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Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences

Meghan T Walsh, M Mahmood Hussain
Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is a polygenic disease arising from defects in the clearance of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which results in extremely elevated plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and increased risk of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and premature death. Conventional lipid-lowering therapies, such as statins and ezetimibe, are ineffective at lowering plasma cholesterol to safe levels in these patients. Other therapeutic options, such as LDL apheresis and liver transplantation, are inconvenient, costly, and not readily available...
October 1, 2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Xiaohong Ruby Xu, Dan Zhang, Brigitta Elaine Oswald, Naadiya Carrim, Xiaozhong Wang, Yan Hou, Qing Zhang, Christopher Lavalle, Thomas McKeown, Alexandra H Marshall, Heyu Ni
Platelets are small anucleate blood cells generated from megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and cleared in the reticuloendothelial system. At the site of vascular injury, platelet adhesion, activation and aggregation constitute the first wave of hemostasis. Blood coagulation, which is initiated by the intrinsic or extrinsic coagulation cascades, is the second wave of hemostasis. Activated platelets can also provide negatively-charged surfaces that harbor coagulation factors and markedly potentiate cell-based thrombin generation...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
B P Foster, T Balassa, T D Benen, M Dominovic, G K Elmadjian, V Florova, M D Fransolet, A Kestlerova, G Kmiecik, I A Kostadinova, C Kyvelidou, M Meggyes, M N Mincheva, L Moro, J Pastuschek, V Spoldi, P Wandernoth, M Weber, B Toth, U R Markert
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released from almost all cells and tissues. They are able to transport substances (e.g. proteins, RNA or DNA) at higher concentrations than in their environment and may adhere in a receptor-controlled manner to specific cells or tissues in order to release their content into the respective target structure. Blood contains high concentrations of EVs mainly derived from platelets, and, at a smaller amount, from erythrocytes. The female and male reproductive tracts produce EVs which may be associated with fertility or infertility and are released into body fluids and mucosas of the urogenital organs...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
A D Kjaergaard, J S Johansen, S E Bojesen, B G Nordestgaard
This review summarizes present evidence for the role of YKL-40 in the diagnosis, prognosis and cause of cardiovascular and alcoholic liver disease. The question of whether YKL-40 is merely a marker or a causal factor in the development of cardiovascular and liver disease is addressed, with emphasis on the Mendelian randomization design. The Mendelian randomization approach uses genetic variants associated with lifelong high plasma YKL-40 levels that are largely unconfounded and not prone to reverse causation...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Kazuhiko Kotani, Maria-Corina Serban, Peter Penson, Giuseppe Lippi, Maciej Banach
The present article is aimed at outlining the current state of knowledge regarding the clinical value of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) as a marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by summarizing the results of recent clinical studies, meta-analyses and systematic reviews. The literature supports the predictive value of Lp(a) on CVD outcomes, although the effect size is modest. Lp(a) would also appear to have an effect on cerebrovascular outcomes, however the effect appears even smaller than that for CVD outcomes...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Chiara Collesi, Mauro Giacca
There is an impelling need to develop new therapeutic strategies for patients with myocardial infarction and heart failure. Leading from the large quantity of new information gathered over the last few years on the mechanisms controlling cardiomyocyte proliferation during embryonic and fetal life, it is now possible to devise innovative therapies based on cardiac gene transfer. Different protein-coding genes controlling cell cycle progression or cardiomyocyte specification and differentiation, along with microRNA mimics and inhibitors regulating pre-natal and early post-natal cell proliferation, are amenable to transformation in potential therapeutics for cardiac regeneration...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Pauline Trémeaux, Alban Caporossi, Marie-Ange Thélu, Michael Blum, Vincent Leroy, Patrice Morand, Sylvie Larrat
Therapy for hepatitis C is currently undergoing a revolution. The arrival of new antiviral agents targeting viral proteins reinforces the need for a better knowledge of the viral strains infecting each patient. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) whole genome sequencing provides essential information for precise typing, study of the viral natural history or identification of resistance-associated variants. First performed with Sanger sequencing, the arrival of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has simplified the technical process and provided more detailed data on the nature and evolution of viral quasi-species...
October 2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Damien Gruson, Gabriel Ko
Management of chronic diseases represents a leading health and economic issue worldwide. Biomarkers are critical for the diagnosis and management of both communicable and non-communicable chronic diseases, and mobile health (mHealth) technologies are about to change the "game" with regard to the management of patients with such chronic diseases. The development of efficient, accurate and interactive solutions that integrate biomarkers and mHealth opens new perspectives for caregivers for the management of chronic illness...
October 2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Qing Huang, Wei-Ling Fu, Jian-Ping You, Qing Mao
Ebola virus disease (EVD), caused by Ebola virus (EBOV), is a potent acute infectious disease with a high case-fatality rate. Etiological and serological EBOV detection methods, including techniques that involve the detection of the viral genome, virus-specific antigens and anti-virus antibodies, are standard laboratory diagnostic tests that facilitate confirmation or exclusion of EBOV infection. In addition, routine blood tests, liver and kidney function tests, electrolytes and coagulation tests and other diagnostic examinations are important for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of EVD...
October 2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Alistair J Barber, Carmela Spagnuolo, Gian Luigi Russo, Maria Daglia, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Eduardo Sobarzo-Sánchez
Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular complication of diabetes that is considered one of the leading causes of blindness among adults. More than 4.4 million people suffer from this disorder throughout the world. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a redox sensitive transcription factor, plays an essential protective role in regulating the physiological response to oxidative and electrophilic stress via regulation of multiple genes encoding antioxidant proteins and phase II detoxifying enzymes...
