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Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

Micha Peleg
The temperature effect on viscosity of liquid and semi-liquid foods has been traditionally described by the Arrhenius equation, a few other mathematical models, and more recently by the WLF and VTF (or VFT) equations. The essence of the Arrhenius equation is that the viscosity is proportional to the absolute temperature's reciprocal and governed by a single parameter, namely the energy of activation. However, if the absolute temperature in °K in the Arrhenius equation is replaced by T + b where both T and the adjustable b are in°C units, the result is a two-parameters model, which has superior fit to experimental viscosity-temperature data...
May 4, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Braulio A Macias-Rodriguez, Alejandro A Marangoni
Fats are ubiquitous in biological membranes, foods and many other commercial products. In these, they play essential roles in biological, nutritional and physical functions. In this review, we focus on physical mechanical functions. The rheology of fats arises from the crystal network, which displays hierarchical structural levels from the molecular to the mesoscopic. Under linear deformations, the crystal network behaves as a viscoelastic solid with elasticity dictated by particle concentration and microstructural features as represented in fractal rheo-mechanical models...
May 4, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Margaret Murray, Aimee L Dordevic, Maxine P Bonham, Lisa Ryan
Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Marine algal polyphenols have potential to reduce the risk of these conditions, however little is known about their impact in humans. This systematic review investigates the antidiabetic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and anti-inflammatory effects of marine polyphenols in humans. Scopus, Medline, PsychInfo, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were searched in November 2016. Eligible studies included 1) human adults, 2) marine polyphenol intervention, 3) blood lipid, glucose, insulin or inflammatory marker outcomes, and 4) were a randomised-controlled trial...
April 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Desirrê Morais Dias, Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa, Marilia Regini Nutti, Elad Tako, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino
Biofortification aims to improve the micronutrient concentration of staple food crops through the best practices of breeding and modern biotechnology. However, increased zinc and iron concentrations in food crops may not always translate into proportional increases in absorbed zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe). Therefore, assessing iron and zinc bioavailability in biofortified crops is imperative to evaluate the efficacy of breeding programs. This review aimed to investigate the advantages and limitations of in vitro and in vivo methods of iron and zinc bioavailability evaluation in the assessment of biofortification program effectiveness...
April 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Baohua Zhang, Dejian Dai, Jichao Huang, Jun Zhou, Qifa Gui
Over the past decades, imaging and spectroscopy techniques have been rapidly developing and widely applied in non-destructive fruit and vegetable quality assessment. The physical properties (including size, shape, color, position and temperature) and biological properties (including cultivar, season, maturity level and geographical origin) of fruits and vegetables vary from one to another. A great variety of physical and biological properties of agricultural products influence the optical propagation properties and interaction behaviors with incident light, thus decreasing the quality inspection accuracy...
April 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Haitao Shi, Peiqiang Yu
Mycotoxin contamination has been a worldwide problem for food and feeds production for a long time. There is an obviously increased focus of the food and feed industry toward the reduction of mycotoxin concentration in both the raw materials and finished products. Therefore, both effective qualitative and quantitative techniques for the determination of mycotoxins are required to minimize their harmful effects. Conventional wet chemical methods usually are time-consuming, expensive, and rely on complex extraction and cleanup pretreatments...
April 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Christina Linke, Stephan Drusch
In order to critically discuss the potential of Pickering-type emulsions in food applications this review provides the theoretical background of the stabilizing mechanisms, the resulting requirements for particles to stabilize these systems and the limitations resulting from these fundamental considerations. Food grade particle systems investigated in the past are presented. It becomes obvious that with a proper choice of a particle, oil-in-water as well as water-in-oil emulsions can be achieved. For highly viscous products, products with a high internal phase volume and foams Pickering particles offer alternatives to commonly used surfactants...
April 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Nathalie Almeida Lopes, Adriano Brandelli
Natural antimicrobial compounds are a topic of utmost interest in food science due to the increased demand for safe and high-quality foods with minimal processing. The use of nanostructures is an interesting alternative to protect and delivery antimicrobials in food, also providing controlled release of natural compounds such as bacteriocins and antimicrobial proteins, and also for delivery of plant derived antimicrobials. A diversity of nanostructures are capable of trapping natural antimicrobials maintaining the stability of substances that are frequently sensitive to food processing and storage conditions...
April 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Natalia Cardoso Santos, Laiza Magalhaes de Araujo, Graziela De Luca Canto, Eliete Neves Silva Guerra, Michella Soares Coelho, Maria de Fatima Borin
BACKGROUND: Data about harms or benefits associated with the consumption of aspartame, a non-nutritive sweetener worldwide consumed, is still controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials aimed to assess the effect of aspartame consumption on metabolic parameters related to diabetes and obesity. METHODS: The search was performed on Cochrane, LILACS, PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science databases and on a grey literature using Open Grey, Google Scholar and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global...
April 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Charles Odilichukwu R Okpala, Giacomo Sardo, Sergio Vitale, Gioacchino Bono, Augustine Arukwe
The mercury (Hg) poisoning of Minamata Bay of Japan widely activated a global attention to Hg toxicity and its potential consequences to the aquatic ecosystem and human health. This has resulted to an increased need for a dynamic assembly, contextualization and quantification of both the current state-of-the-art and approaches for understanding the cause-and effect relationships of Hg exposure. Thus, the objective of this present review is to provide both hazardous-, toxic properties and toxicological update of Hg, focusing on how it ultimately affects the aquatic biota to potentially produce human health effects...
