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American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439965/identifying-signatures-of-positive-selection-in-pigmentation-genes-in-two-south-asian-populations
#1
Manjari Jonnalagadda, Neeraj Bharti, Yatish Patil, Shantanu Ozarkar, Sunitha Manjari K, Rajendra Joshi, Heather Norton
OBJECTIVES: Skin pigmentation is a polygenic trait showing wide phenotypic variations among global populations. While numerous pigmentation genes have been identified to be under positive selection among European and East populations, genes contributing to phenotypic variation in skin pigmentation within and among South Asian populations are still poorly understood. The present study uses data from the Phase 3 of the 1000 genomes project focusing on two South Asian populations-GIH (Gujarati Indian from Houston, Texas) and ITU (Indian Telugu from UK), so as to decode the genetic architecture involved in adaptation to ultraviolet radiation in South Asian populations...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432711/vdr-gene-methylation-as-a-molecular-adaption-to-light-exposure-historic-recent-and-genetic-influences
#2
Emma L Beckett, Patrice Jones, Martin Veysey, Konsta Duesing, Charlotte Martin, John Furst, Zoe Yates, Nina G Jablonski, George Chaplin, Mark Lucock
OBJECTIVES: The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. We examined whether degree of VDR gene methylation acts as a molecular adaptation to light exposure. We explored this in the context of photoperiod at conception, recent UV irradiance at 305 nm, and gene-latitude effects. METHODS: Eighty subjects were examined for VDR gene-CpG island methylation density. VDR gene variants were also examined by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: Photoperiod at conception was significantly positively related to VDR methylation density, explaining 17% of the variance in methylation (r(2)  = 0...
April 22, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429514/maternal-metabolic-adaptations-to-pregnancy-among-young-women-in-cebu-philippines
#3
Ruby L Fried, Nanette L Mayol, Thom W McDade, Christopher W Kuzawa
OBJECTIVES: Evidence that fetal development has long-term impacts on health has increased interest in maternal-fetal nutrient exchange. Although maternal metabolism is known to change during gestation to accommodate fetal nutrient demands, little is known about these modifications outside of a Western, clinical context. This study characterizes maternal metabolic adaptations to pregnancy, and their associations with offspring birth weight (BW), among women living in the Philippines. METHODS: Fasting glucose, triglycerides, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin were assessed in 808 participants in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines)...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429467/conditional-random-slope-a-new-approach-for-estimating-individual-child-growth-velocity-in-epidemiological-research
#4
Michael Leung, Diego G Bassani, Amy Racine-Poon, Anna Goldenberg, Syed Asad Ali, Gagandeep Kang, Prasanna S Premkumar, Daniel E Roth
OBJECTIVES: Conditioning child growth measures on baseline accounts for regression to the mean (RTM). Here, we present the "conditional random slope" (CRS) model, based on a linear-mixed effects model that incorporates a baseline-time interaction term that can accommodate multiple data points for a child while also directly accounting for RTM. METHODS: In two birth cohorts, we applied five approaches to estimate child growth velocities from 0 to 12 months to assess the effect of increasing data density (number of measures per child) on the magnitude of RTM of unconditional estimates, and the correlation and concordance between the CRS and four alternative metrics...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409864/secular-change-in-adult-stature-associated-with-modernization-in-vanuatu
#5
Kathryn M Olszowy, Cheng Sun, Harold Silverman, Alysa Pomer, Kelsey N Dancause, Chim W Chan, Gwang Lee, Len Tarivonda, Akira Kaneko, Charles Weitz, J Koji Lum, Ralph M Garruto
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether: (1) there is a secular increase in adult stature in Vanuatu, and (2) whether adult stature is positively associated with modernization in Vanuatu. METHODS: This study reports on stature measurements collected on 650 adult (age > 17 years) men and women from four islands of varying economic development in Vanuatu. Measurements were collected as part of the Vanuatu Health Transitions Research Project in 2007 and 2011. RESULTS: Stature increased significantly in adults born between the 1940s and 1960s in Vanuatu, before leveling off in those born between the 1970s and 1990s...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407333/bioarchaeological-profile-of-stress-and-dental-disease-among-ancient-high-altitude-himalayan-communities-of-nepal
#6
Jacqueline T Eng, Mark Aldenderfer
OBJECTIVES: This study examines biological indicators of dental disease and nonspecific stress in human remains of three high altitude Himalayan archaeological sites to test whether shared ecological constraints led to similar bioarchaeological profiles in these markers. METHODS: Samples (n = 170) derive from three sites in Nepal dating to two periods (400-50 BCE and c. 400-650 CE). Dental diseases (caries, antemortem tooth loss, and abscesses) were assessed by both the number of individuals and the number of elements observed, while childhood stress markers included observation of growth disruptions (enamel hypoplasia and adult femur length/stature) and cranial porosities...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398004/lower-face-asymmetry-as-a-marker-for-developmental-instability
#7
Philippe P Hujoel, Erin E Masterson, A-M Bollen
OBJECTIVES: Fluctuating asymmetries in the craniofacial skeleton have been shown to be predictive for mortality from degenerative diseases. We investigate whether lower face asymmetries are a potential marker for the developmental origins of health and disease. METHODS: The lower face of a representative sample of 6654 12- to 17-year old United States (US) adolescents (1966-1970, National Health Examination Survey III) was classified as asymmetric when the mandibular teeth occluded prognathically (forward) or retrognathically (backward) on one side of the face only...
