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American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211217/breast-shape-ptosis-as-a-marker-of-a-woman-s-breast-attractiveness-and-age-evidence-from-poland-and-papua
#1
Agata Groyecka, Agnieszka Żelaźniewicz, Michał Misiak, Maciej Karwowski, Piotr Sorokowski
OBJECTIVES: A women's breast is a sex-specific and aesthetic bodily attribute. It is suggested that breast morphology signals maturity, health, and fecundity. The perception of a woman's attractiveness and age depends on various cues, such as breast size or areola pigmentation. Conducted in Poland and Papua, the current study investigated how breast attractiveness, and the further estimate of a woman's age based on her breast's appearance, is affected by the occurrence of breast ptosis (ie, sagginess, droopiness)...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199042/global-effects-of-income-and-income-inequality-on-adult-height-and-sexual-dimorphism-in-height
#2
Barry Bogin, Christiane Scheffler, Michael Hermanussen
OBJECTIVES: Average adult height of a population is considered a biomarker of the quality of the health environment and economic conditions. The causal relationships between height and income inequality are not well understood. We analyze data from 169 countries for national average heights of men and women and national-level economic factors to test two hypotheses: (1) income inequality has a greater association with average adult height than does absolute income; and (2) neither income nor income inequality has an effect on sexual dimorphism in height...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185361/proceedings-of-the-human-biology-association-41st-annual-meeting-marriott-marquis-hotel-in-atlanta-ga-april-13-14-2016
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181718/segmented-sleep-in-a-nonelectric-small-scale-agricultural-society-in-madagascar
#4
David R Samson, Melissa B Manus, Andrew D Krystal, Efe Fakir, James J Yu, Charles L Nunn
OBJECTIVES: We studied sleep in a rural population in Madagascar to (i) characterize sleep in an equatorial small-scale agricultural population without electricity, (ii) assess whether sleep is linked to noise levels in a dense population, and (iii) examine the effects of experimentally introduced artificial light on sleep timing. METHODS: Using actigraphy, sleep-wake patterns were analyzed for both daytime napping and nighttime wakefulness in 21 participants for a sum total of 292 days...
February 9, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176405/deficits-in-anthropometric-indices-of-nutritional-status-and-motor-performance-among-low-birth-weight-children-from-maputo-city-mozambique
#5
Mario Eugénio Tchamo, Marcos André Moura-Dos-Santos, Fernanda Karina Dos Santos, António Prista, Carol Góis Leandro
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between low birth weight (LBW) and anthropometry, body composition, physical fitness, and gross motor coordination among schoolchildren from Maputo, Mozambique. METHODS: A total of 353 children aged 7 to 10 years old from both genders born in Maputo (Mozambique) were sampled. The sample was divided into two groups: LBW (n = 155) and normal birth weight (NBW, n = 198). Body composition measurements and indices weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height were assessed...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168808/bioelectrical-impedance-vector-reference-values-for-assessing-body-composition-in-a-spanish-child-and-adolescent-population
#6
M P Redondo-Del-Río, M A Camina-Martín, J M Marugán-de-Miguelsanz, B de-Mateo-Silleras
OBJECTIVES: Reference values of the bioelectrical impedance vector for the Spanish child and adolescent population are needed for assessing body composition and hydration status in this population. The aim of this study is to provide reference values of the bioelectrical impedance vector in Spanish children and adolescents aged 4-18 years from Castilla y León. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in 4401 Spanish healthy children and adolescents aged 4-18 years (2265 boys and 2136 girls)...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161905/total-and-central-obesity-in-elderly-associated-with-a-marker-of-undernutrition-in-early-life-sitting-height-to-stature-ratio-a-nutritional-paradox
#7
Erika Aparecida Silveira, Carla Cristina da Conceição Ferreira, Valéria Pagotto, Annelisa Silva E Alves de Carvalho Santos, Gustavo Velasquez-Melendez
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether sitting height-to-stature ratio (SHSR) is associated with total and central obesity in the elderly. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with 133 noninstitutionalized elderly. High SHSR (≥ 1SD above the mean) was used as a marker of undernutrition (MU) in early life. Poisson's multiple regression was used to determine the association between variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of high SHSR was 21...
