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Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

Micha Peleg, Mark D Normand, William R Dixon, Timothy R Goulette
Most published reports on ascorbic acid (AA) degradation during food storage and heat preservation suggest that it follows first-order kinetics. Deviations from this pattern include Weibullian decay, and exponential drop approaching finite non-zero retention. Almost invariably, the degradation rate constant's temperature-dependence followed the Arrhenius equation, and hence the simpler exponential model too. A formula and freely downloadable interactive Wolfram Demonstration to convert the Arrhenius model's energy of activation, Ea, to the exponential model's c parameter, or vice versa, are provided...
November 28, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Giancarlo Balercia, Luigi Barrea, Angelo Cignarelli, Francesco Giorgino, Jens J Holst, Daniela Laudisio, Francesco Orio, Giacomo Tirabassi, Annamaria Colao
The gut regulates glucose and energy homeostasis; thus, the presence of ingested nutrients into the gut activates sensing mechanisms that affect both glucose homeostasis and regulate food intake. Increasing evidence suggest that gut may also play a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes which may be related to both the intestinal microbiological profile and patterns of gut hormones secretion. Intestinal microbiota includes trillions of microorganisms but its composition and function may be adversely affected in type 2 diabetes...
November 28, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Zhi Huang, Francesco Marra, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, Shaojin Wang
Radio frequency (RF) heating has great potential for achieving rapid and volumetric heating in foods, providing safe and high quality food products due to deep penetration depth, moisture self-balance effects, and leaving no chemical residues. However, the non-uniform heating problem (usually resulting in hot and cold spots in the heated product) needs to be resolved. The inhomogeneous temperature distribution not only affects the quality of the food but also raises the issue of food safety when the microorganisms or insects may not be controlled in the cold spots...
November 28, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Minh Anh Thu Phan, Janet Paterson, Martin Bucknall, Jayashree Arcot
The combinations of two or more phytochemicals bring about changes in the ultimate biological effects and/or the bioavailability of each component. A number of mixtures of pure bioactive compounds or phytochemical-containing plant extracts provide synergy with regard to antioxidant status, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer and chemoprevention of several oxidative stress and metabolic disorders in vitro. The biological activities of food phytochemicals depend upon their bioaccessibility and bioavailability which can be affected by the presence of other food components including other bioactive constituents...
November 23, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Lisa M Haider, Lukas Schwingshackl, Georg Hoffmann, Cem Ekmekcioglu
Background Vegetarian diets exclude meat, seafood, and products containing these foods. Although the vegetarian lifestyle could lead to a better health status in adults, it may also bear risks for certain nutritional deficiencies. Cross-sectional studies and narrative reviews have shown that the iron status of vegetarians is compromised by the absence of highly bioavailable haem-iron in meatless diets and the inhibiting effect of certain components present in plant foods on non-haem iron bioavailability. Methods The databases Pubmed, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for studies comparing serum ferritin, as the major laboratory parameter for iron status of adult vegetarians with non-vegetarian control groups...
November 23, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Mareile Heitmann, Emanuele Zannini, Elke Arendt
Although bread making with the use of Baker's yeast has a long tradition in human history, little attention has been paid to the connection between yeast addition and the final bread quality. Nowadays, bakers mainly use different flour additives such as enzymes (amylases, hemicellulases, and proteases) to change and improve dough properties and/or bread quality. Another strategy is the use of modified industrial Baker's yeast. To date, there is no yeast strain used in the baking industry, which is genetically modified, despite some studies demonstrating that the application of recombinant DNA technology is a possibility for improved strains suitable for baking...
November 22, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Samuel D Hughes, Natkunam Ketheesan, Nagaraja Haleagrahara
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune condition that mainly affects peripheral joints. Although immunosuppressive drugs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to treat this condition, these drugs have severe side effects. Flavonoids are the most abundant phenolic compounds which exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Many bioactive flavonoids have powerful anti-inflammatory effects. However, a very few have reached clinical use. Dietary flavonoids have been reported to control joint inflammation and alleviate arthritis symptoms in both human RA and animal models of arthritis...
November 22, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Muhammad Imran, Farhan Saeed, Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Umair Arshad, Azmat Ullah, Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria
Cucurmin, a naturally yellow component isolated from turmeric, ability to prevent various life-style related disorders. The current review article mainly emphasizes on different anticancer perspectives of cucurmin i.e. colon, cervical, uterine, ovarian, prostate head and neck, breast, pulmonary, stomach and gastric, pancreatic, bladder oral, oesophageal and bone cancer. It holds a mixture of strong bioactive molecule known as cucurminoids that has ability to reduce cancer/tumor at initial, promotion and progression stages of tumor development...
November 22, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Margaret Murray, Aimee L Dordevic, Lisa Ryan, Maxine P Bonham
Marine macroalgae are gaining recognition among the scientific community as a significant source of functional food ingredients. Due to the harsh environments in which macroalgae survive, they produce unique bioactive compounds that are not found in terrestrial plants. Polyphenols are the predominant bioactive compound in brown algae and are accountable for the majority of its biological activity. Phlorotannins are a type of polyphenol that are unique to marine sources and have exhibited protective effects against hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia, inflammation and oxidative stress, known risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetic complications, in cell culture, animal studies and some human studies...
November 11, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Bianca Scolaro, Hellen Soo Jin Kim, Inar Alves de Castro
Different pharmacological interventions have been applied with success to reduce the progression of atherosclerosis. However, many patients are not good responders or must interrupt treatment due to adverse effects. Bioactive compounds such as omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA), plant sterol esters (PSE) and phenolic compounds (PHC) are natural molecules with great potential to reduce the atherosclerosis burden by reducing inflammation, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and oxidative stress, respectively. Although their physiological effects on biomarkers are much lower than those expected by drugs used for the same purpose, bioactive compounds can easily be incorporated into the daily diet and present no adverse effects...
