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American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30408262/siberian-genetic-diversity-reveals-complex-origins-of-the-samoyedic-speaking-populations
#1
Tatiana M Karafet, Ludmila P Osipova, Olga V Savina, Brian Hallmark, Michael F Hammer
OBJECTIVES: We examined autosomal genome-wide SNPs and Y-chromosome data from 15 Siberian and 12 reference populations to study the affinities of Siberian populations, and to address hypotheses about the origin of the Samoyed peoples. METHODS: Samples were genotyped for 567 096 autosomal SNPs and 147 Y-chromosome polymorphic sites. For several analyses, we used 281 093 SNPs from the intersection of our data with publicly available ancient Siberian samples. To examine genetic relatedness among populations, we applied PCA, FST , TreeMix, and ADMIXTURE analyses...
November 8, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387539/association-of-prepubertal-obesity-with-pubertal-development-in-chinese-girls-and-boys-a-longitudinal-study
#2
Wenyan Li, Qin Liu, Xu Deng, Yiwen Chen, Bo Yang, Xin Huang, Truls Østbye
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of prepubertal body mass index (BMI) and weight status with pubertal development in boys and girls in Chongqing, China. METHODS: In a longitudinal study, 1237 students (695 boys and 542 girls) were recruited from Chongqing, China, and examined at baseline, then followed every 6 months for three and a half years. Height, weight, testicular volume, and breast development were measured at every examination...
November 2, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387532/salivary-steroid-hormone-responses-to-dyadic-table-tennis-competitions-among-hong-kongese-juvenile-boys
#3
Timothy S McHale, Peter B Gray, Ka-Chun Chan, David T Zava, Wai-Chi Chee
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about salivary steroid hormone responses to dyadic competition among prepubescent boys. The current study explored pre-match and post-match testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and cortisol among 22 ethnically Chinese, Hong Kongese table tennis athletes, aged 8-11 years, during dyadic competition against peers. These data provide novel comparative insight into boys' hormone responses when participating in similar forms of competition to that of adults...
November 2, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329195/associations-between-different-weight-related-anthropometric-traits-and-lifestyle-factors-in-norwegian-children-and-adolescents-a-case-for-measuring-skinfolds
#4
Hege Kristiansen, Geir Egil Eide, Bente Brannsether, Mathieu Roelants, Robert Bjerknes, Pétur B Júlíusson
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between weight-related anthropometric measures and children's eating habits, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle at a population level. METHODS: Data from the Bergen Growth Study were used to study the association of z-scores of waist circumference (WC), weight-to-height ratio (WHtR), subscapularis (SSF) and triceps (TSF) skinfolds and BMI, with lifestyle factors in 3063 Norwegian children (1543 boys) aged 4-15 years, using linear regression analysis...
October 17, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329191/time-to-pregnancy-and-offspring-finger-length-ratio-2d-4d
#5
Mahvash Shere, Tye E Arbuckle, Patricia Monnier, William Fraser, Maria P Velez
OBJECTIVES: Time-to-Pregnancy (TTP) is an epidemiological tool to assess couple fecundity. The finger digit ratio (2D:4D) has been suggested as a marker of androgen exposure in utero. Maternal, paternal, or couple-mediated factors related to fecundity may also have an effect on androgen exposure during pregnancy. We aimed to investigate the association between TTP, infertility, or use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) and offspring 2D:4D. METHODS: Data from 673 mother-child pairs were collected from questionnaires in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study across 10 cities in Canada...
October 17, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329190/accuracy-of-self-reported-heights-and-weights-in-a-predominately-low-income-diverse-population-living-in-the-usa
#6
Kate Opichka, Chery Smith
OBJECTIVES: This study explored the accuracy of self-reported heights and weights and factors associated with self-reported bias in a diverse American sample. METHODS: Demographic, self-reported, and measured height and weight data from different studies with the same PI were compiled into one SPSS file and analyzed with paired t-tests to detect differences between self-reported and actual values. Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by pairwise t-tests detected differences among age, ethnicity, sex, income, and education...
October 17, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329184/having-more-siblings-delays-menarche-in-indonesia
#7
Dohyung Kim, Kitae Sohn
OBJECTIVES: Tanner (1968, Scientific American, 218(1), 21-27) concluded that having more siblings delayed menarche, but many subsequent studies have reported diverging results. We thus aimed to investigate whether the initial conclusion remains valid by controlling for sibship size and birth order together, analyzing a large number of observations, drawing on a nationally representative sample, adjusting for childhood socioeconomic status, and considering a developing country. We additionally aimed to assess the importance of sibling sex for age at menarche...
