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Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30373492/bacterial-imbalance-and-gut-pathologies-association-and-contribution-of-e-coli-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#1
Shahanavaj Khan, Ahamad Imran, Abdul Malik, Anis Ahmad Chaudhary, Abdur Rub, Arif Tasleem Jan, Jakeera Begum Syed, Christian Rolfo
Hosts and microbes have co-evolved over millions of years. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic immune-mediated diseases. Although the etiology of IBD remains an enigma, various studies have proposed the involvement of mucosa-associated Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains in the pathogenesis of IBD. E. coli, a usual inhabitant of the intestine, causes disease after acquiring virulence factors; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood...
October 29, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309270/sample-management-for-clinical-biochemistry-assays-are-serum-and-plasma-interchangeable-specimens
#2
Gabriel Lima-Oliveira, Denis Monneret, Fabrice Guerber, Gian Cesare Guidi
The constrained economic context leads laboratories to centralize their routine analyses on high-throughput platforms, to which blood collection tubes are sent from peripheral sampling sites that are sometimes distantly located. Providing biochemistry results as quickly as possible implies to consolidate the maximum number of tests on a minimum number of blood collection tubes, mainly serum tubes and/or tubes with anticoagulants. However, depending on the parameters and their pre-analytical conditions, the type of matrix - serum or plasma - may have a significant impact on results, which is often unknown or underestimated in clinical practice...
October 12, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30277835/optimizing-cancer-immunotherapy-is-it-time-for-personalized-predictive-biomarkers
#3
Milena Music, Ioannis Prassas, Eleftherios P Diamandis
Cancer immunotherapy, a treatment that selectively augments a patient's anti-tumor immune response, is a breakthrough advancement in personalized medicine. A subset of cancer patients undergoing immunotherapy have displayed robust and long-lasting therapeutic responses. Currently, the spotlight is on the use of blocking antibodies against the T-cell checkpoint molecules, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), which have been effectively used to combat many cancers types...
October 2, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30265166/telomere-length-measurement-as-a-clinical-biomarker-of-aging-and-disease
#4
Clare L Fasching
Telomere length measurement is increasingly recognized as a clinical gauge for age-related disease risk. There are several methods for studying blood telomere length (BTL) as a clinical biomarker. The first is an observational study approach, which directly measures telomere lengths using either cross-sectional or longitudinal patient cohorts and compares them to a population of age- and sex-matched individuals. These direct traceable measurements can be considered reflective of an individual's current health or disease state...
September 28, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238808/exosome-carried-microrna-based-signature-as-a-cellular-trigger-for-the-evolution-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-into-richter-syndrome
#5
Ancuta Jurj, Laura Pop, Bobe Petrushev, Sergiu Pasca, Delia Dima, Ioana Frinc, Dalma Deak, Minodora Desmirean, Adrian Trifa, Bogdan Fetica, Grigore Gafencu, Sonia Selicean, Vlad Moisoiu, Wilhelm-Thomas Micu, Cristian Berce, Alexandra Sacu, Alin Moldovan, Andrei Colita, Horia Bumbea, Alina Tanase, Angela Dascalescu, Mihnea Zdrenghea, Rares Stiufiuc, Nicolae Leopold, Romulus Tetean, Emil Burzo, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Even if considered a cumulative and not a proliferative CD5+ B-cell neoplasm, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has a proliferation rate higher than that recognized earlier, especially in the lymphoid tissues. Some patients with CLL develop a clinical syndrome entitled Richter syndrome (RS). Understanding CLL genetics and epigenetics may help to elucidate the molecular basics of the clinical heterogeneity of this type of malignancy. In the present project we aimed to identify a microRNA species that can predict the evolution of therapy-resistant CLL towards RS...
