal study provided information on 5839 pregnant women and their children to assess the study objectives...
February 24, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476567/estimating-impacts-of-the-nuclear-family-and-heritability-of-nutritional-outcomes-in-a-boat-dwelling-community
#20
Kathrine E Starkweather, Monica H Keith
OBJECTIVES: General health status is reflected in measures of height, weight, and BMI. Assessing sources of variation in these outcomes reveals population-specific variables of importance to health and nutrition. We characterize the impacts of socioeconomic variables related to the nuclear family on health outcomes of boat-dwelling Shodagor children, mothers, and fathers, and to estimate the proportion of variation in height, weight, and BMI influenced by both genetic variation and nongenetic variation among household environments...
February 24, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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