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American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628739/predictive-validity-of-body-fat-percentage-by-bioimpedance-compared-with-deuterium-oxide-dilution-in-costa-rican-schoolchildren
#1
Juan Diego Zamora Salas, Adriana Laclé-Murray
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to verify the validity of body fat percentage (BF%) by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in a sample of Costa Rican schoolchildren. METHODS: The sample consisted of 52 male (mean age 8.1 ± 0.9 years) and 49 female (mean age 7.5 ± 1.0 years) schoolchildren. Deuterium oxide dilution was the reference method used as the "gold standard" to determine the fat mass (FM) expressed as BF%. Linear regression analyses and paired sample t-tests were used to test the association and mean differences between BIA and deuterium oxide dilution BF%...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618107/blood-pressure-and-psychological-distress-among-north-africans-in-france-the-role-of-perceived-personal-group-discrimination-and-gender
#2
Florence Loose, Marie Tiboulet, Christelle Maisonneuve, Anne Taillandier-Schmitt, Michael Dambrun
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between perceived ethnic discrimination and (physical and mental) health indicators among North African women and men living in France. METHODS: This study included 82 North Africans, aged 18-64 years. Perceived discrimination was measured at both group level (PGD) and personal level (PPD). The physical health indicator was blood pressure. The mental health indicator was self-reported psychological distress...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613444/interindividual-differences-in-embodied-marginalization-osteological-and-stable-isotope-analyses-of-antebellum-enslaved-individuals
#3
Sophia C Dent
OBJECTIVES: Through pathological and stable isotope analyses, this study probes the stressors, disease ecology, and diets of enslaved individuals from an antebellum plantation cemetery. The study aims to highlight how interindividual isotopic differences reveal that marginalization is not uniformly experienced or embodied. METHODS: The cemetery population consists of 16 individuals; dental and skeletal pathological indicators were collected for all individuals, and light stable isotope ratios (δ(15) N, δ(13) C) were generated from the collagen and hydroxyapatite of nine individuals...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612933/in-memoriam-derek-f-roberts-1925-2016
#4
C G Nicholas Mascie-Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608606/waist-to-height-ratio-and-its-association-with-tv-viewing-in-a-sample-of-portuguese-children-aged-7-9-years
#5
Aristides M Machado-Rodrigues, João Valente-Dos-Santos, Romulo Fernandes, Augusta Gama, Isabel Mourao, Helena Nogueira, Vitor Marques, Cristina Padez
INTRODUCTION: During the past decades, increased TV viewing and reduced physical activity (PA) levels may have contributed to the increased prevalence of pediatric obesity. This study aimed to analyze the association between TV viewing and central adiposity risk in Portuguese children. METHODS: The sample comprised 3987 children (1997 girls and 1990 boys) aged 7-9 years. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) was calculated as the ratio of waist/height with a cut-off of 0...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605146/introduction-humans-in-marginal-environments-adaptation-among-living-and-ancient-peoples
#6
Elizabeth Berger, Sara L Juengst
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602028/maternal-infant-interaction-as-an-influence-on-infant-adiposity
#7
Elizabeth A Holdsworth, Lawrence M Schell
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research is to identify whether specific aspects of the early life psychosocial environment such as quality of home and maternal-infant interaction are associated with increased infant adiposity, in a disadvantaged population in the United States. METHODS: Data on 121 mother-infant pairs from the Albany Pregnancy and Infancy Lead Study were analyzed using three multiple linear regression models with subscapular skinfold thickness (SST), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), and weight z-scores at 12 months of age as outcome variables...
