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American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30207617/association-of-early-pregnancy-body-mass-index-and-children-s-birth-weight-with-risk-of-being-overweight-in-childhood
#1
Jing Wang, Enqing Liu, Yue Wang, Yijuan Qiao, Tao Zhang, Baojuan Li, Zhiwei Zhang, Nan Li, Gang Hu
OBJECTIVES: To examine the potential effects of mothers' early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and children's birth weight on childhood overweight/obesity at 1-6 years of age. METHODS: We performed a cohort study in Tianjin, China, using the health care records from the Tianjin maternal and child health care system with 36 719 mother-child pairs from early pregnancy to children at 6 years of age. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the single and joint associations of maternal early pregnancy BMI and children's birth weight with the risks of children being overweight at 1-6 years of age in multivariable-adjusted models...
September 12, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203572/when-women-work-endocrine-reactivity-in-women-during-everyday-physical-activity-at-high-altitude
#2
Mallika S Sarma, Lee T Gettler, Geoff Childs, Elizabeth A Quinn
OBJECTIVES: This study explores the acute endocrine reactivity of testosterone and cortisol in women engaging in everyday physical activity in a high altitude environment. METHODS: Data were collected from 35 women living in the Himalayas, with women recruited from both high (>10 000 ft.) and low altitude villages (<10 000 ft.). Saliva samples were collected at 3 time points (pre-activity, 30 and 60 minutes) and women wore the wGT3X-BT Actigraph during an hour of everyday work to assess the relationship between high altitude, endocrine reactivity, and physical activity...
September 11, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203463/the-consistency-of-circadian-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate-patterns-over-three-months-in-women-employed-in-sedentary-office-jobs
#3
Alexandra M Niclou, Gary D James, Dana H Bovbjerg
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the consistency of the circadian patterns of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) variation over a three-month time frame in women employed outside the home. METHODS: The subjects were 157 healthy women of varying ethnicity (age = 38.2 ± 8.9) who all worked in similar positions at two major medical centers in New York City. Each wore an ambulatory BP monitor during the course of three mid-week work days approximately one month apart...
September 11, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30203432/influence-of-nutritional-status-on-basal-metabolic-rates-among-rural-agriculturalists-of-ngilo-ilo-east-java
#4
Aaron A Miller, Etty Indriati, William R Leonard
OBJECTIVES: Previous research has shown that tropical island populations have reduced basal metabolic rates (BMR) associated with the joint influences of heat stress and undernutrition. This study examines variation in BMR among an indigenous population of Indonesia, and compares these data with those collected from earlier studies in Indonesia. METHODS: Anthropometric dimensions and BMR were measured on a sample of 35 Indonesian adults (28 men, 7 women) from the rural village of Ngilo-Ilo, East Java...
September 11, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198197/epidemic-cycles-and-environmental-pressure-in-colonial-quebec
#5
Tim A Bruckner, Samantha Gailey, Stacey Hallman, Marilyn Amorevieta-Gentil, Lisa Dillon, Alain Gagnon
OBJECTIVES: Research on historical populations in Europe finds that infectious disease epidemics appear to induce predictable cycles in age-specific mortality. We know little, however, about whether such cycles also occurred in less dense founder populations of North America. We used high-quality data on the Quebecois population from 1680 to 1798 to examine the extent to which age-specific mortality showed predictable epidemic cycles. We further examined whether environmental pressures-temperature, lack of precipitation, or crop failure-may have set the stage for the emergence of epidemics...
September 9, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198140/vitamin-d-and-folate-a-reciprocal-environmental-association-based-on-seasonality-and-genetic-disposition
#6
Mark Lucock, Rohith Thota, Manohar Garg, Charlotte Martin, Patrice Jones, John Furst, Zoe Yates, Nina G Jablonski, George Chaplin, Martin Veysey, Jessie M Sutherland, Emma Beckett
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was (1) to elucidate any reciprocal seasonal relationship that might exist between red cell folate (RCF) and serum vitamin D3 Levels; (2) to explore whether folate-related gene variants that influence/alter DNA-thymidylate and methyl group biosynthesis modify any associations detected in objective 1; and (3) to consider whether these processes might influence reproductive success consistent with the "folate-vitamin D-UV hypothesis of skin pigmentation" evolutionary model...