February 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161899/weight-gender-and-depressive-symptoms-in-south-korea
#8
A A Brewis, S Y Han, C L SturtzSreetharan
OBJECTIVES: Obesity consistently predicts depression risk, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Body concerns are proposed as key. South Korean society is characterized by extremely high levels of explicit weight stigma, possibly the highest globally. Using cross-sectional Korean 2014 National Health Examination Survey (KNHANES) data, we test this proposition in a nationally representative sample of South Korean adults (N = 5,632). METHODS: Depressive symptoms (outcome variable), was based on the PHQ-9...
February 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161898/the-relationship-between-loading-history-and-proximal-femoral-diaphysis-cross-sectional-geometry
#9
Sirpa Niinimäki, Nathaniel Narra, Laura Härkönen, Shinya Abe, Riku Nikander, Jari Hyttinen, Christopher Knüsel, Harri Sievänen
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between loading history and bone biomechanical properties used in physical activity reconstructions. These bone properties included bone bending and torsional strength (J), cortical area (CA), the direction of the major axis (theta angle), and element shape ratios determined from cross sections of standardized bone length. In addition, we explored the applicability of anatomically determined cross sections. METHODS: Our material consisted of hip and proximal thigh magnetic resonance images of Finnish female athletes (N = 91) engaged in high-jump, triple-jump, endurance running, swimming, power-lifting, soccer and squash; along with a group of active non-athlete individuals (N = 20)...
February 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161896/equation-derived-body-fat-percentage-indicates-metabolic-abnormalities-among-normal-weight-adults-in-a-rural-chinese-population
#10
Xin Liu, Yaling Zhao, Qiang Li, Shaonong Dang, Hong Yan
OBJECTIVES: Obesity classification using body mass index (BMI) may miss subjects with elevated body fat percentage (BF%) and related metabolic risk factors. We aimed to evaluate whether BF% calculated by equations could provide more information about metabolic risks, in addition to BMI classification, in a cross-sectional rural Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 2,990 men and women aged 18-80 years were included in this study. BF% was calculated using previously validated Chinese-specific equations...
February 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146300/not-just-a-fallback-food-global-patterns-of-insect-consumption-related-to-geography-not-agriculture
#11
Julie J Lesnik
OBJECTIVES: Insects as food are often viewed as fallback resources and associated with marginal environments. This study investigates the relationship between insect consumption and noncultivated landscapes as well as with other independent variables including latitude, area, population, and gross domestic product. METHODS: Data were obtained from online databases including the World List of Edible Insects, the World Bank, and the World Factbook. RESULTS: A logistic regression model found that latitude could correctly predict the presence of edible insects 80% of the time and that arable land and gross domestic product showed no effect...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130925/childhood-origins-evolution-and-implications-courtney-meehan-alyssa-crittenden-eds-university-of-new-mexico-press-in-association-with-school-for-advanced-research-press-albuquerque-2016-49-95-paperback-376-pp
#12
Samuel S Urlacher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127820/the-historical-spread-of-arabian-pastoralists-to-the-eastern-african-sahel-evidenced-by-the-lactase-persistence-13-915-g-allele-and-mitochondrial-dna
#13
Edita Priehodová, Frédéric Austerlitz, Martina Čížková, Mohammed G Mokhtar, Estella S Poloni, Viktor Černý
OBJECTIVES: Thanks to the ability to digest lactose, Arabian nomads had become less dependent upon their sedentary neighbors and some of these populations spread to Africa. When and by which route they migrated to their current locations have previously been addressed only by historical and archaeological data. METHODS: To address the question of Arab expansion into Africa, we collected samples from several Arabic populations, especially the Baggara in Chad and Sudan...
