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Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792094/regulatory-context-and-validation-of-assays-for-clinical-mass-spectrometry-proteomics-cmsp-methods
#1
Christophe Hirtz, Pauline Bros, Cato Brede, Pierre Lescuyer, Aleksandra M Maceski, Jerome Vialaret, Vincent Delatour, Sylvain Lehmann
Clinical mass spectrometry proteomics (cMSP) assays are being increasingly used in clinical laboratories for analyzing peptides and proteins. It has therefore become urgent to characterize and validate the methods available for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) targeted quantification of peptide and protein biomarkers in biological fluids in the context of in vitro diagnostics. LC-MS/MS for the detection of peptides and proteins is currently the main approach used in the field of cMSP...
May 23, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673295/gut-microbiota-metabolism-and-psychopathology-a-critical-review-and-novel-perspectives
#2
Robin N Groen, Nicolien C de Clercq, Max Nieuwdorp, H J Rogier Hoenders, Albert K Groen
Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic comorbidities. However, the mechanisms through which metabolic and psychiatric disorders are connected remain unclear. Pre-clinical studies in rodents indicate that the bidirectional signaling between the intestine and the brain, the so-called microbiome-gut-brain axis, plays an important role in the regulation of both metabolism and behavior. The gut microbiome produces a vast number of metabolites that may be transported into the host and play a part in homeostatic control of metabolism as well as brain function...
April 20, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668342/sequencing-the-next-generation-of-glioblastomas
#3
Ivana Jovčevska
The most aggressive brain malignancy, glioblastoma, accounts for 60-70% of all gliomas and is uniformly fatal. According to the molecular signature, glioblastoma is divided into four subtypes (proneural, neural, classical, and mesenchymal), each with its own genetic background. The Cancer Genome Atlas project provides information about the most common genetic changes in glioblastoma. They involve mutations in TP53, TERT, and PTEN, and amplifications in EFGR, PDGFRA, CDK4, CDK6, MDM2, and MDM4. Recently, epigenetics was used to demonstrate the oncogenic roles of miR-124, miR-137, and miR-128...
April 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668333/blood-biomarkers-in-ischemic-stroke-potential-role-and-challenges-in-clinical-practice-and-research
#4
Konstantinos Makris, Alexander Haliassos, Maria Chondrogianni, Georgios Tsivgoulis
Fast and accurate diagnosis of stroke is crucial for the immediate application of the right therapy to patients. However, rapid diagnosis is still a challenge since an ischemic stroke cannot be identified based only on clinical assessment. CT or MRI imaging is required to rule out hemorrhagic stroke since thrombolytic therapy can lead to increased intracranial bleeding and further aggravation of hemorrhagic stroke. In addition, clinical situations that imitate the signs and symptoms of stroke may also impede the rapid diagnosis and treatment of stroke victims...
April 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663841/novel-heart-failure-biomarkers-why-do-we-fail-to-exploit-their-potential
#5
Arnold Piek, Weijie Du, Rudolf A de Boer, Herman H W Silljé
Plasma biomarkers are useful tools in the diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure (HF). In the last decade, numerous studies have aimed to identify novel HF biomarkers that would provide superior and/or additional diagnostic, prognostic, or stratification utility. Although numerous biomarkers have been identified, their implementation in clinical practice has so far remained largely unsuccessful. Whereas cardiac-specific biomarkers, including natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) and high sensitivity troponins (hsTn), are widely used in clinical practice, other biomarkers have not yet proven their utility...
April 17, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606016/laboratory-diagnosis-of-lyme-borreliosis-current-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#6
Benedikt Lohr, Volker Fingerle, Douglas E Norris, Klaus-Peter Hunfeld
This review is directed at physicians and laboratory personnel in private practice and clinics who treat and diagnose Lyme borreliosis (LB) in patients as part of their daily work. A major objective of this paper is to bring together background information on Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and basic clinical knowledge of LB, which is one of the most frequently reported vector-borne diseases in the Northern Hemisphere. The goal is to provide practical guidance for clinicians and for laboratory physicians, and scientists for a better understanding of current achievements and ongoing obstacles in the laboratory diagnosis of LB, an infectious disease that still remains one of the diagnostic chameleons of modern clinical medicine...
