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American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30635958/heritability-estimation-of-2d-4d-finger-ratio-in-a-chuvashian-population-based-sample
#1
Leonid Kalichman, Valery Batsevich, Eugene Kobyliansky
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the familial correlations and heritability of 2D:4D ratio traits using a large population-based sample of ethnically homogeneous pedigrees from Chuvasha and Bashkortostan Autonomies of the Russian Federation. METHODS: We calculated the familial correlations and performed a heritability analysis of 2D:4D ratio traits in a sample of 1541 subjects (803 men and 738 women, mean age 47.78 ± 16.89 years, range 18-90 years)...
January 11, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30635949/cutoff-points-for-continuous-metabolic-risk-score-in-adolescents-from-southern-brazil
#2
Cézane Priscila Reuter, Lars Bo Andersen, Andréia Rosane de Moura Valim, Éboni Marília Reuter, Leticia Borfe, Jane Dagmar Pollo Renner, Elza Daniel de Mello
OBJECTIVE: There is no consensus on the best diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the child and adolescent population. Thus, the present study aimed to establish cutoff points for a continuous metabolic risk score (cMetS) in adolescents from southern Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between 2014 and 2015. The sample consisted of 1739 schoolchildren (985 girls), aged 10-17 years. cMetS was calculated by sum of the Z-score of the following parameters: waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and cardiorespiratory fitness...
January 11, 2019: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30585365/inbreeding-in-the-last-ruling-dynasty-of-portugal-the-house-of-braganza
#3
Gonzalo Álvarez, Román Vilas, Francisco C Ceballos, Hélder Carvalhal, Timothy J Peters
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether: (1) there are high levels of inbreeding in a European royal dynasty that continues until the 20th century, and (2) whether inbreeding is negatively associated with pre-reproductive survival and longevity. METHODS: Genealogical information of all Braganza monarchs (1640-1910) was used to compute the individual's inbreeding coefficient (F) and the coefficient of kinship (θ) of the marriage which were examined in relation to two life-history traits...
December 26, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30585360/effects-of-c-section-on-the-human-microbiota
#4
M G Dominguez Bello
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30576026/physical-activity-and-time-budgets-of-hadza-forager-children-implications-for-self-provisioning-and-the-ontogeny-of-the-sexual-division-of-labor
#5
Andrew W Froehle, G Kilian Wells, Trevor R Pollom, Audax Z P Mabulla, Sheina Lew-Levy, Alyssa N Crittenden
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of age and sex on physical activity and time budgets of Hadza children and juveniles, 5-14 years old, including both in-camp and out-of-camp activities. METHODS: Behavioral data were derived from ~15 000 hourly in-camp scan observations of 76 individuals and 13 out-of-camp focal follows on nine individuals. The data were used to estimate energy expended and percentage of time engaged in a variety of routine activities, including food collection, childcare, making and repairing tools, and household maintenance...
December 21, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30570189/high-levels-of-objectively-measured-physical-activity-across-adolescence-and-adulthood-among-the-pokot-pastoralists-of-kenya
#6
M Katherine Sayre, Ivy L Pike, David A Raichlen
OBJECTIVES: Levels of physical activity (PA) across the lifespan are important predictors of physical fitness, impacting individual health, and longevity. Individuals living in industrialized societies are often characterized as more sedentary than those who live in small-scale societies, and this inactivity is generally linked with increased incidence of chronic disease, especially during aging. However, less empirical data exist regarding levels and patterns of PA across the lifespan among small-scale societies compared with industrialized societies...
December 20, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30565345/birth-mode-and-infectious-morbidity-risks-in-qom-children-of-argentina
#7
Melanie A Martin, Amanda J Veile, Claudia R Valeggia
OBJECTIVES: Cesarean delivery may increase childhood infectious morbidity risks via altered birth exposures and subsequent immune, microbial, and epigenetic development. Many Latin American indigenous populations experience dual burdens of infectious and chronic diseases, and are particularly vulnerable to rising rates of cesarean delivery and associated adverse outcomes. The Qom/Toba are an indigenous population in Argentina experiencing rapid lifestyle transitions. We hypothesized that cesarean delivery would be associated with increased risk of infectious symptoms in Qom children after adjusting for gestational and nutritional factors...