January 27, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121389/understanding-influences-of-culture-and-history-on-mtdna-variation-and-population-structure-in-three-populations-from-assam-northeast-india
#14
Peter H Rej, Ranjan Deka, Heather L Norton
OBJECTIVES: Positioned at the nexus of India, China, and Southeast Asia, Northeast India is presumed to have served as a channel for land-based human migration since the Upper Pleistocene. Assam is the largest state in the Northeast. We characterized the genetic background of three populations and examined the ways in which their population histories and cultural practices have influenced levels of intrasample and intersample variation. METHODS: We examined sequence data from the mtDNA hypervariable control region and selected diagnostic mutations from the coding region in 128 individuals from three ethnic groups currently living in Assam: two Scheduled tribes (Sonowal Kachari and Rabha), and the non-Scheduled Tai Ahom...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121388/early-life-infection-but-not-breastfeeding-predicts-adult-blood-telomere-lengths-in-the-philippines
#15
Dan T A Eisenberg, Judith B Borja, M Geoffrey Hayes, Christopher W Kuzawa
OBJECTIVES: Telomeres are repetitive DNA at chromosomes ends that shorten with age due to cellular replication and oxidative stress. As telomeres shorten, this can eventually place limits on cell replication and contribute to senescence. Infections are common during early development and activate cellular immune responses that involve clonal expansion and oxidative stress. As such, a high infectious disease burden might shorten blood telomere length (BTL) and accelerate the pace of immune senescence...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121384/bioarchaeology-of-adaptation-to-a-marginal-environment-in-bronze-age-western-china
#16
Elizabeth Berger, Hui Wang
OBJECTIVES: This study examines human adaptation to the 4000 BP climate change event, which is said to have increased the marginality of Inner Asian environments. We propose to define "marginal" environments not in relation to a specific economic activity (e.g., agriculture), but in relation to whether humans living there are physiologically stressed. METHODS: Three sites in the Hexi Corridor of Gansu were studied, one from the early and two from the late Bronze Age (N = 125)...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121382/using-the-protein-leverage-hypothesis-to-understand-socioeconomic-variation-in-obesity
#17
Traci A Bekelman, Carolina Santamaría-Ulloa, Darna L Dufour, Lilliam Marín-Arias, Ana Laura Dengo
OBJECTIVES: The protein leverage hypothesis (PLH) predicts that protein appetite will stimulate excess energy intake, and consequently obesity, when the proportion of protein in the diet is low. Experimental studies support the PLH, but whether protein leverage can be used to understand socioeconomic (SES) variation in obesity is unknown. The objective of this study was to test two hypotheses from the PLH under non-experimental conditions. Consistent with the PLH, we expect that (1) absolute protein intake will be similar across populations, here defined as SES groups and, (2) the proportion of protein in the diet will be inversely associated with energy intake...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121367/height-bmi-and-relative-economic-standing-in-children-from-developing-countries
#18
Jason E Murasko
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to estimate a height-BMI association in child and female adolescent populations in developing countries, and to evaluate the potential role of relative economic status in this association. METHODS: Flexible structured additive regression models were used to estimate associations between height, BMI, and relative wealth. Linear regression models were used to evaluate height-wealth interactions on BMI outcomes. The models were applied to pooled samples of 971,180 children under 5 years of age and 225,718 adolescent females between 15 and 19 years...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120433/trends-in-cardiometabolic-parameters-among-spanish-children-from-2006-to-2010-the-cuenca-study
#19
Paola Arellano-Ruiz, Antonio García-Hermoso, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno, Fernando Salcedo-Aguilar, Miriam Garrido-Miguel, Montserrat Solera-Martinez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the trends in cardiometabolic risk factors among schoolchildren in Cuenca, Spain, from 2006 to 2010. METHODS: Data were taken from two cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2006 and 2010 among schoolchildren aged 8-12 years from 20 public schools in the province of Cuenca. The final sample consisted of 2148 participants with measured anthropometric variables, biochemical assessment, and blood pressure. RESULTS: We observed an increase in mean serum total cholesterol (8...
January 24, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117514/improved-nutrition-in-the-first-1000-days-and-adult-human-capital-and-health
#20
Reynaldo Martorell
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to review why the first 1000 days of life are a vulnerable period of human development and the long-term effects of a nutrition experiment carried out in Guatemala (1969-1977). METHODS: In 1969-77, a supplement called Atole, containing high quality protein, energy and micronutrients, was provided to women during pregnancy and lactation and to children <7 years of age in two villages while in two control villages a low-energy drink called Fresco was provided...
January 24, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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