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379645/what-is-significant-about-a-single-nursing-session-an-exploratory-study
#8
Elizabeth M Miller
OBJECTIVES: Researchers and clinicians specializing in breastfeeding often rely on measuring one nursing session to characterize the breastfeeding relationship. However, less is known about the descriptive or statistically predictive characteristics of one nursing session. The purposes of this study are twofold: (1) to explore the relationships between variables in a single nursing session; and (2) to study the association between variables in a single nursing session and infant length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ)...
April 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379637/change-in-postmenarche-anthropometric-indicators-in-indigenous-and-nonindigenous-adolescents-from-chile
#9
Macarena Lara, Patricia Bustos, Hugo Amigo
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the change in anthropometric indicators between menarche and 36 months after menarche among indigenous and non-indigenous adolescents from the Araucanía Region of Chile. METHOD: This was a concurrent cohort study. Of 8,504 girls interviewed, 114 indigenous adolescents and 123 nonindigenous adolescents who had recently experienced menarche were selected. Body mass index (BMI), BMI by age (BMI z-score), waist circumference (WC) and body fat percentage (BF%) were evaluated at menarche and 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months postmenarche...
April 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374557/the-ecology-of-population-dispersal-modeling-alternative-basin-plateau-foraging-strategies-to-explain-the-numic-expansion
#10
Kate E Magargal, Ashley K Parker, Kenneth Blake Vernon, Will Rath, Brian F Codding
OBJECTIVES: The expansion of Numic speaking populations into the Great Basin required individuals to adapt to a relatively unproductive landscape. Researchers have proposed numerous social and subsistence strategies to explain how and why these settlers were able to replace any established populations, including private property and intensive plant processing. Here we evaluate these hypotheses and propose a new strategy involving the use of landscape fire to increase resource encounter rates...
April 4, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370807/a-call-for-action-why-anthropologists-can-and-should-join-the-discussion-on-climate-change-through-education
#11
Lauren N Butaric, Lydia E O Light, Sara L Juengst
Anthropologists, human biologists, and researchers in related fields have been investigating the human-environment interaction and its effects on health for decades. While there have been numerous studies from the medical- and health-sectors pointing to the connection between climate change and health needs, as well as studies advocating for the incorporation of appropriate curricula addressing these needs in medical schools and health-professional programs, this connection is not being systematically taught to our future healthcare professionals...
March 29, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370849/2d-4d-digit-ratio-is-associated-with-cognitive-decline-but-not-frailty-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#12
Celina Gonçalves, Tiago Coelho, Sérgio Machado, Nuno Barbosa Rocha
OBJECTIVES: To understand the relation between 2D:4D ratio, frailty, and cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly people. METHODS: A total of 175 community-dwelling elderly people were included. To determine frailty, participants completed the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) and the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-FI). Cognitive functioning was determined using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). 2D and 4D finger lengths of each hand were measured using a scanner...
March 28, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370787/the-fat-but-fit-paradigm-within-the-context-of-cognitive-function
#13
Meghan K Edwards, Paul D Loprinzi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of the Fat-but-Fit paradigm with cognitive function in an older adult population. METHODS: Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used (N = 2,336 adults 60-85 yrs). Physical activity was assessed via open-ended questions asking about participation in 48 leisure-time activities over the previous 30 days. Using Metabolic Equivalent of Task calculations for each activity, participants were classified as either active or inactive...