June 11, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568975/stable-isotopes-of-carbon-and-nitrogen-as-markers-of-dietary-variation-among-sociocultural-subgroups-of-inuit-in-greenland
#8
Peter Bjerregaard, Christina V L Larsen, Inger K Dahl-Petersen, Bjørn Buchardt
OBJECTIVES: We assessed the use of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen as biomarkers for traditional versus store-bought food among the Inuit. Furthermore, we compared the isotope patterns among sociocultural population groups. METHODS: As a part of a country-wide health survey in Greenland during 2005-2010, we analyzed the isotope composition of toenails from 1025 adult Inuit and meat of common species hunted for food. Information on diet and sociocultural variables was collected by interviews...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488767/an-assessment-of-postcranial-indices-ratios-and-body-mass-versus-eco-geographical-variables-of-prehistoric-jomon-yayoi-agriculturalists-and-kumejima-islanders-of-japan
#9
Noriko Seguchi, Conrad B Quintyn, Shiori Yonemoto, Hirofumi Takamuku
OBJECTIVES: We explore variations in body and limb proportions of the Jomon hunter-gatherers (14,000-2500 BP), the Yayoi agriculturalists (2500-1700 BP) of Japan, and the Kumejima Islanders of the Ryukyus (1600-1800 AD) with 11 geographically diverse skeletal postcranial samples from Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, and North America using brachial-crural indices, femur head-breadth-to-femur length ratio, femur head-breadth-to-lower-limb-length ratio, and body mass as indicators of phenotypic climatic adaptation...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488759/association-between-t102c-5-ht2a-receptor-gene-polymorphism-and-5-year-mortality-risk-among-brazilian-amazon-riparian-elderly-population
#10
Tális O Silva, Ivo Jung, Alexis Trott, Cláudia G Bica, Jeferson N Casarin, Paola C Fortuna, Euler E Ribeiro, Fernanda D de Assis, Guilherme C Figueira, Fernanda Barbisan, Maria Fernanda Manica-Cattani, Beatriz S R Bonadiman, Lucien J Houenou, Pedro Antônio S do Prado-Lima, Ivana B M da Cruz
OBJECTIVE: Serotonin (5-HT) is a pleiotropic molecule that exerts several functions on brain and peripheral tissues via different receptors. The gene for the 5-HT2A receptor shows some variations, including a T102C polymorphism, that have been associated with increased risk of neuropsychiatric and vascular disorders. However, the potential impact of 5-HT2A imbalance caused by genetic variations on the human lifespan has not yet been established. METHODS: We performed a prospective study involving an Amazon riparian elderly free-living population in Maués City, Brazil, with a 5-year follow-up...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488742/feminization-of-the-fat-distribution-pattern-of-children-and-adolescents-in-a-recent-german-population
#11
Christiane Scheffler, Melanie Dammhahn
OBJECTIVES: During the early 1990s, the economic and political situation in eastern Germany changed overnight. Here, we use the rare chance of an experiment-like setting in humans and aim to test whether the rapid change of environmental conditions in eastern Germany in the 1990s led to a change in the sex-specific fat distribution pattern, an endocrine-influenced phenotypic marker. METHODS: Based on a cross-sectional data set of 6- to 18-year-old girls and boys measured between 1982-1991 and 1997-2012, we calculated a skinfold ratio of triceps to subscapular and percentage of body fat...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467016/body-fat-attenuates-muscle-mass-catabolism-among-physically-active-humans-in-temperate-and-cold-high-altitude-environments
#12
Cara J Ocobock
OBJECTIVE: Typical diet plans are based on an individual's body mass; however, body composition may be important to consider when an individual is in a negative energy balance. This study examines if high initial body fat and dietary macronutrient content reduce muscle mass catabolism during excursions in temperate and cold high altitude environments. METHODS: Subjects-53 healthy, un-acclimated volunteers (37 males and 16 females)-took part in 12-16 week-long outdoor education courses in moderately high altitude temperate and cold climates in the western United States...
May 3, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455842/body-frame-size-in-school-children-is-related-to-the-amount-of-adipose-tissue-in-different-depots-but-not-to-adipose-distribution
#13
Francisco J Guzmán-de la Garza, Alejandra E González Ayala, Marisol Gómez Nava, Leislie I Martínez Monsiváis, Ana M Salinas Martínez, Erik Ramírez López, Alvaro Mathiew Quirós, Francisco Garcia Quintanilla
OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that body frame size is related to the amount of fat in different adipose tissue depots and to fat distribution in schoolchildren. METHODS: Children aged between 5 and 10 years were included in this cross-sectional study (n = 565). Body frame size, adiposity markers (anthropometric, skinfolds thickness, and ultrasound measures), and fat distribution indices were analyzed. Correlation coefficients adjusted by reliability were estimated and analyzed by sex; the significance of the difference between two correlation coefficients was assessed using the Fisher z-transformation...
April 28, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439965/identifying-signatures-of-positive-selection-in-pigmentation-genes-in-two-south-asian-populations
#14
Manjari Jonnalagadda, Neeraj Bharti, Yatish Patil, Shantanu Ozarkar, Sunitha Manjari K, Rajendra Joshi, Heather Norton
OBJECTIVES: Skin pigmentation is a polygenic trait showing wide phenotypic variations among global populations. While numerous pigmentation genes have been identified to be under positive selection among European and East populations, genes contributing to phenotypic variation in skin pigmentation within and among South Asian populations are still poorly understood. The present study uses data from the Phase 3 of the 1000 genomes project focusing on two South Asian populations-GIH (Gujarati Indian from Houston, Texas) and ITU (Indian Telugu from UK), so as to decode the genetic architecture involved in adaptation to ultraviolet radiation in South Asian populations...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432711/vdr-gene-methylation-as-a-molecular-adaption-to-light-exposure-historic-recent-and-genetic-influences
#15
Emma L Beckett, Patrice Jones, Martin Veysey, Konsta Duesing, Charlotte Martin, John Furst, Zoe Yates, Nina G Jablonski, George Chaplin, Mark Lucock
OBJECTIVES: The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. We examined whether degree of VDR gene methylation acts as a molecular adaptation to light exposure. We explored this in the context of photoperiod at conception, recent UV irradiance at 305 nm, and gene-latitude effects. METHODS: Eighty subjects were examined for VDR gene-CpG island methylation density. VDR gene variants were also examined by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: Photoperiod at conception was significantly positively related to VDR methylation density, explaining 17% of the variance in methylation (r(2)  = 0...