September 21, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047297/distinguishing-reference-intervals-and-clinical-decision-limits-a-review-by-the-ifcc-committee-on-reference-intervals-and-decision-limits
#6
Yesim Ozarda, Ken Sikaris, Thomas Streichert, Joseph Macri
Reference Intervals (RIs) and clinical decision limits (CDLs) are a vital part of the information supplied by laboratories to support the interpretation of numerical clinical pathology results. RIs describe the typical distribution of results seen in a healthy reference population while CDLs are associated with a significantly higher risk of adverse clinical outcomes or are diagnostic for the presence of a specific disease. However, as the two concepts are sometimes confused, there is a need to clarify the differences between these terms and to ensure they are easily distinguished, especially because CDLs have a clinical association with specific diseases and risks, thereby implying that effective clinical interventions are available...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30035647/mosaicism-in-autoinflammatory-diseases-cryopyrin-associated-periodic-syndromes-caps-and-beyond-a-systematic-review
#7
Marielle Labrousse, Charlotte Kevorkian-Verguet, Guilaine Boursier, Dorota Rowczenio, François Maurier, Estibaliz Lazaro, Manjari Aggarwal, Irène Lemelle, Thibault Mura, Alexandre Belot, Isabelle Touitou, Guillaume Sarrabay
Autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs) are conditions related to defective regulation of the innate immune system. Sanger sequencing of the causative genes has long been the reference for confirming the diagnosis. However, for many patients with a typical AID phenotype, the genetic cause remains unknown. A pioneering study in 2005 demonstrated mosaicism in patients with cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS); the authors found somatic mosaicism in 69% of their cohort of Sanger-negative CAPS patients. We aim to address the extent to which mosaicism contributes to the etiology of AIDs and its impact on phenotype...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001673/hba1c-method-performance-the-great-success-story-of-global-standardization
#8
Emma English, Erna Lenters-Westra
Diagnosing and monitoring the treatment of people with diabetes is a global issue and uses considerable resources in laboratories and clinics worldwide. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been the mainstay of monitoring glycemic control in people with diabetes for many years and more recently it has been advocated as a diagnostic tool for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Good analytical performance is key to the successful use of any laboratory test, but is critical when using the test to diagnose disease, especially when the potential number of diagnoses could exceed 500 million people...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927668/blood-based-analyses-of-cancer-circulating-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-is-a-new-era-coming
#9
Karolina Okla, Iwona Wertel, Anna Wawruszak, Marcin Bobiński, Jan Kotarski
Progress in cancer treatment made by the beginning of the 21st century has shifted the paradigm from one-size-fits-all to tailor-made treatment. The popular vision, to study solid tumors through the relatively noninvasive sampling of blood, is one of the most thrilling and rapidly advancing fields in global cancer diagnostics. From this perspective, immune-cell analysis in cancer could play a pivotal role in oncology practice. This approach is driven both by rapid technological developments, including the analysis of circulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (cMDSCs), and by the increasing application of (immune) therapies, the success or failure of which may depend on effective and timely measurements of relevant biomarkers...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874957/influence-of-ethnicity-on-population-reference-values-for-biochemical-markers
#10
Houman Tahmasebi, Karin Trajcevski, Victoria Higgins, Khosrow Adeli
Reference intervals (RIs) for biochemical and hematological markers determined using healthy adult and/or pediatric populations are vital for clinical interpretation of laboratory test results. Most clinical laboratories commonly use age- and sex-specific RIs, but the effect of ethnicity as a covariate is often overlooked. Ethnic differences in serum biomarker concentrations can occur as a result of genetic and environmental factors, while the degree to which each factor influences serum levels depends on the specific biomarker...
August 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801428/minimal-residual-disease-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-a-consensus-paper-that-presents-the-clinical-impact-of-the-presently-available-laboratory-approaches
#11
Ciprian Tomuleasa, Cristina Selicean, Sonia Cismas, Anca Jurj, Mirela Marian, Delia Dima, Sergiu Pasca, Bobe Petrushev, Vlad Moisoiu, Wilhelm-Thomas Micu, Anna Vischer, Kanza Arifeen, Sonia Selicean, Mihnea Zdrenghea, Horia Bumbea, Alina Tanase, Ravnit Grewal, Laura Pop, Carmen Aanei, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a malignancy defined by the accumulation of mature lymphocytes in the lymphoid tissues, bone marrow, and blood. Therapy for CLL is guided according to the Rai and Binet staging systems. Nevertheless, state-of-the-art protocols in disease monitoring, diagnostics, and prognostics for CLL are based on the assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD). MRD is internationally considered to be the level of disease that can be detected by sensitive techniques and represents incomplete treatment and a probability of disease relapse...
August 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792094/regulatory-context-and-validation-of-assays-for-clinical-mass-spectrometry-proteomics-cmsp-methods
#12
Christophe Hirtz, Pauline Bros, Cato Brede, Pierre Lescuyer, Aleksandra M Maceski, Jerome Vialaret, Vincent Delatour, Sylvain Lehmann
Clinical mass spectrometry proteomics (cMSP) assays are being increasingly used in clinical laboratories for analyzing peptides and proteins. It has therefore become urgent to characterize and validate the methods available for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) targeted quantification of peptide and protein biomarkers in biological fluids in the context of in vitro diagnostics. LC-MS/MS for the detection of peptides and proteins is currently the main approach used in the field of cMSP...
August 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668333/blood-biomarkers-in-ischemic-stroke-potential-role-and-challenges-in-clinical-practice-and-research
#13
Konstantinos Makris, Alexander Haliassos, Maria Chondrogianni, Georgios Tsivgoulis
Fast and accurate diagnosis of stroke is crucial for the immediate application of the right therapy to patients. However, rapid diagnosis is still a challenge since an ischemic stroke cannot be identified based only on clinical assessment. CT or MRI imaging is required to rule out hemorrhagic stroke since thrombolytic therapy can lead to increased intracranial bleeding and further aggravation of hemorrhagic stroke. In addition, clinical situations that imitate the signs and symptoms of stroke may also impede the rapid diagnosis and treatment of stroke victims...
