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American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159983/frequency-of-folate-related-polymorphisms-varies-by-skin-pigmentation
#1
Patrice Jones, Mark Lucock, Martin Veysey, Nina Jablonski, George Chaplin, Emma Beckett
OBJECTIVES: Folate-mediated 1-carbon transfer processes are vital in human health but are susceptible to independent and interactive influences of genetic variance and environmental exposures. Evidence suggests folate levels may be impacted by genetic variance and environmental UVR, with the effect of UVR levels influenced in part by degree of skin pigmentation. Folate-related genes are also influenced by UVR levels; however, the potential relationship between key folate-related genes and skin pigmentation has not yet been explored...
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143402/association-between-objectively-measured-sedentary-behavior-and-a-criterion-measure-of-obesity-among-adults
#2
Junbae Mun, Youngdeok Kim, James L Farnsworth, Sunghyeok Suh, Minsoo Kang
OBJECTIVE: Results of published studies on the association between sedentary behavior (SB) and obesity are inconsistent, possibly due to reliance on subjective measures of SB and inappropriate measures of obesity. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between objectively measured SB and criterion-measured obesity among adults. METHODS: A total of 2284 adults (≥18 years) from the 2003 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in the analysis...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139168/hunter-gatherer-dental-pathology-do-historic-accounts-of-aboriginal-australians-correspond-to-the-archeological-record-of-dental-disease
#3
Judith Littleton
OBJECTIVES: Studies of hunter-gatherer oral pathology, particularly in Australia, often focus upon dental wear and caries or assume that historic studies of Aboriginal people reflect the precontact past. Consequently the range of population variation has been underestimated. In this paper dental pathology from human remains from Roonka are compared with a model of dental pathology derived from historic studies. The aim is to identify aspects of dental pathology indicative of regional or intra-population diversity...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139165/secular-change-in-adult-stature-of-modern-greeks
#4
Andreas Bertsatos, Maria-Eleni Chovalopoulou
OBJECTIVES: In Greece, during the late 19th and early 20th century, the rural population adopted a more or less urban lifestyle. Furthermore, the first half of the 20th century finds Greece involved in five major wars, including a civil war, and consequent financial deprivation. This study investigates how the socioeconomic changes in Greece, during this period of time, have affected the stature of its population. METHODS: The Athens collection constitutes our sample with 189 adult individuals (104 males and 85 females)...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134747/no-sex-difference-in-digit-ratios-2d-4d-in-the-traditional-yali-of-papua-and-its-meaning-for-the-previous-hypotheses-on-the-inter-populational-variability-in-2d-4d
#5
Michalina Marczak, Michał Misiak, Agnieszka Sorokowska, Piotr Sorokowski
OBJECTIVES: The ratio between the 2nd and 4th digit (2D:4D) is considered to be a sexually dimorphic trait in humans, with males having on average lower 2D:4D values than females. However, significant inter- and intra-sexual differences in digit ratios across populations have been reported. In order to further explore factors influencing the variability of 2D:4D, we performed a study among the Yali, a traditional population from Papua. METHODS: We measured digit ratios of 79 adults (47 males) from the traditional Yali society, a polygamous group who inhabit a harsh high-mountain environment almost directly on the equator...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130592/accounting-for-measurement-error-in-human-life-history-trade-offs-using-structural-equation-modeling
#6
Samuli Helle
OBJECTIVES: Revealing causal effects from correlative data is very challenging and a contemporary problem in human life history research owing to the lack of experimental approach. Problems with causal inference arising from measurement error in independent variables, whether related either to inaccurate measurement technique or validity of measurements, seem not well-known in this field. The aim of this study is to show how structural equation modeling (SEM) with latent variables can be applied to account for measurement error in independent variables when the researcher has recorded several indicators of a hypothesized latent construct...
