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Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025326/onco-proteogenomics-multi-omics-level-data-integration-for-accurate-phenotype-prediction
#1
Lampros Dimitrakopoulos, Ioannis Prassas, Eleftherios P Diamandis, George S Charames
The overall goal of translational oncology is to identify molecular alterations indicative of cancer or of responsiveness to specific therapeutic regimens. While next-generation sequencing has played a pioneering role in this quest, the latest advances in proteomic technologies promise to provide a holistic approach to the further elucidation of tumor biology. Genetic information may be written in DNA and flow from DNA to RNA to protein, according to the central dogma of molecular biology, but the observed phenotype is dictated predominantly by the DNA protein coding region-derived proteotype...
October 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017389/the-canadian-laboratory-initiative-on-pediatric-reference-intervals-a-caliper-white-paper
#2
Khosrow Adeli, Victoria Higgins, Karin Trajcevski, Nicole White-Al Habeeb
Laboratory investigations provide physicians with objective data to aid in disease diagnosis, clinical decision making, and patient follow up. Clinical interpretation of laboratory test results relies heavily on the availability of appropriate population-based reference intervals (i.e. normative values) or decision limits developed through clinical outcome studies. Although reference intervals are fundamental to accurate laboratory test interpretation, and thus critically important to healthcare, the need for sound evidence-based reference intervals has been largely overlooked, particularly in the pediatric population...
October 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990451/urine-and-oral-fluid-drug-testing-in-support-of-pain-management
#3
Tai C Kwong, Barbarajean Magnani, Christine Moore
In recent years, the abuse of opioid drugs has resulted in greater prevalence of addiction, overdose, and deaths attributable to opioid abuse. The epidemic of opioid abuse has prompted professional and government agencies to issue practice guidelines for prescribing opioids to manage chronic pain. An important tool available to providers is the drug test for use in the initial assessment of patients for possible opioid therapy, subsequent monitoring of compliance, and documentation of suspected aberrant drug behaviors...
October 9, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828885/typing-the-atypical-diagnostic-issues-and-predictive-markers-in-suspicious-prostate-lesions
#4
Francesca Sanguedolce, Antonella Cormio, Giovanni Musci, Francesco Troiano, Giuseppe Carrieri, Pantaleo Bufo, Luigi Cormio
As much as 5% of prostate biopsies yield findings equivocal for malignancy even for skilled uropathologist; such "grey zone" lesions have been addressed in many ways, although the acronym ASAP (atypical small acinar proliferation) is the most widely used when referring to an atypical focus suspicious, but not diagnostic, for malignancy. Since the introduction of this diagnostic category more than 20 years ago, debate has ensued over its histological characterization and clinical significance. Pathology reporting of ASAP, commonly based on strict morphological criteria and traditional immunohistochemical markers such as basal cell antibodies, has been improved by recent availability of novel immunohistochemical markers such as AMACR and ERG...
August 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763247/capillary-blood-for-point-of-care-testing
#5
Ruihua Tang, Hui Yang, Jane Ru Choi, Yan Gong, MinLi You, Ting Wen, Ang Li, XiuJun Li, Bo Xu, Sufeng Zhang, Qibing Mei, Feng Xu
Clinically, blood sample analysis has been widely used for health monitoring. In hospitals, arterial and venous blood are utilized to detect various disease biomarkers. However, collection methods are invasive, painful, may result in injury and contamination, and skilled workers are required, making these methods unsuitable for use in a resource-limited setting. In contrast, capillary blood is easily collected by a minimally invasive procedure and has excellent potential for use in point-of-care (POC) health monitoring...
August 1, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958185/targeting-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-in-acute-critical-illness-as-a-challenge-for-clinical-and-laboratory-medicine
#6
Vladimir Cerny, David Astapenko, Florian Brettner, Jan Benes, Radomir Hyspler, Christian Lehmann, Zdenek Zadak
The purpose of this manuscript is to review the role of endothelial glycocalyx (EG) in the field of critical and perioperative medicine and to discuss possible future directions for investigations in this area. Under physiological conditions, EG has several well-defined functions aimed to prevent the disruption of vessel wall integrity. Under pathological conditions, the EG represent one of the earliest sites of injury during inflammation. EG structure and function distortion contribute to organ dysfunction related to sepsis, trauma, or global ischemia of any origin...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956668/biomarkers-of-diabetic-nephropathy-a-2017-update
#7
Nektaria Papadopoulou-Marketou, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, Nikolaos Marketos, George P Chrousos, Ioannis Papassotiriou
Diabetic nephropathy (DN), also named diabetic kidney disease (DKD), is a devastating complication in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (T1D and T2D) and its diagnosis has been traditionally based on the presence of micro-albuminuria (MA). The aim of this article is to update, through review of the relevant medical literature, the most promising biomarkers for early DKD detection. MA has historically been employed as an early marker of microvascular complications, indicating risk for advanced CKD...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704113/role-of-resveratrol-in-the-management-of-insulin-resistance-and-related-conditions-mechanism-of-action
#8
Ebrahim Abbasi Oshaghi, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Victoria Higgins, Khosrow Adeli
Resveratrol (RES), a well-known antioxidant, is present in numerous plant species and, as a result, is easily obtained through dietary intake of plant-based foods and beverages. Several studies suggest that RES has anti-carcinogenic, anti-microbial, and anti-viral effects. It may also have beneficial metabolic properties that result in mitigation of insulin resistance (IR) and related metabolic abnormalities, including dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia through regulation of gene expression or the activity of rate-limiting enzymes...
