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Critical Reviews in Immunology

Stephane Esnault, Elizabeth A Kelly
Compelling evidence has demonstrated that the eosinophils bring negative biological outcomes in several diseases, including eosinophilic asthma and hypereosinophilic syndromes. Eosinophils produce and store a broad range of toxic proteins and other mediators that enhance the inflammatory response and lead to tissue damage. For instance, in asthma, a close relationship has been demonstrated between increased lung eosinophilia, asthma exacerbation, and loss of lung function. The use of an anti-IL-5 therapy in severe eosinophilic asthmatic patients is efficient to reduce exacerbations...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Gianfranco Lauletta, Sabino Russi, Fabio Pavone, Andrea Marzullo, Marilina Tampoia, Domenico Sansonno, Franco Dammacco
Autoimmune hepatitis is an acute or mostly chronic liver disease that can affect both adults and children and has a clear prevalence for the female sex. A definite etiology has not been established, but it is known that genetic predisposing profiles and exogenous trigger factors are involved. The main diagnostic criteria include typical histological features, the occurrence of serum auto-antibodies, and increased levels of transaminases and gamma-globulins. Instances of autoimmune hepatitis sharing features with other autoimmune liver diseases have also been observed...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Sarang Tartey, Osamu Takeuchi
Extensive studies in last decade have demonstrated that dynamic control of gene transcription is key in the regulation of inflammatory responses. Although signaling pathways and transcription factors have a central role, growing evidence for the involvement of chromatin in the regulation of gene expression in immune cells has uncovered an evolutionarily conserved role of pathogen recognition and epigenetic regulation. The substantial potential of these responses to drive pathological inflammation and tissue damage highlights the need for rigorous control of these responses...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Lucas T Jennelle, Aditya P Dandekar, Tshifhiwa Magoro, Young S Hahn
Understanding of antigen-presenting cell (APC) participation in tissue inflammation and metabolism has advanced through numerous studies using systems biology approaches. Previously unrecognized connections between these research areas have been elucidated in the context of inflammatory disease involving innate and adaptive immune responses. A new conceptual framework bridges APC biology, metabolism, and cytokines in the generation of effective T-cell responses. Exploring these connections is paramount to addressing the rising tide of multi-organ system diseases, particularly chronic diseases associated with metabolic syndrome, infection, and cancer...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Felix Radford, Sanjay Tyagi, Maria Laura Gennaro, Richard Pine, Yuri Bushkin
Fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with flow cytometry (FISH-Flow) is a highly quantitative, high-throughput platform allowing precise quantification of total mRNA transcripts in single cells. In undiagnosed infections posing a significant health burden worldwide, such as latent tuberculosis or asymptomatic recurrent malaria, an important challenge is to develop accurate diagnostic tools. Antigen-specific T cells create a persistent memory to pathogens, making them useful for diagnosis of infection...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Taizo Wada, Tadayuki Akagi
Neutrophil-specific granule deficiency (SGD) is a rare autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by bilobed neutrophil nuclei and lack of neutrophil-specific granule proteins such as lactoferrin. A deficiency of a myeloid-specific transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-epsilon (C/EBPε), has been identified as a cause of SGD. C/EBPε binds to DNA though its basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain, and regulates terminal differentiation of neutrophils and expression of specific granule genes...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Susanne Michen, Achim Temme
Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphoid cells of the innate immune system; they stand at the first defense line against viruses and transformed cells. NK cells use an array of germline-encoded activating and inhibitory receptors that sense virus-infected cells or malignant cells displaying altered surface expression of activating and inhibitory NK cell ligands. They exert potent cytotoxic responses to cellular targets and thus are candidate effector cells for immunotherapy of cancer. In particular, the genetic engineering of NK cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) against surface-expressed tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) seems promising...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Petros Christopoulos, Paul Fisch
Acquired T-cell immunodeficiency can occur in thymoma patients with or without hypogammaglobulinemia (Good's syndrome), but it has received little attention to date. It appears predominantly associated with lymphocyte-rich (i.e., cortical or mixed) thymomas and frequently coexists with autoimmune manifestations. The main abnormalities are an increase in circulating naive T cells, cutaneous T-cell anergy, TCR hyporesponsiveness in vitro as well as a numerical and functional impairment of regulatory T cells. All of these probably result from an abnormal T-cell maturation in the neoplastic thymic microenvironment...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Veronica M Ringel-Scaia, Dylan K McDaniel, Irving C Allen
Recent advances have revealed significant insight into inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathobiology. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, the chronic relapsing clinical manifestations of IBD, are complex disorders with genetic and environmental influences. These diseases are associated with the dysregulation of immune tolerance, excessive inflammation, and damage to the epithelial cell barrier. Increasing evidence indicates that pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins (NLRs), function to maintain immune system homeostasis, modulate the gastrointestinal microbiome, and promote proper intestinal epithelial cell regeneration and repair...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Simon Kollnberger
HLA-class I molecules form trimeric complexes (pMHC) of peptides, class I heavy chains, and β2microglobulins (β2m) that regulate immune responses by binding to T cells and other immune receptors. B2m-free class I heavy chains (FHCs) form on cells either as a consequence of the natural turnover of pMHC or, in the case of HLA-F, are expressed without β2m. Distinct characteristics of certain HLA-class I members, such as HLA-B27 and HLA-F, stabilize these forms facilitating interactions with immune receptors...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Kei Ohnuma, Ryo Hatano, Takumi Itoh, Noriaki Iwao, Nam H Dang, Chikao Morimoto
