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American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083975/hay-fever-asthma-and-eczema-and-early-infectious-diseases-among-children-in-kilimanjaro-tanzania
#1
Katherine Wander, Bettina Shell-Duncan, Eleanor Brindle, Kathleen O'Connor
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hygiene (or "old friends") hypothesis in a high-infectious disease (ID) environment, rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. METHODS: Among a cross-sectional sample of 2- to 7-year-old children, we collected physician-diagnosed hay fever, asthma, and eczema, history of hospitalization, family size, and household environment information via questionnaire; performed active and passive surveillance for ID; and, evaluated total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and biomarkers of inflammation in dried blood spot specimens...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054420/parent-offspring-conflict-over-family-size-in-current-china
#2
Jianghua Liu, Chongli Duan, Virpi Lummaa
OBJECTIVES: In China, the recent replacement of the one-child policy with a two-child policy could potentially change family ecology-parents may switch investment from exclusively one child to two. The parent-offspring conflict theory provides testable hypotheses concerning possible firstborn opposition toward further reproduction of their mother, and who wins the conflict. We tested the hypotheses that if there is any opposition, it will differ between sexes, weaken with offspring age and family resource availability, and affect maternal reproductive decision-making...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901293/live-birth-sex-ratios-and-father-s-geographic-origins-in-jerusalem-1964-1976
#3
J Groeger, M Opler, K Kleinhaus, M C Perrin, R Calderon-Margalit, O Manor, O Paltiel, D Conley, S Harlap, D Malaspina
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether ancestry influenced sex ratios of offspring in a birth cohort before parental antenatal sex selection influenced offspring sex. METHODS: We measured the sex ratio as the percent of males according to countries of birth of paternal and maternal grandfathers in 91,459 live births from 1964 to 1976 in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study. Confidence limits (CI) were computed based on an expected sex ratio of 1.05, which is 51.4% male. RESULTS: Of all live births recorded, 51...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901290/early-life-trauma-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-allostatic-load-in-a-sample-of-american-indian-adults
#4
Zaneta Thayer, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker, Michael McDonell, Lonnie Nelson, Dedra Buchwald, Spero Manson
OBJECTIVES: Among American Indians, prior research has found associations between early life trauma and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. Given the physiological changes associated with PTSD, early life trauma could indirectly contribute to chronic disease risk. However, the impact of early life trauma on adult physical health in this population has not been previously investigated. METHODS: We evaluated associations among early life trauma, PTSD, and 13 physiological biomarkers that index cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine, anthropometric, and immune function in adulthood by conducting correlation and structural equation modeling path analyses (N = 197)...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901289/the-influence-of-physical-characteristics-on-the-resting-energy-expenditure-of-youth-a-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Stephen D Herrmann, Robert G McMurray, Youngdeok Kim, Erik A Willis, Minsoo Kang, Thomas McCurdy
OBJECTIVE: To examine the literature on resting energy expenditure (REE) of youth and determine the influence of age, sex, BMI, and body composition on REE. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, BIOSIS Previews, NTIS, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Pascal databases for studies with data on resting metabolic rate, REE, resting oxygen uptake (or VO2 ) in healthy children, youth, or adolescents (age = 1-18 years). Over 200 publications were identified; sixty-one publications met criteria and were included in the meta-analyses, resulting in 142 study population estimates (totaling 5,397 youth) of REE...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891759/sociodemographic-correlates-and-family-aggregation-of-leukocyte-telomere-length-in-adults-and-children-from-mesoamerica
#6
Kerry S Flannagan, Erica C Jansen, Laura S Rozek, Katie M Rentschler, Ana Victoria Roman, Manuel Ramirez-Zea, Eduardo Villamor
OBJECTIVE: Telomere length is a biomarker of cumulative stress and inflammation related to chronic disease risk. We examined the associations of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with sociodemographic and anthropometric variables and estimated LTL family aggregation in Central America, a region with a high burden of chronic disease where LTL has not been studied. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 174 school age children and their parents in the capital cities of Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and the city of Tuxtla-Gutierrez in Mexico...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859847/the-association-of-low-birth-weight-with-serum-c-reactive-protein-in-3-year-old-children-living-in-cuba-a-population-based-prospective-study
#7
Silvia Josefina Venero-Fernández, Hermes Fundora-Hernández, Lourdes Batista-Gutierrez, Ramón Suárez-Medina, Esperanza de la C Mora-Faife, Gladys García-García, Ileana Del Valle-Infante, Liem Gómez-Marrero, John Britton, Andrew W Fogarty
OBJECTIVE: Low birthweight is associated with a decreased risk of childhood leukemia and an increased risk of both cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in adult life. Possible biological mediators include systemic innate immunity and inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that birthweight was inversely associated with serum high sensitivity C reactive protein assay (hsCRP), a measure of both innate immunity and systemic inflammation. METHODS: Data on birthweight and current anthropometric measures along with a range of exposures were collected at 1 and 3 years of age in a population-based cohort study of young children living in Havana, Cuba...
