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Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

Yan Gao, Kit Ieng Kuok, Ying Jin, Ruibing Wang
Over the last centuries, Aloe vera, a plant species belonging to the genus Aloe, have been extensively studied for various therapeutic activities, including anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-cancer activity, as well as immunoregulative and hepatoprotective properties, although some of these claimed efficacies are controversial as demonstrated by some of the recent studies. In spite of the intensive historic and recent use of this herb and its extracts in various areas, a well-balanced, systematic review seems crucial in order to gain in-depth comprehensive knowledge about this plant and to reflect and revive the use of Aloe vera in biomedical sciences...
September 13, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Yan Dai, Shao-Ru Chen, Ling Chai, Jing Zhao, Yitao Wang, Ying Wang
Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) is a medicinal plant traditionally used as anti-inflammation and anti-bacteria herb. Andrographolide, the major active component of A. paniculata, exhibits diverse pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetes, and other activities. In this article, we comprehensively review the therapeutic potential of A. paniculata and andrographolide focusing on the mechanisms of action and clinical application. We systemically discuss the structure-activity relationship of andrographolide and derivatives...
September 10, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Yulong Bao, Per Ertbjerg
Protein oxidation readily occurs in postmortem muscle during storage and processing. Over the past decade new analytical methods have been developed and new aspects of protein oxidation in meat have been studied, such as the reaction mechanism, and impacts on eating quality and nutritional value. It is now evident that amino acid side chains in myofibrillar proteins undergoes modifications due to oxidative stress. In turn this will lead to formation of new protein-protein cross-links in structural proteins, however, also the overall level of fixed-charge groups attached to the peptide backbones is modified...
September 10, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
José Miguel Aguilera
The concept of food matrix has received much attention lately in reference to its effects on food processing, nutrition and health. However, the term matrix is used vaguely by food and nutrition scientists, often as synonymous of the food itself or its microstructure. This review analyses the concept of food matrix and proposes a classification for the major types of matrices found in foods. The food matrix may be viewed as a physical domain that contains and/or interacts with specific constituents of a food (e...
September 10, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Sun Jin Hur, Cheorun Jo, Yohan Yoon, Jong Youn Jeong, Keun Taik Lee
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between meat intake and colorectal cancer risk from an Asian, particularly Korean, perspective. A report by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) published in 2015 concluded that intake of processed and red meat increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer. We conducted an in-depth analysis of prospective, retrospective, case-control and cohort studies, systematic review articles, and IARC monograph reports, which revealed that the IARC/WHO report weighted the results of studies based in Western countries more and that the correlation between intake of processed meat products and colorectal cancer incidence in Asians is not clearly supported...
September 10, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
P D Zalewski, J F Beltrame, A A Wawer, A I Abdo, C Murgia
The discovery of the roles of nitric oxide (NO) in cardiovascular signaling has led to a revolution in the understanding of cardiovascular disease. A new perspective to this story involving zinc (Zn) is emerging. Zn and its associated Zn transporter proteins are important for the integrity and functions of both the large conduit vessels and the microvascular resistance vessels. The Zn and NO pathways are tightly coordinated. Zn ions are required for the dimerization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and subsequent generation of NO while generation of NO leads to a rapid mobilization of endothelial Zn stores...
September 10, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Nasreddine Benbettaïeb, Frédéric Debeaufort, Thomas Karbowiak
In order to improve the quality of food and to extend their shelf life, a new generation of active edible films is being especially intended after the incorporation of organic acids, enzymes, antimicrobial proteins, phenolic compounds, or other functional ingredients such as probiotics, flavors, vitamins and nutraceuticals. These active compounds have different mechanisms of action related to their structure, their concentration, the nature of micro-organism targeted, the process of encapsulation or incorporation in the biopolymer film-networks...