April 2, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546779/thyroglobulin-measurement-in-the-management-of-patients-with-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#7
Alicia Algeciras-Schimnich
The post-operative management of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) relies on serial measurements of serum thyroglobulin. Current methodologies for thyroglobulin quantitation vary in their analytical and clinical performance. For years, thyroglobulin radioimmunoassays (RIA) and immunometric assays (IMA) have been used despite analytical interferences from anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) as well as heterophile antibodies (HAb). TgAb interference limits Tg utility as a tumor marker in ∼30% of TgAb-positive patients...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502462/laboratory-evaluation-of-the-ifn-%C3%AE-circuit-for-the-molecular-diagnosis-of-mendelian-susceptibility-to-mycobacterial-disease
#8
Ana Esteve-Solé, Ithaisa Sologuren, María Teresa Martínez-Saavedra, Àngela Deyà-Martínez, Carmen Oleaga-Quintas, Rubén Martinez-Barricarte, Andrea Martin-Nalda, Manel Juan, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Carlos Rodriguez-Gallego, Laia Alsina, Jacinta Bustamante
The integrity of the interferon (IFN)-γ circuit is necessary to mount an effective immune response to intra-macrophagic pathogens, especially Mycobacteria. Inherited monogenic defects in this circuit that disrupt the production of, or response to, IFN-γ underlie a primary immunodeficiency known as Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). Otherwise healthy patients display a selective susceptibility to clinical disease caused by poorly virulent mycobacteria such as BCG (bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccines and environmental mycobacteria, and more rarely by other intra-macrophagic pathogens, particularly Salmonella and M...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388463/endogenous-markers-for-kidney-function-in-children-a-review
#9
Emil den Bakker, Reinoud J B J Gemke, Arend Bökenkamp
Although glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children can be measured using a gold-standard technique following injection of an exogenous marker, this invasive and cumbersome technique is not widely available and GFR is commonly estimated using serum levels of endogenous markers. Creatinine, urea, cystatin C, beta-trace protein, and beta-2 microglobulin are well-established endogenous markers of kidney function. These markers differ in site of production and effects of diet and medication, as well as renal-tubular handling and extra-renal elimination...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388456/advances-in-liquid-biopsy-on-chip-for-cancer-management-technologies-biomarkers-and-clinical-analysis
#10
Amogha Tadimety, Andrew Closson, Cathy Li, Song Yi, Ting Shen, John X J Zhang
Liquid biopsy, as a minimally invasive method of gleaning insight into the dynamics of diseases through a patient fluid sample, has been growing in popularity for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring. While many technologies have been developed and validated in research laboratories, there has also been a push to expand these technologies into other clinical settings and as point of care devices. In this article, we discuss and evaluate microchip-based technologies for circulating tumor cell (CTC), exosome, and circulating tumor nucleic acid (ctNA) capture, detection, and analysis...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390925/diagnostic-criteria-and-contributors-to-gilbert-s-syndrome
#11
Karl-Heinz Wagner, Ryan G Shiels, Claudia Anna Lang, Nazlisadat Seyed Khoei, Andrew C Bulmer
Hyperbilirubinemia is a well-known condition in the clinical setting; however, the causes of elevated serum bilirubin are diverse, as are the clinical ramifications of this condition. For example, diagnoses of individuals vary depending on whether they exhibit an unconjugated or conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Diagnoses can include conditions of disordered bilirubin metabolism (Gilbert's, Crigler-Najjar, Rotor, or Dubin-Johnson syndromes) or an acquired disease, including alcoholic/non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatotropic hepatitis, cirrhosis, or hepato-biliary malignancy...
March 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357735/niche-point-of-care-endocrine-testing-reviews-of-intraoperative-parathyroid-hormone-and-cortisol-monitoring
#12
Li-Sheng Chen, Ravinder J Singh
Point-of-care (POC) testing, which provides quick test results in near-patient settings with easy-to-use devices, has grown continually in recent decades. Among near-patient and on-site tests, rapid intraoperative and intra-procedural assays are used to quickly deliver critical information and thereby improve patient outcomes. Rapid intraoperative parathyroid hormone (ioPTH) monitoring measures postoperative reduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH) to predict surgical outcome in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, and therefore contributes to the change of parathyroidectomy to a minimally invasive procedure...
March 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316828/hodgkin-s-lymphoma-and-its-association-with-ebv-and-hiv-infection
#13
Ravnit Grewal, Alexandra Irimie, Nasheen Naidoo, Nooroudien Mohamed, Bobe Petrushev, Manogari Chetty, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Emmanuel-Akinola Abayomi
Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constitutes a clonal expansion of what appears to be malignant B cells. Viruses are involved in its pathogenesis, such as the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Since these viral infections have been shown to play key roles in the pathogenesis of HL, countries with a prevalence of HIV and EBV represent interesting population targets to study the pathogenesis of HL, linking the evolution of the disease with viral infections. Usually, patients present with late stage disease often involving the bone marrow at the time of diagnosis...