July 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457177/high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-assays-from-improved-analytical-performance-to-enhanced-risk-stratification
#9
REVIEW
Marek Kozinski, Magdalena Krintus, Jacek Kubica, Grazyna Sypniewska
Implementation of cardiac troponin (cTn) assays has revolutionized the diagnosis, risk stratification, triage and management of patients with suspected myocardial infarction (MI). The Universal Definition of MI brought about a shift in the diagnostics of MI, from an approach primarily based on electrocardiography (ECG) to one primarily based on biomarkers. Currently, detection of a rise and/or fall in concentration or activity of myocardial necrosis biomarkers, preferentially cTns, with at least one value above the 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL), is the essential component for the diagnosis of MI...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393582/insights-into-the-human-brain-proteome-disclosing-the-biological-meaning-of-protein-networks-in-cerebrospinal-fluid
#10
REVIEW
Paulo Bastos, Rita Ferreira, Bruno Manadas, Paula I Moreira, Rui Vitorino
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an excellent source of biological information regarding the nervous system, once it is in close contact and accurately reflects alterations in this system. Several studies have analyzed differential protein profiles of CSF samples between healthy and diseased human subjects. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms and how CSF proteins relate to diseases are still poorly known. By applying bioinformatics tools, we attempted to provide new insights on the biological and functional meaning of proteomics data envisioning the identification of putative disease biomarkers...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393579/clinical-perspectives-of-dried-blood-spot-protein-quantification-using-mass-spectrometry-methods
#11
REVIEW
Sylvain Lehmann, Alexia Picas, Laurent Tiers, Jerome Vialaret, Christophe Hirtz
Although dried blood spot (DBS) sampling methods have been used since the 1960s, they have recently attracted renewed interest because of the development of new clinical applications. In addition to their other advantages, DBS methods can now be used to quantify many blood proteins using the latest highly sensitive and robust, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approaches such as multiple reaction monitoring. The DBS blood sampling approach could provide a useful alternative means of conducting blood sampling for routine clinical purposes and patients' follow-up...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393575/using-circulating-cell-free-dna-to-monitor-personalized-cancer-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Michael Oellerich, Ekkehard Schütz, Julia Beck, Philipp Kanzow, Piers N Plowman, Glen J Weiss, Philip D Walson
High-quality genomic analysis is critical for personalized pharmacotherapy in patients with cancer. Tumor-specific genomic alterations can be identified in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from patient blood samples and can complement biopsies for real-time molecular monitoring of treatment, detection of recurrence, and tracking resistance. cfDNA can be especially useful when tumor tissue is unavailable or insufficient for testing. For blood-based genomic profiling, next-generation sequencing (NGS) and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) have been successfully applied...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443762/prediction-of-therapy-response-in-ovarian-cancer-where-are-we-now
#13
Khalid El Bairi, Mariam Amrani, Abdul Hafeez Kandhro, Said Afqir
Therapy resistance is a major challenge in the management of ovarian cancer (OC). Advances in detection and new technology validation have led to the emergence of biomarkers that can predict responses to available therapies. It is important to identify predictive biomarkers to select resistant and sensitive patients in order to reduce important toxicities, to reduce costs and to increase survival. The discovery of predictive and prognostic biomarkers for monitoring therapy is a developing field and provides promising perspectives in the era of personalized medicine...
April 26, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393586/evaluation-of-glycated-albumin-ga-and-ga-hba1c-ratio-for-diagnosis-of-diabetes-and-glycemic-control-a-comprehensive-review
#14
Sara Yazdanpanah, Mohammad Rabiee, Mohammadreza Tahriri, Mojgan Abdolrahim, Asadollah Rajab, Hossein E Jazayeri, Lobat Tayebi
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by chronic high blood glucose concentrations (hyperglycemia). When it is left untreated or improperly managed, it can lead to acute complications including diabetic ketoacidosis and non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma. In addition, possible long-term complications include impotence, nerve damage, stroke, chronic kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, foot ulcers, and retinopathy. Historically, universal methods to measure glycemic control for the diagnosis of diabetes included fasting plasma glucose level (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2HP), and random plasma glucose...