September 10, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Praveena Thirunathan, Annamalai Manickavasagan
Pulses are an excellent source of protein and dietary fiber and are consumed around the world. Their consumption has been recommended as part of a healthy diet. However, they contain various antinutrients such as tannins and trypsin inhibitors, as well as indigestible carbohydrates called alpha-galactosides. These oligosaccharides are fermented by the microorganisms in the gut, producing gas and causing flatulence in healthy individuals. While this flatulence is undesirable (and results in their low acceptance in the Western diet), alpha-galactosides have also been hypothesized to increase susceptibility to bowel diseases, and their presence in the gut worsens the symptoms of patients with irritable bowel syndrome...
September 10, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Murphy Lam Yim Wan, Stephen J Forsythe, Hani El-Nezami
Antibiotics are a key tool used nowadays in health care industry to fight against bacterial infections; however, repeated antibiotic use or misuses, have led to bacterial resistance, causing significant threats for many people with common bacterial infections. The use of probiotics to enhance gastrointestinal health has been proposed for many years. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the use of probiotic bacteria as alternatives for antibiotics for preventing or treating various intestinal infections...
September 5, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Joaheer D Teshika, Aumeeruddy M Zakariyyah, Zaynab Toorabally, Gokhan Zengin, Kannan Rr Rengasamy, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Fawzi M Mahomoodally
Onion, (Allium cepa L.), is one of the most consumed and grown vegetable crops in the world. Onion bulb with its characteristic flavor is the third most essential horticultural spice with a substantial commercial value. Apart from its culinary virtues, A. cepa is also used traditionally for its medicinal virtues in a plethora of indigenous cultures. Several publications have been produced in an endeavour to validate such traditional claims. Nonetheless, there is still a dearth of up-to-date, detailed compilation, and critical analysis of the traditional and ethnopharmacological propensities of A...
July 24, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Fatih Mehmet Yılmaz, Ahmet Görgüç, Mehmet Karaaslan, Hasan Vardin, Seda Bilek, Özge Uygun, Cavit Bircan
Sour (tart) cherry is an industrial fruit where a considerable amount of by-products remain after processing. Sour cherry by-products consist of pomace (skin and flesh) and seeds (pit, stone) which remain after the fruit juice and IQF processes. Sour cherry pomace is characterized with a high content of phenolic compounds and the seed constitutes a high oil yield with beneficial effects on human health because of their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. There has been a great interest in sour cherry by-products due to the increasing production rate of sour cherry worldwide and the increasing efforts on seeking bioactive compounds from natural sources as functional food...
July 24, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Jian Ju, Yunfei Xie, Yahui Guo, Yuliang Cheng, He Qian, Weirong Yao
Consumers' pursuit to a healthy lifestyle has promoted people to develop new technologies that can prolong the shelf life of food without the use of preservatives. Compared with other types of preservation, edible microcapsules containing essential oils (EOs) are becoming more and more popular especially the starch microcapsules containing essential oil (EOs-starch microcapsules) because of their environmentally friendly, healthier characteristics and the ability to carry active ingredients. In addition, the EOs-starch microcapsules can also reduce the flavor influence and prolong the action time of essential oil on food through its slow release effect, which can promote the use of EOs in food...
July 24, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Qi Li, Jia Chen, Zongyao Huyan, Yuxing Kou, Lirong Xu, Xiuzhu Yu, Jin-Ming Gao
Fats and oils are essential food components. Their quality and safety pose major concerns for consumers and food producers because of factors such as oxidation and rancidity, excessive levels of trans fatty acid (TFA), and widespread adulteration. Thus, a rapid and easy-to-use technique must be exploited for quality parameter evaluation and monitoring to ensure the edibility, safety, and quality of fats and oils. In the last decades, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has shown great potential in analyzing fats and oils given its speed and simplicity...
