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American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799680/in-memoriam-alexander-francis-roche-1921-2017
#1
Steven B Heymsfield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786516/secular-trend-and-social-variation-in-age-at-menarche-among-polish-schoolgirls-before-and-after-the-political-transformation
#2
Aleksandra Gomula, Slawomir Koziel
OBJECTIVES: To describe the biological results of the political and economic transformations that took place in Poland between 1966 and 2012, based on an analysis of age at menarche, and to determine changes across social groups. METHODS: Data were collected in 1966, 1978, 1988, and 2012 in several districts of Poland. The study included 34,940 schoolgirls. Age at menarche was assessed with the use of status quo method. Definition of socioeconomic status was based on 4 factors: urbanization level, mother and father education, and family size...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759132/is-early-postnatal-growth-velocity-a-proxy-of-minipubertal-androgen-action-related-to-adult-second-to-fourth-digit-2d-4d-ratios-in-men-a-test-in-cebu-philippines
#3
Alexander V Georgiev, Calen P Ryan, Judith B Borja, Christopher W Kuzawa
OBJECTIVES: The ratio of the length of the second to the fourth digit (2D:4D) of the hand is often used as an index of prenatal androgen exposure but it might also be affected by androgens during "minipuberty," a period of temporarily high testosterone (T) production in the first few months of life. To examine this, we tested the prediction that men with lower 2D:4D ratios had greater weight growth velocities during the first months of life-a metric recently shown to correlate with concurrent T levels...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742271/genetic-genealogy-approach-reveals-low-rate-of-extrapair-paternity-in-historical-dutch-populations
#4
Maarten H D Larmuseau, Sofie Claerhout, Leen Gruyters, Kelly Nivelle, Michiel Vandenbosch, Anke Peeters, Pieter van den Berg, Tom Wenseleers, Ronny Decorte
OBJECTIVE: Evolutionary theory has shown that seeking out extrapair paternity (EPP) can be a viable reproductive strategy for both sexes in pair-bonded species, also in humans. As yet, estimates of the contemporary or historical EPP rate in human population are still rare. In the present study, we estimated the historical EPP rate in the Dutch population over the last 400 years and compared the rate with those obtained for other human populations to determine the evolutionary, cultural, and socio-demographic factors that influence human cuckoldry behavior...
July 25, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726338/household-fear-of-deportation-in-mexican-origin-families-relation-to-body-mass-index-percentiles-and-salivary-uric-acid
#5
Airín D Martínez, Lillian Ruelas, Douglas A Granger
OBJECTIVE: Fear of deportation (FOD) is a prevalent concern among mixed-status families. Yet, our understanding of how FOD shapes human health and development is in its infancy. To begin to address this knowledge gap, we examined the relationship between household FOD, body mass index (BMI) percentiles and salivary uric acid (sUA), a biomarker related to oxidative stress/hypertension/metabolic syndrome, among 111 individuals living in Mexican-origin families. METHODS: Participants were 65 children (2 months-17 years, 49% female) and 46 adults (20-58 years, 71% female) living in 30 Mexican-origin families with at least one immigrant parent in Phoenix, AZ...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726295/antioxidant-defense-and-oxidative-damage-vary-widely-among-high-altitude-residents
#6
Allison J Janocha, Suzy A A Comhair, Buddha Basnyat, Maniraj Neupane, Amha Gebremedhin, Anam Khan, Kristin S Ricci, Renliang Zhang, Serpil C Erzurum, Cynthia M Beall
OBJECTIVES: People living at high altitude experience unavoidable low oxygen levels (hypoxia). While acute hypoxia causes an increase in oxidative stress and damage despite higher antioxidant activity, the consequences of chronic hypoxia are poorly understood. The aim of the present study is to assess antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in high-altitude natives and upward migrants. METHODS: Individuals from two indigenous high-altitude populations (Amhara, n = 39), (Sherpa, n = 34), one multigenerational high-altitude population (Oromo, n = 42), one upward migrant population (Nepali, n = 12), and two low-altitude reference populations (Amhara, n = 29; Oromo, n = 18) provided plasma for measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as a marker of antioxidant capacity, and urine for measurement of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a marker of DNA oxidative damage...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719103/associations-between-neighborhood-food-environments-and-deficient-protein-intake-among-elderly-people-in-a-metropolitan-suburb-a-case-study-in-kisarazu-city-japan
#7
Yuri Hamamatsu, Chiho Goto, Masaru Nishitani, Riko Shimadate, Junko Ueno, Yoko Kusakari, Masahiro Umezaki
OBJECTIVES: Living in a poor food environment and its association with an increased risk of inadequate nutrient intake are increasingly important issues in Japan due to an increase in the elderly population. METHODS: The present study examined the relationships between neighborhood food environment and the protein and fat intakes of elderly Japanese individuals (n = 181) living in the metropolitan Tokyo suburb of Kisarazu. RESULTS: A logistic regression analysis adjusted for sociodemographic and shopping behavior variables revealed associations between subjectively evaluated poor neighborhood food environment and deficient protein intake...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712155/economic-activity-and-patterns-of-infant-growth-in-a-high-altitude-district-of-peru
#8
Morgan K Hoke
OBJECTIVES: Changing economic activities bring significant cultural, epidemiological, and nutritional transitions. Infancy represents a critical period when rapid growth and metabolic programming occur, making infants particularly vulnerable to long-lasting biological changes due to such transitions. This paper examines the relationship between residence in distinct economic production zones (urban, herding, and dairy) and early growth in a highland district of Peru. METHODS: The length, weight, body mass index, and triceps skinfold of 93 infants (55 boys and 38 girls, aged 2 to 24 months) from 3 economic zones were measured at two time points 6 months apart...