December 19, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30556221/sex-selection-in-late-iberian-infant-burials-integrating-evidence-from-morphological-and-genetic-data
#8
Cristina Afonso, Dominika Nociarova, Cristina Santos, Cristina Martinez-Labarga, Imma Mestres, Montserrat Duran, Assumpció Malgosa
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the infant burials found inside Iberian homes in relation to a possible case of sex selection. METHODS: The study included the remains of 11 infant individuals buried under the 10 houses excavated in the late Iberian village of Camp de les Lloses (Tona, Barcelona, Spain). Sex was determined using genetic analysis. RESULTS: Our results showed that almost all the burials were females. However, the age interval of death was wide enough to weaken the premise of infanticide, and the burials probably represent cases of natural death...
December 16, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30556203/assessment-of-physical-fitness-and-its-correlates-in-chinese-children-and-adolescents-in-shanghai-using-the-multistage-20-m-shuttle-run-test
#9
Zhichun Zou, Peijie Chen, Yang Yang, Mouyuan Xiao, Zhijie Wang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multistage 20-m shuttle-run test (20-m SRT) in assessing the physical fitness of Chinese children and adolescents in Shanghai. METHODS: A total of 4833 children and adolescents (2437 males and 2396 females, aged 7-17 years) were enrolled in this study. Height, weight, body fat percentage, fat-free mass, BMI, and skinfold thickness were measured or calculated. The participants were randomly grouped for performing the 20-m SRT...
December 16, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537282/physical-activity-energy-expenditure-and-cardiometabolic-health-in-three-rural-kenyan-populations
#10
Jerry C Lee, Kate Westgate, Michael K Boit, David L Mwaniki, Festus K Kiplamai, Henrik Friis, Inge Tetens, Dirk L Christensen, Soren Brage
OBJECTIVES: Physical activity is beneficial for metabolic health but the extent to which this may differ by ethnicity is still unclear. Here, the objective was to characterize the association between physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardiometabolic risk among the Luo, Kamba, and Maasai ethnic groups of rural Kenya. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 1084 rural Kenyans, free-living PAEE was objectively measured using individually-calibrated heart rate and movement sensing...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537186/genetic-variation-of-fto-rs1421085-t-c-rs8057044-g-a-rs9939609-t-a-and-copy-number-cnv-in-mexican-mayan-school-aged-children-with-obesity-overweight-and-with-normal-weight
#11
Lizbeth González-Herrera, Jorge Zavala-Castro, Claudia Ayala-Cáceres, Gerardo Pérez-Mendoza, María José López-González, Doris Pinto-Escalante, Thelma Canto-Cetina, María Guadalupe García-Escalante, Rodrigo Rubi-Castellanos, Silvina Contreras-Capetillo, Fernando Herrera-Sanchez, Nina Méndez-Domínguez, Alberto Alcocer-Gamboa
OBJECTIVES: Genetic variation of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) has been identified as a risk factor for obesity and obesity traits. Distribution of FTO single nutleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1421085T>C, rs9939609T>A, rs8057044G>A and copy number variation (CNV) was evaluated in association with childhood obesity or overweight status in children with Mayan ethnicity. METHODS: We included 318 school-aged children with obesity or overweight status (body mass index [BMI]: >85th percentile) and 303 children with normal weight (BMI: 15th-85th percentile)...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30536704/body-mass-index-and-parasympathetic-nervous-system-reactivity-and-recovery-following-graded-exercise
#12
Gina M Gerardo, DeWayne P Williams, Michael Kessler, Derek P Spangler, Thomas K Hillecke, Julian F Thayer, Julian Koenig
OBJECTIVES: The present study sought to expand upon prior investigations examining patterns of vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) and perceived exertion as a function of body mass index (BMI) in response to and recovery from exercise. METHODS: Participants underwent a resting (baseline) period, followed by a graded exercise protocol on an ergometer with ascending difficulty stages, and finally another resting (recovery) period. Individuals were stratified into three BMI groups: low, moderate, and high...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30499610/body-mass-index-trajectories-during-the-first-year-of-life-and-their-determining-factors
#13
Junxiu Liu, Jihong Liu, Edward A Frongillo, Nansi S Boghossian, Bo Cai, Haiming Zhou, Linda J Hazlett
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the trajectories of body mass index (BMI) in the first year of life and their determining factors. METHODS: We used data from the Infant Feeding Practices Survey II restricted to children with 2 or more time points of BMI data during follow-up visits within the first year of life (n = 2320). Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct BMI trajectories. Using multinomial logistic regression, we examined the prenatal and early life determinants of the identified trajectories...
