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Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390925/diagnostic-criteria-and-contributors-to-gilbert-s-syndrome
#1
Karl-Heinz Wagner, Ryan G Shiels, Claudia Anna Lang, Nazlisadat Seyed Khoei, Andrew C Bulmer
Hyperbilirubinemia is a well-known condition in the clinical setting; however, the causes of elevated serum bilirubin are diverse, as are the clinical ramifications of this condition. For example, diagnoses of individuals vary depending on whether they exhibit an unconjugated or conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Diagnoses can include conditions of disordered bilirubin metabolism (Gilbert's, Crigler-Najjar, Rotor, or Dubin-Johnson syndromes) or an acquired disease, including alcoholic/non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatotropic hepatitis, cirrhosis, or hepato-biliary malignancy...
February 1, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388463/endogenous-markers-for-kidney-function-in-children-a-review
#2
Emil den Bakker, Reinoud J B J Gemke, Arend Bökenkamp
Although glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children can be measured using a gold-standard technique following injection of an exogenous marker, this invasive and cumbersome technique is not widely available and GFR is commonly estimated using serum levels of endogenous markers. Creatinine, urea, cystatin C, beta-trace protein, and beta-2 microglobulin are well-established endogenous markers of kidney function. These markers differ in site of production and effects of diet and medication, as well as renal-tubular handling and extra-renal elimination...
February 1, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388456/advances-in-liquid-biopsy-on-chip-for-cancer-management-technologies-biomarkers-and-clinical-analysis
#3
Amogha Tadimety, Andrew Closson, Cathy Li, Song Yi, Ting Shen, John X J Zhang
Liquid biopsy, as a minimally invasive method of gleaning insight into the dynamics of diseases through a patient fluid sample, has been growing in popularity for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring. While many technologies have been developed and validated in research laboratories, there has also been a push to expand these technologies into other clinical settings and as point of care devices. In this article, we discuss and evaluate microchip-based technologies for circulating tumor cell (CTC), exosome, and circulating tumor nucleic acid (ctNA) capture, detection, and analysis...
February 1, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357735/niche-point-of-care-endocrine-testing-reviews-of-intraoperative-parathyroid-hormone-and-cortisol-monitoring
#4
Li-Sheng Chen, Ravinder J Singh
Point-of-care (POC) testing, which provides quick test results in near-patient settings with easy-to-use devices, has grown continually in recent decades. Among near-patient and on-site tests, rapid intraoperative and intra-procedural assays are used to quickly deliver critical information and thereby improve patient outcomes. Rapid intraoperative parathyroid hormone (ioPTH) monitoring measures postoperative reduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH) to predict surgical outcome in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, and therefore contributes to the change of parathyroidectomy to a minimally invasive procedure...
January 22, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308692/maternal-obesity-diabetes-during-pregnancy-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-that-influence-the-developmental-origins-of-cardiometabolic-disease-in-the-offspring
#5
Prasoon Agarwal, Taylor S Morriseau, Stephanie M Kereliuk, Christine A Doucette, Brandy A Wicklow, Vernon W Dolinsky
Since 1980, global obesity has doubled, and the incidence of cardiometabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease is also increasing. While genetic susceptibility and adult lifestyle are implicated in these trends, evidence from clinical cohorts, epidemiological studies and animal model experiments support a role for early-life environmental exposures in determining the long-term health of an individual, which has led to the formulation of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) theory...
January 8, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303618/cell-free-dna-as-a-biomarker-in-stroke-current-status-problems-and-perspectives
#6
Kristina V Glebova, Natalya N Veiko, Aleksey A Nikonov, Lev N Porokhovnik, Svetlana V Kostuyk
There is currently no proposed stroke biomarker with consistent application in clinical practice. A number of studies have examined cell-free DNA (cfDNA), which circulates in biological fluids during stroke, as a potential biomarker of this disease. The data available suggest that dynamically-determined levels of blood cfDNA may provide new prognostic information for assessment of stroke severity and outcome. However, such an approach has its own difficulties and limitations. This review covers the potential role of cfDNA as a biomarker in stroke, and includes evidence from both animal models and clinical studies, protocols used to analyze cfDNA, and hypotheses on the origin of cfDNA...
January 5, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262744/lipoprotein-a-in-clinical-practice-new-perspectives-from-basic-and-translational-science
#7
Corey A Scipione, Marlys L Koschinsky, Michael B Boffa
Elevated plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) are a causal risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) and calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). Genetic, epidemiological and in vitro data provide strong evidence for a pathogenic role for Lp(a) in the progression of atherothrombotic disease. Despite these advancements and a race to develop new Lp(a) lowering therapies, there are still many unanswered and emerging questions about the metabolism and pathophysiology of Lp(a). New studies have drawn attention to Lp(a) as a contributor to novel pathogenic processes, yet the mechanisms underlying the contribution of Lp(a) to CVD remain enigmatic...
