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Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

Muriel Mercier-Bonin, Bernard Despax, Patrice Raynaud, Eric Houdeau, Muriel Thomas
Given the growing use of nanotechnology in many common consumer products, including foods, evaluation of the consequences of chronic exposure to nanoparticles in humans has become a major public health issue. The oral route of exposure has been poorly explored, despite the presence of a fraction of nano-sized particles in certain food additives/supplements and the incorporation of such particles into packaging in contact with foods. After their ingestion, these nanoparticles pass through the digestive tract, where they may undergo physicochemical transformations, with consequences for the luminal environment, before crossing the epithelial barrier to reach the systemic compartment...
October 14, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Tong Chen, Min Zhang, Bhesh Bhandari, Zaixing Yang
Size reduction to micron to nano-size range is rapidly developing technology applied to foods in the recent decades. This article reviews the particle size reducing technologies for solid particulate and liquid materials. For solid particulate materials, the jet milling, ball milling and colloid milling are mainly used. For liquid materials, primarily the high pressure homogenization, ultrasonic homogenization and microfluidisation technologies are used. Due to the reduction in particle size, micron- and nanotechnology significantly enhance the physico-chemical and functional characteristics of food materials, resulting in the improvement of food quality...
October 14, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Yu-Mei Wu, Zhi-Wei Wang, Chang-Ying Hu, Cristina Nerín
Antimicrobial packaging materials (films or coatings) (APMs) have aroused great interest among the scientists or the experts specialized in material science, food science, packaging engineering, biology and chemistry. APMs have been used to package the food such as dairy products, poultry, meat (e.g. beef), salmon muscle, pastry dough, fresh pasta, bakery products, fruits, vegetables and beverages. Some materials have been already commercialized. The ability of APMs to extend the shelf-life of the food depends on the release rate of the antimicrobials (AMs) from the materials to the food...
October 13, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Simone Belluco, Federica Gallocchio, Carmen Losasso, Antonia Ricci
Background Nanotechnology is a promising area in industry with a broad range of applications including in the agri-food sector. Several studies have investigated the potential benefits deriving from use of nanomaterials in the context of the whole food chain drawing scenarios of benefits but also potential for concerns. Among the agri-food sector, animal production has potential for nanomaterial application but also for safety concerns due to the possibility of nanomaterial accumulation along the farm-to-fork path...
October 13, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Guy M Holt, Lauren J Owen, Sophie Till, Yanying Cheng, Vicky A Grant, Charlotte J Harden, Bernard M Corfe
Ratings of appetite are commonly used to assess appetite modification following an intervention. Subjectively rated appetite is a widely employed proxy measure for energy intake (EI), measurement of which requires greater time and resources. However, the validity of appetite as a reliable predictor of EI has not yet been reviewed systematically. This literature search identified studies that quantified both appetite ratings and EI. Outcomes were pre-defined as: 1) agreement between self-reported appetite scores and EI; 2) no agreement between self-reported appetite scores and EI...
October 13, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Louise Slade, Harry Levine
This paper reviews the application of the 'Food Polymer Science' approach to the practice of industrial R&D, leading to patent estates based on fundamental starch science and technology . The areas of patents and patented technologies reviewed here include: a) soft-from-the-freezer ice creams and freezer-storage-stable frozen bread dough products, based on 'cryostabilization technology' of frozen foods, utilizing commercial starch hydrolysis products (SHPs); b) glassy-matrix encapsulation technology for flavors and other volatiles, based on structure-function relationships for commercial SHPs; c) production of stabilized whole-grain wheat flours for biscuit products, based on the application of 'solvent retention capacity' technology to develop flours with reduced damaged starch; d) production of improved-quality, low-moisture cookies and crackers, based on pentosanase enzyme technology; e) production of 'baked-not-fried', chip-like, starch-based snack products, based on the use of commercial modified-starch ingredients with selected functionality; f) accelerated staling of a starch-based food product from baked bread crumb, based on the kinetics of starch retrogradation, treated as a crystallization process for a partially crystalline glassy polymer system; g) a process for producing an enzyme-resistant starch, for use as a reduced-calorie flour replacer in a wide range of grain-based food products, including cookies, extruded expanded snacks, and breakfast cereals...