July 16, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712140/pregnancy-and-immune-stimulation-re-imagining-the-fetus-as-parasite-to-understand-age-related-immune-system-changes-in-us-women
#9
Anna C Rivara, Elizabeth M Miller
OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy can increase production of Immunoglobulin E (IgE), an immune response more often directed towards parasite infections. An absence of parasitism makes the US population ideal to test the hypothesis that the maternal immune system recognizes a fetus as a parasite. We predict that total IgE levels are positively associated with a history of pregnancy across all ages of adult women, mirroring patterns of IgE in parasitized populations. METHODS: Reproductive-aged women (n = 2201) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 were analyzed in a cross-sectional design using complex survey regression and multiple imputation to evaluate associations between total IgE levels, pregnancy history, and interactions between age and pregnancy...
July 16, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699696/scaling-children-s-waist-circumference-for-differences-in-body-size
#10
Alan M Nevill, Michael J Duncan, Ian M Lahart, Paul Davies, Robinson Ramirez-Velez, Gavin Sandercock
OBJECTIVES: Both waist circumference (WC) and body size (height) increase with age throughout childhood. Hence, there is a need to scale WC in children to detect differences in adiposity status (eg, between populations and different age groups), independent of body size/height. METHODS: Using two culturally different samples, 1 English (10-15.9 years n = 9471) and 2 Colombian (14-15 years, n = 37,948), for WC to be independent of height (HT), a body shape index was obtained using the allometric power law WC = a...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699683/agreement-between-specific-measures-of-adiposity-and-associations-with-high-blood-pressure-in-black-south-african-women
#11
Herculina S Kruger, Chrisna Botha-Ravyse, Lize Havemann-Nel, Maretha Doubell, Johannes M van Rooyen
OBJECTIVES: To derive percentage body fat (%BF) cut-points according to body mass index (BMI) categories for adult black South African women and to investigate the agreement between adiposity classifications according to WHO BMI and %BF cut-points. The secondary aim was to determine the association between these different adiposity measures and high blood pressure. METHODS: Black women aged 29-65 years (n = 435) from Ikageng, South Africa, were included in this cross-sectional study...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688197/body-size-of-young-adult-polish-college-age-women-born-before-during-and-after-wwii
#12
Grażyna Liczbińska, Zbigniew Czapla, Robert M Malina, Janusz Piontek
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the young adult body size of Polish female university students born before, during, and after WWII. METHODS: Age, height, and weight of 492 students measured between 1956 and 1972 were accessed from the Department of Anthropology archives (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań). The sample was divided into three birth year cohorts relative to WWII: before (n = 120), during (n = 196), and after (n = 176)...