November 18, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862534/father-absence-but-not-fosterage-predicts-food-insecurity-relative-poverty-and-poor-child-health-in-northern-tanzania
#8
David W Lawson, Susan B Schaffnit, Anushé Hassan, Esther Ngadaya, Bernard Ngowi, Sayoki G M Mfinanga, Susan James, Monique Borgerhoff Mulder
OBJECTIVES: The importance of fathers in ensuring child health in rural developing populations is questioned by anthropologists and population health scientists. Existing literature focuses on paternal death and child mortality. A relative lack of studies consider alternative forms of father absence and/or more subtle health outcomes. Here we determine the frequency and form of father absence in northern Tanzania, and its relationship to household food security, wealth, and child anthropometric status...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862528/relationships-among-fat-mass-fat-free-mass-and-height-in-adults-a-new-method-of-statistical-analysis-applied-to-nhanes-data
#9
Richard F Burton
OBJECTIVES: The positive influence of fat mass (FM) on fat-free mass (FFM) has been quantified previously by various methods involving regression analysis of population data, but some are fundamentally flawed through neglect of the tendency of taller individuals to carry more fat. Differences in FFM due to differences in FM-and not directly related to differences in height-are expressed as ΔFFM/ΔFM, denoted KF . The main aims were to find a sounder regression-based method of quantifying KF and simultaneously of estimating mean BMI0 , the BMI of hypothetical fat-free individuals...
November 14, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807904/response-to-commentary-regarding-the-article-lifestyle-mediates-seasonal-changes-in-metabolic-health-among-the-yakut-sakha-of-northeastern-siberia
#10
LETTER
Stephanie B Levy, William R Leonard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801547/utility-of-three-anthropometric-indices-in-assessing-the-cardiometabolic-risk-profile-in-children
#11
Duncan S Buchan, Lynne M Boddy, Fergal M Grace, Elise Brown, Nicholas Sculthorpe, Conor Cunningham, Marie H Murphy, Rebecca Dagger, Lawrence Foweather, Lee E F Graves, Nicola D Hopkins, Gareth Stratton, Julien S Baker
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the ability of BMI, WC, and WHtR to identify increased cardiometabolic risk in pre-adolescents. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving 192 children (10.92 ± 0.58 years, 56% female) from the United Kingdom between 2010 and 2013. Receiver operating characteristic curves determined the discriminatory ability of BMI, WC and WHtR to identify individuals with increased cardiometabolic risk (increased clustered triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, and glucose)...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801546/defying-geometric-similarity-shape-centralization-in-male-uk-offshore-workers
#12
Arthur D Stewart, Robert J Ledingham, Graham Furnace, Hector Williams, Alan M Nevill
OBJECTIVES: Applying geometric similarity predictions of body dimensions to specific occupational groups has the potential to reveal useful ergonomic and health implications. This study assessed a representative sample of the male UK offshore workforce, and examined how body dimensions from sites typifying musculoskeletal development or fat accumulation, differed from predicted values. METHODS: A cross sectional sample was obtained across seven weight categories using quota sampling, to match the wider workforce...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801545/the-allele-frequency-of-aldh2-glu504lys-and-adh1b-arg47his-for-the-ryukyu-islanders-and-their-history-of-expansion-among-east-asians
#13
Kae Koganebuchi, Kuniaki Haneji, Takashi Toma, Keiichiro Joh, Hidenobu Soejima, Kazuma Fujimoto, Hajime Ishida, Motoyuki Ogawa, Tsunehiko Hanihara, Shoji Harada, Shoji Kawamura, Hiroki Oota
OBJECTIVES: A cline of frequencies of the derived allele of the ALDH2 gene, which causes a deficiency of an enzyme and "facial flushing" in humans who drink alcohol, has been known among the people of the Japanese archipelago. This cline is conventionally explained by admixture with immigrants from the Asian continent occurring during the Yayoi period. Previous studies lack sufficient data from the peripheral regions of the indigenous Jomon people, and those data the ADH1B gene that is involved in the Class I ADH gene cluster and contains another variant leading to a functional change...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801534/race-ethnic-comparisons-of-waist-to-height-ratio-for-cardiometabolic-screening-the-study-of-women-s-health-across-the-nation
#14
Rasa Kazlauskaite, Elizabeth F Avery-Mamer, Hong Li, Chandra P Chataut, Imke Janssen, Lynda H Powell, Howard M Kravitz
OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of waist-to-height ratio as a screening tool for cardiometabolic conditions - hypertension, prediabetes/diabetes, dyslipidemia, and subclinical inflammation - in 5 race/ethnic groups of mid-life women. METHODS: Waist-to-height ratio and 4 cardiometabolic conditions were assessed in 3033 premenopausal midlife women (249 Hispanic, 226 Chinese, 262 Japanese, 1435 European-American, and 861 African American). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) were compared across the five race/ethnic groups using waist-to-height ratio to determine the likelihood of the four cardiometabolic conditions...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771938/uv-associated-decline-in-systemic-folate-implications-for-human-nutrigenetics-health-and-evolutionary-processes