September 9, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30129288/-mind-the-gap-assessing-methods-for-aligning-age-determination-and-growth-rate-in-multi-molar-sequences-of-dietary-isotopic-data
#7
Ian Scharlotta, Gwenaëlle Goude, Estelle Herrscher, Vladimir I Bazaliiskii, Andrzej W Weber
OBJECTIVES: Creating multi-tooth sequences of micro-sampled stable isotope (SI) analytical data can help track 20+ years of individual dietary history. Inferences about individual and population level behavioral patterns require cross-calibration of the timing of dietary changes recorded by each tooth. Dentin sections from contemporaneous tissues (eg, in M1 and M2) reflect dietary signature for the time of growth. Contemporary sections should produce similar values, allowing alignment of temporally overlapping portions of teeth into multi-tooth sequences...
August 20, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30129279/lifetime-socioeconomic-status-and-early-life-microbial-environments-predict-adult-blood-telomere-length-in-the-philippines
#8
Robert L Tennyson, Lee T Gettler, Christopher W Kuzawa, M Geoffrey Hayes, Sonny S Agustin, Dan T A Eisenberg
OBJECTIVES: Psychosocial stress is postulated to hasten senescence in part by accelerating the shortening of telomere length (TL). One pathway through which this may happen is via increasing inflammation and innate immune system activation-a pathway which recent studies suggest acts more strongly for those who grew up in low microbial environments. Thus, we hypothesized that: (1) Psychosocial stress will be inversely associated with TL, (2) early life microbial environments will predict TL, and (3) microbial environments will moderate the association between psychosocial stress and TL...
August 20, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30129276/relationship-between-fat-distribution-and-cardiometabolic-risk-in-hispanic-girls
#9
Megan Hetherington-Rauth, Jennifer W Bea, Vinson R Lee, Robert M Blew, Janet L Funk, Timothy G Lohman, Scott B Going
OBJECTIVE: In adults, certain body fat depots have greater impact on cardiometabolic risk than total adiposity. Whether similar relationships exist in children is uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures of body fat distribution and total body adiposity with cardiometabolic risk factors in Hispanic girls. METHODS: Measures of total percent body fat, percent of total fat within the android, gynoid, leg, and trunk regions, and cardiometabolic biomarkers (insulin, glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides (TG), low and high lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL-C)) were obtained from 232 Hispanic girls (age 10...
August 20, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30129257/intergenerational-changes-in-limb-circumferences-in-children-and-adolescents-aged-3-18-from-krak%C3%A3-w-poland-from-1983-to-2010
#10
Łukasz Kryst, Agnieszka Woronkowicz, Małgorzata Kowal, Jan Sobiecki
OBJECTIVES: Measurements of body circumferences are often used in anthropology. The research on this topic, however, rarely concerns limb girths or secular trends. The main aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of secular trends in selected limb circumferences among children and adolescents. METHODS: The research was based on measurements from two cross-sectional studies carried out in 1983 and 2010 with children and adolescents aged 3-18 from Krakow, Poland...
August 20, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30129237/association-between-fto-gene-polymorphism-and-excess-body-weight-in-women-from-before-to-after-pregnancy-a-cohort-study
#11
Caroline Kroll, Paulo Henrique Condeixa de França, Marco Fabio Mastroeni
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the FTO-rs9939609 polymorphism on excess body weight in women during the reproductive transition from pre- to post-pregnancy. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study covering a period extending from before pregnancy to 2 and 4 years after pregnancy. A total of 435 women were first included in the study and, at last follow-up, 220 of them continued to participate in the study. The FTO-rs9939609 polymorphism was analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction/ restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) method...
August 20, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30129211/the-relationship-of-maximal-oxygen-consumption-to-bone-mineral-density-in-iranian-young-women
#12
Hamid Arazi, Ehsan Eghbali
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) and bone mineral density (BMD) in Iranian young women. METHODS: Iranian young women (n = 127), aged 24-36 years, participated in this study. Body weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated. VO2 max was determined by the Rackport test. In addition, blood levels of calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) were evaluated, and a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry device was used to measure BMD in the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN)...
August 20, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099806/longitudinal-associations-of-android-and-gynoid-fat-mass-on-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-normal-weight-and-overweight-boys-during-puberty
#13
E Lätt, J Mäestu, J Jürimäe
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess associations between android and gynoid fat distribution and different cardiovascular disease risk factors in normal weight as well as overweight/obese boys during the pubertal period. METHODS: In total, 146 boys (baseline age 11.9 ±0.6 years) were recruited for a 2-year longitudinal study. Total body fat percentage and android-gynoid fat distribution were measured using DXA. In addition, waist and hip circumference was measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated...