Obliterative bronchiolitis is the primary noninfectious pulmonary complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation and the only pathognomonic manifestation of pulmonary chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). In our recent study, we identified a novel effect of IL-26, which is absent in rodents, on transplant related-obliterative bronchiolitis. Sublethally irradiated NOD/Shi-scidIL2rγnull mice transplanted with human umbilical cord blood gradually exhibited obliterative bronchiolitis with increased collagen deposition and predominant infiltration with human IL-26+CD26+CD4 T cells...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Julia Strandmark, Sebastian Rausch, Susanne Hartmann
Eosinophil numbers are highly elevated during helminth infections and a range of allergic and inflammatory disorders, but eosinophils are also present in several tissues in the absence of infection. Indeed, new findings demonstrate that eosinophils may be involved in events as diverse as glucose metabolism, mammary gland development, intestinal health, tissue remodeling, thymic selection, and B-cell survival. Although eosinophils often correlate with pathological parameters during conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and asthma, the evidence for their contribution to tissue pathology remains controversial...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Michal Kuczma, Zhi-Chun Ding, Gang Zhou
The alkylating agent melphalan is used in the treatment of hematological malignancies, especially multiple myeloma. In the past, the usefulness of melphalan has been solely attributed to its cytotoxicity on fastgrowing cancerous cells. Although the immunomodulatory effects of melphalan were suggested many years ago, only recently has this aspect of melphalan's activity begun to be elucidated at the molecular level. Emerging evidence indicates that melphalan can foster an immunogenic microenvironment by inducing immunogenic cell death (ICD) as characterized by membrane translocation of endoplasmic reticulum protein calreticulin (CRT) and by release of chromatin-binding protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Trang T T Nguyen, Nicole Baumgarth
Most serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) is "natural IgM", which is produced apparently spontaneously by a distinct subset of B cells requiring no exogenous antigenic or microbial stimuli. Natural IgM is an evolutionarily conserved molecule and reacts with a variety of epitopes expressed on both self- and non-self antigens. It has long been understood that secreted (s) IgM contributes to the removal of altered self-antigens, such as apoptotic and dying cells. As we outline in this review, it is thought that this sIgM housekeeping function removes potential triggers of autoresponse induction...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Shuang Liu, Kazutaka Maeyama
With the aim of controlling disease relapse and bone deformation of individual joints, the application of gene therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has slowly progressed on a trial-and-error basis. Several new therapeutic targets have been identified in preclinical studies in animal models, although a limited number of gene-based clinical trials have been conducted. In this article, we summarize the status of gene therapy for RA by addressing issues related to innovating drug development. More disease- and target-specific preclinical tests are required to overcome the insufficient information regarding pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics, which are related to safety issues in the field of RA gene therapy...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Annelise Y Mah, Megan A Cooper
Metabolism is critical for a host of cellular functions and provides a source of intracellular energy. It has been recognized recently that metabolism also regulates differentiation and effector functions of immune cells. Although initial work in this field has focused largely on T lymphocytes, recent studies have demonstrated metabolic control of innate immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells. Here, we review what is known regarding the metabolic requirements for NK cell activation, focusing on NK cell production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
M Carla Piazzon, George Lutfalla, Maria Forlenza
IL10 was discovered in 1989, and since then it has been the subject of intense investigation, which has revealed its potent anti-inflammatory and regulatory activities in most immune processes during infection and disease. In 2003, the first non-mammalian IL10 sequence was identified in teleost fish, followed in 2004 by the chicken IL10 sequence. In this review, we summarize the work performed in non-mammalian vertebrates in which the IL10, IL10 receptors (IL10Rs), and their signaling components have been identified...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Wei Li, Ramya Sivakumar, Anton A Titov, Seung-Chul Choi, Laurence Morel
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease in which organ damage is mediated by pathogenic autoantibodies directed against nucleic acids and protein complexes. Studies in SLE patients and in mouse models of lupus have implicated virtually every cell type in the immune system in the induction or amplification of the autoimmune response as well as the promotion of an inflammatory environment that aggravates tissue injury. Here, we review the contribution of CD4+ T cells, B cells, and myeloid cells to lupus pathogenesis and then discuss alterations in the metabolism of these cells that may contribute to disease, given the recent advances in the field of immunometabolism...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Derek B Danahy, Robert K Strother, Vladimir P Badovinac, Thomas S Griffith
Septic patients experience chronic immunosuppression resulting in enhanced susceptibility to infections normally controlled by T cells. Clinical research on septic patients has shown increased apoptosis and reduced total numbers of CD4 and CD8 T cells, suggesting contributing mechanism driving immunosuppression. Experimental models of sepsis, including cecal ligation and puncture, reverse translated this clinical observation to facilitate hypothesis-driven research and allow the use of an array of experimental tools to probe the impact of sepsis on T-cell immunity...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Hilmar Lemke
The clone-specific or idiotypic characters of B as well as T cell antigen receptors (BCRs/TCRs) are associated with (1) the third-complementarity-determining regions (CDR3s) that are created during V(D)J recombination (they scarcely occur in antibody light chains) and (2) BCR idiotopes created by somatic hypermutations (SHMs) during immune responses. Therefore, BCR/TCR idiotypic sites are antigen receptor-intrinsic Non-Self (AgR-iNS) portions that fulfill two tasks: serving as a crucial component of the epitope-binding paratope and serving as target sites for anti-idiotypic BCR/TCR paratopes of other anti-Non-Self clones that are contained in both normal repertoires...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
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