September 22, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Aadil Bajoub, Alessandra Bendini, Alberto Fernández-gutiÉrrez, AlegrÍa Carrasco-Pancorbo
Over the last decades, olive oil quality and authenticity control has become an issue of great importance to consumers, suppliers, retailers, and regulators in both traditional and emerging olive oil producing countries, mainly due to the increasing worldwide popularity and the trade globalization of this product. Thus, in order to ensure olive oil authentication, various national and international laws and regulations have been adopted, although some of them are actually causing an enormous debate about the risk that they can represent for the harmonization of international olive oil trade standards...
September 22, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Lucia CrascÌ, Maria Rosaria Lauro, Giovanni Puglisi, Annamaria Panico
The diet polyphenols are a secondary metabolites of plants able to act on inflammation process. Their anti-inflammatory activity is articulated through several mechanisms that are related to their antioxidative and radical scavengers properties. Our work is focused on a novel approach to inflammatory disease management, based on anti-glycative and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) inhibition effects, as a connected phenomena. To better understand these correlation, polyphenols Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) studies were also reported...
September 20, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Zhen Ma, Joyce I Boye
Resistant starch (RS) is defined as the fraction of starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine due to either difficult enzyme/starch contact or to the strength of the crystalline regions formed both in native starch and in those retrograded starch. RS occurs naturally in some foods, and some may be generated in others as the results of several processing conditions. A variety of techniques have been employed to obtain structural characteristics of resistant starch such as their crystallinity, structural order, chain length distribution and conformation, helicity, and double helical structures...
September 19, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Erin M Goldberg, Kun Wang, Jessica Goldberg, Michel Aliani
Flavor perception is a highly individual sensation, and is impacted by a number of factors. Olfaction is a critical element in fully experiencing flavor. In this review, we explore the differences between orthonasal (sniff) versus retronasal (mouth) olfaction, and provide a comprehensive summary of recent publications in this arena. Here we explore the complexities of flavor perception, including the role that select flavors and media have on identification and localization. We also discuss some common neural imaging techniques used in this field, as odorants activate different neural responses in diverse areas of the brain, as well as the different stimulation patterns derived from perceiving food and non-food related odorants...
September 19, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
M M Rahman, Mohammad U H Joardder, M I H Khan, Duc Pham Nghia, M A Karim
For a long time, food engineers have been trying to describe the physical phenomena that occur during food processing especially drying. Physics-based theoretical modeling is an important tool for the food engineers to reduce the hurdles of experimentation. Drying of food is a multi-physics phenomenon such as coupled heat and mass transfer. Moreover, food structure is multi-scale in nature, and the microstructural features play a great role in the food processing specially in drying. Previously simple macroscopic model was used to describe the drying phenomena which can give a little description about the smaller scale...
September 19, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Mary Anne Nascimento-Souza, Pedro Gontijo Paiva, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro
The dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been a useful tool in epidemiological studies. To assess whether the TAC is associated with chronic diseases in middle-aged and older adults carried out a systematic review of articles indexed in MEDLINE and Science Direct. Of the 104 articles found, nine were included to meet the inclusion criteria. There was variation among the items on the sample size, sample origin, use of statistical tests, analysis of different outcomes and the use of assays to evaluate the TAC, which brought limitations to the comparability of results on the association of TAC with the outcomes of interest...
September 19, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Ren-You Gan, Hua-Bin Li, Zhong-Quan Sui, Harold Corke
Green tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world, especially in Asian countries. Consumption of green tea has been demonstrated to possess many health benefits, which mainly attributed to the main bioactive compound epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a flavone-3-ol polyphenol, in green tea. EGCG is mainly absorbed in the intestine, and gut microbiota play a critical role in its metabolism prior to absorption. EGCG exhibits versatile bioactivities, with its anti-cancer effect most attracting due to the cancer preventive effect of green tea consumption, and a great number of studies intensively investigated its anti-cancer effect...