November 11, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083078/a-decade-of-rapid-change-biocultural-influences-on-child-growth-in-highland-peru
#7
Kathryn S Oths, Hannah N Smith, Max J Stein, Rodrigo J Lazo Landivar
OBJECTIVES: In the past decade many areas of Peru have been undergoing extreme environmental, economic, and cultural change. In the highland hamlet of Chugurpampa, La Libertad, climate change has ruined harvests and led to frequent periods of migration to the coast in search of livelihood. This biocultural research examines how the changes could be affecting the growth of children who maintain residence in the highlands. METHODS: Clinical records from the early 2000s were compared to those from the early 2010s...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083077/separating-the-bruce-and-trivers-willard-effects-in-theory-and-in-human-data
#8
Ralph Catalano, Alison Gemmill, Joan Casey, Deborah Karasek, Holly Stewart, Katherine Saxton
OBJECTIVES: Theories of reproductive suppression predict that natural selection would conserve mechanisms that abort the gestation of offspring otherwise unlikely to thrive in prevailing environments. Research reports evidence among humans of at least two such mechanisms-the Trivers-Willard and Bruce Effects. No literature, however, compares the mechanisms nor estimates their relative contribution to observed characteristics of human birth cohorts. We describe similarities and differences between the Trivers-Willard and Bruce Effects and explore high quality historical data from Sweden to determine which mechanism better describes temporal variation in the ratio of males to females in birth cohorts...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071763/stress-sex-and-plague-patterns-of-developmental-stress-and-survival-in-pre-and-post-black-death-london
#9
Sharon N DeWitte
OBJECTIVES: Previous research revealed declines in survivorship in London before the Black Death (c. 1346-1353), and improvements in survivorship following the epidemic. These trends indicate that there were declines in general levels of health before the Black Death and improvements thereof afterwards. This study expands on previous research by examining whether changes in survivorship were consistent between the sexes, and how patterns of developmental stress markers changed before and after the Black Death...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024156/relationships-between-the-second-to-fourth-digit-ratio-2d-4d-and-game-related-statistics-in-semi-professional-female-basketball-players
#10
Makailah Dyer, Sandra E Short, Martin Short, John T Manning, Grant R Tomkinson
OBJECTIVE: Digit ratio (2D:4D) is a negative correlate of sports performance, although this relationship may be weak in open-skill sports such as basketball. The primary aim was to quantify relationships between 2D:4D and game-related statistics in semi-professional female basketball players. The secondary aim was to quantify the differences in mean 2D:4Ds between players based on their position in the starting lineup. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, 64 female basketball players who competed in the South Australian Premier League were measured in-season for height, mass, and 2D:4D, with game-related statistics collected end-season...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994489/short-term-resource-allocation-during-extensive-athletic-competition
#11
Daniel P Longman, Sean P Prall, Eric C Shattuck, Ian D Stephen, Jay T Stock, Jonathan C K Wells, Michael P Muehlenbein
OBJECTIVES: Following predictions from life history theory, we sought to identify acute trade-offs between reproductive effort (as measured by psychological arousal) and somatic maintenance (via functional measures of innate immunity) during conditions of severe energetic imbalance. METHODS: Sixty-six male ultramarathon runners (ages 20 to 37 years) were sampled before and after a lengthy race. Saliva and sera were collected for testosterone and immunological analyses (hemolytic complement activity and bacterial killing ability)...
October 10, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987018/validation-of-multi-frequency-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-versus-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-to-measure-body-fat-percentage-in-overweight-obeses-colombian-adults
#12
Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Alejandra Tordecilla-Sanders, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Katherine González-Ruíz, Emilio González-Jiménez, Hector Reynaldo Triana-Reina, Antonio García-Hermoso, Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle
OBJECTIVES: To verify the validity of multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (mBCA) for predicting body fat percentage (BF%) in overweight/obese adults using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference method. METHODS: Forty-eight adults participated (54% women, mean age = 41.0 ± 7.3 years old). The Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between BIA and BF% assessed by DXA. The concordance between BF% measured by both methods was obtained with Lin's concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman difference plots...
October 7, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984396/association-of-common-genetic-variants-with-human-skin-color-variation-in-indian-populations
#13
Anujit Sarkar, Madhusudan R Nandineni
OBJECTIVES: Human skin color is one of the most conspicuously variable physical traits that has attracted the attention of physical anthropologists, social scientists and human geneticists. Although several studies have established the underlying genes and their variants affecting human skin color, they were mostly confined to Europeans and Africans and similar studies in Indian populations have been scanty. Studying the association between candidate genetic variants and skin color will help to validate previous findings and to better understand the molecular mechanism of skin color variation...
October 6, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984395/the-cost-of-reproduction-in-women-reproductive-effort-and-oxidative-stress-in-premenopausal-and-postmenopausal-american-women
#14
Anna Ziomkiewicz, Amara Frumkin, Yawei Zhang, Amelia Sancilio, Richard G Bribiescas
OBJECTIVES: Life history theory predicts a trade-off between female investment in reproduction and somatic maintenance, which can result in accelerated senescence. Oxidative stress has been shown to be a causal physiological mechanism for accelerated aging and a possible contributor to this trade-off. We aimed to test the hypothesis for the existence of significant associations between measures of reproductive effort and the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in premenopausal and postmenopausal American women...