October 2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Federica Braga, Mauro Panteghini
In recent decades, the study of biological variation of laboratory analytes has received increased attention. The reasons for this interest are related to the potential practical applications of such knowledge. Biological variation data allow the derivation of important parameters for the interpretation and use of laboratory tests, such as the index of individuality for the evaluation of the utility of population reference intervals for the test interpretation, the estimate of significant change in a timed series of results of an individual, the number of specimens required to obtain an accurate estimate of the homeostatic set point of the analyte and analytical performance specifications that assays should fulfill for their application in the clinical setting...
October 2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Panagiota S Filippou, George S Karagiannis, Natasha Musrap, Eleftherios P Diamandis
The kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) represent the largest family of serine proteases within the human genome and are expressed in various tissues. Although they regulate several important physiological functions, KLKs have also been implicated in numerous pathophysiological processes, including cancer. Growing evidence describing the deregulation of KLK expression and secretion, as well as activation in various malignancies, has uncovered their potential as mediators of cancer progression, biomarkers of disease and as candidate therapeutic targets...
August 2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Michelle Li, Eleftherios P Diamandis
This review explores recent innovations in four seemingly unrelated areas of medical diagnostics, which, when used concurrently, promise to revolutionize the future of medicine. Novel microfluidics and microelectronics, combined with smartphones, allow individuals to test themselves at anytime and anywhere, thus providing instant health information. An emerging development is the availability of genomic testing directly to consumers for assessing disease predisposition. Some organizations have opened diagnostic laboratories in pharmacies and other public outlets, are encouraging consumers to test themselves, and claim that by doing so consumers will be empowered to diagnose the early disease that could be effectively treated or prevented...
August 2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
José M Estrela, Angel Ortega, Salvador Mena, J Antoni Sirerol, Elena Obrador
Metastatic spread, not primary tumors, is the leading cause of cancer death. Glutathione (γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine, GSH) is particularly relevant in cancer cells as it is involved in regulating carcinogenic mechanisms, growth and dissemination, and multidrug and radiation resistance. Upon interaction of metastatic cells with the vascular endothelium, a high percentage of metastatic cells with high GSH levels survive the combined nitrosative and oxidative stresses elicited by the vascular endothelium. GSH release from different organs, mainly the liver, and its interorgan transport through the blood circulation to metastatic foci, promote their growth...
August 2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Subhadip Mukhopadhyay, Niharika Sinha, Durgesh Nandini Das, Prashanta Kumar Panda, Prajna Paramita Naik, Sujit Kumar Bhutia
Oncophagy (cancer-related autophagy) has a complex dual character at different stages of tumor progression. It remains an important clinical problem to unravel the reasons that propel the shift in the role of oncophagy from tumor inhibition to a protective mechanism that shields full-blown malignancy. Most treatment strategies emphasize curbing protective oncophagy while triggering the oncophagy that is lethal to tumor cells. In this review, we focus on the trends in current therapeutics as well as various challenges in clinical trials to address the oncophagic dilemma and evaluate the potential of these developing therapies...
August 2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Mehdi Hedayati, Marjan Zarif Yeganeh, Sara Sheikholeslami, Farinaz Afsari
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for nearly 1% of all of human cancer. Thyroid cancer has four main histological types: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic. Papillary, follicular, and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas are derived from follicular thyroid cells, whereas medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) originates from the neural crest parafollicular cells or C-cells of the thyroid gland. MTC represents a neuroendocrine tumor and differs considerably from differentiated thyroid carcinoma...
August 2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Hui Yao, Elizabeth R Rayburn, Qiang Shi, Liang Gao, Wenjie Hu, Haibo Li
Drug-related laboratory test interference or drug/laboratory test interactions (DLTI) are a major source of laboratory errors. DLTI is of concern with regard to both the clinical diagnosis and the monitoring of patients. Although there have been numerous reports about specific drugs that interfere with laboratory tests, there has not been a recent review on the topic. We herein provide a review of the known DLTI of US FDA-approved drugs based on a systematic search of DailyMed, a website containing the labels of US FDA-approved drugs...
June 27, 2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Paul Erne, Isabella Sudano, Therese J Resink, Thomas F Lüscher
Treatment-resistant hypertension, or resistant hypertension, is defined as blood pressure that remains above target despite concurrent use of at least 3 antihypertensive agents from different classes at optimal doses, one of which should be a diuretic. Important considerations in the diagnosis of treatment-resistant hypertension include the exclusion of pseudoresistance and the evaluation of potential secondary causes of hypertension and of concomitant conditions that maintain high blood pressure. The ability to diagnose true treatment-resistant hypertension is important for selection of patients who may be appropriately treated with an invasive therapy...
June 9, 2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
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2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Laila C Schenkel, David I Rodenhiser, Peter J Ainsworth, Guillaume Paré, Bekim Sadikovic
Genomic, chromosomal, and gene-specific changes in the DNA sequence underpin both phenotypic variations in populations as well as disease associations, and the application of genomic technologies for the identification of constitutional (inherited) or somatic (acquired) alterations in DNA sequence forms a cornerstone of clinical and molecular genetics. In addition to the disruption of primary DNA sequence, the modulation of DNA function by epigenetic phenomena, in particular by DNA methylation, has long been known to play a role in the regulation of gene expression and consequent pathogenesis...
2016: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
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