October 17, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30368984/does-a-man-s-testosterone-rebound-as-dependent-children-grow-up-or-when-pairbonds-end-a-test-in-cebu-philippines
#8
Stacy Rosenbaum, Lee T Gettler, Thomas W McDade, Sonny S Bechayda, Christopher W Kuzawa
OBJECTIVE: Cross-culturally, men's T declines in response to pairbonding and fatherhood, but less is known about what happens to T during and after life history transitions that theoretically lead to renewed mating effort. We tested whether men's T rises (or declines less with age) as their children age, or when pairbonds end, independent of changes in fatherhood-related variables such as co-residence with children. METHODS: We used demographic, behavioral, and salivary hormone data (waking and pre-bed T) collected in 2009 and 2014 for the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 571 men)...
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30368978/brown-adipose-tissue-energy-expenditure-and-biomarkers-of-cardio-metabolic-health-among-the-yakut-sakha-of-northeastern-siberia
#9
Stephanie B Levy, Tatiana M Klimova, Raisa N Zakharova, Afanasiy I Federov, Valentina I Fedorova, Marina E Baltakhinova, William R Leonard
OBJECTIVES: This study provides the first investigation of non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity among an indigenous circumpolar population, the Yakut of northeastern Siberia. The study also examines the health significance of BAT activity in this population by testing the relationships between BAT thermogenesis and biomarkers of cardio-metabolic disease risk, such as percent body fat and blood glucose and cholesterol levels. METHODS: Data were collected in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) for 31 men and 43 women...
October 4, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30286524/global-country-level-estimates-of-associations-between-adult-height-and-the-distribution-of-income
#10
M Christopher Auld
OBJECTIVES: This article presents the first estimates of global associations between adult height and the distribution of income, and considers the roles of regional heterogeneity, heterogeneity across low- and high-income countries, and of infant mortality as a potential mediator. METHODS: Linear parametric and semiparametric regressions predicting mean height and sexual dimorphism in height are estimated using data on one cohort born in 1996 with height measured in 2016...
October 4, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30286523/using-micro-computed-tomography-to-investigate-a-fetal-mummy-with-possible-situs-inversus-a-case-report
#11
James V Schanandore
OBJECTIVES: Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to noninvasively examine mummified remains, but can have resolution limitations when analyzing smaller mummified specimens, such as fetal mummies. This short report determines if the enhanced resolution of micro CT improves the anatomical analysis of mummified fetal anatomy. METHODS: A fetal mummy from an anatomical collection was scanned by a micro CT at a resolution of 0.08 mm slice thickness. The mummy was also scanned at a resolution of 0...
October 4, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30260076/do-skin-and-hair-pigmentation-in-prepubertal-and-early-pubertal-stages-correlate-with-2d-4d
#12
Aneta Sitek, Sławomir Kozieł, Anna Kasielska-Trojan, Bogusław Antoszewski
OBJECTIVES: In most human populations women are less pigmented than men. However, before puberty, boys tend to have lighter skin than girls. Previous research has shown that skin pigmentation in European women is negatively correlated with digit ratio (2D:4D). Therefore, it has been hypothesized that skin pigmentation in females is partially controlled by prenatal hormones. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between 2D:4D and pigmentation in girls and boys in the prepubertal or early pubertal stages of ontogenesis...
September 27, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30260059/quantitative-discrimination-of-deformation-in-fueguian-crania
#13
Alina Lucea, Miquel Salicrú, Daniel Turbón
OBJECTIVES: Artificial deformation of the cranium in humans has been related to powerful environmental-cultural stimuli that modify vectors of growth and development when the cranium is still malleable. Osteological differentiation into deformed and nondeformed remains enables the morphological information of individuals that make up ethnic groups or populations to be separately contrasted, the invariant measurements of deformation to be identified, the information provided by archeological remains to be placed in a social context, the cranial variation to be related to genetic variation (individuals without deformation), and predictions to be made (in the absence of direct genetic information)...
September 27, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30251320/the-influence-of-maternal-height-on-offspring-s-birth-weight-in-merida-mexico
#14
Hugo Azcorra, Nina Mendez
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the influence of maternal height (MH) on offspring's birth weight (BW) in infants born from January 2016 to May 2017, in Merida, Mexico. METHODS: A total of 3462 singletons born at term in a public hospital were analyzed. Data extracted from hospital records were MH; number of previous births; and infant's sex, BW, and gestational length. MH was divided into 4 categories at quartile points: Q1:129-147, Q2:148-151, Q3:152-155, and Q4:156-180 cm...