August 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673295/gut-microbiota-metabolism-and-psychopathology-a-critical-review-and-novel-perspectives
#14
Robin N Groen, Nicolien C de Clercq, Max Nieuwdorp, H J Rogier Hoenders, Albert K Groen
Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic comorbidities. However, the mechanisms through which metabolic and psychiatric disorders are connected remain unclear. Pre-clinical studies in rodents indicate that the bidirectional signaling between the intestine and the brain, the so-called microbiome-gut-brain axis, plays an important role in the regulation of both metabolism and behavior. The gut microbiome produces a vast number of metabolites that may be transported into the host and play a part in homeostatic control of metabolism as well as brain function...
June 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668342/sequencing-the-next-generation-of-glioblastomas
#15
Ivana Jovčevska
The most aggressive brain malignancy, glioblastoma, accounts for 60-70% of all gliomas and is uniformly fatal. According to the molecular signature, glioblastoma is divided into four subtypes (proneural, neural, classical, and mesenchymal), each with its own genetic background. The Cancer Genome Atlas project provides information about the most common genetic changes in glioblastoma. They involve mutations in TP53, TERT, and PTEN, and amplifications in EFGR, PDGFRA, CDK4, CDK6, MDM2, and MDM4. Recently, epigenetics was used to demonstrate the oncogenic roles of miR-124, miR-137, and miR-128...
June 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663841/novel-heart-failure-biomarkers-why-do-we-fail-to-exploit-their-potential
#16
Arnold Piek, Weijie Du, Rudolf A de Boer, Herman H W Silljé
Plasma biomarkers are useful tools in the diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure (HF). In the last decade, numerous studies have aimed to identify novel HF biomarkers that would provide superior and/or additional diagnostic, prognostic, or stratification utility. Although numerous biomarkers have been identified, their implementation in clinical practice has so far remained largely unsuccessful. Whereas cardiac-specific biomarkers, including natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) and high sensitivity troponins (hsTn), are widely used in clinical practice, other biomarkers have not yet proven their utility...
June 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606016/laboratory-diagnosis-of-lyme-borreliosis-current-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#17
Benedikt Lohr, Volker Fingerle, Douglas E Norris, Klaus-Peter Hunfeld
This review is directed at physicians and laboratory personnel in private practice and clinics who treat and diagnose Lyme borreliosis (LB) in patients as part of their daily work. A major objective of this paper is to bring together background information on Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and basic clinical knowledge of LB, which is one of the most frequently reported vector-borne diseases in the Northern Hemisphere. The goal is to provide practical guidance for clinicians and for laboratory physicians, and scientists for a better understanding of current achievements and ongoing obstacles in the laboratory diagnosis of LB, an infectious disease that still remains one of the diagnostic chameleons of modern clinical medicine...
June 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546779/thyroglobulin-measurement-in-the-management-of-patients-with-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#18
Alicia Algeciras-Schimnich
The post-operative management of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) relies on serial measurements of serum thyroglobulin. Current methodologies for thyroglobulin quantitation vary in their analytical and clinical performance. For years, thyroglobulin radioimmunoassays (RIA) and immunometric assays (IMA) have been used despite analytical interferences from anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) as well as heterophile antibodies (HAb). TgAb interference limits Tg utility as a tumor marker in ∼30% of TgAb-positive patients...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502462/laboratory-evaluation-of-the-ifn-%C3%AE-circuit-for-the-molecular-diagnosis-of-mendelian-susceptibility-to-mycobacterial-disease
#19
Ana Esteve-Solé, Ithaisa Sologuren, María Teresa Martínez-Saavedra, Àngela Deyà-Martínez, Carmen Oleaga-Quintas, Rubén Martinez-Barricarte, Andrea Martin-Nalda, Manel Juan, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Carlos Rodriguez-Gallego, Laia Alsina, Jacinta Bustamante
The integrity of the interferon (IFN)-γ circuit is necessary to mount an effective immune response to intra-macrophagic pathogens, especially Mycobacteria. Inherited monogenic defects in this circuit that disrupt the production of, or response to, IFN-γ underlie a primary immunodeficiency known as Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). Otherwise healthy patients display a selective susceptibility to clinical disease caused by poorly virulent mycobacteria such as BCG (bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccines and environmental mycobacteria, and more rarely by other intra-macrophagic pathogens, particularly Salmonella and M...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388463/endogenous-markers-for-kidney-function-in-children-a-review
#20
Emil den Bakker, Reinoud J B J Gemke, Arend Bökenkamp
Although glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children can be measured using a gold-standard technique following injection of an exogenous marker, this invasive and cumbersome technique is not widely available and GFR is commonly estimated using serum levels of endogenous markers. Creatinine, urea, cystatin C, beta-trace protein, and beta-2 microglobulin are well-established endogenous markers of kidney function. These markers differ in site of production and effects of diet and medication, as well as renal-tubular handling and extra-renal elimination...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
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