September 19, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Izabel Lucena Gadioli, Marcela de Sá Barreto da Cunha, Mariana Veras Oliveira de Carvalho, Ana Maria Costa, Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira Pineli
Passiflora plants are strategic in the context of biodiversity for food and nutrition. We applied the procedures of a systematic review protocol to study the state of the art on identification of phenolic compounds from Passiflora plants. An automated literature search was conducted using six databases and a combination of seven keywords. All the analytical, chromatographic, and spectroscopic methods were included. The studies were classified according to their method of identification, phenolic classes, and method of extraction...
September 19, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
S Sivapratha, Preetam Sarkar
A single emulsifier material is seldom sufficient to cater to the requirements of complex emulsion-based food formulations that have to function over a wide range of pH, ionic strength, storage time and temperature. Food emulsions have to be designed to satisfy several requirements for use which could be achieved by combining the beneficial properties of multiple emulsifiers. This article reviews novel biological materials that are used to design oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. More specifically, the major focus is to discuss (o/w) interfaces stabilized by multiple biopolymers...
September 19, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Theeranun Janjarasskul, Panuwat Suppakul
The food industry has been under growing pressure to feed an exponentially increasing world population and challenged to meet rigorous food safety law and regulation. The plethora of media consumption has provoked consumer demand for safe, sustainable, organic, and wholesome products with "clean" labels. The application of active and intelligent packaging has been commercially adopted by food and pharmaceutical industries as a solution for the future for extending shelf life and simplifying production processes; facilitating complex distribution logistics; reducing, if not eliminating the need for preservatives in food formulations; enabling restricted food packaging applications; providing convenience, improving quality, variety and marketing features; as well as providing essential information to ensure consumer safety...
September 19, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Like Mao, Di Wang, Fuguo Liu, Yanxiang Gao
β-Carotene has been widely investigated both in the industry and academia, due to its unique bioactive attributes as an antioxidant and pro-vitamin A. Many attempts were made to design delivery systems for β-carotene to improve its dispersant state and chemical stability, and finally to enhance the functionality. Different types of oil-in-water emulsions were proved to be effective delivery systems for lipophilic bioactive ingredients, and intensive studies were performed on β-carotene emulsions in the last decade...
September 19, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Tian Ding, Xin-Yu Liao, Qing-Li Dong, Xiao-Ting Xuan, Shi-Guo Chen, Xing-Qian Ye, Dong-Hong Liu
In practice, food products tend to be contaminated with foodborne pathogens at a low inoculum level. However, the huge potential risk cannot be ignored because microbes may initiate high-speed growth suitable conditions during the food chain, such as transportation or storage. Thus, it is important to perform predictive modeling of microbial single cells. Several key aspects of microbial single cell modeling are covered in this review. First, based on previous studies, the techniques of microbial single cell data acquisition and growth data collection are presented in detail...
September 13, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Rubia C G Corrêa, Rosane M Peralta, Charles W I Haminiuk, Giselle Maria Maciel, Adelar Bracht, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Aging is an inevitable process influenced by genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors. Indirect evidence shows that several phytochemicals can have anti-aging capabilities, although direct evidence in this field is still limited. This report aims to provide a critical review on aspects related to the use of novel phytochemicals as anti-aging agents, to discuss the obstacles found when performing most anti-aging study protocols in humans, and to analyze future perspectives. In addition to the extensively studied resveratrol, epicatechin, quercetin and curcumin, new phytochemicals have been reported to act as anti-aging agents, such as the amino acid L-theanine isolated from green tea, and the lignans arctigenin and matairesinol isolated from Arctium lappa seeds...
September 13, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Kate Sendin, Paul J Williams, Marena Manley
The requirements of cereal research, as well as grading and evaluation of food products, have encouraged the development of non-destructive, rapid and accurate analytical techniques to evaluate grain quality and safety. NIR hyperspectral imaging integrates spectroscopy and imaging techniques in one analytical system, allowing direct identification of chemical components and their distribution within the sample. It is a promising technique that may be implemented on-line, enabling the cereal industry to move away from subjective, manual classification and measuring methods...
September 13, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
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