September 24, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30251293/no-clear-evidence-for-correlations-between-handgrip-strength-and-sexually-dimorphic-acoustic-properties-of-voices
#15
Chengyang Han, Hongyi Wang, Vanessa Fasolt, Amanda C Hahn, Iris J Holzleitner, Junpeng Lao, Lisa M DeBruine, David R Feinberg, Benedict C Jones
OBJECTIVES: Recent research on the signal value of masculine physical characteristics in men has focused on the possibility that such characteristics are valid cues of physical strength. However, evidence that sexually dimorphic vocal characteristics are correlated with physical strength is equivocal. Consequently, we undertook a further test for possible relationships between physical strength and masculine vocal characteristics. METHODS: We tested the putative relationships between White UK (N = 115) and Chinese (N = 106) participants' handgrip strength (a widely used proxy for general upper-body strength) and five sexually dimorphic acoustic properties of voices: fundamental frequency (F0), fundamental frequency's SD (F0-SD), formant dispersion (Df), formant position (Pf), and estimated vocal-tract length (VTL)...
September 24, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30251289/relationships-between-the-digit-ratio-2d-4d-and-game-related-statistics-in-professional-and-semi-professional-male-basketball-players
#16
Katelyn L Klapprodt, John S Fitzgerald, Sandra E Short, John T Manning, Grant R Tomkinson
OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to examine relationships between digit ratio (2D:4D) and game-related statistics in professional and semi-professional male basketball players. The secondary aim was to quantify differences in mean 2D:4Ds between starting and reserve players. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, 93 male basketball players from the professional Australian National Basketball League and the semi-professional South Australian Premier League were measured in-season for height, mass, and 2D:4D, with game-related statistics collected end-season...
September 24, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30251288/the-influence-of-lifestyle-diet-and-reproductive-history-on-age-at-natural-menopause-in-spain-analysis-from-the-epic-spain-sub-cohort
#17
Leila Lujan-Barroso, Karina Gibert, Mireia Obón-Santacana, María Dolores Chirlaque, María-Jose Sánchez, Nerea Larrañaga, Aurelio Barricarte, Jose Ramón Quirós, Elena Salamanca-Fernández, Sandra Colorado-Yohar, Basilio Gómez-Pozo, Antonio Agudo, Eric J Duell
OBJECTIVE: To determinate the role of lifestyle factors, recent diet, menstrual factors, and reproductive history in age at natural menopause in adult Spanish women. METHODS: In total, 12 562 pre-menopausal women were available for analysis from the EPIC-Spain sub-cohort. Women were recruited between 1992 and 1996 in five regions of Spain (Asturias, Granada, Murcia, Navarra, and San Sebastian) and, for these analyses, were followed for 3 years. Questionnaires on diet, lifestyle, anthropometric measurements, and reproductive and exogenous hormones history were collected at baseline...
September 24, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30251281/fatherhood-and-psychobiology-in-the-philippines-perspectives-on-joint-profiles-and-longitudinal-changes-of-fathers-estradiol-and-testosterone
#18
Lee T Gettler, Patty X Kuo, Sonny Agustin Bechayda
OBJECTIVES: Research on the psychobiology of partnering and fathering has focused on testosterone (T), oxytocin, and prolactin (PRL) as mechanisms that potentially mediate life history trade-offs related to those roles. Less is known about other hormones that might be responsive to life history transitions and implicated in fathering, such as estradiol (E2). We examined how E2 changed during the transition to marriage and fatherhood, its correlation with fathers' caregiving, and its joint within-individual production with other hormones (T, PRL)...
September 24, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30246426/differences-in-relationships-of-maternal-and-paternal-age-at-childbirth-with-body-fat-distribution-in-offspring
#19
Jingjing Liang, Yangfeng Guo, Meixia Dai, Qipeng Xiao, Weili Cai, Yuanhuan Wei, William Kwame Amakye, Jin Jing, Zheqing Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Although delayed parenthood has been linked to various adverse health outcomes in offspring, little attention has been given to the relationship between an increased parental age at childbirth and fat distribution in offspring. We aimed to determine the relationship between parental age at childbirth and body fat partitioning in Chinese children. METHODS: A total of 463 children (mean age, 8 years; 43% female) were recruited. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to determine the fat mass (FM) and percentage of fat mass (%FM) in various areas of the body...
September 23, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203572/when-women-work-endocrine-reactivity-in-women-during-everyday-physical-activity-at-high-altitude
#20
Mallika S Sarma, Lee T Gettler, Geoff Childs, Elizabeth A Quinn
OBJECTIVES: This study explores the acute endocrine reactivity of testosterone and cortisol in women engaging in everyday physical activity in a high altitude environment. METHODS: Data were collected from 35 women living in the Himalayas, with women recruited from both high (>10 000 ft.) and low altitude villages (<10 000 ft.). Saliva samples were collected at 3 time points (pre-activity, 30 and 60 minutes) and women wore the wGT3X-BT Actigraph during an hour of everyday work to assess the relationship between high altitude, endocrine reactivity, and physical activity...
September 11, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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