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Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences

Eberhard Buse, Udo R Markert
The cynomolgus monkey is increasingly considered in toxicological research as the most appropriate model for humans due to the species' close physiological contiguity, including reproductive physiology. Here, literature on the cynomolgus monkey placenta is reviewed in regards to its similarity to the human placenta and particularly for its immunological role, which is not entirely mirrored in humans. Pertinent original data are included in this article. The cynomolgus monkey placenta is evaluated based on three aspects: first, morphological development; second, the spatial and temporal appearance of maternal and fetal immune cells and certain immune cell products of the innate and adaptive immune systems; and third, the expression of relevant immune tolerance-related molecules including the homologs of anti-human leucocyte antigen, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, FAS/FAS-L, annexin II, and progesterone...
January 11, 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Edward W Randell, Sedef Yenice
International standards and practice guidelines recommend the use of delta check alerts for laboratory test result interpretation and quality control. The value of contemporary applications of simple univariate delta checks determined as an absolute change, percentage change, or rate of change to recognize specimen misidentification or other laboratory errors has not received much study. This review addresses these three modes of calculation, but in line with the majority of published work, most attention is focused on the identification of specimen misidentification errors...
January 11, 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Quin Xie, Kevin Faust, Randy Van Ommeren, Adeel Sheikh, Ugljesa Djuric, Phedias Diamandis
The precision-based revolution in medicine continues to demand stratification of patients into smaller and more personalized subgroups. While genomic technologies have largely led this movement, diagnostic results can take days to weeks to generate. Management at, or closer to, the point of care still heavily relies on the subjective qualitative interpretation of clinical and diagnostic imaging findings. New and emerging technological advances in artificial intelligence (AI) now appear poised to help bring objectivity and precision to these traditionally qualitative analytic tools...
January 10, 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Xiu Wang, Mianmian Wu, Yunshan Cao, Zhi Zhang, Fang Guo, Xiaorong Li, Yan Zhang
Programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) and its ligand, PD-L1, as negative co-stimulatory molecules, are indispensable for regulating both physiological and pathological immune responses. The PD-1/PD-L1-mediated signaling pathway has been studied extensively in cancer research and has become a hotspot for biopharmaceuticals and immunotherapy. Furthermore, monoclonal antibodies to PD-1 have just been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat certain types of malignancies. Recent research has unveiled a close association between the PD-1/PD-L1 system and eye diseases...
January 3, 2019: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Magnus Nakrem Lyngbakken, Peder Langeland Myhre, Helge Røsjø, Torbjørn Omland
Measurement of biomarkers has revolutionized the work-up of patients with suspected cardiovascular disease. The most widely used contemporary cardiovascular biomarkers are the natriuretic peptides in the diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure and cardiac troponins in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Numerous other biomarkers pertaining to diagnosis, prognosis, and risk prediction have been identified, but few have made their way to clinical practice. In this review, we will initially describe the fundamental approach to evaluate a novel biomarker...
November 20, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Shahanavaj Khan, Ahamad Imran, Abdul Malik, Anis Ahmad Chaudhary, Abdur Rub, Arif Tasleem Jan, Jakeera Begum Syed, Christian Rolfo
Hosts and microbes have co-evolved over millions of years. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic immune-mediated diseases. Although the etiology of IBD remains an enigma, various studies have proposed the involvement of mucosa-associated Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains in the pathogenesis of IBD. E. coli, a usual inhabitant of the intestine, causes disease after acquiring virulence factors; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood...
October 29, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Gabriel Lima-Oliveira, Denis Monneret, Fabrice Guerber, Gian Cesare Guidi
The constrained economic context leads laboratories to centralize their routine analyses on high-throughput platforms, to which blood collection tubes are sent from peripheral sampling sites that are sometimes distantly located. Providing biochemistry results as quickly as possible implies to consolidate the maximum number of tests on a minimum number of blood collection tubes, mainly serum tubes and/or tubes with anticoagulants. However, depending on the parameters and their pre-analytical conditions, the type of matrix - serum or plasma - may have a significant impact on results, which is often unknown or underestimated in clinical practice...