July 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Adriana Nowak, Anna Paliwoda, Janusz Blasiak
Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains, their isolated constituents and substances that they secrete exert various anti-cancer actions, resulting from their anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-oxidant properties. They can express and secrete anti-oxidant enzymes, bind reactive oxygen species, release small molecular weight anti-oxidants and chelate transition metals, preventing detrimental actions of many carcinogens. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium can interact with proteins regulating the cell cycle inhibiting proliferation of cancer cells, which often are intrinsically resistant to apoptosis...
July 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Zahra Rafiee, Mohammad Nejatian, Marjan Daeihamed, Seid Mahdi Jafari
Curcumin is the main polyphenol of the curcuminoid class of turmeric, a well-known spice belonging to the ginger family. In addition to its common applications like coloring and antioxidant agent as food additives, it has a broad range of favorable biological functions, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic activities, and anti-cancer potentials against various cancers. However, curcumin suffers from some limitations including short shelf life due to its poor chemical stability, low bioavailability due to its poor absorption, low water solubility, rapid metabolism and rapid systemic elimination...
July 12, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Delphine Amah, Angeline van Biljon, Allan Brown, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Rony Swennen, Maryke Labuschagne
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is one of the most prevalent micronutrient deficiencies that disproportionately affects low income populations in developing countries. Traditional breeding and modern biotechnology have significant potential to enhance micronutrient bioavailability in crops through biofortification. Bananas (Musa spp.) are economically important fruit crops grown throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world where VAD is most prevalent. Some banana genotypes are rich in provitamin A carotenoids (pVACs), providing an opportunity to use bananas as a readily available vehicle for provitamin A delivery...
July 12, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Sylwia Ścieszka, Elżbieta Klewicka
Algae are common all over the Earth. Due to their rich chemical composition and content of bioactive substances they have been used in many fields of industry. Their gelling, thickening and stabilizing properties have led to the development of such products as agar, alginate and carrageenan. Moreover, algae are used in the food industry as food supplements and an addition to functional food. Algae are also added to meat products, such as pasty, steaks, frankfurters and sausages, as well as to fish, fish products, and oils, to improve their quality...
July 12, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Tao Xu, Baiyi Lu
A circadian rhythm is any biological activity rhythm driven by internal circadian clocks (∼24 h) and entrained by external signals. Its disruption leads to the development of many diseases, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. However, not many medical treatments for circadian rhythm disorder has been applied. Several phytochemicals demonstrate the ability to prevent or even treat circadian-related diseases and function as circadian modulators. In this review, we briefly summarize the molecular architecture of circadian rhythm in mammals and circadian-related diseases...
July 12, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Qiang Xia, Brian D Green, Zhenzhou Zhu, Yunfei Li, Seyed Mohammad Taghi Gharibzahedi, Shahin Roohinejad, Francisco J Barba
Rice is a globally important staple consumed by billions of people, and recently there has been considerable interest in promoting the consumption of wholegrain brown rice (WBR) due to its obvious advantages over polished rice in metabolically protective activities. This work highlights the effects of innovative processing technologies on the quality and functional properties of WBR in comparison with traditional approaches; and it is aimed at establishing a quantitative and/or qualitative link between physicochemical changes and high-efficient processing methods...
July 11, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
F Brahmi, A Vejux, R Sghaier, A Zarrouk, T Nury, W Meddeb, L Rezig, A Namsi, K Sassi, A Yammine, I Badreddine, D Vervandier-Fasseur, K Madani, L Boulekbache-Makhlouf, B Nasser, G Lizard
Cholesterol oxidation products, also named oxysterols, can be formed either by cholesterol auto-oxidation, enzymatically or both. Among these oxysterols, 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) is mainly formed during radical attacks that take place on the carbon 7 of cholesterol. As increased levels of 7KC have been found in the tissues, plasma and/or cerebrospinal fluid of patients with major diseases, especially age related diseases (cardiovascular diseases, eye diseases, neurodegenerative diseases), some cancers, and chronic inflammatory diseases, it is suspected that 7KC, could contribute to their development...
July 11, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
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