April 22, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429514/maternal-metabolic-adaptations-to-pregnancy-among-young-women-in-cebu-philippines
#16
Ruby L Fried, Nanette L Mayol, Thom W McDade, Christopher W Kuzawa
OBJECTIVES: Evidence that fetal development has long-term impacts on health has increased interest in maternal-fetal nutrient exchange. Although maternal metabolism is known to change during gestation to accommodate fetal nutrient demands, little is known about these modifications outside of a Western, clinical context. This study characterizes maternal metabolic adaptations to pregnancy, and their associations with offspring birth weight (BW), among women living in the Philippines. METHODS: Fasting glucose, triglycerides, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin were assessed in 808 participants in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines)...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429467/conditional-random-slope-a-new-approach-for-estimating-individual-child-growth-velocity-in-epidemiological-research
#17
Michael Leung, Diego G Bassani, Amy Racine-Poon, Anna Goldenberg, Syed Asad Ali, Gagandeep Kang, Prasanna S Premkumar, Daniel E Roth
OBJECTIVES: Conditioning child growth measures on baseline accounts for regression to the mean (RTM). Here, we present the "conditional random slope" (CRS) model, based on a linear-mixed effects model that incorporates a baseline-time interaction term that can accommodate multiple data points for a child while also directly accounting for RTM. METHODS: In two birth cohorts, we applied five approaches to estimate child growth velocities from 0 to 12 months to assess the effect of increasing data density (number of measures per child) on the magnitude of RTM of unconditional estimates, and the correlation and concordance between the CRS and four alternative metrics...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409864/secular-change-in-adult-stature-associated-with-modernization-in-vanuatu
#18
Kathryn M Olszowy, Cheng Sun, Harold Silverman, Alysa Pomer, Kelsey N Dancause, Chim W Chan, Gwang Lee, Len Tarivonda, Akira Kaneko, Charles Weitz, J Koji Lum, Ralph M Garruto
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether: (1) there is a secular increase in adult stature in Vanuatu, and (2) whether adult stature is positively associated with modernization in Vanuatu. METHODS: This study reports on stature measurements collected on 650 adult (age > 17 years) men and women from four islands of varying economic development in Vanuatu. Measurements were collected as part of the Vanuatu Health Transitions Research Project in 2007 and 2011. RESULTS: Stature increased significantly in adults born between the 1940s and 1960s in Vanuatu, before leveling off in those born between the 1970s and 1990s...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407333/bioarchaeological-profile-of-stress-and-dental-disease-among-ancient-high-altitude-himalayan-communities-of-nepal
#19
Jacqueline T Eng, Mark Aldenderfer
OBJECTIVES: This study examines biological indicators of dental disease and nonspecific stress in human remains of three high altitude Himalayan archaeological sites to test whether shared ecological constraints led to similar bioarchaeological profiles in these markers. METHODS: Samples (n = 170) derive from three sites in Nepal dating to two periods (400-50 BCE and c. 400-650 CE). Dental diseases (caries, antemortem tooth loss, and abscesses) were assessed by both the number of individuals and the number of elements observed, while childhood stress markers included observation of growth disruptions (enamel hypoplasia and adult femur length/stature) and cranial porosities...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398004/lower-face-asymmetry-as-a-marker-for-developmental-instability
#20
Philippe P Hujoel, Erin E Masterson, A-M Bollen
OBJECTIVES: Fluctuating asymmetries in the craniofacial skeleton have been shown to be predictive for mortality from degenerative diseases. We investigate whether lower face asymmetries are a potential marker for the developmental origins of health and disease. METHODS: The lower face of a representative sample of 6654 12- to 17-year old United States (US) adolescents (1966-1970, National Health Examination Survey III) was classified as asymmetric when the mandibular teeth occluded prognathically (forward) or retrognathically (backward) on one side of the face only...
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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