December 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239245/serum-and-plasma-amino-acids-as-markers-of-prediabetes-insulin-resistance-and-incident-diabetes
#8
C Gar, M Rottenkolber, C Prehn, J Adamski, J Seissler, A Lechner
Presently, routine screening misses many cases of prediabetes and early type 2 diabetes (T2D). Therefore, better biomarkers are needed for a simple and early detection of abnormalities of glucose metabolism and prediction of future T2D. Possible candidates for this include plasma or serum amino acids because glucose and amino acid metabolism are closely connected. This review presents the available evidence of this connectivity and discusses its clinical implications. First, we examine the underlying physiological, pre-analytical, and analytical issues...
December 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239240/applications-of-mid-infrared-spectroscopy-in-the-clinical-laboratory-setting
#9
Sander De Bruyne, Marijn M Speeckaert, Joris R Delanghe
Fourier transform mid-infrared (MIR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a nondestructive, label-free, highly sensitive and specific technique that provides complete information on the chemical composition of biological samples. The technique both can offer fundamental structural information and serve as a quantitative analysis tool. Therefore, it has many potential applications in different fields of clinical laboratory science. Although considerable technological progress has been made to promote biomedical applications of this powerful analytical technique, most clinical laboratory analyses are based on spectroscopic measurements in the visible or ultraviolet (UV) spectrum and the potential role of FTIR spectroscopy still remains unexplored...
December 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226754/cardiac-troponins-25-years-on-the-stage-and-still-improving-their-clinical-value
#10
Aitor Alquézar-Arbé, Alessandro Sionis, Jorge Ordoñez-Llanos
Twenty-five years ago, non-isotopic immunoassays for measuring the cardiac specific isoforms of troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT) were developed. Both biomarkers radically changed the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy indication of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and, particularly, of myocardial infarction (MI). However, cardiac troponins (cTn) rapidly demonstrated their usefulness in other cardiac and non-cardiac conditions, a part of the ischemic coronary diseases. Consequently, the number of patients to be tested for cTn and the number of tests requested to clinical laboratories sharply increased...
December 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226748/epigenetic-biomarkers-current-strategies-and-future-challenges-for-their-use-in-the-clinical-laboratory
#11
José Luis García-Giménez, Marta Seco-Cervera, Trygve O Tollefsbol, Carlos Romá-Mateo, Lorena Peiró-Chova, Pablo Lapunzina, Federico V Pallardó
Epigenetic modifications and regulators represent potential molecular elements which control relevant physiological and pathological features, thereby contributing to the natural history of human disease. These epigenetic modulators can be employed as disease biomarkers, since they show several advantages and provide information about gene function, thus explaining differences among patient endophenotypes. In addition, epigenetic biomarkers can incorporate information regarding the effects of the environment and lifestyle on health and disease, and monitor the effect of applied therapies...
December 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202618/synovial-fluid-proteomics-in-the-pursuit-of-arthritis-mediators-an-evolving-field-of-novel-biomarker-discovery
#12
Shalini M Mahendran, Katerina Oikonomopoulou, Eleftherios P Diamandis, Vinod Chandran
Synovial fluid (SF) is a protein-rich fluid produced into the joint cavity by cells of the synovial membrane. Due to its direct contact with articular cartilage, surfaces of the bone, and the synoviocytes of the inner membrane, it provides a promising reflection of the biochemical state of the joint under varying physiological and pathophysiological conditions. This property of SF has been exploited within numerous studies in search of unique biomarkers of joint pathologies with the ultimate goal of developing minimally invasive clinical assays to detect and/or monitor disease states...
December 4, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316828/hodgkin-s-lymphoma-and-its-association-with-ebv-and-hiv-infection
#13
Ravnit Grewal, Alexandra Irimie, Nasheen Naidoo, Nooroudien Mohamed, Bobe Petrushev, Manogari Chetty, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Emmanuel-Akinola Abayomi
Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constitutes a clonal expansion of what appears to be malignant B cells. Viruses are involved in its pathogenesis, such as the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Since these viral infections have been shown to play key roles in the pathogenesis of HL, countries with a prevalence of HIV and EBV represent interesting population targets to study the pathogenesis of HL, linking the evolution of the disease with viral infections. Usually, patients present with late stage disease often involving the bone marrow at the time of diagnosis...