July 8, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681419/linear-and-nonlinear-relationships-between-body-mass-index-and-physical-fitness-in-brazilian-children-and-adolescents
#13
Vítor P Lopes, Marco Cossio-Bolaños, Rossana Gómez-Campos, Miguel de Arruda, Jefferson Eduardo Hespanhol, Luis P Rodrigues
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the linear and curvilinear relationship between body mass index (BMI) and physical fitness in children and adolescents. METHODS: Participants were 4567 (2505 girls) children aged 6-16 years. Weight and height were measured and BMI was calculated and adjusted for age and sex using WHO z-scores. Physical fitness was evaluated with the following tests: Yo-Yo test, standing long jump, seated 2-kg medicine ball throw, and 20-m dash...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681406/food-insecurity-partially-mediates-associations-between-social-disadvantage-and-body-composition-among-older-adults-in-india-results-from-the-study-on-global-ageing-and-adult-health-sage
#14
Joshua M Schrock, Heather H McClure, J Josh Snodgrass, Melissa A Liebert, Karen E Charlton, Perianayagam Arokiasamy, Nirmala Naidoo, Paul Kowal
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to test whether food insecurity mediates cross-sectional associations between social disadvantage and body composition among older adults (aged 50+) in India (n = 6556). METHODS: Adjusting for key sociodemographic and dietary variables, we examined whether markers of social disadvantage (lower educational attainment, lower household wealth, belonging to a disadvantaged caste/tribe, and belonging to a minority religion) were associated with food insecurity...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675593/analysis-of-admixture-proportions-in-seven-geographical-regions-of-the-state-of-guerrero-mexico
#15
José Ángel Cahua-Pablo, Miguel Cruz, Pedro Vidal Tello-Almaguer, Luz Carmen Del Alarcón-Romero, Esteban Juan Parra, Salvador Villerías-Salinas, Adán Valladares-Salgado, Vianet Argelia Tello-Flores, Abigail Méndez-Palacios, Claudia Paola Pérez-Macedonio, Eugenia Flores-Alfaro
OBJECTIVE: Mexico's current population structure has been defined by admixture between European, Native American, and to some extent African, groups that started in the sixteenth century. The aim of this research was to analyze the relative contributions of these continental population groups to the seven regions of the state of Guerrero, Mexico. METHODS: A total of 104 ancestry informative markers were analyzed in 480 unrelated women from the seven regions of the state of Guerrero...
July 4, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667803/abdominal-obesity-in-adolescents-development-of-age-specific-waist-circumference-cut-offs-linked-to-adult-idf-criteria
#16
Jorge Bravo, Armando M Raimundo, Diana A Santos, Rafael Timón, Luís B Sardinha
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to develop age- and sex-specific waist circumference (WC) cut-off points, linked to older adolescent and adult criteria for abdominal obesity, to be applied to children in the clinical setting. METHODS: A total of 16,788 adolescents aged 10 to 16 years were assessed for WC. Smoothed age and sex-specific WC curves were obtained using Cole's LMS method. RESULTS: Percentiles that corresponded to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) recommendations used for older adolescents and adults (16+ years old) were the 97(th) percentile for boys and the 87(th) percentile for girls...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667791/a-matter-of-perception-perceived-socio-economic-status-and-cortisol-on-the-island-of-utila-honduras
#17
Angela R García, Michael Gurven, Aaron D Blackwell
OBJECTIVES: Numerous studies link low objective and subjective socioeconomic status (SES) to chronic activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Here, we examine associations between objective and subjective SES and diurnal salivary cortisol, a primary HPA component, as well as demographic and ecological predictors associated with SES perceptions and changes in diurnal cortisol. METHODS: Participants were residents (age 18-79, n = 61) of Utila, a Honduran island where economic disparities are overt and geographically contained...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664594/evaluation-of-baseline-frequency-of-sister-chromatid-exchanges-in-an-italian-population-according-to-age-sex-smoking-habits-and-gene-polymorphisms
#18
Alfredo Santovito, Claudio Gendusa, Piero Cervella
OBJECTIVES: Increased SCEs frequencies in human lymphocytes are an indicator of spontaneous chromosome instability and could be influenced by different exogenous and endogenous factors. In this study, we evaluated the influence of age, sex, smoking habits, and genetic polymorphisms on the background levels of SCEs in peripheral blood lymphocytes. METHODS: Two hundred-thirty healthy Italian subjects were recruited. Data about age, sex and smoking habits were recorded...
June 30, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653814/normative-data-for-quantitative-calcaneal-ultrasound-in-young-males-and-females
#19
María Correa-Rodríguez, Emilio González-Jiménez, Pedro A García, Blanca Rueda-Medina, Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle
OBJECTIVE: The quantitative ultrasound (QUS) method has been recognized as an optimal screening tool for assessing bone mass status. The aim of this study was to provide standardized values for bone health status measured by the QUS technique based on age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: The study population consisted of 1322 healthy individuals (822 females and 500 males) aged 14-25 years. Bone mass in both calcaneus was estimated with QUS to obtain Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) (dB/MHz)...
June 27, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653803/mitochondrial-dna-haplogroup-variation-of-contemporary-mixed-south-americans-reveals-prehistoric-displacements-linked-to-archaeologically-derived-culture-history
#20
Francisco Rothhammer, Lars Fehren-Schmitz, Giannina Puddu, José Capriles
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine South American population structure and prehistoric population displacements prior to the Spanish conquest, utilizing mitochondrial DNA haplogroups of extant mixed populations from Mexico, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile. METHOD: Relative frequencies of four pan-American haplogroups, obtained from published databases, were analyzed to evaluate patterns of variations, population structure and possible prehistoric migration pathways...
June 27, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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