March 28, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343369/heavier-birth-weight-associated-with-taller-height-but-not-age-at-menarche-in-us-women-born-1991-1998
#14
Megan Workman, Karina Kelly
OBJECTIVES: Heavier birth weight predicts taller adult height, but it remains unknown the extent to which this additional height increment results from a faster average growth rate versus an extension of the growth period. Aiming to distinguish these effects, this study examined associations between birth weight (BW), age at menarche (an established proxy for growth duration), and near-adult height in a cohort of US young women born in the 1990s. METHODS: Multiple regression evaluated age-adjusted height as an outcome of BW, age at menarche, indicators of family socioeconomic status, and other potential confounders in a sample of US teens who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2007 and 2012 (N = 342)...
March 26, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300336/the-second-epidemiologic-transition-on-the-brink-what-we-can-learn-from-the-island-of-newfoundland-during-the-early-20th-century
#15
Dana M Schmidt, Lisa Sattenspiel
OBJECTIVES: We aim to understand how the second epidemiologic transition unfolded on the island of Newfoundland during the early 20th century. The focus is on changes in predominant causes of mortality throughout this period, urban and rural differences, and comparisons with other Western nations. We explore factors driving these patterns including the economy, nutrition, sanitation, and access to healthcare and discuss their relevance to understanding epidemiologic transitions in other developing regions...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295842/police-work-stressors-and-cardiac-vagal-control
#16
Michael E Andrew, John M Violanti, Ja K Gu, Desta Fekedulegn, Shengqiao Li, Tara A Hartley, Luenda E Charles, Anna Mnatsakanova, Diane B Miller, Cecil M Burchfiel
OBJECTIVES: This study examines relationships between the frequency and intensity of police work stressors and cardiac vagal control, estimated using the high frequency component of heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 360 officers from the Buffalo New York Police Department. Police stress was measured using the Spielberger police stress survey, which includes exposure indices created as the product of the self-evaluation of how stressful certain events were and the self-reported frequency with which they occurred...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295804/family-history-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-parental-lifestyle-behaviors-are-associated-with-offspring-cardiovascular-disease-risk-markers-in-childhood
#17
Danilo R Silva, André O Werneck, Paul J Collings, Rômulo A Fernandes, Décio S Barbosa, Enio R V Ronque, Luís B Sardinha, Edilson S Cyrino
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease risk markers have become more prevalent in childhood. To provide increased understanding of the etiology of this public health issue, we investigated associations between family characteristics with cardiovascular disease risk markers in adolescents from a developing nation. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study data for fasting glucose, lipoproteins (LDL-C and HDL-C), triglycerides, and total cholesterol were collected from 991 adolescents aged 10-17 who were recruited from public schools in Londrina city, Southern Brazil...
March 11, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266086/how-much-impact-do-gains-in-height-have-on-shoulder-breadths-within-taiwanese-families
#18
Bruce Floyd
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates allometric changes in shoulder breadths relative to changes in stature arising from rapidly changing developmental circumstances within 107 Taiwanese families. It speaks to broader issues related to the extent of phenotypic plasticity of body breadths humans are capable of in response to reductions in developmental stressors. METHODS: An examination of relationships between shoulder breadth and height within individuals in each generation was followed by evaluation of patterns of difference between same-sex parent-offspring pairs in height and shoulder breadth...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257149/pubertal-testis-volume-age-at-pubertal-onset-and-adolescent-blood-pressure-evidence-from-hong-kong-s-children-of-1997-birth-cohort
#19
Man Ki Kwok, Gabriel M Leung, C Mary Schooling
OBJECTIVES: A warning from Health Canada suggests that testosterone increases blood pressure (BP). No evidence from large randomized controlled trials is available, and observational studies are confounded by ill-health lowering serum testosterone. To address the evidence gap, we assessed the association of pubertal testicular volume, as a reflection of testosterone production, with BP. METHODS: We examined whether testicular volume was associated with sex-, age-, and height-standardized BP z-score at ∼13 years in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort (n = 5195, 63% follow-up)...
March 3, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251719/high-altitude-agriculture-in-the-titicaca-basin-800-bce-200-ce-impacts-on-nutrition-and-disease-load
#20
Sara L Juengst, Dale L Hutchinson, Sergio J Chávez
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the biological impacts of sedentism and agriculture on humans living in the high altitude landscape of the Titicaca Basin between 800 BCE and CE 200. The transition to agriculture in other global areas resulted in increases in disease and malnutrition; the high altitude of the Titicaca Basin could have exacerbated this. Our objective is to test whether the high altitude of the Titicaca Basin created a marginal environment for early agriculturalists living there, reflected through elevated rates of malnutrition and/or disease...
March 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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