October 6, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976046/positive-effects-of-refugee-presence-on-host-community-nutritional-status-in-turkana-county-kenya
#15
Rieti G Gengo, Rahul C Oka, Varalakshmi Vemuru, Mark Golitko, Lee T Gettler
OBJECTIVES: Refugee camps are often assumed to negatively impact local host communities through resource competition and conflict. We ask instead whether economic resources and trade networks associated with refugees have benefits for host community health and nutrition. To address this question we assess the impacts of Kakuma Refugee Camp in northwest Kenya, comparing anthropometric indicators of nutritional status between Turkana communities in the region. METHODS: Participants were recruited at four sites in Turkana County (N = 586): Kakuma Town, adjacent to Kakuma Refugee Camp; Lorugum, an area with sustained economic development; Lokichoggio, formerly host to international NGOs, and now underdeveloped; and Lorengo, an undeveloped, rural community...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963803/resting-metabolic-rate-of-indian-junior-soccer-players-testing-agreement-between-measured-versus-selected-predictive-equations
#16
Keren Susan Cherian, Faaiza Shahkar, Ashok Sainoji, Nagalla Balakrishna, Venkata Ramana Yagnambhatt
OBJECTIVES: Owing to a dearth of research related to Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) among adolescent athletes in India, our study aimed to document RMR among junior soccer players (JSP) and to identify suitable RMR predictive models for JSP from nine existing equations. METHODS: Forty Indian JSP (Boys = 21, Girls = 19) representing the under-12 and under-16 age categories were assessed for body composition (skinfold technique) and RMR (oxycon mobile). Two-way ANOVA and ANCOVA were used to examine the differences across age and sex...
September 30, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963788/the-association-of-air-pollution-with-height-evidence-from-hong-kong-s-children-of-1997-birth-cohort
#17
Jian V Huang, Gabriel M Leung, C Mary Schooling
OBJECTIVES: Within populations, height is positively associated with economic success and in economically developed populations inversely associated with health. Recent studies also suggest air pollution may result in higher bone turnover markers among children, which may affect growth. However, few studies have investigated the effect of air pollution on height or growth rate. We therefore assessed the associations of several air pollutants with height at different ages. METHODS: We simultaneously assessed associations of particulate matter with a diameter of 10 micrometers or less (PM10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) in utero, in infancy, and in childhood with height at different ages (∼9, ∼11, ∼13, and ∼15 years), in a population-representative birth cohort "Children of 1997" (n = 8327) from the developed non-Western setting of Hong Kong with relatively high air pollution and short children, using partial least square regression...
September 30, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960565/mutual-compensation-of-the-effects-of-religious-and-ethnic-homogamy-on-reproduction
#18
Susanne Huber, Martin Fieder
OBJECTIVES: Homogamy, mating based on similarity, has been demonstrated for a great variety of traits such as age, education, religion, and physical and psychological traits. Recently, pro-fertile effects of religious as well as educational homogamy have been reported. We investigate whether ethnic homogamy also has a pro-fertile effect and whether ethnic and religious homogamy interact in their putative effects on reproduction (in terms of average number of offspring). METHODS: We analyzed the association between ethnic as well as religious homogamy and woman's average number of offspring based on census data from ten countries provided by IPUMS international, encompassing a total of 1,485,433 married women aged 46-60 years (who have thus completed or almost completed reproduction) and their spouses...
September 27, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949426/evaluating-minimally-invasive-sample-collection-methods-for-telomere-length-measurement
#19
Elisabeth A Goldman, Geeta N Eick, Devan Compton, Paul Kowal, J Josh Snodgrass, Dan T A Eisenberg, Kirstin N Sterner
OBJECTIVES: Telomere length (TL) is a biomarker of aging and age-related decline. Although venous blood is considered the "gold standard" for TL measurement, its collection is often not feasible or desired in nonclinical settings. Saliva and dried blood spots (DBS) have been used as alternatives when venipuncture cannot be performed. However, it is not known whether these sample types yield TL measurements comparable to those obtained from venous blood. We sought to determine whether different samples from the same individual yield comparable TL measurements...
September 26, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940503/measuring-arterial-blood-pressure-in-humans-auscultatory-and-automatic-measurement-techniques-for-human-biological-field-studies
#20
Gary D James, Linda M Gerber
Human biologists have been examining arterial blood pressure since they began studying the effects of the environment and culture on the health of diverse populations. The Korotkoff auscultatory technique with a trained observer and aneroid sphygmomanometer is the method of choice for blood pressure measurement in many bioanthropological field contexts. Korotkoff sounds (the first and fifth phases) are the preferred determinants of systolic and diastolic pressure, even in infants, children, pregnant women, and the elderly...
September 22, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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