August 12, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099804/the-influences-of-genes-the-environment-and-social-factors-on-the-evolution-of-skin-color-diversity-in-india
#14
Florin Mircea Iliescu, George Chaplin, Niraj Rai, Guy S Jacobs, Chandana Basu Mallick, Anshuman Mishra, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Nina G Jablonski
OBJECTIVES: Skin color is a highly visible and variable trait across human populations. It is not yet clear how evolutionary forces interact to generate phenotypic diversity. Here, we sought to unravel through an integrative framework the role played by three factors-demography and migration, sexual selection, and natural selection-in driving skin color diversity in India. METHODS: Skin reflectance data were collected from 10 diverse socio-cultural populations along the latitudinal expanse of India, including both sexes...
August 12, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099800/body-adiposity-from-childhood-to-adolescence-in-boys-interaction-with-somatic-maturity
#15
André O Werneck, Danilo R Silva, Maria R O Bueno, Rômulo A Fernandes, Enio R V Ronque
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the longitudinal relationship between adiposity and maturity status throughout the transition between childhood and adolescence in boys, and the moderation effect of maturation on adiposity trajectories. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study conducted with 197 boys who were followed over 3 years (from childhood to adolescence). Body adiposity was estimated through the subcutaneous skinfold method, with measures of triceps and subscapular skinfolds...
August 12, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099799/a-genetic-portrait-of-the-south-eastern-carpathians-based-on-autosomal-short-tandem-repeats-loci-used-in-forensics
#16
Alessandro Benvisto, Francesco Messina, Andrea Finocchio, Luis Popa, Mihaela Stefan, Gheorghe Stefanescu, Catalin Mironeanu, Andrea Novelletto, Cesare Rapone, Andrea Berti
OBJECTIVES: This work aimed to describe the genetic landscape of the Balkan Peninsula, as revealed by STR markers commonly used in forensics and spatial methods specifically developed for genetic data. METHODS: We generated and analyzed 16 short tandem repeats (STRs) autosomal genotypes in 287 subjects from ten administrative/geographical regions of Eastern Europe (Romania and the Republic of Moldova). We report estimates of the allele frequencies in these sub-populations, their fixation indexes, and use these results to complement previous spatial analyses of Southern Europe...
August 12, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099794/the-influence-of-biological-affinity-and-sex-on-morphometric-parameters-of-the-clavicle-in-a-south-african-sample
#17
Shelby Scott, Tanya R Peckmann, Mandi Amanda Alblas
OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to investigate the influence of environmental and functional factors associated with biological affinity and musculature on sexual dimorphism of the clavicle, and to develop population-specific methods of sex estimation from the clavicle. METHODS: The maximum length of the clavicle (MAXL), the sagittal diameter of the clavicle (SAGD), and the vertical diameter of the clavicle (VERD) were measured. The left clavicles of 198 South African coloured individuals (108 males and 90 females) were examined...
August 12, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099792/child-participation-in-sports-is-influenced-by-patterns-of-lifestyle-related-behaviors
#18
Daniela Rodrigues, Cristina Padez, Aristides M Machado-Rodrigues
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of child and family characteristics and behaviors, and to determine the association of those patterns with child participation in sports. METHODS: A questionnaire and anthropometric measures were used to collect data on 834 parents and their 6- to 10-year-old children. A principal component analysis identified child and parental patterns, which were tested for association with child participation in extracurricular sports (ES)...
August 12, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30076668/building-bones-bone-formation-and-development-in-anthropology
#19
Amanda M Agnew
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30133905/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-ontogeny-of-second-2d-and-fourth-4d-digit-lengths-and-digit-ratio-2d-4d
#20
John T Manning, Bernhard Fink
OBJECTIVE: Sex differences are often reported in digit lengths and digit ratio (2D:4D). However, the ontogeny of these sex differences and their interrelationships are less well known. METHODS: We considered sex differences in the lengths of the 2nd (2D) and 4th (4D) digit and 2D:4D in children aged 2 to 18 years (Sample I, n = 680) and adults aged 18 to 30 years (Sample II, n = 89,246). Digit length was determined by direct experimenter-measurement (Sample I) and direct self-measurement (Sample II)...
July 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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