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American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343369/heavier-birth-weight-associated-with-taller-height-but-not-age-at-menarche-in-us-women-born-1991-1998
#1
Megan Workman, Karina Kelly
OBJECTIVES: Heavier birth weight predicts taller adult height, but it remains unknown the extent to which this additional height increment results from a faster average growth rate versus an extension of the growth period. Aiming to distinguish these effects, this study examined associations between birth weight (BW), age at menarche (an established proxy for growth duration), and near-adult height in a cohort of US young women born in the 1990s. METHODS: Multiple regression evaluated age-adjusted height as an outcome of BW, age at menarche, indicators of family socioeconomic status, and other potential confounders in a sample of US teens who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2007 and 2012 (N = 342)...
March 26, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300336/the-second-epidemiologic-transition-on-the-brink-what-we-can-learn-from-the-island-of-newfoundland-during-the-early-20th-century
#2
Dana M Schmidt, Lisa Sattenspiel
OBJECTIVES: We aim to understand how the second epidemiologic transition unfolded on the island of Newfoundland during the early 20th century. The focus is on changes in predominant causes of mortality throughout this period, urban and rural differences, and comparisons with other Western nations. We explore factors driving these patterns including the economy, nutrition, sanitation, and access to healthcare and discuss their relevance to understanding epidemiologic transitions in other developing regions...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295842/police-work-stressors-and-cardiac-vagal-control
#3
Michael E Andrew, John M Violanti, Ja K Gu, Desta Fekedulegn, Shengqiao Li, Tara A Hartley, Luenda E Charles, Anna Mnatsakanova, Diane B Miller, Cecil M Burchfiel
OBJECTIVES: This study examines relationships between the frequency and intensity of police work stressors and cardiac vagal control, estimated using the high frequency component of heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 360 officers from the Buffalo New York Police Department. Police stress was measured using the Spielberger police stress survey, which includes exposure indices created as the product of the self-evaluation of how stressful certain events were and the self-reported frequency with which they occurred...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295804/family-history-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-parental-lifestyle-behaviors-are-associated-with-offspring-cardiovascular-disease-risk-markers-in-childhood
#4
Danilo R Silva, André O Werneck, Paul J Collings, Rômulo A Fernandes, Décio S Barbosa, Enio R V Ronque, Luís B Sardinha, Edilson S Cyrino
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease risk markers have become more prevalent in childhood. To provide increased understanding of the etiology of this public health issue, we investigated associations between family characteristics with cardiovascular disease risk markers in adolescents from a developing nation. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study data for fasting glucose, lipoproteins (LDL-C and HDL-C), triglycerides, and total cholesterol were collected from 991 adolescents aged 10-17 who were recruited from public schools in Londrina city, Southern Brazil...
March 11, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266086/how-much-impact-do-gains-in-height-have-on-shoulder-breadths-within-taiwanese-families
#5
Bruce Floyd
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates allometric changes in shoulder breadths relative to changes in stature arising from rapidly changing developmental circumstances within 107 Taiwanese families. It speaks to broader issues related to the extent of phenotypic plasticity of body breadths humans are capable of in response to reductions in developmental stressors. METHODS: An examination of relationships between shoulder breadth and height within individuals in each generation was followed by evaluation of patterns of difference between same-sex parent-offspring pairs in height and shoulder breadth...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257149/pubertal-testis-volume-age-at-pubertal-onset-and-adolescent-blood-pressure-evidence-from-hong-kong-s-children-of-1997-birth-cohort
#6
Man Ki Kwok, Gabriel M Leung, C Mary Schooling
OBJECTIVES: A warning from Health Canada suggests that testosterone increases blood pressure (BP). No evidence from large randomized controlled trials is available, and observational studies are confounded by ill-health lowering serum testosterone. To address the evidence gap, we assessed the association of pubertal testicular volume, as a reflection of testosterone production, with BP. METHODS: We examined whether testicular volume was associated with sex-, age-, and height-standardized BP z-score at ∼13 years in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort (n = 5195, 63% follow-up)...
March 3, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251719/high-altitude-agriculture-in-the-titicaca-basin-800-bce-200-ce-impacts-on-nutrition-and-disease-load
#7
Sara L Juengst, Dale L Hutchinson, Sergio J Chávez
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the biological impacts of sedentism and agriculture on humans living in the high altitude landscape of the Titicaca Basin between 800 BCE and CE 200. The transition to agriculture in other global areas resulted in increases in disease and malnutrition; the high altitude of the Titicaca Basin could have exacerbated this. Our objective is to test whether the high altitude of the Titicaca Basin created a marginal environment for early agriculturalists living there, reflected through elevated rates of malnutrition and/or disease...
March 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251717/shape-change-and-obesity-prevalence-among-male-uk-offshore-workers-after-30-years-new-insight-from-a-3d-scanning-study
#8
A D Stewart, R L Ledingham, G Furnace, H Williams, A M Nevill
OBJECTIVES: In 1984, male UK offshore workers had greater overweight and obesity prevalence and fat content than the general population. Since then, body weight has increased by 19%, but, without accompanying anthropometric measures, their size increase, current obesity, and fatness prevalence remain unknown. This study therefore aimed to acquire contemporary anthropometric data, profile changes since the original survey, and assess current obesity prevalence in the male offshore workforce...