November 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Milena Music, Ioannis Prassas, Eleftherios P Diamandis
Cancer immunotherapy, a treatment that selectively augments a patient's anti-tumor immune response, is a breakthrough advancement in personalized medicine. A subset of cancer patients undergoing immunotherapy have displayed robust and long-lasting therapeutic responses. Currently, the spotlight is on the use of blocking antibodies against the T-cell checkpoint molecules, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), which have been effectively used to combat many cancers types...
November 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Clare L Fasching
Telomere length measurement is increasingly recognized as a clinical gauge for age-related disease risk. There are several methods for studying blood telomere length (BTL) as a clinical biomarker. The first is an observational study approach, which directly measures telomere lengths using either cross-sectional or longitudinal patient cohorts and compares them to a population of age- and sex-matched individuals. These direct traceable measurements can be considered reflective of an individual's current health or disease state...
November 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Ancuta Jurj, Laura Pop, Bobe Petrushev, Sergiu Pasca, Delia Dima, Ioana Frinc, Dalma Deak, Minodora Desmirean, Adrian Trifa, Bogdan Fetica, Grigore Gafencu, Sonia Selicean, Vlad Moisoiu, Wilhelm-Thomas Micu, Cristian Berce, Alexandra Sacu, Alin Moldovan, Andrei Colita, Horia Bumbea, Alina Tanase, Angela Dascalescu, Mihnea Zdrenghea, Rares Stiufiuc, Nicolae Leopold, Romulus Tetean, Emil Burzo, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Even if considered a cumulative and not a proliferative CD5+ B-cell neoplasm, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has a proliferation rate higher than that recognized earlier, especially in the lymphoid tissues. Some patients with CLL develop a clinical syndrome entitled Richter syndrome (RS). Understanding CLL genetics and epigenetics may help to elucidate the molecular basics of the clinical heterogeneity of this type of malignancy. In the present project we aimed to identify a microRNA species that can predict the evolution of therapy-resistant CLL towards RS...
November 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Yesim Ozarda, Ken Sikaris, Thomas Streichert, Joseph Macri
Reference Intervals (RIs) and clinical decision limits (CDLs) are a vital part of the information supplied by laboratories to support the interpretation of numerical clinical pathology results. RIs describe the typical distribution of results seen in a healthy reference population while CDLs are associated with a significantly higher risk of adverse clinical outcomes or are diagnostic for the presence of a specific disease. However, as the two concepts are sometimes confused, there is a need to clarify the differences between these terms and to ensure they are easily distinguished, especially because CDLs have a clinical association with specific diseases and risks, thereby implying that effective clinical interventions are available...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Marielle Labrousse, Charlotte Kevorkian-Verguet, Guilaine Boursier, Dorota Rowczenio, François Maurier, Estibaliz Lazaro, Manjari Aggarwal, Irène Lemelle, Thibault Mura, Alexandre Belot, Isabelle Touitou, Guillaume Sarrabay
Autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs) are conditions related to defective regulation of the innate immune system. Sanger sequencing of the causative genes has long been the reference for confirming the diagnosis. However, for many patients with a typical AID phenotype, the genetic cause remains unknown. A pioneering study in 2005 demonstrated mosaicism in patients with cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS); the authors found somatic mosaicism in 69% of their cohort of Sanger-negative CAPS patients. We aim to address the extent to which mosaicism contributes to the etiology of AIDs and its impact on phenotype...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Emma English, Erna Lenters-Westra
Diagnosing and monitoring the treatment of people with diabetes is a global issue and uses considerable resources in laboratories and clinics worldwide. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been the mainstay of monitoring glycemic control in people with diabetes for many years and more recently it has been advocated as a diagnostic tool for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Good analytical performance is key to the successful use of any laboratory test, but is critical when using the test to diagnose disease, especially when the potential number of diagnoses could exceed 500 million people...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Karolina Okla, Iwona Wertel, Anna Wawruszak, Marcin Bobiński, Jan Kotarski
Progress in cancer treatment made by the beginning of the 21st century has shifted the paradigm from one-size-fits-all to tailor-made treatment. The popular vision, to study solid tumors through the relatively noninvasive sampling of blood, is one of the most thrilling and rapidly advancing fields in global cancer diagnostics. From this perspective, immune-cell analysis in cancer could play a pivotal role in oncology practice. This approach is driven both by rapid technological developments, including the analysis of circulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (cMDSCs), and by the increasing application of (immune) therapies, the success or failure of which may depend on effective and timely measurements of relevant biomarkers...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Houman Tahmasebi, Karin Trajcevski, Victoria Higgins, Khosrow Adeli
Reference intervals (RIs) for biochemical and hematological markers determined using healthy adult and/or pediatric populations are vital for clinical interpretation of laboratory test results. Most clinical laboratories commonly use age- and sex-specific RIs, but the effect of ethnicity as a covariate is often overlooked. Ethnic differences in serum biomarker concentrations can occur as a result of genetic and environmental factors, while the degree to which each factor influences serum levels depends on the specific biomarker...
