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Critical Reviews in Immunology

Satoshi Watanabe, Masashi Arita, Miho Takahashi, Yu Saida, Toshiyuki Koya, Toshiaki Kikuchi
The effectiveness of lymphodepletion in antitumor immunity has been well established. Although recent studies have elucidated some of the broad mechanisms underlying the augmentation of antitumor immunity by lymphodepletion, such as increased availability of cytokines due to the elimination of cellular elements and improvement in tumor antigen presentation, the precise mechanisms remain unclear. Previous studies have focused on the enhancement of the functions of transferred antitumor CD8+ T cells after lymphodepletion...
2017: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Jose C Crispin, Christian M Hedrich, Abel Suárez-Fueyo, Denis Comte, George C Tsokos
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease linked to profound defects in the function and phenotype of T lymphocytes. Here, we describe abnormal signaling pathways that have been documented in T cells from patients with SLE and discuss how they impact gene expression and immune function, in order to understand how they contribute to disease development and progression.
2017: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Mahzad Akbarpour, Ankit Bharat
Lung transplantation is a life-saving therapy for several end-stage lung diseases. However, lung allografts suffer from the lowest survival rate predominantly due to rejection. The pathogenesis of alloimmunity and its role in allograft rejection has been extensively studied and multiple approaches have been described to induce tolerance. However, in the context of lung transplantation, dysregulation of mechanisms, which maintain tolerance against self-antigens, can lead to lung-restricted autoimmunity, which has been recently identified to drive the immunopathogenesis of allograft rejection...
2017: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Koichi Hirose, Takashi Ito, Hiroshi Nakajima
Asthma is a chronic allergic inflammatory disease of the airways. The symptoms can be controlled by inhaled corticosteroids together with long-acting β2 agonists in the majority of patients; however, in some patients, their symptoms remain uncontrolled even under intensive treatment. Although underlying mechanisms of the heterogeneous responses to the treatment are largely unknown, a series of recent epidemiological studies have suggested a link between the severity of asthma and the sensitization to fungi...
2017: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Adriana Alicia Cabrera-Ortega, Daniel Feinberg, Youde Liang, Carlos Rossa, Dana T Graves
Forkhead box-O (FOXO) transcription factors have a fundamental role in the development and differentiation of immune cells. FOXO1 and FOXO3 are FOXO members that are structurally similar and bind to the same conserved consensus DNA sequences to induce transcription. FOXO1 has been studied in detail in the activation of dendritic cells (DCs), where it plays an important role through the regulation of target genes such as ICAM-1, CCR7, and the integrin αvβ3. FOXO1 is activated by bacteria challenge in DCs and promotes DC bacterial phagocytosis, migration, homing to lymph nodes, DC stimulation of CD4+ T cells and resting B cells, and antibody production...
2017: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Daniela Frasca, Bonnie B Blomberg
This review highlights recent findings on the effects of aging on influenza vaccine responses, with major emphasis on T and B cells, which are significantly impaired by aging. We discuss changes in T cell production and thymic output; T cell subsets; and TCR repertoire, function, and response to latent persistent infection. We also discuss changes in B cell subsets, repertoire, and function, and how function is impaired by increased intrinsic B cell inflammation and reduced signal transduction. This review presents age-related effects on antigen-presenting cells, summarizes recent studies, including our own, aimed at the identification of biomarkers of protective vaccine responses, and provides examples of recent technical advances and insights into human vaccine responses that are helping to define the features associated with successful vaccination and that may enable a more predictive vaccinology in the future...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Tessa Dhaeze, Niels Hellings
Follicular regulatory T cells (TFRs) are a subset of regulatory T cells that reside in the secondary lymphoid organs and participate in controlling the germinal center (GC) response. The GC response forms the basis of adaptive immunity to foreign protein antigens. In autoimmune diseases, hyperreactivity to self-antigens occurs that may result from an aberrant control of the GC response. TFR dysfunctionality may be one of the factors contributing to this breakdown of self-tolerance. In this review, we discuss how the investigation of circulating TFRs can help us understand their relative contribution to autoimmune-mediated disease processes...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Lee Ann Garrett-Sinha, Alyssa Kearly, Anne B Satterthwaite
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by excess B- and T-cell activation, the development of autoantibodies against self-antigens including nuclear antigens, and immune complex deposition in target organs, which triggers an inflammatory response and tissue damage. The genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the development of SLE have been studied extensively in both humans and mouse models of the disease. One of the important genetic contributions to SLE development is an alteration in the expression of the transcription factor Ets1, which regulates the functional differentiation of lymphocytes...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Juan A Flores, Santiago Balseiro-Gómez, Eva Ales
Secretory granules (SGs) of mast cells (MCs) release their contents to mediate many biological events and a variety of inflammatory diseases and have important protective roles in innate host defense and pathological functions in allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. There are two modes of MC degranulation during the release of granule contents to the extracellular environment. Anaphylactic degranulation (AND) after IgE-mediated activation is characterized by a rapid swelling and fusion of MC granules as well as abrupt mediators release...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Alessandra Zingoni, Elisabetta Vulpis, Ilaria Nardone, Alessandra Soriani, Cinzia Fionda, Marco Cippitelli, Angela Santoni
Natural killer (NK) cells are critical immune effector cells capable of mediating antitumor responses. These cytotoxic lymphocytes recognize transformed cells through a mechanism mainly dependent on the engagement of several activating receptors. However, many tumors have developed strategies to evade immunosurveillance and detection by NK cells. A relevant immune escape mechanism is the down regulation of NK cell activating ligands on the surface of tumor cells by proteolytic shedding mediated by different members of metalloproteinase families...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Stephane Esnault, Elizabeth A Kelly