April 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Susana Ribes, Ana Fuentes, Pau Talens, Jose Manuel Barat
The kingdom Fungi is the most important group of microorganism contaminating food commodities, and chemical additives are commonly used in the food industry to prevent fungal spoilage. However, the increasing consumer concern about synthetic additives has led to their substitution by natural compounds in foods. The current review provides an overview of using natural agents isolated from different sources (plants, animals and microorganisms) as promising antifungal compounds, including information about their mechanism of action and their use in foods to preserve and prolong shelf life...
April 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Agnieszka Joanna Brodowska, Agnieszka Nowak, Krzysztof Śmigielski
The food contamination issue requires continuous control of food at each step of the production process. High quality and safety of products are equally important factors in the food industry. They may be achieved with several, more or less technologically advanced methodologies. In this work, we review the role, contribution, importance, and impact of ozone as a decontaminating agent used to control and eliminate the presence of microorganisms in food products as well as to extend their shelf-life and remove undesirable odors...
April 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Jeong Hoon Pan, Breann Abernathy, Young Jun Kim, Jin Hyup Lee, Jun Ho Kim, Eui Cheol Shin, Jae Kyeom Kim
Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may lower colorectal cancer risk. In particular, a number of in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that cruciferous vegetables and their active compounds elicit chemopreventive potency through multiple mechanisms. However, it is relatively unexplored whether these vegetables modulate the risk of cancer development through epigenetic mechanisms including noncoding RNAs. Therefore, the objective of the present review is to report and discuss existing evidence with regards to modulation of microRNAs (miRNAs), one variety of noncoding RNAs, by cruciferous vegetables and their chemo-preventive effects against colorectal cancers...
April 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
M A Mazorra-Manzano, J C Ramírez-Suarez, R Y Yada
Proteins are a potential source of health promoting biomolecules with medical, nutraceutical and food applications. Nowadays, bioactive peptides production, its isolation, characterization and strategies for its delivery to target sites are a matter of intensive research. In vitro and in vivo studies regarding the bioactivity of peptides has generated strong evidence of their health benefits. Dairy proteins are considered the richest source of bioactive peptides, however proteins from animal and vegetable origin also have been shown to be important sources...
April 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Joanna Tannous, Nancy P Keller, Ali Atoui, André El Khoury, Roger Lteif, Isabelle P Oswald, Olivier Puel
The plant pathogenic fungus Penicillium expansum is a major concern of the global food industry due to its wide occurrence and ability to produce various mycotoxins, of which the most significant is patulin. Relatively less highlighted in the literature, in comparison with the other food-borne mycotoxins, patulin is one of the main factors in economic losses of vegetables and fruits. Otherwise, patulin is a health hazard which results in both short-term and long-term risks. This review includes knowledge on the biosynthetic mechanisms used for secondary metabolite production in P...
March 31, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
N N Misra, Alex Martynenko, Farid Chemat, Larysa Paniwnyk, Francisco J Barba, Anet Režek Jambrak
Interest in the development and adoption of nonthermal technologies is burgeoning within the food and bioprocess industry, the associated research community, and among the consumers. This is evident from not only the success of some innovative nonthermal technologies at industrial scale, but also from the increasing number of publications dealing with these topics, a growing demand for foods processed by nonthermal technologies and use of natural ingredients. A notable feature of the nonthermal technologies such as cold plasma, electrohydrodynamic processing, pulsed electric fields, and ultrasound is the involvement of external fields, either electric or sound...
March 31, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Philippe E Ramos, Miguel A Cerqueira, José A Teixeira, António A Vicente
Nowadays, food and nutrition have a greater impact in people's concerns, with the awareness that nutrition have a direct impact in health and wellbeing. Probiotics have an important role in this topic and consumers are starting to really understand their potential in health, leading to an increasing interest of the companies to their commercial use in foods. However, there are several limitations to the use of probiotics in foods and beverages, being one of them their efficiency (directly associated to their survival rate) upon ingestion...
March 31, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Noreddine Benkerroum
Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) have been raising health concerns for food safety due to their association with Staphylococcal Food Poisoning (SFP). As superantigens, they also cause the life threatening Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS), the transmission of which via food cannot be ruled out despite the lack of epidemiological evidence. To date, at least 23 of these exotoxins are known and separated into SEs and staphylococcal enterotoxin-like (SEl) depending on whether or not they invoke emesis. This work presents an up-to-date overview on the presently known SEs/SEls from the perspective of their classification, pathogenesis, and genetic organisation...
March 31, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Ryan West, Dérick Rousseau
Confections such as chocolate and biscuit fillings are composed of a continuous fat phase that contains dispersed non-fat ingredients such as sugar and cocoa powder. Research on fat crystallization and rheology in confections often extrapolates crystallization and textural properties from bulk to mixed systems while overlooking the important role of composition or particle interactions. For example, in chocolate processing the fat phase aids dispersed phase lubrication and fluidity whereas the dispersed particles assist in fat crystallization by providing many nucleation sites...
March 31, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Roberto Pérez-Torrado, Eladio Barrio, Amparo Querol
Wine fermentation has not significantly changed since ancient times and the most traditional aspects are seen by the market as elements that uplift wine nuances and quality. In recent years, new trends have emerged from the sector in line with consumer preferences, and due to the effects of global climate change on grape ripening. In the first cases the consumers are looking for wines with less ethanol and fruitier aromas and in the second cases the wineries want to reduce the wine alcohol levels and/or astringency...
March 31, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
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