April 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102101/thyroid-in-pregnancy-from-physiology-to-screening
#15
Drahomira Springer, Jan Jiskra, Zdenka Limanova, Tomas Zima, Eliska Potlukova
Thyroid hormones are crucial for the growth and maturation of many target tissues, especially the brain and skeleton. During critical periods in the first trimester of pregnancy, maternal thyroxine is essential for fetal development as it supplies thyroid hormone-dependent tissues. The ontogeny of mature thyroid function involves organogenesis, and maturation of the hypothalamus, pituitary and the thyroid gland; and it is almost complete by the 12th-14th gestational week. In case of maternal hypothyroidism, substitution with levothyroxine must be started in early pregnancy...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084848/the-intriguing-role-of-soluble-urokinase-receptor-in-inflammatory-diseases
#16
S Desmedt, V Desmedt, J R Delanghe, R Speeckaert, M M Speeckaert
Inflammation is a key player in the development of an increasing amount of diseases. The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a highly flexible molecule with intrinsic chemotactic properties. This glycoprotein has been evaluated as a biomarker of inflammation, immune activation, organ damage and clinical outcome in several pathologies, including cardiovascular disease, hepatitis, renal disorders and rheumatic pathologies. The use of this early warning inflammatory biomarker could potentially improve the prediction of the severity of these diseases and mortality...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013560/biomarkers-for-monitoring-chemotherapy-induced-cardiotoxicity
#17
Liyun Cao, Wuqiang Zhu, Elizabeth A Wagar, Qing H Meng
Cardiotoxicity, including acute and late-onset cardiotoxicity, is a well-known adverse effect of many types of antitumor agents. Early identification of patients with cardiotoxicity is important to ensure prompt treatment and minimize toxic effects. The etiology of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity is multifactorial. Traditional methods for assessment of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity typically involve serial measurements of cardiac function via multi-modality imaging techniques. Typically, however, significant left ventricular dysfunction has already occurred when cardiotoxicity is detected by imaging techniques...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132577/unsolved-challenges-in-pediatric-whole-exome-sequencing-a-literature-analysis
#18
Gabrielle Bertier, Karine Sénécal, Pascal Borry, Danya F Vears
Whole-exome sequencing (WES) has been instrumental in the discovery of novel genes and mechanisms causing Mendelian diseases. While this technology is now being successfully applied in a number of clinics, particularly to diagnose patients with rare diseases, it also raises a number of ethical, legal and social issues. In order to identify what challenges were directly foreseen by technology users, we performed a systematic review of the literature. In this paper, we focus on recent publications related to the use of WES in the pediatric context and analyze the most prominent challenges raised by technology users...
January 28, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013562/deciphering-acute-coronary-syndrome-biomarkers-high-resolution-proteomics-in-platelets-thrombi-and-microparticles
#19
Diana Navas-Carrillo, Francisco Marín, Mariano Valdés, Esteban Orenes-Piñero
Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) encompass unstable angina, non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. They are commonly associated with the presence of vulnerable plaques in the coronary arteries and occur when a thrombus formed from a ruptured atheromatous plaque causes a prolonged occlusion of a coronary artery. The erosion of the vulnerable plaques results in the formation of luminal thrombi secondary to platelet activation and the release of thrombogenic elements within the atherosclerotic lesions...
January 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013559/key-factors-influencing-the-incidence-of-hemolysis-a-critical-appraisal-of-current-evidence
#20
Euan James McCaughey, Elia Vecellio, Rebecca Lake, Ling Li, Leslie Burnett, Douglas Chesher, Stephen Braye, Mark Mackay, Stephanie Gay, Tony Badrick, Johanna Westbrook, Andrew Georgiou
Hemolysis is a leading cause of pre-analytical laboratory errors. The identification of contributing factors is an important step towards the development of effective practices to reduce and prevent hemolysis. We performed a review of PUBMED, Embase, Medline and CINAHL to identify articles published between January 2000 and August 2016 that identified factors influencing in vitro hemolysis rates. The 40 studies included in this review provide excellent evidence that hemolysis rates are higher in Emergency Departments (EDs), for non-antecubital draws, for specimens drawn using an intravenous catheter compared to venipuncture and for samples transported by pneumatic tube compared to by hand...
January 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
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