Compelling evidence has demonstrated that the eosinophils bring negative biological outcomes in several diseases, including eosinophilic asthma and hypereosinophilic syndromes. Eosinophils produce and store a broad range of toxic proteins and other mediators that enhance the inflammatory response and lead to tissue damage. For instance, in asthma, a close relationship has been demonstrated between increased lung eosinophilia, asthma exacerbation, and loss of lung function. The use of an anti-IL-5 therapy in severe eosinophilic asthmatic patients is efficient to reduce exacerbations...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Gianfranco Lauletta, Sabino Russi, Fabio Pavone, Andrea Marzullo, Marilina Tampoia, Domenico Sansonno, Franco Dammacco
Autoimmune hepatitis is an acute or mostly chronic liver disease that can affect both adults and children and has a clear prevalence for the female sex. A definite etiology has not been established, but it is known that genetic predisposing profiles and exogenous trigger factors are involved. The main diagnostic criteria include typical histological features, the occurrence of serum auto-antibodies, and increased levels of transaminases and gamma-globulins. Instances of autoimmune hepatitis sharing features with other autoimmune liver diseases have also been observed...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Sarang Tartey, Osamu Takeuchi
Extensive studies in last decade have demonstrated that dynamic control of gene transcription is key in the regulation of inflammatory responses. Although signaling pathways and transcription factors have a central role, growing evidence for the involvement of chromatin in the regulation of gene expression in immune cells has uncovered an evolutionarily conserved role of pathogen recognition and epigenetic regulation. The substantial potential of these responses to drive pathological inflammation and tissue damage highlights the need for rigorous control of these responses...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Lucas T Jennelle, Aditya P Dandekar, Tshifhiwa Magoro, Young S Hahn
Understanding of antigen-presenting cell (APC) participation in tissue inflammation and metabolism has advanced through numerous studies using systems biology approaches. Previously unrecognized connections between these research areas have been elucidated in the context of inflammatory disease involving innate and adaptive immune responses. A new conceptual framework bridges APC biology, metabolism, and cytokines in the generation of effective T-cell responses. Exploring these connections is paramount to addressing the rising tide of multi-organ system diseases, particularly chronic diseases associated with metabolic syndrome, infection, and cancer...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Felix Radford, Sanjay Tyagi, Maria Laura Gennaro, Richard Pine, Yuri Bushkin
Fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with flow cytometry (FISH-Flow) is a highly quantitative, high-throughput platform allowing precise quantification of total mRNA transcripts in single cells. In undiagnosed infections posing a significant health burden worldwide, such as latent tuberculosis or asymptomatic recurrent malaria, an important challenge is to develop accurate diagnostic tools. Antigen-specific T cells create a persistent memory to pathogens, making them useful for diagnosis of infection...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Taizo Wada, Tadayuki Akagi
Neutrophil-specific granule deficiency (SGD) is a rare autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by bilobed neutrophil nuclei and lack of neutrophil-specific granule proteins such as lactoferrin. A deficiency of a myeloid-specific transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-epsilon (C/EBPε), has been identified as a cause of SGD. C/EBPε binds to DNA though its basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain, and regulates terminal differentiation of neutrophils and expression of specific granule genes...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Susanne Michen, Achim Temme
Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphoid cells of the innate immune system; they stand at the first defense line against viruses and transformed cells. NK cells use an array of germline-encoded activating and inhibitory receptors that sense virus-infected cells or malignant cells displaying altered surface expression of activating and inhibitory NK cell ligands. They exert potent cytotoxic responses to cellular targets and thus are candidate effector cells for immunotherapy of cancer. In particular, the genetic engineering of NK cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) against surface-expressed tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) seems promising...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Petros Christopoulos, Paul Fisch
Acquired T-cell immunodeficiency can occur in thymoma patients with or without hypogammaglobulinemia (Good's syndrome), but it has received little attention to date. It appears predominantly associated with lymphocyte-rich (i.e., cortical or mixed) thymomas and frequently coexists with autoimmune manifestations. The main abnormalities are an increase in circulating naive T cells, cutaneous T-cell anergy, TCR hyporesponsiveness in vitro as well as a numerical and functional impairment of regulatory T cells. All of these probably result from an abnormal T-cell maturation in the neoplastic thymic microenvironment...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Veronica M Ringel-Scaia, Dylan K McDaniel, Irving C Allen
Recent advances have revealed significant insight into inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathobiology. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, the chronic relapsing clinical manifestations of IBD, are complex disorders with genetic and environmental influences. These diseases are associated with the dysregulation of immune tolerance, excessive inflammation, and damage to the epithelial cell barrier. Increasing evidence indicates that pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins (NLRs), function to maintain immune system homeostasis, modulate the gastrointestinal microbiome, and promote proper intestinal epithelial cell regeneration and repair...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Simon Kollnberger
HLA-class I molecules form trimeric complexes (pMHC) of peptides, class I heavy chains, and β2microglobulins (β2m) that regulate immune responses by binding to T cells and other immune receptors. B2m-free class I heavy chains (FHCs) form on cells either as a consequence of the natural turnover of pMHC or, in the case of HLA-F, are expressed without β2m. Distinct characteristics of certain HLA-class I members, such as HLA-B27 and HLA-F, stabilize these forms facilitating interactions with immune receptors...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
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