November 30, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30488618/alterations-of-immunoglobulin-g-and-immunoglobulin-m-levels-in-the-breast-milk-of-mothers-with-exclusive-breastfeeding-compared-to-mothers-with-non-exclusive-breastfeeding-during-6-months-postpartum-the-jordanian-cohort-study
#14
Jamila Abuidhail, Abd Al-Rahman Al-Shudiefat, Mona Darwish
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to measure changes in the concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) in the mature breast milk of Jordanian mothers during the first 6 months after giving birth between exclusively breastfeeding (EBF) mothers and non-exclusively breastfeeding (non-EBF) mothers. METHODS: A longitudinal follow-up design was used to measure changes in the concentration of IgG and IgM in the mothers' mature milk during the first 6 months after giving birth...
November 29, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30488525/facial-masculinity-is-only-weakly-correlated-with-handgrip-strength-in-young-adult-women
#15
Amanda C Hahn, Iris J Holzleitner, Anthony J Lee, Michal Kandrik, Kieran J O'Shea, Lisa M DeBruine, Benedict C Jones
OBJECTIVES: Ancestrally, strength is likely to have played a critical role in determining the ability to obtain and retain resources and the allocation of social status among humans. Responses to facial cues of strength are therefore thought to play an important role in human social interaction. Although many researchers have proposed that sexually dimorphic facial morphology is reliably correlated with physical strength, evidence for this hypothesis is somewhat mixed. Moreover, to date, only one study has investigated the putative relationship between facial masculinity and physical strength in women...
November 29, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30488509/sex-and-age-based-differences-in-mortality-during-the-1918-influenza-pandemic-on-the-island-of-newfoundland
#16
Taylor Paskoff, Lisa Sattenspiel
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to understand sex- and age-based differences in mortality during the 1918 influenza pandemic on the island of Newfoundland. The pandemic's impact on different age groups has been the focus of other research, but sex-based differences in mortality are rarely considered. Aspects of social organization, labor patterns, and social behaviors that contribute to mortality between males and females at all ages are used to explain observed mortality patterns. METHODS: Recorded pneumonia and influenza deaths on the island (n = 1871) were used to calculate cause-specific death rates and to evaluate differences in sex-based mortality...
November 29, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450778/is-there-a-female-disadvantage-in-child-undernutrition-in-south-india-exploring-gender-differences-in-height-in-infancy-childhood-and-adolescence-in-andhra-pradesh-and-telangana
#17
Aditi Krishna, Juhwan Oh, Jessica M Perkins, Hwa-Young Lee, Jongho Heo, Jong-Koo Lee, S V Subramanian
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether gender-based disparities in health and well-being extend to a female disadvantage in height in infancy, childhood, and adolescence in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. METHODS: Using longitudinal data from the Young Lives study in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, India, linear mixed effects and linear regression models examined associations between gender and height and the modifying influences of birth order and older siblings' gender composition...
November 18, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30408262/siberian-genetic-diversity-reveals-complex-origins-of-the-samoyedic-speaking-populations
#18
Tatiana M Karafet, Ludmila P Osipova, Olga V Savina, Brian Hallmark, Michael F Hammer
OBJECTIVES: We examined autosomal genome-wide SNPs and Y-chromosome data from 15 Siberian and 12 reference populations to study the affinities of Siberian populations, and to address hypotheses about the origin of the Samoyed peoples. METHODS: Samples were genotyped for 567 096 autosomal SNPs and 147 Y-chromosome polymorphic sites. For several analyses, we used 281 093 SNPs from the intersection of our data with publicly available ancient Siberian samples. To examine genetic relatedness among populations, we applied PCA, FST , TreeMix, and ADMIXTURE analyses...
November 8, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387539/association-of-prepubertal-obesity-with-pubertal-development-in-chinese-girls-and-boys-a-longitudinal-study
#19
Wenyan Li, Qin Liu, Xu Deng, Yiwen Chen, Bo Yang, Xin Huang, Truls Østbye
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of prepubertal body mass index (BMI) and weight status with pubertal development in boys and girls in Chongqing, China. METHODS: In a longitudinal study, 1237 students (695 boys and 542 girls) were recruited from Chongqing, China, and examined at baseline, then followed every 6 months for three and a half years. Height, weight, testicular volume, and breast development were measured at every examination...
November 2, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387532/salivary-steroid-hormone-responses-to-dyadic-table-tennis-competitions-among-hong-kongese-juvenile-boys
#20
Timothy S McHale, Peter B Gray, Ka-Chun Chan, David T Zava, Wai-Chi Chee
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about salivary steroid hormone responses to dyadic competition among prepubescent boys. The current study explored pre-match and post-match testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and cortisol among 22 ethnically Chinese, Hong Kongese table tennis athletes, aged 8-11 years, during dyadic competition against peers. These data provide novel comparative insight into boys' hormone responses when participating in similar forms of competition to that of adults...
November 2, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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