March 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308692/maternal-obesity-diabetes-during-pregnancy-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-that-influence-the-developmental-origins-of-cardiometabolic-disease-in-the-offspring
#14
Prasoon Agarwal, Taylor S Morriseau, Stephanie M Kereliuk, Christine A Doucette, Brandy A Wicklow, Vernon W Dolinsky
Since 1980, global obesity has doubled, and the incidence of cardiometabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease is also increasing. While genetic susceptibility and adult lifestyle are implicated in these trends, evidence from clinical cohorts, epidemiological studies and animal model experiments support a role for early-life environmental exposures in determining the long-term health of an individual, which has led to the formulation of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) theory...
March 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303618/cell-free-dna-as-a-biomarker-in-stroke-current-status-problems-and-perspectives
#15
Kristina V Glebova, Natalya N Veiko, Aleksey A Nikonov, Lev N Porokhovnik, Svetlana V Kostuyk
There is currently no proposed stroke biomarker with consistent application in clinical practice. A number of studies have examined cell-free DNA (cfDNA), which circulates in biological fluids during stroke, as a potential biomarker of this disease. The data available suggest that dynamically-determined levels of blood cfDNA may provide new prognostic information for assessment of stroke severity and outcome. However, such an approach has its own difficulties and limitations. This review covers the potential role of cfDNA as a biomarker in stroke, and includes evidence from both animal models and clinical studies, protocols used to analyze cfDNA, and hypotheses on the origin of cfDNA...
January 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262744/lipoprotein-a-in-clinical-practice-new-perspectives-from-basic-and-translational-science
#16
Corey A Scipione, Marlys L Koschinsky, Michael B Boffa
Elevated plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) are a causal risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) and calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). Genetic, epidemiological and in vitro data provide strong evidence for a pathogenic role for Lp(a) in the progression of atherothrombotic disease. Despite these advancements and a race to develop new Lp(a) lowering therapies, there are still many unanswered and emerging questions about the metabolism and pathophysiology of Lp(a). New studies have drawn attention to Lp(a) as a contributor to novel pathogenic processes, yet the mechanisms underlying the contribution of Lp(a) to CVD remain enigmatic...
January 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239245/serum-and-plasma-amino-acids-as-markers-of-prediabetes-insulin-resistance-and-incident-diabetes
#17
C Gar, M Rottenkolber, C Prehn, J Adamski, J Seissler, A Lechner
Presently, routine screening misses many cases of prediabetes and early type 2 diabetes (T2D). Therefore, better biomarkers are needed for a simple and early detection of abnormalities of glucose metabolism and prediction of future T2D. Possible candidates for this include plasma or serum amino acids because glucose and amino acid metabolism are closely connected. This review presents the available evidence of this connectivity and discusses its clinical implications. First, we examine the underlying physiological, pre-analytical, and analytical issues...
January 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239240/applications-of-mid-infrared-spectroscopy-in-the-clinical-laboratory-setting
#18
Sander De Bruyne, Marijn M Speeckaert, Joris R Delanghe
Fourier transform mid-infrared (MIR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a nondestructive, label-free, highly sensitive and specific technique that provides complete information on the chemical composition of biological samples. The technique both can offer fundamental structural information and serve as a quantitative analysis tool. Therefore, it has many potential applications in different fields of clinical laboratory science. Although considerable technological progress has been made to promote biomedical applications of this powerful analytical technique, most clinical laboratory analyses are based on spectroscopic measurements in the visible or ultraviolet (UV) spectrum and the potential role of FTIR spectroscopy still remains unexplored...
January 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226754/cardiac-troponins-25-years-on-the-stage-and-still-improving-their-clinical-value
#19
Aitor Alquézar-Arbé, Alessandro Sionis, Jorge Ordoñez-Llanos
Twenty-five years ago, non-isotopic immunoassays for measuring the cardiac specific isoforms of troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT) were developed. Both biomarkers radically changed the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy indication of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and, particularly, of myocardial infarction (MI). However, cardiac troponins (cTn) rapidly demonstrated their usefulness in other cardiac and non-cardiac conditions, a part of the ischemic coronary diseases. Consequently, the number of patients to be tested for cTn and the number of tests requested to clinical laboratories sharply increased...
November 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226748/epigenetic-biomarkers-current-strategies-and-future-challenges-for-their-use-in-the-clinical-laboratory
#20
José Luis García-Giménez, Marta Seco-Cervera, Trygve O Tollefsbol, Carlos Romá-Mateo, Lorena Peiró-Chova, Pablo Lapunzina, Federico V Pallardó
Epigenetic modifications and regulators represent potential molecular elements which control relevant physiological and pathological features, thereby contributing to the natural history of human disease. These epigenetic modulators can be employed as disease biomarkers, since they show several advantages and provide information about gene function, thus explaining differences among patient endophenotypes. In addition, epigenetic biomarkers can incorporate information regarding the effects of the environment and lifestyle on health and disease, and monitor the effect of applied therapies...
November 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
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