August 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Ciprian Tomuleasa, Cristina Selicean, Sonia Cismas, Anca Jurj, Mirela Marian, Delia Dima, Sergiu Pasca, Bobe Petrushev, Vlad Moisoiu, Wilhelm-Thomas Micu, Anna Vischer, Kanza Arifeen, Sonia Selicean, Mihnea Zdrenghea, Horia Bumbea, Alina Tanase, Ravnit Grewal, Laura Pop, Carmen Aanei, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a malignancy defined by the accumulation of mature lymphocytes in the lymphoid tissues, bone marrow, and blood. Therapy for CLL is guided according to the Rai and Binet staging systems. Nevertheless, state-of-the-art protocols in disease monitoring, diagnostics, and prognostics for CLL are based on the assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD). MRD is internationally considered to be the level of disease that can be detected by sensitive techniques and represents incomplete treatment and a probability of disease relapse...
August 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Christophe Hirtz, Pauline Bros, Cato Brede, Pierre Lescuyer, Aleksandra M Maceski, Jerome Vialaret, Vincent Delatour, Sylvain Lehmann
Clinical mass spectrometry proteomics (cMSP) assays are being increasingly used in clinical laboratories for analyzing peptides and proteins. It has therefore become urgent to characterize and validate the methods available for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) targeted quantification of peptide and protein biomarkers in biological fluids in the context of in vitro diagnostics. LC-MS/MS for the detection of peptides and proteins is currently the main approach used in the field of cMSP...
August 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Konstantinos Makris, Alexander Haliassos, Maria Chondrogianni, Georgios Tsivgoulis
Fast and accurate diagnosis of stroke is crucial for the immediate application of the right therapy to patients. However, rapid diagnosis is still a challenge since an ischemic stroke cannot be identified based only on clinical assessment. CT or MRI imaging is required to rule out hemorrhagic stroke since thrombolytic therapy can lead to increased intracranial bleeding and further aggravation of hemorrhagic stroke. In addition, clinical situations that imitate the signs and symptoms of stroke may also impede the rapid diagnosis and treatment of stroke victims...
August 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Robin N Groen, Nicolien C de Clercq, Max Nieuwdorp, H J Rogier Hoenders, Albert K Groen
Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic comorbidities. However, the mechanisms through which metabolic and psychiatric disorders are connected remain unclear. Pre-clinical studies in rodents indicate that the bidirectional signaling between the intestine and the brain, the so-called microbiome-gut-brain axis, plays an important role in the regulation of both metabolism and behavior. The gut microbiome produces a vast number of metabolites that may be transported into the host and play a part in homeostatic control of metabolism as well as brain function...
June 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Ivana Jovčevska
The most aggressive brain malignancy, glioblastoma, accounts for 60-70% of all gliomas and is uniformly fatal. According to the molecular signature, glioblastoma is divided into four subtypes (proneural, neural, classical, and mesenchymal), each with its own genetic background. The Cancer Genome Atlas project provides information about the most common genetic changes in glioblastoma. They involve mutations in TP53, TERT, and PTEN, and amplifications in EFGR, PDGFRA, CDK4, CDK6, MDM2, and MDM4. Recently, epigenetics was used to demonstrate the oncogenic roles of miR-124, miR-137, and miR-128...
June 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
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