March 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251716/human-biologyassociation-program-of-the-42nd-annual-meeting-to-be-held-in-new-orleans-la-the-westin-new-orleans-canal-place-april-19-20-2017
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247963/nutrition-and-physical-activity-transitions-in-the-ecuadorian-andes-differences-among-urban-and-rural-dwelling-women
#10
Christopher L Melby, Fadya Orozco, Diana Ochoa, Maria Muquinche, Manuel Padro, Fabian N Munoz
OBJECTIVES: The nutrition and physical activity transitions, characterized by increased consumption of high energy density foods and more sedentary lifestyles, are associated with increased obesity and hypertension in Ecuador. These transitions have been characterized primarily in urban areas, which may neglect variation in specific rural areas of Ecuador. Therefore we examined the extent of the differences in dietary and activity patterns, obesity prevalence, and blood pressure (BP) in urban and rural-dwelling women in the Ecuadorian central highlands...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247956/association-between-blood-pressure-and-magnesium-and-uric-acid-levels-in-indigenous-argentinean-children-at-high-altitude
#11
V Hirschler, C González, G Maccallini, C Molinari, L Castano
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between nontraditional risk factors such as magnesium and uric acid with blood pressure (BP) in Indigenous children. METHODS: A total of 263 school-aged indigenous children living at high altitude were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in November 2011. Prehypertension (preHTN) and hypertension (HTN) were defined by systolic and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90th to <95th percentile or ≥95th percentile respectively, according to age, sex, and height...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236640/measuring-material-wealth-in-low-income-settings-a-conceptual-and-how-to-guide
#12
Bonnie N Kaiser, Daniel Hruschka, Craig Hadley
Although wealth is consistently found to be an important predictor of health and well-being, there remains debate as to the best way to conceptualize and operationalize wealth. In this article, we focus on the measurement of economic resources, which is one among many forms of wealth. We provide an overview of the process of measuring material wealth, including theoretical and conceptual considerations, a how-to guide based on the most common approach to measurement, and a review of important theoretical and empirical questions that remain to be resolved...
February 25, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236634/variations-in-estimates-of-underweight-overweight-and-obesity-in-pregnant-women-from-argentina-comparing-two-reference-charts
#13
Agustina Malpeli, María G Ferrari, Horacio F González
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of low weight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity in a sample of Argentinian pregnant women using two reference charts, the Rosso and Mardones (RM) and the Calvo Chart were compared. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional, comparative study of data from pregnant women beneficiaries of food aid programs collected in the period 2003-2010 in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina was performed. RESULTS: Evaluations with the Calvo and RM charts showed statistically significant differences in the prevalence of all nutritional conditions (low weight, 22% vs...
February 25, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230293/influence-of-complex-childhood-diseases-on-variation-in-growth-and-skeletal-development
#14
REVIEW
Babette S Zemel
The study of human growth and skeletal development by human biologists is framed by the larger theoretical concerns regarding the underpinnings of population variation and human evolution. This unique perspective is directly relevant to the assessment of child health and well-being at the individual and group level, as well as the construction of growth charts. Environmental, behavioral (nutrition and physical activity), and disease-related factors can prevent attainment of full genetic potential for growth...
February 23, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221709/worldwide-variation-in-human-growth-40-years-later
#15
REVIEW
Robin M Bernstein, Darna L Dufour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217908/molecular-polymorphisms-of-the-abo-locus-as-informative-markers-of-ancestry-in-central-argentina
#16
María Pía Tavella, Angelina García, Maia Pauro, Darío A Demarchi, Rodrigo Nores
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of molecular polymorphisms of the ABO gene in four population samples from the province of Córdoba, in Central Argentina, and to compare them with other worldwide populations. METHODS: A total of 110 buccal swab samples from autochthonous individuals of Córdoba were typified. Molecular characterization of the allelic variants was performed by the analysis of exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene using PCR-RFLP analysis...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217849/how-long-bones-grow-children-mechanistic-paths-to-variation-in-human-height-growth
#17
REVIEW
Michelle Lampl, Meriah Schoen
OBJECTIVES: Eveleth and Tanner's descriptive documentation of worldwide variability in human growth provided evidence of the interaction between genetics and environment during development that has been foundational to the science of human growth. There remains a need, however, to describe the mechanistic foundations of variability in human height growth patterns. METHODS: A review of research documenting cellular activities at the endochondral growth plate aims to show how the unique microenvironment and cell functions during the sequential phases of the chondrocyte lifecycle affect long bone elongation, a fundamental source of height growth...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211217/breast-shape-ptosis-as-a-marker-of-a-woman-s-breast-attractiveness-and-age-evidence-from-poland-and-papua
#18
Agata Groyecka, Agnieszka Żelaźniewicz, Michał Misiak, Maciej Karwowski, Piotr Sorokowski
OBJECTIVES: A women's breast is a sex-specific and aesthetic bodily attribute. It is suggested that breast morphology signals maturity, health, and fecundity. The perception of a woman's attractiveness and age depends on various cues, such as breast size or areola pigmentation. Conducted in Poland and Papua, the current study investigated how breast attractiveness, and the further estimate of a woman's age based on her breast's appearance, is affected by the occurrence of breast ptosis (ie, sagginess, droopiness)...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199042/global-effects-of-income-and-income-inequality-on-adult-height-and-sexual-dimorphism-in-height
#19
Barry Bogin, Christiane Scheffler, Michael Hermanussen
OBJECTIVES: Average adult height of a population is considered a biomarker of the quality of the health environment and economic conditions. The causal relationships between height and income inequality are not well understood. We analyze data from 169 countries for national average heights of men and women and national-level economic factors to test two hypotheses: (1) income inequality has a greater association with average adult height than does absolute income; and (2) neither income nor income inequality has an effect on sexual dimorphism in height...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185361/proceedings-of-the-human-biology-association-41st-annual-meeting-marriott-marquis-hotel-in-atlanta-ga-april-13-14-2016
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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