November 10, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Jashandeep Kaur, Gurkirat Kaur, Savita Sharma, Kiran Jeet
Starch is one of the most abundant biopolymers in nature and is typically isolated from plants in the form of micro-scale granules. Raw starch has limited applications due to its innate disadvantages such as poor solubility in cold water, tendency to retrograde and high viscosity once it is gelatinized. Therefore, some degree of modification is required to enhance its functionality. Starch nanoparticle is one of the products of such modification. Chemical, enzymatic, and physical treatments are used for the preparation of starch nanoparticles and to study their granular and molecular structures...
November 10, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Halime PehlivanoĞlu, Mehmet Demirci, Omer Said Toker, Nevzat Konar, Salih Karasu, Osman Sagdic
Oils and fats are widely used in the food formulations in order to improve nutritional and some quality characteristics of food products. Solid fats produced from oils by hydrogenization, interesterification and fractionation processes are widely used in different foodstuffs for these aims. In recent years, consumer awareness of relation between diet and health has increased which can cause worry about solid fat including products in terms of their high saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acid contents. Therefore, different attempts have been carried out to find alternative ways to produce solid fat with low saturated fatty acid content...
November 10, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Hans J P Marvin, Esmée M Janssen, Yamine Bouzembrak, Peter J M Hendriksen, Martijn Staats
Technology is now being developed that is able to handle vast amounts of structured and unstructured data from diverse sources and origins. These technologies are often referred to as big data, and opens new areas of research and applications that will have an increasing impact in all sectors of our society. In this paper we assessed to which extent big data is being applied in the food safety domain and identified several promising trends. In several parts of the world, governments stimulate the publication on internet of all data generated in public funded research projects...
November 7, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Fabio M Colombo, Patrizia Cattaneo, Enrica Confalonieri, Cristian Bernardi
OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to assess the mean of histamine concentration in food poisoning. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of reports published between 1959-2013. STUDY SELECTION: main criteria for inclusion of studies were: all report types that present outbreaks of "histamine poisoning" or "scombroid syndrome" from food, including histamine content and type of food. Health status of people involved must be non pathological...
October 28, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Jiamiao Hu, Shaoling Lin, Baodong Zheng, Peter C K Cheung
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially acetate, propionate and butyrate, are the end products from the intestinal microbial fermentation of dietary fibers and resistant starch. It has been well documented that plasma and colonic SCFAs are associated with metabolic syndromes. Recently, the involvement of SCFAs in energy homeostasis regulation has been extensively studied. The importance of SCFAs on energy metabolism has highlighted the potential of modulating SCFAs as a nutritional target to prevent and counteract metabolism disorders and its associated diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes...
October 27, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Eric Banan-Mwine Daliri, Shuai Wei, Deog H Oh, Byong H Lee
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract has co-developed with a large number of microbes in a symbiotic relationship over millions of years. Recent studies indicate that indigenous bacteria are intimate with the intestine and play essential roles in health and disease. In the quest to maintain a stable niche, these prokaryotes influence multiple host metabolic pathways, resulting from an interactive host-microbiota metabolic signaling and impacting strongly on the metabolic phenotypes of the host. Since dysbiosis of the gut bacteria result in alteration in the levels of certain microbial and host co-metabolites, identifying these markers could enhance early detection of diseases...
October 21, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Muriel Mercier-Bonin, Bernard Despax, Patrice Raynaud, Eric Houdeau, Muriel Thomas
Given the growing use of nanotechnology in many common consumer products, including foods, evaluation of the consequences of chronic exposure to nanoparticles in humans has become a major public health issue. The oral route of exposure has been poorly explored, despite the presence of a fraction of nano-sized particles in certain food additives/supplements and the incorporation of such particles into packaging in contact with foods. After their ingestion, these nanoparticles pass through the digestive tract, where they may undergo physicochemical transformations, with consequences for the luminal environment, before crossing the epithelial barrier to reach the systemic compartment...
October 14, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Tong Chen, Min Zhang, Bhesh Bhandari, Zaixing Yang
Size reduction to micron to nano-size range is rapidly developing technology applied to foods in the recent decades. This article reviews the particle size reducing technologies for solid particulate and liquid materials. For solid particulate materials, the jet milling, ball milling and colloid milling are mainly used. For liquid materials, primarily the high pressure homogenization, ultrasonic homogenization and microfluidisation technologies are used. Due to the reduction in particle size, micron- and nanotechnology significantly enhance the physico-chemical and functional characteristics of food materials, resulting in the improvement of food quality...
October 14, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Yu-Mei Wu, Zhi-Wei Wang, Chang-Ying Hu, Cristina Nerín
Antimicrobial packaging materials (films or coatings) (APMs) have aroused great interest among the scientists or the experts specialized in material science, food science, packaging engineering, biology and chemistry. APMs have been used to package the food such as dairy products, poultry, meat (e.g. beef), salmon muscle, pastry dough, fresh pasta, bakery products, fruits, vegetables and beverages. Some materials have been already commercialized. The ability of APMs to extend the shelf-life of the food depends on the release rate of the antimicrobials (AMs) from the materials to the food...
October 13, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Simone Belluco, Federica Gallocchio, Carmen Losasso, Antonia Ricci
Background Nanotechnology is a promising area in industry with a broad range of applications including in the agri-food sector. Several studies have investigated the potential benefits deriving from use of nanomaterials in the context of the whole food chain drawing scenarios of benefits but also potential for concerns. Among the agri-food sector, animal production has potential for nanomaterial application but also for safety concerns due to the possibility of nanomaterial accumulation along the farm-to-fork path...
October 13, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
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