March 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169287/point-of-care-testing-poct-and-evidence-based-laboratory-medicine-eblm-does-it-leverage-any-advantage-in-clinical-decision-making
#14
Christopher Florkowski, Andrew Don-Wauchope, Nuria Gimenez, Karina Rodriguez-Capote, Julien Wils, Annalise Zemlin
Point-of-care testing (POCT) is the analysis of patient specimens outside the clinical laboratory, near or at the site of patient care, usually performed by clinical staff without laboratory training, although it also encompasses patient self-monitoring. It is able to provide a rapid result near the patient and which can be acted upon immediately. The key driver is the concept that clinical decision making may be delayed when samples are sent to the clinical laboratory. Balanced against this are considerations of increased costs for purchase and maintenance of equipment, staff training, connectivity to the laboratory information system (LIS), quality control (QC) and external quality assurance (EQA) procedures, all required for accreditation under ISO 22870...
November 23, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214886/clinical-and-molecular-aspects-of-lead-toxicity-an-update
#15
Prasenjit Mitra, Shailja Sharma, Purvi Purohit, Praveen Sharma
Lead toxicity is a major public health issue in developed and developing countries. Both acute and chronic lead exposure has the potential to cause many deleterious systematic effects including hypertension, frank anemia, cognitive deficits, infertility, immune imbalances, delayed skeletal and deciduous dental development, vitamin D deficiency, and gastrointestinal effects. The underlying mechanisms for all these systemic effects have not been elucidated completely. However, the most plausible cause is free radical damage...
November 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084470/the-vascular-endothelium-a-regulator-of-arterial-tone-and-interface-for-the-immune-system
#16
Rayan Khaddaj Mallat, Cini Mathew John, Dylan J Kendrick, Andrew P Braun
As the primary interface between the blood and various tissues of the body, the vascular endothelium exhibits a diverse range of roles and activities, all of which contribute to the overall health and function of the cardiovascular system. In this focused review, we discuss several key aspects of endothelial function, how this may be compromised and subsequent consequences. Specifically, we examine the dynamic regulation of arterial contractility and distribution of blood flow through the generation of chemical and electrical signaling events that impinge upon vascular smooth muscle...
October 30, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084467/high-resolution-proteomics-and-metabolomics-in-thyroid-cancer-deciphering-novel-biomarkers
#17
Diana Navas-Carrillo, José Manuel Rodriguez, Silvia Montoro-García, Esteban Orenes-Piñero
The incidence of thyroid cancer (TC) - the most common endocrine malignancy - has been increasing sharply since the mid-1990s. The rate of TC incidence in both men and women has been faster than any other cancer. Both improved diagnoses (i.e. increased medical surveillance and more sensitive diagnostic tests, such as ultrasound and confirmation via fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB)), and environmental factors detrimental to thyroid health are thought to account for the increased incidence. There are several histological types of thyroid carcinoma including papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic...
October 30, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025326/onco-proteogenomics-multi-omics-level-data-integration-for-accurate-phenotype-prediction
#18
Lampros Dimitrakopoulos, Ioannis Prassas, Eleftherios P Diamandis, George S Charames
The overall goal of translational oncology is to identify molecular alterations indicative of cancer or of responsiveness to specific therapeutic regimens. While next-generation sequencing has played a pioneering role in this quest, the latest advances in proteomic technologies promise to provide a holistic approach to the further elucidation of tumor biology. Genetic information may be written in DNA and flow from DNA to RNA to protein, according to the central dogma of molecular biology, but the observed phenotype is dictated predominantly by the DNA protein coding region-derived proteotype...
October 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017389/the-canadian-laboratory-initiative-on-pediatric-reference-intervals-a-caliper-white-paper
#19
Khosrow Adeli, Victoria Higgins, Karin Trajcevski, Nicole White-Al Habeeb
Laboratory investigations provide physicians with objective data to aid in disease diagnosis, clinical decision making, and patient follow up. Clinical interpretation of laboratory test results relies heavily on the availability of appropriate population-based reference intervals (i.e. normative values) or decision limits developed through clinical outcome studies. Although reference intervals are fundamental to accurate laboratory test interpretation, and thus critically important to healthcare, the need for sound evidence-based reference intervals has been largely overlooked, particularly in the pediatric population...
October 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990451/urine-and-oral-fluid-drug-testing-in-support-of-pain-management
#20
Tai C Kwong, Barbarajean Magnani, Christine Moore
In recent years, the abuse of opioid drugs has resulted in greater prevalence of addiction, overdose, and deaths attributable to opioid abuse. The epidemic of opioid abuse has prompted professional and government agencies to issue practice guidelines for prescribing opioids to manage chronic pain. An important tool available to providers is the drug test for use in the initial assessment of patients for possible opioid therapy, subsequent monitoring of compliance, and documentation of suspected aberrant drug behaviors...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
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