#15
Mark Lucock, Emma Beckett, Charlotte Martin, Patrice Jones, John Furst, Zoe Yates, Nina G Jablonski, George Chaplin, Martin Veysey
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine whether UV exposure alters folate status according to C677T-MTHFR genotype, and to consider the relevance of this to human health and the evolutionary model of skin pigmentation. METHODS: Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite data were used to examine surface UV-irradiance, as a marker of UV exposure, in a large (n = 649) Australian cross-sectional study population. PCR/RFLP analysis was used to genotype C677T-MTHFR...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762069/an-introduction-to-microbiome-analysis-for-human-biology-applications
#16
Katherine R Amato
Research examining the gut microbiota is currently exploding, and results are providing new perspectives on human biology. Factors such as host diet and physiology influence the composition and function of the gut microbiota, which in turn affects human nutrition, health, and behavior via interactions with metabolism, the immune system, and the brain. These findings represent an exciting new twist on familiar topics, and as a result, gut microbiome research is likely to provide insight into unresolved biological mechanisms driving human health...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761960/inferring-paternal-history-of-rural-african-derived-brazilian-populations-from-y-chromosomes
#17
Lilian Kimura, Kelly Nunes, Lúcia Inês Macedo-Souza, Jorge Rocha, Diogo Meyer, Regina Célia Mingroni-Netto
OBJECTIVES: Quilombo remnants are relics of communities founded by runaway or abandoned African slaves, but often with subsequent extensive and complex admixture patterns with European and Native Americans. We combine a genetic study of Y-chromosome markers with anthropological surveys in order to obtain a portrait of quilombo structure and history in the region that has the largest number of quilombo remnants in the state of São Paulo. METHODS: Samples from 289 individuals from quilombo remnants were genotyped using a set of 17 microsatellites on the Y chromosome (AmpFlSTR-Yfiler)...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416964/dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-spine-scans-to-determine-abdominal-fat-in-postmenopausal-women
#18
J W Bea, R M Blew, S B Going, C-H Hsu, M C Lee, V R Lee, B J Caan, M L Kwan, T G Lohman
: Body composition may be a better predictor of chronic disease risk than body mass index (BMI) in older populations. OBJECTIVES: We sought to validate spine fat fraction (%) from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) spine scans as a proxy for total abdominal fat. METHODS: Total body DXA scan abdominal fat regions of interest (ROI) that have been previously validated by magnetic resonance imaging were assessed among healthy, postmenopausal women who also had antero-posterior spine scans (n = 103)...
November 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27292446/patterns-of-morphological-integration-in-the-dental-arches-of-individuals-with-malocclusion
#19
Steven F Miller, Kaci C Vela, Steven M Levy, Thomas E Southard, David G Gratton, Lina M Moreno Uribe
OBJECTIVES: In humans, there is a large range of variation in the form of the maxillary and mandibular dental arches. This variation can manifest as either prognathism or retrognathism in either or both arches, which can cause malocclusion and lead to abnormal masticatory function. This study aims to identify aspects of variation and morphological integration existing in the dental arches of individuals with different types of malocclusion. METHODS: Coordinate landmark data were collected along the gingival margins of 397 scanned dental casts and then analyzed using geometric morphometric techniques to explore arch form variation and patterns of morphological integration within each malocclusion type...
November 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27238388/directional-asymmetry-of-upper-limbs-in-a-medieval-population-from-poland-a-combination-of-linear-and-geometric-morphometrics
#20
Anna Maria Kubicka, Przemysław Lubiatowski, Jan Dawid Długosz, Leszek Romanowski, Janusz Piontek
OBJECTIVES: Degrees of upper-limb bilateral asymmetry reflect habitual behavior and activity levels throughout life in human populations. The shoulder joint facilitates a wide range of combined motions due to the simultaneous motion of all three bones: clavicle, scapula, and humerus. Accordingly, we used three-dimensional geometric morphometrics to analyze shape differences in the glenoid cavity and linear morphometrics to obtain the degree of directional asymmetry in a medieval population...
November 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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